Received, April 2016; Accepted, November 2016
*Corresponding Author: Ishfaq Ahmed; Email: email@example.com
Comparative Study of Cottage Cheese Prepared
from Various Sources of Milk
Sadia Rasheed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi, Ishfaq Ahmed*, Yasser Durrani,
and Zarmeena Azmat
Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Agriculture,
Milk is a prehistoric source of food for mankind that
is produced by mammals to feed their infants .
Since ancient time, perhaps as early as 6000-8000
B.C, earliest man learned to rear various species
of animals (cow, buffalo, sheep, goat etc.) for
producing milk for human utilization . Pakistan
is amongst the leading milk producing countries.
In the year 2013-2014, the total milk production
in Pakistan was 50.990 billion liters, of which
buffalo, cow, camel, goat and sheep contributed
31.252, 18.027, 0.851, 0.822, 0.038 billion liters,
The components of milk supply energy and
provide materials essential for development of
human, especially infants . It plays an incredible
role in a healthy society as well as plays a vital
role in developing rural areas by improving their
livelihoods . Milk obtained from various species
shows variations in term of composition and
nutritional values. Sheep milk contains high level
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality of cottage cheese prepared from
cow, buffalo, sheep and goat milk. Cottage cheese prepared from these milk sources was evaluated for
physicochemical and sensory attributes. Initial study showed that solid not fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose,
ash content, pH and moisture content of these milk samples were signicantly (p < 0.05) different from each
other. High yield (22.96 %) and ash (3.25 %) content were observed in sheep milk cheese. Cow milk took
longer time (27.33 sec) to coagulate and also showed maximum level of pH (4.3). Higher moisture content
(51.63 %) was found in goat milk cheese samples. Higher fat (24.2 %) and protein (19.03 %) contents
were observed in buffalo milk cheese than rest of the cheese samples. In case of sensory evaluation, goat
milk cheese obtained maximum scores of 8.1, 9.0, 8.6 and 8.6 in terms of avor, texture, taste and overall
acceptability, respectively. Cheese prepared from goat milk had much better after taste (8.4) than rest of the
cheese samples. Generally, all cottage cheese samples were considered highly acceptable by the panel of
judges. However, goat milk cottage cheese was more acceptable than that of the other cheese samples.
Keywords: Milk; Cottage cheese; physicochemical properties; sensory properties
of fat (7.62 %), solid not fat (10.3 %), proteins
(6.21 %), whey protein (0.81 %), total solid (18.33
%) and ash content (0.90 %) than goat, cow and
buffalo’s milk [1, 6]. On the other hand, cow milk
had higher content of lactose (4.78 %) as compared
to goat, buffalo and sheep milk [1, 6]. Milk is the
vital requirement of our daily life. It is consumed
as fresh and also in the form of various products
such as yogurt, butter, ice-cream and cheese [7-8].
Even though, Pakistan is rich in milk production,
however very little work has been done on cheese
production, which is due to the lack of knowledge
and technical skills .
Cheese is a product prepared from milk with
the help of specic enzymes, starter bacteria
or organic acid . Over 2000 varieties exist
globally and the list is still rising . Cheese is
classied into various categories, on the basis of
appearance, manufacturing, ripening and chemical
composition . Most of them are categorized
into natural, process, un-ripened, ripened, soft and
Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: Pakistan Academy of Sciences
B. Life and Environmental Sciences 53 (4): 269–282 (2016)
Copyright © Pakistan Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 2518-4261 (print), ISSN 2518-427X (online)
hard cheese, and are also named for their place of
origination . Natural cheese might be ripened or
un-ripened. Ripened cheese is made by coagulating
with rennet and culture acids and further matured by
bacteria or mold e.g., Cheddar, brick, Swiss etc. On
the other hand, un-ripened cheese is produced by
coagulation with acid such as soft cheeses (cottage,
cream cheese and Neufchatel cheese) . Natural
cheese is normally categorized on the basis of their
moisture or degree of softness or hardness. Cottage
is an example of soft cheese [13-14]. On the other
hand, processed cheese is prepared by combining
one or more natural cheese/s and adding emulsifying
salts. Processed cheese contains more moisture than
natural cheese. Flavoring and seasonings are added
frequently . Thus, the varieties of cheese in the
market are enormous, which is also reected by the
variability in the composition of the different types
of cheese .
Cheese can be manufactured from different
types of milk and one can have an idea about how
good the quality of cheese might be while having
a look at the quality of milk from which it has
been produced . For instance, buffalo milk is
considered more appropriate than cow milk for
the production of good quality cheese . Sheep
milk is also a good source for the production
of cheese, which is also a key raw material in
the milk processing industry . Goat milk
results in cheese which lack compactness .
In general, cheese contains 55-70% moisture, 22-
27% fat, 17-18% protein, 2.0-2.5% lactose and
1.5- 2.0% minerals . Nutritional composition
of cheese varies with its types; cheese which is
rich in calcium has benecial effects in ghting
hypertension, osteoporosis as well as oral problems
. Lot of peoples consumes cheese in a different
ways such as in stufng, pizza toppings, cheese
blends, salads and sandwiches . Differences in
the extent of acid production, composition of milk,
curd handling, moisture and ripening lead to the
development of various types of cheeses . Over
the past several decades, milk of single species had
been used to produce cheese and cottage cheese has
not been given much attention [24-25]. So, the aim
of the present research work was to prepare cottage
cheese from milk of various milking species and to
study their physicochemical and sensory properties.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Collection of Milk Samples
For cheese making, four types of raw milk samples
(i.e., of cow, buffalo, goat and sheep) were used.
The raw fresh milk of each type was collected from
the dairy farm of The University of Agriculture,
Peshawar. Three liters milk of each type was
collected in a separate stainless steel containers.
The milk samples were next cooled and brought
to the laboratory of Food Science and Technology,
The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan.
2.2 Milk Analysis
The milk samples were analyzed by lacto scan
(model EKO milk 674, ultrasonic milk analyzer,
Bulgaria) for protein, fat, lactose, pH, ash and water
2.3 Preparation of Cheese
Preparation of cottage cheese was conducted by the
method as described by , as shown in Fig. 1.
The different milk samples were heated at 85°C,
Fig. 1. Flow chart for preparation of cheese form buffalo,
cow, sheep and goat milk.
270 Sadia Rasheed et al
separately. Vinegar was added as coagulant at a
temperature of 75°C and allowed to curd the milk
with constant and gentle stirring until coagulation
takes place. The curd was allowed to settle for 5
minutes and the whey was drained with a muslin
cloth. Then the curd was pressed for 20 minutes
at room temperature to get cheese. The prepared
cheese samples were then analyzed in term of
physicochemical properties and sensory attributes.
2.4 Physicochemical Properties
2.4.1 Proximate Composition
The proximate composition such as moisture,
protein, fat, ash and pH of all the cheese samples
were analyzed via the recommended methods of
2.4.2 Coagulation Time
Coagulation time was measured in seconds
according to method described by Spurgeon et al..
2.4.3 Cheese Yield
The yield of cheese was calculated by the method
described by Kosikowski and Mistry . Percent
yield was calculated by using following formula:
2.5 Sensory Evaluation
The prepared cottage cheese samples were evaluated
for sensory attributes namely color, avor, texture,
taste, after taste and overall acceptability by using
9 point Hedonic scale of Larmond . The
panel consists of 17 members to perform sensory
analysis. The cheese samples were offered to the
members randomly in small translucent bowls
and were requested to judge the samples on basis
of their color, avor, taste, after taste and overall
acceptability. The panelists ranked the cottage
cheese samples from 1 “dislike extremely” to 9
2.6 Statistical Analysis
The data was given to one way Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) using CRD and means were separated
by least signicant difference test .
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSION
3.1 Milk Composition
In this section, the compositions of milk of different
samples were discussed. The milk samples were
analyzed for selected parameters such as solid not
fat, protein, fat, lactose, pH and ash content.
3.1.1 Solid not Fat
Results regarding solid not-fat (SNF) of different
species of milk are shown in Fig. 2. Statistical
analysis indicated that source of milk has signicant
(p < 0.05) inuence on SNF content. The SNF of
milk samples were in the range of 7.06 % (goat)
to 9.51 % (sheep). Similar results were reported
by Kanwal et al.  regarding SNF content of
buffalo, sheep, cow and goat. They observed higher
percentage of SNF content in sheep milk. On the
Fig. 2. Solid not-fat (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 271
Fig. 3. Fat content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
other hand, results reported by Pandya and Ghodke
 were slightly different and this might be due
to the variation in breed, diet and animal health
and environmental conditions [1, 33-34]. Hence,
concluded that SNF content not only depends on
source of milk but also depends on various factors
such as breeds, animal feed and season.
3.1.2 Fat Content
The statistical analysis showed that fat contents
of milk of various sources were signicantly (p <
0.05) different from each other (Fig. 3). The mean
fat content of goat, cow, buffalo and sheep was 3.03,
3.55, 6.2 and 6.91 %, respectively. Sheep milk has
a maximum fat content, while minimum fat content
was observed in goat milk. No signicant difference
was found in fat content of goat and cow milk. Fat
contents of cow, buffalo, sheep and goat were in the
range of 4.56–8.96% . While Pandya and Ghodke
 observed that the fat content of cow, goat and
sheep varied from 3.7% to 7.90%. Similar results
were reported by Mahmood and Usman , who
found fat content of 3.16 % (goat milk) and 6.99
% (buffalo milk). Previously, this was observed
that sheep milk has higher fat content than buffalo,
goat and cow milk [1, 32, 35], as evident from the
present ndings (Fig. 3). Generally, fat content is
based on milk sources.
3.1.3 Protein Content
Milk protein is considered as one of the most
important nutrient for human consumption. After
fat, protein is the next most modied component
of milk . Fig. 4 shows protein content (%) of
Fig. 4. Protein content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
272 Sadia Rasheed et al
milk from buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk.
Mean protein content of various sources of milk
was in the range of 3.37 % (goat) to 4.77 %
(sheep). Statistical analysis showed that protein
content varied signicantly (P < 0.05) among the
samples, except for cow and goat milk. However,
maximum amount of protein was found in sheep
milk as compared to the rest of milk samples. It was
examined that protein content was present in an
adequate amount in buffalo milk [35-36]. During
this research work, minimum protein content was
observed in goat milk that resembled to the ndings
of Mahmood and Usman .
3.1.4 Lactose Content
Lactose content of milk of different species is
illustrated in Fig. 5. It is the main carbohydrate
of milk . Results indicated that lactose content
of goat milk was signicantly (P < 0.05) different
from buffalo, sheep and cow milk samples. Higher
amount of lactose content was found in cow milk
(4.93 %) and lower was observed in goat milk
(4.33 %). Data revealed that source of milk has
signicant inuence on lactose content of milk.
Lactose content was in the range of 4.5 to 4.75 %
. It was observed that lactose content found in
goat, cow and sheep milk was in agreement with
the ndings of Mahmood and Usman . Kanwal
et al.  observed that milk source and season has
signicant inuence on lactose content. Variation
in lactose content might be due to the differences
in the breed, feeding and environmental conditions
3.1.5 Ash Content
Fig. 6 shows the percent ash content of various
sources of milk. Ash content of goat and cow milk
samples were signicantly (P < 0.05) different from
that of buffalo and sheep milk. However, sheep and
buffalo milk has higher (0.8 %) ash content while
goat has lower (0.72 %) ash content. The variation
in ash content is because of the variation in sources
that have signicant effect on ash content .
They further observed that ash content of cow,
sheep, buffalo and goat was in the range of 0.4 to
0.99 %. Similar results were reported by various
researchers, who observed variation in ash content
of milk obtained from different species [36-38].
Feed, season, animal condition and management
have signicant role in the ash content of milk [32-
The pH value of different milk samples are
presented in Fig. 7. The results revealed that mean
pH value of various milk samples varied from 5.73
to 6.28. Maximum pH was found in case of goat
milk (6.28), while sheep milk showed a low pH
level (5.73). Results presented that pH value of
sheep milk was signicantly (P < 0.05) different
from buffalo, goat and cow milk samples. The pH
value observed in buffalo milk was in agreement
Fig. 5. Lactose content (%) of cow, sheep, buffalo and goat milk samples.
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 273
Fig. 6. Ash content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
Fig. 7. pH values of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
with the results of Kanwal et al. , Braun and
Stefanie , and Imran et al. . The pH values
of cow milk were in the range of 6.59-6.67 and that
of goat milk were in the range of 6.48-6.64 [1, 38,
40]. The variation in pH values in various samples
might be due to the differences in breed, diet and
environmental conditions [1, 32-34].
3.1.7 Water Content
Water content of various milk sources is listed
in Fig. 8. Results illustrated that water content
of sheep, buffalo, cow and goat milk was 80.62,
83.22, 87.55, and 88.5 %, respectively. Statistical
analysis showed a signicant (P < 0.05) difference
between the water content of various source of
milk. Maximum water content was observed for
goat milk (88.5 %), while minimum value was
recorded in sheep milk (80.62 %). Abdelgawad
et al.  observed higher water content in case of
goat and cow milk. Cow milk contains a consider-
able amount of water that ranged from 87.2 to 87.4
% [11, 32]. Health of animal, stage of lactation,
breed and somehow animal age has signicant
inuence on water content of milk [11, 32].
3.2 Cheese Properties
In this section, the properties of cottage cheese
samples prepared from different milk sources were
studied. The cheese samples were analyzed for
selected parameters such as coagulation time, yield,
protein, fat, pH, ash content and moisture content.
3.2.1 Coagulation Time
Coagulation time is the interval between coagulant
274 Sadia Rasheed et al
addition and appearance of akes of curd in the
milk. The coagulation time of cottage cheese made
from different sources of milk is illustrated in
Table 1. The mean values of coagulation time of
cottage cheese samples were in the range of 18.3
sec to 27.33 sec. Statistical analysis indicated
that source of milk has signicantly (P < 0.05)
inuenced the coagulation time during cheese
preparation. Coagulation time of cow and goat milk
was statistically different from that of buffalo and
sheep milk. However, cow milk took longer time
(27.33 sec) to coagulate as compared to the other
milk sources. Milk coagulation time decreased with
increasing processing temperature . Results of
cow milk cheese are in covenant with the ndings of
Ali and Qazi . During the preparation of cheese,
increase in temperature speed up the proteolytic
action of milk due to which milk coagulation
time reduced . In the same way, coagulation
time can speed up by the addition of coagulants at
higher temperature . The present results also
resembled with the ndings of Qayyum and Akhter
. The coagulation process is inuenced by the
casein content, coagulant used, pH and processing
3.2.2 Percent Yield
Cheese yield is well-dened as the amount of
cheese expressed in kilograms achieved from 100
kg of milk . Percent yield of cottage cheese
prepared from goat, cow, sheep and buffalo milk
are shown in Table 1. The yield (%) of cottage
Fig. 8. Water content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
cheese samples were in the range of 16.50 % (goat
milk) to 22.96 % (sheep milk). Statistical analysis
showed non-signicant (P ≤ 0.05) inuence of
different milk sources on percent yield of cottage
cheese. However, it was observed that cheese
prepared from sheep milk has high percent yield as
compared to the rest of the cheese samples. Related
results were stated by Zeng et al.  and Mercanti
et al. , who found cheese yield in the range of
16.3 to 20.37 %. Milk with higher solid content
gave higher cheese yield . Similarly, Zeng et al.
 and Soryal et al.  reported that total solids,
protein (casein content) and fat content of milk
has inuenced the cheese yield signicantly and
positively. They further observed that early and late
lactation stages inuence cheese yield signicantly
than mid lactation period. This might be due to
high solid contents in early and late lactations
stage. Additionally, cheese yield is also inuenced
by somatic cells count, vat design, pasteurization
temperature, type of coagulants, rmness, curd
cutting and manufacturing procedures [48, 52-53].
This is revealed from the data presented in this study
that sheep milk produce cheese with high yield.
The data regarding pH of cottage cheese made
from different sources of milk are shown in Table
1. Results indicated that the average pH value of
cottage cheese prepared from various milk sources
varied from 3.6 to 4.3. Data revealed that source
of milk has non-signicant (P ≤ 0.05) inuence
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 275
Table 1. Comparison of coagulation time, percent yield and pH of cottage cheese prepared form buffalo,
cow, sheep and goat milk.
Cheese samples Coagulation time (sec) Percent yield (%) pH
Buffalo 18.3 a* 20.65 3.8
Cow 27.33 b 19.68 4.3
Sheep 13.00 a 22.96 3.7
Goat 25.33 b 16.50 3.6
*Values followed by different letters are signicantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
on cheese samples. Maximum pH value (4.3) was
observed in cheese made from cow milk than rest
of the cheese samples. pH is considered to be the
best indicator of food quality and their protection
during production and storage . The cottage
cheese was reported to have pH value ranging from
3.7 to 4.6 [55-57]. Similarly, pH value observed
in cow milk cottage cheese was in agreement with
the results of Kassa . pH might be affected by
the coagulating agents and enzymatic action .
Lawrence and Gills  revealed that higher level
of pH is due to the type of coagulant used in the
process of cheese making and type of milk. On
the other hand, Seifu  illustrated that lower
pH of cheese may contribute to its long shelf life.
Thus, concluded that pH plays important role in
coagulation, taste and shelf life of cottage cheese.
3.2.4 Moisture Content
Moisture content of cottage cheese samples is
presented in table 2. The average value of moisture
content of cottage cheese samples were in the range
of 45.26 % (sheep) to 51.63 % (goat). Results
revealed that moisture content has no signicant (P
≤ 0.05) effect on various cheese samples. Results of
moisture content of sheep milk were closely related
to those of Mercanti et al. , who observed
moisture content in the range of 41.3 to 45.0 %.
Similar results were reported by , who revealed
that lower moisture content in cheese extends the
shelf life. In the same way, higher moisture content
in buffalo milk cheese milk is due to the longer
coagulation time, which leads to the accumulation
of moisture content . Thus, concluded that
moisture content is affected by coagulation time
which is very important for increasing the storage
life of cheese.
3.2.5 Ash Content
Table 2 presents percent ash content of cottage
cheese made from buffalo, cow, sheep and goat
milk. The mean ash content of various cheese
samples varied from 2.49 % to 3.25 %. It was
detected that buffalo milk cheese has high level
of ash content than the rest of the cheese samples.
Khan and Masud  revealed that ash content in
cheese of buffalo milk ranged from 2.4 to 2.7 %.
They further reported that the minerals in nal
product were characterized by the ash content of
cheese and it might be inuenced by the strength of
the brine solution used during cheese preparation.
The average ash content of cheese recorded in the
present study for buffalo and cow milk cheeses
were in line with the observations of Masud et al.
. They found 2.53 % and 2.67 % ash content in
cow and buffalo milk cheese, respectively.
3.2.6 Fat Content
Fat content of cottage cheese prepared from various
milk sources are given in table 2. Results illustrated
that fat content of goat, sheep, cow and buffalo
were in the range of 22.5, 23.5, 23.6 and 24.2 (%),
respectively. Statistically it was observed that fat
content of goat milk was signicantly (P ≤ 0.05)
different from rest of the cheese samples. High level
of fat content was found in buffalo milk cheese,
while low level of fat content was found in goat
milk cheese. During preparation of cheese, a proper
ratio between fat and protein contents of milk must
be maintained that affects the nal properties of
cheese . It was further reported by them that
one of the chief element that denes the specic
body, texture and avor of cheese is fat. Our results
are in accordance with the ndings of Khan and
Masud , who observed 21.4 to 23.6 % fat content
276 Sadia Rasheed et al
in cheese samples. On the other hand, Soryal et al.
 and Zeng et al.  reported that differences in
milk composition (casein and fat) are the two main
factors responsible for differences in cheese yield.
Similar results were reported regarding fat content
of cottage cheese made from cow milk [56, 59]. In
contrast, Masud et al.  observed high fat content
in buffalo milk cheese. They further reported that
differences in fat content of cheese might be due to
the SNF ratio of the milk. When whey is drained off
lots of fat losses can occur.
3.2.7 Protein Content
Results concerning protein content of cottage
cheese made from different milk sources are given
in table 2. Each cottage cheese samples have their
own protein values varied from 13.50 % (goat)
to 19.03 % (buffalo). It was found that protein
content of goat and cow milk was signicantly
(p < 0.05) different from sheep and buffalo. The
present results are in accordance to those reported
by Omotosho et al. . Low protein content was
observed in case of cheese prepared from goat
milk . Similarly, Talib et al.  reported that
pickling of cheese caused reduction in protein
content due to its degradation. As a result of this,
water soluble components are formed, which lead
to loss of protein in the pickling solution. Similar
observations were reported by Ismail and Osman
3.3 Sensory Evaluation
The prepared cottage cheese samples were presented
to the panel of judges for sensory analysis. The
judges were asked to score each samples from
extremely liked (9) to extremely disliked (1) in
terms of color, avor, taste, after taste and overall
Table 2. Comparison of moisture, ash, fat and protein content of cottage cheese prepared form buffalo,
cow, sheep and goat milk.
Cheese source Moisture (%) Ash (%) Fat (%) Protein (%)
Buffalo 48.46 2.49 24.2 b* 19.03 c
Cow 47.73 2.79 23.6 b 14.57 a
Sheep 45.26 3.25 23.5 b 16.60 b
Goat 51.63 2.58 22.5 a 13.50 a
*Values followed by different letters are signicantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
acceptability, as discussed below.
Table 3 presents the results in regards to color of
cottage cheese prepared from various sources
of milk. The color score of the different cheese
samples ranged from 7.9 to 8.6. Sources of milk
has no signicant (P > 0.05) effect on the color of
prepared cottage cheese. However, cottage cheese
prepared from sheep milk has higher mean color
value than rest of the cheese samples. The cottage
cheese prepared from cow and buffalo were highly
acceptable (6.91 to 7.00) in term of color . The
results are closely related to the results reported
by Boppanna  and Masud et al. , who
observed more acceptable color and appearance
of cow milk cheese as compared to the buffalo
milk cheese. Chawla et al.  observed decrease
in color of cottage cheese due to dull and dry
surface appearance. Additionally, dullness and dry
appearance in cheese might be due to the deciency
of shine, which fat provides when present in minute
Table 3 shows data regarding avor of cottage
cheese samples, which varied from 7.5 to 8.1. This
is revealed from statistical analysis that source of
milk has no signicant (P > 0.05) effect on cottage
cheese samples. However, goat milk cheese has
higher mean avor score as compared to the other
samples. Flavor is the feeling created by a material
taken in the mouth, perceived mainly by the senses
of taste and smell . Results regarding avor of
goat milk cheese are in accordance with the results
of Soryal et al. (2004), who observed a score of
8.29 in case of cheese made from goat milk. They
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 277
further reported that the concentrations of free
fatty acids (FFA), mostly short chain fatty acids,
in cheese signicantly inuence cheese avor and
aroma. Too much FFA persuades a nasty, sour and
unpleasant taste to cheese . Similarly, results
regarding buffalo milk cheese resembled with the
ndings of Khan and Masud . Flavor of milk
fat might also cause higher score of cheese .
The avor of cheese prepared from goat milk was
highly acceptable with an average avor score of
8.62 [68-69]. Soryal et al.  demonstrated that a
delicate “goaty” avor was observed in goat cheese
which was due to the abundant amount of short
chain fatty acids in goat milk as compared to cheese
made from cow milk.
The texture of cottage cheese of various samples is
illustrated in table 3. Results indicated that the mean
texture value of cottage cheese samples were in the
range of 7.5 to 9.0. Statistical analysis revealed that
milk source had signicantly (p < 0.05) inuenced
the texture of cottage cheese. Texture of cheese
prepared from goat milk was extremely liked by the
panel of judges as compared to rest of the cheese
samples. Cheese prepared from buffalo milk got
low score in term of texture. Texture is an essential
feature of food as it inuences processing, handling
and storage life as well as customer preferences
for the product . Results of buffalo cheese
(7.2) resembled with those reported by Khan and
Masud . Similar results were obtained by Masud
et al. , who observed that texture of cow milk
cheese was extremely acceptable than buffalo milk
cheese. On the other hand, Kumar and Srinivasan
 reported that texture of cheese might be
affected by the water binding capacity due to the
nature of protein. These results also agreed with the
ndings of Pinto et al. . However, Karadbhajne
and Bhoyarkar  observed that fat, cheese yield
and moisture content as well as coagulants plays
an important role in cheese texture. They further
reported that storage period also affect the texture
of cheese. In the same way, Chawla et al. 
demonstrated that the body and texture of cottage
cheese was affected by the fat content in milk.
Cottage cheese with lower fat content was analyzed
to be rm and elastic .
Table 3 presents the taste of cottage cheese made
from various types of milk. The mean value for
taste of cottage cheese samples were in the range of
8.1 to 8.9. Statistical analysis indicated that various
milk sources have non-signicant (P > 0.05) effect
on taste of cottage cheese samples. However, taste
of goat milk cheese was more acceptable than rest
of the cheese samples. Results are in agreements
with the ndings of Adedokun et al. , as they
found variation in taste score of cow milk cheese
by using different coagulants. Fats play a vital role
in dening the representative avor and taste of
cheese . Results are also in accordance with the
observation of Khan and Masud .
The mean after-taste value of cottage cheese
samples ranged from 7.8 to 8.4 (Table 3). Similar
to taste, source of milk has no signicant (P >
0.05) inuence on after-taste of all the samples.
All the prepared cheese samples were highly
acceptable in terms of after-taste by the panel of
judges. However, cheese prepared from cow and
goat milk was more acceptable than that of buffalo
and sheep milk cheeses. Results of after-taste are
Table 3. Comparison of sensory properties of cottage cheese prepared form buffalo, cow, sheep and goat
Color Flavor Texture Taste Aftertaste Overall
Buffalo 7.9 7.6 7.5 a 8.1 7.9 8.1
Cow 8.1 7.5 8.2 b 8.4 8.4 8.4
Sheep 8.6 7.8 8.3 b 8.5 7.8 8.1
Goat 8.4 8.1 9.0 c 8.6 8.4 8.6
278 Sadia Rasheed et al
almost similar with the work of Adedokun et al.
. They found substantial variance on after taste
of cheese prepared form cow milk with the addition
3.3.6 Overall Acceptability
The overall acceptability of cottage cheese prepared
from various sources of milk is presented in Table 3.
The average mean values of cottage cheese samples
varied from 8.1 to 8.6. Statistical analysis specied
that the overall acceptability of various cheese
samples prepared from buffalo, cow, sheep and goat
milk showed non-signicance (P > 0.05) among
each other. However, cheese made from goat milk
was extremely liked when compared to the rest of
the cottage cheese samples. Overall acceptability of
cottage cheese appeared to be slightly higher than
that reported by Pinto et al. , who found a mean
score of 6.23 to 6.99. On the other hand, overall
acceptability scores were not in agreement with the
ndings of Drake et al.  and Boppanna ,
as they observed signicantly lower score. Hence,
concluded that source of milk and its composition
has signicantly inuenced the overall acceptability
of cottage cheese.
The sheep milk has high level of ash, protein, fat and
SNF. On the other hand, pH and water content were
higher in goat milk, while maximum lactose content
was measured in cow than other milks. Sheep milk
coagulated quickly than rest of the milk sources.
Sheep milk produced cheese with high yield and
high level of ash content. While cheese prepared
from buffalo milk contains maximum fat and protein
contents. In case of sensory evaluation, the color of
sheep milk cheese was liked more than cheese from
other milk sources by the panel members. On the
other hand, avor, texture and taste of goat cheese
were extremely liked. In terms of after taste, all the
prepared cheese samples were rated higher. Buffalo
milk cheese got comparatively lower score in terms
of overall acceptability. Generally, all cottage
cheese samples were of desirable quality attributes,
but cottage cheese prepared from goat milk was
more likeable compared to the ones prepared from
other milk sources.
1. Kanwal, R., T. Ahmed & B. Mirza. Comparative
analysis of quality of milk collected from buffalo,
cow, goat and sheep of Rawalpindi/Islamabad
region in Pakistan. Asian Plant Science 3: 300-305
2. Eddleman, H. Study of the lactoperoxidase system
and its functions. President, Indiana Biolab, 14045
Huff St., Palmyra, p. 112-115 (1999).
3. Government of Pakistan (GoP). Pakistan Economic
Survey. Economic Advisory Wing, Ministry of
Finance, Islamabad, Government of Pakistan (2013-
4. Bylund, G. Dairy Processing Handbook. Tetra Pak
Processing Systems AB S-221 86 Lund, Sweden. p.
5. Sarwar, M., M.A. Khan & Z.I. Mahr-Un-Nisa. Dairy
industry in Pakistan: A Scenario. International
Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4: 420-428
6. Saini, A.L. & R.S. Gill. Goat milk: An attractive
alternate. Indian Dairyman 42: 562-564 (1991).
7. Khan, R.S. & T. Masud. Comparison of buffalo
cottage cheese made from aqueous extract of
Withania coagulans with commercial calf rennet.
International Journal of Dairy Technology 396-401
8. Sameen, A., F.M. Anjum, N. Huma & H. Nawaz.
Chemical composition and sensory evaluation of
mozzarella cheese: inuence by milk sources, fat
levels, starter cultures and ripening period. Pakistan
Journal of Agriculture Science 47(1): 26-31. 2010.
9. Government of Pakistan (GoP). Pakistan Economic
Survey. Economic Advisor's Wing, Ministry of
Finance, Islamabad, Pakistan (2008-09).
10. Brasil. Minist_erio da Agricultura, Pecu_aria e
Abastecimento. Portaria n 146 (1996).
11. O’Conner, C. Traditional Cheese Making Manual.
International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA),
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p. 43. p. 35-47 (1993).
12. Walstra, P., J.T.M. Wouters & T.J. Geurts. Dairy
Science and Technology, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Taylor
and Francis Group, Baco Raton (2006).
13. National Dairy Council. Newer Knowledge of Dairy
Foods/ Cheese. Dairy Management, Incorporation
Rosemont, IL, USA 60018–5616 (2000).
14. Farkye, N.Y. Cheese technology. International
Journal of Dairy Technology 57(1): 91-98 (2004).
15. Sieber, R., Käse- Einwertvolles Lebensmittel in
der menschlichen Ernährung, Mitteilungen aus
Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene 96: 141-
16. Nayak, S.K. & B.S. Bector. Chemical quality of
paneer of Karnal and Delhi markets. Indian Journal
of Dairy Science 51(4): 233–238 (1998).
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 279
17. Sachdeva, S., S. Singh & S.K. Kanawjia. Recent
developments in paneer technology. Indian
Dairyman 37(11): 501-505 (1985).
18. Park, Y.W., M. Juarez, M. Ramosc & G.F.W.
Haenlein. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat
and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research 68: 88-
19. Shukla, F.C., G.S. Gill & K.S. Sekhon. Studies on
the manufacture of paneer from different types of
milks. In: Proceedings of International Conference
and Exhibition, Central Food Technological
Research Institute, Mysore, 18–23 February, 1988.
p. 85 (1988).
20. Chopra, S. & R. Mamtani. Soy paneer or paneer.
Indian Dairyman 47(8): 27-29 (1995).
21. Walter, B., A. Schmid, R. Steber & K. Wermuller.
Cheese in nutrition and health. Dairy Science
Technology 88: 389-405 (2008).
22. Fox, P.F., T.P. Guinee, T.M. Cogan & P.L.H.
McSweeney. Fundamentals of Cheese Science.
Aspen Publishers Incorporation, Gaithersburg,
Maryland, USA (2000).
23. Lucey, J.A., M.E. Johnson & D.S. Horne. Invited
review: Perspectives on the basis of the rheology
and texture properties of cheese. Journal of Dairy
Science 86: 2725-2743 (2003).
24. Attaie, R. Effect of aging on rheological and
proteolytic properties of goat milk Jack cheese
produced according to cow milk producers. Small
Ruminant Research 57: 19-29 (2004).
25. Zhang, R., A.F. Mustafa & X. Zhao. Effects of
axseed supplementation to lactating ewes on
milk composition, cheese yield, and fatty acid
composition of milk and cheese. Small Ruminant
Research 63: 233-241 (2006).
26. Kosikowski, F.V. Cheese and Fermented Milk
Foods, 2nd ed.. Books Tondale, New York, USA
27. AOAC. Ofcial Methods of Analysis of AOAC
International, 17 th ed., 2nd revision. USA. Association
of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, Maryland
28. Spurgeon, K.R., J.J. Yee & J.H. Martin. Selection of
milk for maximum yield of cheese and other dairy
products. Cultured Dairy Products Journals 16(3):
29. Kosikowski, F.V. & V.V. Mistry. Cheese and
Fermented Milk Food, Procedure and Analysis (2).
Westport. CT, USA (1997).
30. Larmond, E. Laboratory Method of Sensory
Evaluation of Foods. Canada Department of
Agriculture Publisher 1282: 36-37 (1977).
31. Steel, R.G.D. & J.H. Torrie. Principles and
Procedures of Statistics, 2
nd ed. McGraw Hill
Corporation, New York, USA, p. 137-175 (1997).
32. Pandya, A.J. & K.M. Ghodke. Goat and sheep milk
products other than cheeses and yoghurt. Small
Ruminant Research 68: 193-206 (2007).
33. Zicarelli, L. Buffalo milk: its properties, dairy yield
and mozzarella production. Veterinary Research
Communications 28:127-135 (2004).
34. Ahmad, I.S. Gaucher, F. Rousseau, E. Beaucher,
M. Piot, J.F. Grongnet & F. Gaucheronl. Effects of
acidication on physico-chemical characteristics of
buffalo milk: a comparison with cow’s milk. Food
Chemistry 106: 11-17 (2008).
35. Mahmood , A. & S. Usman. A comparative study
on the parameters of milk samples collected from
buffalo, cow, goat and sheep of Gujrat, Pakistan.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9(12): 1192-1197
36. Imran, M., H. Khan, S.S. Hassan & R. Khan.
Physicochemical characteristics of various milk
samples available in Pakistan. Journal of Zhejiang
University Science B 9: 546-551 (2008).
37. Khan, M.A.S., M.N. Islam & M.S.R. Siddiki.
A comparative study on physical and chemical
composition of swamp and water buffalo milk.
Italian Journal of Animal Science 6: 1067-1070
38. Enb, A., M.A. AbouDonia, N.S. Abd-Rabou,
A.A.K. AbouArab & M.H. El-Senaity. Chemical
composition of raw milk and heavy metals behavior
during processing of milk products. Global
Veterinary 3: 268 -275 (2009).
39. Braun, P.G. & P.E. Stafanie. Nutritional composition
and chemico- physical parameters of water buffalo
milk and milk products in Germany. Milchwiss.
Milk Science International 63: 70-72 (2008).
40. Sawaya, W.N., W.J. Sa, A.F. Al-Shalhat & M.M.
AlMohammad. Chemical composition and nutritive
value of goat milk. Journal of Dairy Science 67:
41. Abdelgawad, A.R., B. Guamis & M. Castillo. Using
a ber optic sensor for cutting time prediction in
cheese manufacture from a mixture of cow, sheep
and goat milk. Journal of Food Engineering 125:
42. Campos, O., R. Guerra, M. Aguilar, O. Ventura &
L. Camacho. Chemical characterization of proteases
extracted from wild (Cynara cardunculus). Food
Chemistry 35: 89-97 (1990).
43. Ali, M. & I.M. Qazi. Effect Of Different Coagulants
On Cheese Yield And Quality Prepared From Cow
Milk. MSc Thesis, Department of Food Science
and Technology, The University of Agriculture,
44. Desobry-banon, S., F. Richard & I. Hardy. Study
of acid and rennet coagulations of high pressurized
milk. Journal of Dairy Science 77: 3267-3274
45. Qayyum, W. & S. Akhter. Comparative Efciency
280 Sadia Rasheed et al
of Different Coagulants on Cottage Cheese Quality
Prepared from Cow and Buffalo Milk. M.Sc.
Thesis, Department of Livestock Management and
Animal Breeding and Genetics. The University of
Agriculture, Peshawar (2013).
46. Fernandez, A. & F.V. Kosikowski. Low moisture
Mozzarella cheese from whole milk retentates of
ultra ltration. Journal of Dairy Science 69: 201-
47. Guinee, T.P., P.D. Pudja & E.O. Mulholland. Effect
of milk protein standardization, by ultraltration,
on the manufacture, composition and maturation of
Cheddar cheese. Journal of Dairy Research 61: 117-
48. Abd El-Gawad, M.A.M. & N.S. Ahmed. Cheese
yield as affected by some parameters review. Acta
Science Polish Technology Alimentarius 10(2): 131-
49. Zeng, S.S., K. Soryal, B. Fekadu, B. Bah & T.
Popham. Predictive formulae for goat cheese
yield based on milk composition. Small Ruminant
Research 69: 180-186 (2007).
50. Mercanti, D.J., M.R. Busett, C.A. Meinardi & C.A.
Zalazar. Studies on a fast method for determining
the yield in the production of Argentinean sheep
cheeses. Food Chemistry 107: 1717–1723 (2008).
51. Soryal, K., F.A. Beyene, S. Zeng, B. Bah & K.
Tesfai. Effect of goat breed and milk composition
on yield, sensory quality, fatty acid concentration
of soft cheese during lactation. Small Ruminant
Research 58: 275-281 (2005).
52. Fenelon, M.A. & T.P. Guinee. The effect of milk fat
on Cheddar cheese yield and its prediction, using
modications of the Van Slyke cheese yield formula.
Journal of Dairy Science 82: 2287-2299 (1999).
53. Walsh, C.D., T.P. Guinee, W.D. Reville, D.
Harrington, J.J. Murphy, B.T. O’Kennedy & R.J.
FitzGerald. Inuence of κ-casein genetic variant on
rennet gel microstructure, Cheddar cheese making
properties and casein micelle size. International
Dairy Journal 8: 707–714 (1998).
54. Razzaq, S. Preparation of Cottage Cheese using
Sodom Apple (Calotropis procera) Latex as a Plant
Rennet. M.Sc. (Hons) thesis, University of Arid
Agriculture, Rawalpindi (2003).
55. Ashena, M. The microbiology of Ethiopian Ayib.
In: NRC (Ed). Applications of Biotechnology to
Traditional Fermented Foods. National Academy
Press, Washington DC, p. 71-74 (1992).
56. Seifu, B., T. Taye & T. Tadele. Microbiological
quality of Ayib, traditional Ethiopian cottage cheese
in Jimma area, South-West Ethiopia. African Journal
of Microbiology Research 7(32): 4169-4175 (2013).
57. Kassa, B. Cottage cheese production in Shashemene
and the role of rue (Ruta chalepensis) and garlic
(Allium sativum) on its quality and shelf life. MSc
thesis, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
58. Lawrence, R.C. & J. Gills. Changes in avor of
cheddar cheese during maturation. New Zealand
Journal of Science and Technology, p. 8-151 (1980).
59. Masud, T., I.H. Athar & M.A. Shah. Comparative
Study on Paneer Making from Buffalo and Cow
Milk. Dairy Technology Lab, Animal Science
Institute, p. 563-556 (1992).
60. Omotosho, O.E., Oboh & E.E.J. Iweala. Comparative
effects of local coagulants on the nutritive value, in
vitro multienzyme protein digestibility and sensory
properties of wara cheese. International Journal of
Dairy Science 6(1): 58-65 (2011).
61. Hamad, M.N. & M.M. Ismail. Quality of soft cheese
made with Goat's milk as affected with the addition
of certain Essences. Journal of Animal Production
Advances 2(2): 121-127 (2012).
62. Talib, M.A., M.M. Abubakar, I.A. Jideani & A.
Hassan. Use of Jiben seeds extract to manufacture
soft white cheese. American Journal of Applied
Science 6: 551-554 (2009).
63. Ismail, M.M. & M.M. Osman. Effect of adding some
herbs to goat feed on the chemical, microbiological
and organoleptic properties of Domiati cheese.
Journal of Agricultural Science 29(1): 253-263
64. Pinto, S., J.D. Bhatt & J.P. Prajapati. Evaluation
of selected emulsiers and buttermilk in the
manufacture of reduced-fat paneer. Basic Research
Journal of Food Science and Technology 1(4): 1-14
65. Chawla, A.K., S. Singh & S. K. Kanawjia.
Development of low fat paneer. Indian Journal of
Dairy Science 38: 280-283 (1985).
66. Boppanna, N. Evaluating the difference between
organic milk and cheese and inorganic milk and
cheese based on sensory perception. M.Sc Thesis
Food and Nutrional Sciences, The Graduate School,
University of Wisconsin-Stout Menomonie, WI
67. Soryal, K.A., S.S. Zeng, B.R. Min, S.P. Hart & F.A.
Beyene. Effect of feeding systems on composition
of goat milk and yield of Domiati cheese. Small
Ruminant Research 54: 121-129 (2004).
68. Soryal, K.A., S.S. Zeng, B.R. Min, S.P. Hart & F.A.
Beyene. Fatty acid proles of goat milk and Domiati
cheese as affected by pasture feeding and stage of
lactation. Journal of Food Lipids 10: 219–236
69. Mehanna, N. M. & S.A. Hefnawy. Feasibility studies
on manufacturing pickled soft cheese from goat’s
milk. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research
69: 965-975 (1991).
70. Karadbhajne, S.V. & P. Bhoyarkar. Studies on effect
of different coagulant on paneer. International
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 281
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Technological
Research 2(3): 1916-1923 (2010).
71. Kumar, G. & M.R. Srinivasan. Effect of packaging
and storage on the sensory characteristics of khoa
samples. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 35: 132–
72. Adedokun, I.I., S.U. Okorie, E.N. Onyeneke & S.A.
Anoruo. Evaluation of yield, sensory and chemical
characteristics of soft unripened cheese produced
with partial incorporation of bambaranut milk.
Academic Journal of Food Research 1(1): 014-018
73. Drake, S.L., K. Lopetcharat & M.A. Drake.
Comparison of two methods to explore consumer
preferences for cottage cheese. Journal of Dairy
Science 92: 5883-5897 (2009).
282 Sadia Rasheed et al