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Comparative Study of Cottage Cheese Prepared from Various Sources of Milk

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This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality of cottage cheese prepared from cow, buffalo, sheep and goat milk. Cottage cheese prepared from these milk sources was evaluated for physicochemical and sensory attributes. Initial study showed that solid not fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash content, pH and moisture content of these milk samples were significantly (p < 0.05) different from each other. High yield (22.96 %) and ash (3.25 %) content were observed in sheep milk cheese. Cow milk took longer time (27.33 sec) to coagulate and also showed maximum level of pH (4.3). Higher moisture content (51.63 %) was found in goat milk cheese samples. Higher fat (24.2 %) and protein (19.03 %) contents were observed in buffalo milk cheese than rest of the cheese samples. In case of sensory evaluation, goat milk cheese obtained maximum scores of 8.1, 9.0, 8.6 and 8.6 in terms of flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability, respectively. Cheese prepared from goat milk had much better after taste (8.4) than rest of the cheese samples. Generally, all cottage cheese samples were considered highly acceptable by the panel of judges. However, goat milk cottage cheese was more acceptable than that of the other cheese samples.
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Research Article
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Received, April 2016; Accepted, November 2016
*Corresponding Author: Ishfaq Ahmed; Email: ishfak90@gmail.com
Comparative Study of Cottage Cheese Prepared
from Various Sources of Milk
Sadia Rasheed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi, Ishfaq Ahmed*, Yasser Durrani,
and Zarmeena Azmat
Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Agriculture,
Peshawar, Pakistan
1. INTRODUCTION
Milk is a prehistoric source of food for mankind that
is produced by mammals to feed their infants [1].
Since ancient time, perhaps as early as 6000-8000
B.C, earliest man learned to rear various species
of animals (cow, buffalo, sheep, goat etc.) for
producing milk for human utilization [2]. Pakistan
is amongst the leading milk producing countries.
In the year 2013-2014, the total milk production
in Pakistan was 50.990 billion liters, of which
buffalo, cow, camel, goat and sheep contributed
31.252, 18.027, 0.851, 0.822, 0.038 billion liters,
respectively [3].
The components of milk supply energy and
provide materials essential for development of
human, especially infants [4]. It plays an incredible
role in a healthy society as well as plays a vital
role in developing rural areas by improving their
livelihoods [5]. Milk obtained from various species
shows variations in term of composition and
nutritional values. Sheep milk contains high level
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality of cottage cheese prepared from
cow, buffalo, sheep and goat milk. Cottage cheese prepared from these milk sources was evaluated for
physicochemical and sensory attributes. Initial study showed that solid not fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose,
ash content, pH and moisture content of these milk samples were signicantly (p < 0.05) different from each
other. High yield (22.96 %) and ash (3.25 %) content were observed in sheep milk cheese. Cow milk took
longer time (27.33 sec) to coagulate and also showed maximum level of pH (4.3). Higher moisture content
(51.63 %) was found in goat milk cheese samples. Higher fat (24.2 %) and protein (19.03 %) contents
were observed in buffalo milk cheese than rest of the cheese samples. In case of sensory evaluation, goat
milk cheese obtained maximum scores of 8.1, 9.0, 8.6 and 8.6 in terms of avor, texture, taste and overall
acceptability, respectively. Cheese prepared from goat milk had much better after taste (8.4) than rest of the
cheese samples. Generally, all cottage cheese samples were considered highly acceptable by the panel of
judges. However, goat milk cottage cheese was more acceptable than that of the other cheese samples.
Keywords: Milk; Cottage cheese; physicochemical properties; sensory properties
of fat (7.62 %), solid not fat (10.3 %), proteins
(6.21 %), whey protein (0.81 %), total solid (18.33
%) and ash content (0.90 %) than goat, cow and
buffalo’s milk [1, 6]. On the other hand, cow milk
had higher content of lactose (4.78 %) as compared
to goat, buffalo and sheep milk [1, 6]. Milk is the
vital requirement of our daily life. It is consumed
as fresh and also in the form of various products
such as yogurt, butter, ice-cream and cheese [7-8].
Even though, Pakistan is rich in milk production,
however very little work has been done on cheese
production, which is due to the lack of knowledge
and technical skills [9].
Cheese is a product prepared from milk with
the help of specic enzymes, starter bacteria
or organic acid [10]. Over 2000 varieties exist
globally and the list is still rising [11]. Cheese is
classied into various categories, on the basis of
appearance, manufacturing, ripening and chemical
composition [12]. Most of them are categorized
into natural, process, un-ripened, ripened, soft and
Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: Pakistan Academy of Sciences
B. Life and Environmental Sciences 53 (4): 269–282 (2016)
Copyright © Pakistan Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 2518-4261 (print), ISSN 2518-427X (online)
hard cheese, and are also named for their place of
origination [13]. Natural cheese might be ripened or
un-ripened. Ripened cheese is made by coagulating
with rennet and culture acids and further matured by
bacteria or mold e.g., Cheddar, brick, Swiss etc. On
the other hand, un-ripened cheese is produced by
coagulation with acid such as soft cheeses (cottage,
cream cheese and Neufchatel cheese) [13]. Natural
cheese is normally categorized on the basis of their
moisture or degree of softness or hardness. Cottage
is an example of soft cheese [13-14]. On the other
hand, processed cheese is prepared by combining
one or more natural cheese/s and adding emulsifying
salts. Processed cheese contains more moisture than
natural cheese. Flavoring and seasonings are added
frequently [13]. Thus, the varieties of cheese in the
market are enormous, which is also reected by the
variability in the composition of the different types
of cheese [15].
Cheese can be manufactured from different
types of milk and one can have an idea about how
good the quality of cheese might be while having
a look at the quality of milk from which it has
been produced [16]. For instance, buffalo milk is
considered more appropriate than cow milk for
the production of good quality cheese [17]. Sheep
milk is also a good source for the production
of cheese, which is also a key raw material in
the milk processing industry [18]. Goat milk
results in cheese which lack compactness [19].
In general, cheese contains 55-70% moisture, 22-
27% fat, 17-18% protein, 2.0-2.5% lactose and
1.5- 2.0% minerals [20]. Nutritional composition
of cheese varies with its types; cheese which is
rich in calcium has benecial effects in ghting
hypertension, osteoporosis as well as oral problems
[21]. Lot of peoples consumes cheese in a different
ways such as in stufng, pizza toppings, cheese
blends, salads and sandwiches [22]. Differences in
the extent of acid production, composition of milk,
curd handling, moisture and ripening lead to the
development of various types of cheeses [23]. Over
the past several decades, milk of single species had
been used to produce cheese and cottage cheese has
not been given much attention [24-25]. So, the aim
of the present research work was to prepare cottage
cheese from milk of various milking species and to
study their physicochemical and sensory properties.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Collection of Milk Samples
For cheese making, four types of raw milk samples
(i.e., of cow, buffalo, goat and sheep) were used.
The raw fresh milk of each type was collected from
the dairy farm of The University of Agriculture,
Peshawar. Three liters milk of each type was
collected in a separate stainless steel containers.
The milk samples were next cooled and brought
to the laboratory of Food Science and Technology,
The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan.
2.2 Milk Analysis
The milk samples were analyzed by lacto scan
(model EKO milk 674, ultrasonic milk analyzer,
Bulgaria) for protein, fat, lactose, pH, ash and water
content [27].
2.3 Preparation of Cheese
Preparation of cottage cheese was conducted by the
method as described by [26], as shown in Fig. 1.
The different milk samples were heated at 85°C,
Fig. 1. Flow chart for preparation of cheese form buffalo,
cow, sheep and goat milk.
270 Sadia Rasheed et al
separately. Vinegar was added as coagulant at a
temperature of 75°C and allowed to curd the milk
with constant and gentle stirring until coagulation
takes place. The curd was allowed to settle for 5
minutes and the whey was drained with a muslin
cloth. Then the curd was pressed for 20 minutes
at room temperature to get cheese. The prepared
cheese samples were then analyzed in term of
physicochemical properties and sensory attributes.
2.4 Physicochemical Properties
2.4.1 Proximate Composition
The proximate composition such as moisture,
protein, fat, ash and pH of all the cheese samples
were analyzed via the recommended methods of
AOAC [27].
2.4.2 Coagulation Time
Coagulation time was measured in seconds
according to method described by Spurgeon et al..
[28].
2.4.3 Cheese Yield
The yield of cheese was calculated by the method
described by Kosikowski and Mistry [29]. Percent
yield was calculated by using following formula:
2.5 Sensory Evaluation
The prepared cottage cheese samples were evaluated
for sensory attributes namely color, avor, texture,
taste, after taste and overall acceptability by using
9 point Hedonic scale of Larmond [30]. The
panel consists of 17 members to perform sensory
analysis. The cheese samples were offered to the
members randomly in small translucent bowls
and were requested to judge the samples on basis
of their color, avor, taste, after taste and overall
acceptability. The panelists ranked the cottage
cheese samples from 1 “dislike extremely” to 9
“like extremely”.
2.6 Statistical Analysis
The data was given to one way Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) using CRD and means were separated
by least signicant difference test [31].
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSION
3.1 Milk Composition
In this section, the compositions of milk of different
samples were discussed. The milk samples were
analyzed for selected parameters such as solid not
fat, protein, fat, lactose, pH and ash content.
3.1.1 Solid not Fat
Results regarding solid not-fat (SNF) of different
species of milk are shown in Fig. 2. Statistical
analysis indicated that source of milk has signicant
(p < 0.05) inuence on SNF content. The SNF of
milk samples were in the range of 7.06 % (goat)
to 9.51 % (sheep). Similar results were reported
by Kanwal et al. [1] regarding SNF content of
buffalo, sheep, cow and goat. They observed higher
percentage of SNF content in sheep milk. On the
Fig. 2. Solid not-fat (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 271
Fig. 3. Fat content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
other hand, results reported by Pandya and Ghodke
[31] were slightly different and this might be due
to the variation in breed, diet and animal health
and environmental conditions [1, 33-34]. Hence,
concluded that SNF content not only depends on
source of milk but also depends on various factors
such as breeds, animal feed and season.
3.1.2 Fat Content
The statistical analysis showed that fat contents
of milk of various sources were signicantly (p <
0.05) different from each other (Fig. 3). The mean
fat content of goat, cow, buffalo and sheep was 3.03,
3.55, 6.2 and 6.91 %, respectively. Sheep milk has
a maximum fat content, while minimum fat content
was observed in goat milk. No signicant difference
was found in fat content of goat and cow milk. Fat
contents of cow, buffalo, sheep and goat were in the
range of 4.56–8.96% [1]. While Pandya and Ghodke
[32] observed that the fat content of cow, goat and
sheep varied from 3.7% to 7.90%. Similar results
were reported by Mahmood and Usman [35], who
found fat content of 3.16 % (goat milk) and 6.99
% (buffalo milk). Previously, this was observed
that sheep milk has higher fat content than buffalo,
goat and cow milk [1, 32, 35], as evident from the
present ndings (Fig. 3). Generally, fat content is
based on milk sources.
3.1.3 Protein Content
Milk protein is considered as one of the most
important nutrient for human consumption. After
fat, protein is the next most modied component
of milk [1]. Fig. 4 shows protein content (%) of
Fig. 4. Protein content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
272 Sadia Rasheed et al
milk from buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk.
Mean protein content of various sources of milk
was in the range of 3.37 % (goat) to 4.77 %
(sheep). Statistical analysis showed that protein
content varied signicantly (P < 0.05) among the
samples, except for cow and goat milk. However,
maximum amount of protein was found in sheep
milk as compared to the rest of milk samples. It was
examined that protein content was present in an
adequate amount in buffalo milk [35-36]. During
this research work, minimum protein content was
observed in goat milk that resembled to the ndings
of Mahmood and Usman [35].
3.1.4 Lactose Content
Lactose content of milk of different species is
illustrated in Fig. 5. It is the main carbohydrate
of milk [1]. Results indicated that lactose content
of goat milk was signicantly (P < 0.05) different
from buffalo, sheep and cow milk samples. Higher
amount of lactose content was found in cow milk
(4.93 %) and lower was observed in goat milk
(4.33 %). Data revealed that source of milk has
signicant inuence on lactose content of milk.
Lactose content was in the range of 4.5 to 4.75 %
[11]. It was observed that lactose content found in
goat, cow and sheep milk was in agreement with
the ndings of Mahmood and Usman [35]. Kanwal
et al. [1] observed that milk source and season has
signicant inuence on lactose content. Variation
in lactose content might be due to the differences
in the breed, feeding and environmental conditions
[32-34].
3.1.5 Ash Content
Fig. 6 shows the percent ash content of various
sources of milk. Ash content of goat and cow milk
samples were signicantly (P < 0.05) different from
that of buffalo and sheep milk. However, sheep and
buffalo milk has higher (0.8 %) ash content while
goat has lower (0.72 %) ash content. The variation
in ash content is because of the variation in sources
that have signicant effect on ash content [35].
They further observed that ash content of cow,
sheep, buffalo and goat was in the range of 0.4 to
0.99 %. Similar results were reported by various
researchers, who observed variation in ash content
of milk obtained from different species [36-38].
Feed, season, animal condition and management
have signicant role in the ash content of milk [32-
34].
3.1.6 pH
The pH value of different milk samples are
presented in Fig. 7. The results revealed that mean
pH value of various milk samples varied from 5.73
to 6.28. Maximum pH was found in case of goat
milk (6.28), while sheep milk showed a low pH
level (5.73). Results presented that pH value of
sheep milk was signicantly (P < 0.05) different
from buffalo, goat and cow milk samples. The pH
value observed in buffalo milk was in agreement
Fig. 5. Lactose content (%) of cow, sheep, buffalo and goat milk samples.
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 273
Fig. 6. Ash content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
Fig. 7. pH values of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
with the results of Kanwal et al. [1], Braun and
Stefanie [39], and Imran et al. [36]. The pH values
of cow milk were in the range of 6.59-6.67 and that
of goat milk were in the range of 6.48-6.64 [1, 38,
40]. The variation in pH values in various samples
might be due to the differences in breed, diet and
environmental conditions [1, 32-34].
3.1.7 Water Content
Water content of various milk sources is listed
in Fig. 8. Results illustrated that water content
of sheep, buffalo, cow and goat milk was 80.62,
83.22, 87.55, and 88.5 %, respectively. Statistical
analysis showed a signicant (P < 0.05) difference
between the water content of various source of
milk. Maximum water content was observed for
goat milk (88.5 %), while minimum value was
recorded in sheep milk (80.62 %). Abdelgawad
et al. [41] observed higher water content in case of
goat and cow milk. Cow milk contains a consider-
able amount of water that ranged from 87.2 to 87.4
% [11, 32]. Health of animal, stage of lactation,
breed and somehow animal age has signicant
inuence on water content of milk [11, 32].
3.2 Cheese Properties
In this section, the properties of cottage cheese
samples prepared from different milk sources were
studied. The cheese samples were analyzed for
selected parameters such as coagulation time, yield,
protein, fat, pH, ash content and moisture content.
3.2.1 Coagulation Time
Coagulation time is the interval between coagulant
274 Sadia Rasheed et al
addition and appearance of akes of curd in the
milk. The coagulation time of cottage cheese made
from different sources of milk is illustrated in
Table 1. The mean values of coagulation time of
cottage cheese samples were in the range of 18.3
sec to 27.33 sec. Statistical analysis indicated
that source of milk has signicantly (P < 0.05)
inuenced the coagulation time during cheese
preparation. Coagulation time of cow and goat milk
was statistically different from that of buffalo and
sheep milk. However, cow milk took longer time
(27.33 sec) to coagulate as compared to the other
milk sources. Milk coagulation time decreased with
increasing processing temperature [42]. Results of
cow milk cheese are in covenant with the ndings of
Ali and Qazi [43]. During the preparation of cheese,
increase in temperature speed up the proteolytic
action of milk due to which milk coagulation
time reduced [42]. In the same way, coagulation
time can speed up by the addition of coagulants at
higher temperature [44]. The present results also
resembled with the ndings of Qayyum and Akhter
[45]. The coagulation process is inuenced by the
casein content, coagulant used, pH and processing
temperature [46-47].
3.2.2 Percent Yield
Cheese yield is well-dened as the amount of
cheese expressed in kilograms achieved from 100
kg of milk [48]. Percent yield of cottage cheese
prepared from goat, cow, sheep and buffalo milk
are shown in Table 1. The yield (%) of cottage
Fig. 8. Water content (%) of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.
cheese samples were in the range of 16.50 % (goat
milk) to 22.96 % (sheep milk). Statistical analysis
showed non-signicant (P 0.05) inuence of
different milk sources on percent yield of cottage
cheese. However, it was observed that cheese
prepared from sheep milk has high percent yield as
compared to the rest of the cheese samples. Related
results were stated by Zeng et al. [49] and Mercanti
et al. [50], who found cheese yield in the range of
16.3 to 20.37 %. Milk with higher solid content
gave higher cheese yield [48]. Similarly, Zeng et al.
[49] and Soryal et al. [51] reported that total solids,
protein (casein content) and fat content of milk
has inuenced the cheese yield signicantly and
positively. They further observed that early and late
lactation stages inuence cheese yield signicantly
than mid lactation period. This might be due to
high solid contents in early and late lactations
stage. Additionally, cheese yield is also inuenced
by somatic cells count, vat design, pasteurization
temperature, type of coagulants, rmness, curd
cutting and manufacturing procedures [48, 52-53].
This is revealed from the data presented in this study
that sheep milk produce cheese with high yield.
3.2.3 pH
The data regarding pH of cottage cheese made
from different sources of milk are shown in Table
1. Results indicated that the average pH value of
cottage cheese prepared from various milk sources
varied from 3.6 to 4.3. Data revealed that source
of milk has non-signicant (P 0.05) inuence
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 275
Table 1. Comparison of coagulation time, percent yield and pH of cottage cheese prepared form buffalo,
cow, sheep and goat milk.
Cheese samples Coagulation time (sec) Percent yield (%) pH
Buffalo 18.3 a* 20.65 3.8
Cow 27.33 b 19.68 4.3
Sheep 13.00 a 22.96 3.7
Goat 25.33 b 16.50 3.6
*Values followed by different letters are signicantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
on cheese samples. Maximum pH value (4.3) was
observed in cheese made from cow milk than rest
of the cheese samples. pH is considered to be the
best indicator of food quality and their protection
during production and storage [54]. The cottage
cheese was reported to have pH value ranging from
3.7 to 4.6 [55-57]. Similarly, pH value observed
in cow milk cottage cheese was in agreement with
the results of Kassa [57]. pH might be affected by
the coagulating agents and enzymatic action [7].
Lawrence and Gills [58] revealed that higher level
of pH is due to the type of coagulant used in the
process of cheese making and type of milk. On
the other hand, Seifu [56] illustrated that lower
pH of cheese may contribute to its long shelf life.
Thus, concluded that pH plays important role in
coagulation, taste and shelf life of cottage cheese.
3.2.4 Moisture Content
Moisture content of cottage cheese samples is
presented in table 2. The average value of moisture
content of cottage cheese samples were in the range
of 45.26 % (sheep) to 51.63 % (goat). Results
revealed that moisture content has no signicant (P
0.05) effect on various cheese samples. Results of
moisture content of sheep milk were closely related
to those of Mercanti et al. [50], who observed
moisture content in the range of 41.3 to 45.0 %.
Similar results were reported by [56], who revealed
that lower moisture content in cheese extends the
shelf life. In the same way, higher moisture content
in buffalo milk cheese milk is due to the longer
coagulation time, which leads to the accumulation
of moisture content [7]. Thus, concluded that
moisture content is affected by coagulation time
which is very important for increasing the storage
life of cheese.
3.2.5 Ash Content
Table 2 presents percent ash content of cottage
cheese made from buffalo, cow, sheep and goat
milk. The mean ash content of various cheese
samples varied from 2.49 % to 3.25 %. It was
detected that buffalo milk cheese has high level
of ash content than the rest of the cheese samples.
Khan and Masud [7] revealed that ash content in
cheese of buffalo milk ranged from 2.4 to 2.7 %.
They further reported that the minerals in nal
product were characterized by the ash content of
cheese and it might be inuenced by the strength of
the brine solution used during cheese preparation.
The average ash content of cheese recorded in the
present study for buffalo and cow milk cheeses
were in line with the observations of Masud et al.
[59]. They found 2.53 % and 2.67 % ash content in
cow and buffalo milk cheese, respectively.
3.2.6 Fat Content
Fat content of cottage cheese prepared from various
milk sources are given in table 2. Results illustrated
that fat content of goat, sheep, cow and buffalo
were in the range of 22.5, 23.5, 23.6 and 24.2 (%),
respectively. Statistically it was observed that fat
content of goat milk was signicantly (P 0.05)
different from rest of the cheese samples. High level
of fat content was found in buffalo milk cheese,
while low level of fat content was found in goat
milk cheese. During preparation of cheese, a proper
ratio between fat and protein contents of milk must
be maintained that affects the nal properties of
cheese [48]. It was further reported by them that
one of the chief element that denes the specic
body, texture and avor of cheese is fat. Our results
are in accordance with the ndings of Khan and
Masud [7], who observed 21.4 to 23.6 % fat content
276 Sadia Rasheed et al
in cheese samples. On the other hand, Soryal et al.
[51] and Zeng et al. [59] reported that differences in
milk composition (casein and fat) are the two main
factors responsible for differences in cheese yield.
Similar results were reported regarding fat content
of cottage cheese made from cow milk [56, 59]. In
contrast, Masud et al. [59] observed high fat content
in buffalo milk cheese. They further reported that
differences in fat content of cheese might be due to
the SNF ratio of the milk. When whey is drained off
lots of fat losses can occur.
3.2.7 Protein Content
Results concerning protein content of cottage
cheese made from different milk sources are given
in table 2. Each cottage cheese samples have their
own protein values varied from 13.50 % (goat)
to 19.03 % (buffalo). It was found that protein
content of goat and cow milk was signicantly
(p < 0.05) different from sheep and buffalo. The
present results are in accordance to those reported
by Omotosho et al. [60]. Low protein content was
observed in case of cheese prepared from goat
milk [61]. Similarly, Talib et al. [62] reported that
pickling of cheese caused reduction in protein
content due to its degradation. As a result of this,
water soluble components are formed, which lead
to loss of protein in the pickling solution. Similar
observations were reported by Ismail and Osman
[63].
3.3 Sensory Evaluation
The prepared cottage cheese samples were presented
to the panel of judges for sensory analysis. The
judges were asked to score each samples from
extremely liked (9) to extremely disliked (1) in
terms of color, avor, taste, after taste and overall
Table 2. Comparison of moisture, ash, fat and protein content of cottage cheese prepared form buffalo,
cow, sheep and goat milk.
Cheese source Moisture (%) Ash (%) Fat (%) Protein (%)
Buffalo 48.46 2.49 24.2 b* 19.03 c
Cow 47.73 2.79 23.6 b 14.57 a
Sheep 45.26 3.25 23.5 b 16.60 b
Goat 51.63 2.58 22.5 a 13.50 a
*Values followed by different letters are signicantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
acceptability, as discussed below.
3.3.1 Color
Table 3 presents the results in regards to color of
cottage cheese prepared from various sources
of milk. The color score of the different cheese
samples ranged from 7.9 to 8.6. Sources of milk
has no signicant (P > 0.05) effect on the color of
prepared cottage cheese. However, cottage cheese
prepared from sheep milk has higher mean color
value than rest of the cheese samples. The cottage
cheese prepared from cow and buffalo were highly
acceptable (6.91 to 7.00) in term of color [64]. The
results are closely related to the results reported
by Boppanna [66] and Masud et al. [59], who
observed more acceptable color and appearance
of cow milk cheese as compared to the buffalo
milk cheese. Chawla et al. [65] observed decrease
in color of cottage cheese due to dull and dry
surface appearance. Additionally, dullness and dry
appearance in cheese might be due to the deciency
of shine, which fat provides when present in minute
amount.
3.3.2 Flavor
Table 3 shows data regarding avor of cottage
cheese samples, which varied from 7.5 to 8.1. This
is revealed from statistical analysis that source of
milk has no signicant (P > 0.05) effect on cottage
cheese samples. However, goat milk cheese has
higher mean avor score as compared to the other
samples. Flavor is the feeling created by a material
taken in the mouth, perceived mainly by the senses
of taste and smell [61]. Results regarding avor of
goat milk cheese are in accordance with the results
of Soryal et al. (2004), who observed a score of
8.29 in case of cheese made from goat milk. They
Properties of Cottage Cheese made from Various Milk Sources 277
further reported that the concentrations of free
fatty acids (FFA), mostly short chain fatty acids,
in cheese signicantly inuence cheese avor and
aroma. Too much FFA persuades a nasty, sour and
unpleasant taste to cheese [67]. Similarly, results
regarding buffalo milk cheese resembled with the
ndings of Khan and Masud [7]. Flavor of milk
fat might also cause higher score of cheese [59].
The avor of cheese prepared from goat milk was
highly acceptable with an average avor score of
8.62 [68-69]. Soryal et al. [68] demonstrated that a
delicate “goaty” avor was observed in goat cheese
which was due to the abundant amount of short
chain fatty acids in goat milk as compared to cheese
made from cow milk.
3.3.3 Texture
The texture of cottage cheese of various samples is
illustrated in table 3. Results indicated that the mean
texture value of cottage cheese samples were in the
range of 7.5 to 9.0. Statistical analysis revealed that
milk source had signicantly (p < 0.05) inuenced
the texture of cottage cheese. Texture of cheese
prepared from goat milk was extremely liked by the
panel of judges as compared to rest of the cheese
samples. Cheese prepared from buffalo milk got
low score in term of texture. Texture is an essential
feature of food as it inuences processing, handling
and storage life as well as customer preferences
for the product [70]. Results of buffalo cheese
(7.2) resembled with those reported by Khan and
Masud [7]. Similar results were obtained by Masud
et al. [59], who observed that texture of cow milk
cheese was extremely acceptable than buffalo milk
cheese. On the other hand, Kumar and Srinivasan
[71] reported that texture of cheese might be
affected by the water binding capacity due to the
nature of protein. These results also agreed with the
ndings of Pinto et al. [64]. However, Karadbhajne
and Bhoyarkar [70] observed that fat, cheese yield
and moisture content as well as coagulants plays
an important role in cheese texture. They further
reported that storage period also affect the texture
of cheese. In the same way, Chawla et al. [65]
demonstrated that the body and texture of cottage
cheese was affected by the fat content in milk.
Cottage cheese with lower fat content was analyzed
to be rm and elastic [64].
3.3.4 Taste
Table 3 presents the taste of cottage cheese made
from various types of milk. The mean value for
taste of cottage cheese samples were in the range of
8.1 to 8.9. Statistical analysis indicated that various
milk sources have non-signicant (P > 0.05) effect
on taste of cottage cheese samples. However, taste
of goat milk cheese was more acceptable than rest
of the cheese samples. Results are in agreements
with the ndings of Adedokun et al. [72], as they
found variation in taste score of cow milk cheese
by using different coagulants. Fats play a vital role
in dening the representative avor and taste of
cheese [64]. Results are also in accordance with the
observation of Khan and Masud [7].
3.3.5 After-taste
The mean after-taste value of cottage cheese
samples ranged from 7.8 to 8.4 (Table 3). Similar
to taste, source of milk has no signicant (P >
0.05) inuence on after-taste of all the samples.
All the prepared cheese samples were highly
acceptable in terms of after-taste by the panel of
judges. However, cheese prepared from cow and
goat milk was more acceptable than that of buffalo
and sheep milk cheeses. Results of after-taste are
Table 3. Comparison of sensory properties of cottage cheese prepared form buffalo, cow, sheep and goat
milk.
Cheese
samples
Color Flavor Texture Taste Aftertaste Overall
acceptability
Buffalo 7.9 7.6 7.5 a 8.1 7.9 8.1
Cow 8.1 7.5 8.2 b 8.4 8.4 8.4
Sheep 8.6 7.8 8.3 b 8.5 7.8 8.1
Goat 8.4 8.1 9.0 c 8.6 8.4 8.6
278 Sadia Rasheed et al
almost similar with the work of Adedokun et al.
[72]. They found substantial variance on after taste
of cheese prepared form cow milk with the addition
of soymilk.
3.3.6 Overall Acceptability
The overall acceptability of cottage cheese prepared
from various sources of milk is presented in Table 3.
The average mean values of cottage cheese samples
varied from 8.1 to 8.6. Statistical analysis specied
that the overall acceptability of various cheese
samples prepared from buffalo, cow, sheep and goat
milk showed non-signicance (P > 0.05) among
each other. However, cheese made from goat milk
was extremely liked when compared to the rest of
the cottage cheese samples. Overall acceptability of
cottage cheese appeared to be slightly higher than
that reported by Pinto et al. [64], who found a mean
score of 6.23 to 6.99. On the other hand, overall
acceptability scores were not in agreement with the
ndings of Drake et al. [73] and Boppanna [66],
as they observed signicantly lower score. Hence,
concluded that source of milk and its composition
has signicantly inuenced the overall acceptability
of cottage cheese.
4. CONCLUSIONS
The sheep milk has high level of ash, protein, fat and
SNF. On the other hand, pH and water content were
higher in goat milk, while maximum lactose content
was measured in cow than other milks. Sheep milk
coagulated quickly than rest of the milk sources.
Sheep milk produced cheese with high yield and
high level of ash content. While cheese prepared
from buffalo milk contains maximum fat and protein
contents. In case of sensory evaluation, the color of
sheep milk cheese was liked more than cheese from
other milk sources by the panel members. On the
other hand, avor, texture and taste of goat cheese
were extremely liked. In terms of after taste, all the
prepared cheese samples were rated higher. Buffalo
milk cheese got comparatively lower score in terms
of overall acceptability. Generally, all cottage
cheese samples were of desirable quality attributes,
but cottage cheese prepared from goat milk was
more likeable compared to the ones prepared from
other milk sources.
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282 Sadia Rasheed et al
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Cheese is a product made from the curd obtained from milk by coagulating the casein with the help of rennet in the presence of lactic acid produced by added starter culture. The study was aimed to evaluate the yield and quality of pre ripened provolone cheese prepared from different blends of cow, doe, ewe and camel whole milk. The sources of milk were from Hawassa town, Langano and Kofele areas of Oromiya region. Pre ripened provolone cheeses were made from blends contained ratio between 60-80%, 10-30%, 10-30% and 0-20% for cow, doe, ewe and camel milk, respectively using standard procedure. The whole milk and its pre ripened provolone cheeses were subjected to physicochemical analyses. The physicochemical analyses, selected minerals, bioactive compounds, microbial quality and consumer acceptability of the pre ripened provolone cheese were analyzed. The blending proportion of different milk had significant (P<0.05) effect on the physiochemical property, mineral, bioactive and sensory quality of pre ripened provolone cheese. The physiochemical property of whole milk for manufacture of pre ripened provolone cheeses were in the range between 10.56 to 15.08% for total solids, 3.45 to 5.20% for fat and 3 to 4.19% for crude protein. The chemical composition of pre ripened provolone cheese prepared from different blended milk ranged from 47.32-67.05% for total solids, 24.26-36.81% for fat, 17.78-26.30% for crude protein, 1.09-3.49% for total ash, and 0.75-2.98% for lactose; ascorbic acid (0.49 to 3.08 mg/kg) and total polyphenols (1.00 to 17.50 (mg GAE/g). The fat, protein and total solids recovery of pre ripened provolone cheeses ranged from 64.87% to 95.39%, 54.58% to 84.67% and 41.35% to 59.92% respectively. The yield of pre ripened provolone cheese ranged from 9.22% to 13.47%. Total bacteria count was found to be the predominant micro flora of pre ripened provolone cheeses and reached 5.24 cfu/g in the control cheese. The entire consumer acceptability of the pre ripened provolone cheese was in acceptable range. In conclusion, the pre ripened provolone cheese prepared from T12 (60% cow, 10% doe and 30% ewe) milk gave better cheese yield and had auspicious results in nutritional qualities comparable with that of control cheese and other cheese samples.
... The percentage of milk fat varies in different animals. Total fat % in the milk of cow, water buffalo, sheep, and goats are 3.55, 6.2, 6.91, and 3.03%, respectively (Rasheed et al. 2016). In general, lipid composition in cow milk varies between 3 and 4%. ...
Chapter
Mammary gland (MG) biology has attracted researchers’ attention in every mammalian species. Apart from the natural curiosity to understand the mammalian biology wherein newborns are nourished by milk, the incidence of benign and metastatic breast tumor further instigated the scientific community to understand the detailed cellular and molecular events so that the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention could be implemented. The mouse MG has served as the closest MG model to understand the anatomy and physiology despite several differences in the endocrine and reproductive systems of mice and humans. In bovine, the very immediate interest has been to improve milk production from dairy animals. Globally, the average milk yield from dairy animals has so far remained forwardly progressive. Nevertheless, disease like mastitis and the existence of low milk-yielding cows in population have necessitated accelerated research on understanding bovine mammary gland biology, host–pathogen relationship, cyclic changes in molecular and cellular physiology during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Proteomics deals with studying many proteins together, thus deriving comprehensive information on cellular physiology. Along with antibodies, the application of mass spectrometry in the study of proteins has revolutionized the investigation method as never before. The complexity in tissue architecture of MG comprises many cell types, and their continuous turnover in the lifetime of an animal constantly challenged our mind and approach to discern cell identity correctly. It will not have been possible without the knowledge of cell type-specific marker proteins, which again owes a lot to proteomics. This chapter selectively discusses the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics for mammary epithelial cells and mammary stem cells in MG in the context of cell-specific biomarkers, functional differentiation, and diseases.
... Cottage cheese, a coagulated milk product widely consumed since time immemorial, is produced domestically and industrially through boiling and acidification of milk in the presence of an edible form of food grade vinegar (containing 5% acetic acid), that lead to coagulation of milk proteins (Bintsis & Papademas, 2017;Kapoor, Singh, Vatankhah, Deshwal, & Ramaswamy, 2021). It contains lactose (4.78%), fat (27%), proteins (30% β-casein, 41.36% α-caseins, 21.25% κ-casein), and 1.5-2% minerals (Ahmed, 2016;Brunner, 1981). With these underlying backgrounds, we hypothesize that the extensive heating and acidification of milk during cottage cheese production, which is analogous to the in vitro conditions frequently used to prepare milk-protein amyloids (Zou et al., 2013), might lead to the formation of amyloid or amyloidlike structures. ...
Article
Cottage cheese, extensively consumed worldwide, contains coagulated milk protein (casein), produced through boiling and acidification of milk. Casein forms amyloid or amyloid-like structures at high temperatures and low pH. Due to the similarities in the preparation of casein amyloids and cottage cheese, we hypothesized the presence of amyloid or amyloid-like protein aggregates in cottage cheese. To examine this hypothesis, cottage cheese was prepared from cow (Bos indicus) milk and isolated amyloids through a water extraction method. The isolated protein aggregates displayed typical characteristics of amyloids, such as a bathochromic shift in the wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax) of Congo red (CR), high thioflavin T (ThT) binding, increased surface hydrophobicity, and high β-sheet structure. However, they did not show antibacterial activity and toxic properties against erythrocytes. Our study revealed that the heat-treatment and subsequent acidification during cottage cheese preparation lead to the formation of non-toxic amyloid-like aggregates.
... While some studies show that cheese yield is higher in cows than goat (Rasheed et al., 2016), our study and others show the opposite (Hamidi et al., 2018;Mallatou & Pappa, 2005). Different factors might produce this interspecific difference, including those related to the milk composition and quality such as genetic variants of casein, fat and protein (Banks et al., 1981;Fenelon & Guinee, 1999;Verdier-Metz et al., 2001), seasonal variations (Sánchez-Gamboa et al., 2018), microbial counts and diversity (Vladimír et al., 2020) and cheese-processing methodology (Lawrence, 1993). ...
Article
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Abstract “Bouhezza” is an Algerian traditional fermented soft-ripened cheese, found and consumed in the Northeast of Algeria. The objective of this study was to explore the preparation process (traditional making diagram) of “Bouhezza” cheese and to study the effect of the type of raw milk (cow, goat and sheep) on the yield and organoleptic characteristics of the fresh “Bouhezza” cheese. “Bouhezza” cheese was handmade in a traditional way using milk of three species (cow, goat and sheep). The milk used has been the subject of physicochemical and bacteriological analysis. Cheese yield for sheep’s milk is higher (p < 0.05) than cheese yield for cow’s and sheep’s milk. For sensory analysis, score registered for cheese of cow’s milk ≥ 5 suggested higher acceptability for this cheese. Here, we exposed the “Bouhezza” cheese, its history, origin and manufacturing processes. From the physicochemical and bacteriological analysis of milk, results show that all criteria analyzed respond almost to the required standard. The sensory qualities of the three types of cheese show that cow cheese was classified as the most satisfactory cheese for the majority of criteria (taste. color and texture). Finally, and for higher yield, results supported the use of sheep milk as a raw material. Keywords: traditional cheese; “Bouhezza”; bacteriological criteria; physicochemical parameters; sensory evaluation. Practical Application: Algerian “Bouhezza” cheese: his history, origin manufacturing processes and characteristics.
... As shown in Table 4, cheese yield was significantly affected by the type of milk and milk composition (p < 0.05). Cheese yield was significantly higher in buffalo's milk than cow's milk, due to total solids, protein and fat contents are high in buffalo's milk (Rasheed, Qazi, Ahmed, Durrani, & Azmat, 2016). Feeding on the DFO, DSO or DFSO caused a slight increase (p > 0.05) in cheese yield compared with the control diet. ...
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Produce and compare soft cheese with potential benefits of human health from Egyptian buffalo's and cow's milk was studied. Eight Egyptian lactating buffalos and cows were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (CD), 2% flaxseed oil (DFO), 2% soybean oil (DSO), or 2% of their mixture (1:1, DFSO) according to a double 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Milk yield was similar between buffalo's diets but was higher in cows fed a DFO, DSO or DFSO resulting in 11.15, 8.21% or 8.97% increases compared with the control diet, respectively. Milk composition was not significantly affected in both buffalos and cows fed diets. The DFO, DSO or DFSO displayed decreased short-chain fatty acids, especially DSO and DFSO (3.73 and 3.33%, respectively) when compared to CD for buffalo milk (6.32%). The DSO and DFSO were more effective for increasing unsaturated fatty acids followed by the DFSO in buffalo's milk fat (42.31 and 41.90 %), whereas DFO and DFSO were more effective in cow's milk fat (39.67 and 39.84%), respectively. DFO, DSO or DFSO had no significant effect on the yield, composition and sensory properties of resultant soft cheese compared to the CD for both lactating cows and buffalos. During storage, a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids enhances protein proteolysis and antioxidant activity of soft cheese during storage compared to the CD especially for soft cheese produced from buffalo's milk.
Chapter
Milk is a wholesome food not only for infants but also for adults. Except for fiber, milk is composed of cellular and non-cellular components. Recent studies have demonstrated that milk contains a population of cells displaying multipotent stem cells’ features. This chapter briefly summarizes milk’s composition and outlines the progress made in this newly emerging field of stem cell biology that is pertinent to the investigators. This chapter covers milk-derived stem cells of humans and discusses the perspective of the application of milk-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine. Non-invasive source and unique properties of milk-derived stem cells with low tumorigenic potential are likely to make these stem or stem-like cells regenerative therapy in the future.
Article
Milk is the most common food consumed worldwide and is also a major ingredient in the preparation of various dairy products. However, despite the high production and consumption of milk and milk-based products, there is a large percent of the world’s population that suffer from allergies to milk solids and lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance specifically means the inability of the body to breakdown the sugar to its simplest form for assimilation and it is due to the inefficiency or lack of the enzyme in the human body. The most convenient prevention method for the affected population is to avoid milk and milk-based products but this may be a cause of development of other health related issues that result from inadequate nutrient consumption. To help find an alternative to this problem, this study aims at first studying the underlying information on lactose intolerance and then studying plant-based beverages as a possible alternative to milk and milk-based products. • Key teaching points • Lactose intolerance specifically means the inability of the body to breakdown the sugar to its simplest form for assimilation and it is due to the inefficiency or lack of the enzyme in the human body. • Consumption of probiotics may help relieve the symptoms of lactose intolerance. • Soy beverage can be an economical alternative for lactose intolerant populations and has calcium content comparable to bovine milk. • Calcium absorption in fortified plant based beverages depends upon type of calcium salt used.
Article
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To change the aroma of goat's milk cheese which none preferred for most Egyptian consumer, white cheese was made from goat's milk mixed with various flavourings (cream, butter, Cheddar cheese, Edam cheese, Gouda cheese and Emmental cheese). Results indicated that there are no pronounced differences between control and other treatments for yield, acidity, pH, fat, salt TN and TVFA contents. Cheese made using cream and butter flavourings had slightly higher WSN and NPN values as compared with different samples. Sensory evaluation data showed that adding the above mentioned tastes didn't effect on color & appearance and body & texture of fresh cheese and during ripening period to 90 days whereas adding cream and butter tastes improved the flavour of goat's milk cheese.
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In order to overcome the undesirable to many Egyptian consumers aroma of goats milk cheese, flavouring essences, namely (cream, butter, Cheddar cheese, Edam cheese, Gouda cheese and Emmental cheese) were added to cheese milk. Results indicated that there are no pronounced differences between control and other treatments for yield, acidity, pH, fat, salt TN and TVFA contents. Cheese made using cream and butter flavouring essences had slightly higher WSN and NPN values, as compared with different samples. Sensory evaluation data showed that adding the above mentioned essences didn't affect the color & appearance and body & texture of the cheese while fresh or throughout the ripening period (90 days), whereas adding cream and butter essences improved the flavour of goat's milk cheese.
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The effect of adding chamomile, thyme, fennel or peppermint to goat feed on some properties of Domiati cheese was studied. Results showed that effect of the feeding rations on the yield, titratable acidity %, pH values, fat/dry matter % and total nitrogen/dry matter % of Domiati cheese was insignificant. Water soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen % and amino acid nitrogen contents were significantly higher in herbs cheese while total volatile fatty acids content was significantly lower than that in control cheese. During ripening period, significant increase were noticed in pH value; titratable acidity %; total solids, fat/dry matter, water soluble nitrogen/dry matter, amino acids nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids contents. Chamomile, thyme, fennel and peppermint significantly decreased mould and yeast of Domiati cheese. Thyme and fennel significantly decreased total viable bacterial count; proteolytic, lipolytic, coliform and sporeforming bacteria in the cheese. Peppermint significantly decreased total viable bacterial count and lactic acid bacteria while it significantly increased proteolytic bacteria in the cheese. Oragnoleptic properties of Domiati cheese made from goat’s milk highly improved as a result of feeding rations. Peppermint cheese gained the highest scores for oragnoleptic evaluation as compared with other treatments. Thus, the obtained results indicated that the addition of herbs to goat feed can improve different properties of goat cheese and overcome the goaty flavour of goat’s milk which is considered undesirable by most Egyptian consumers.
Book
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the scientific aspects of cheese, emphasizing fundamental principles. The book’s updated 22 chapters cover the chemistry and microbiology of milk for cheesemaking, starter cultures, coagulation of milk by enzymes or by acidification, the microbiology and biochemistry of cheese ripening, the flavor and rheology of cheese, processed cheese, cheese as a food ingredient, public health and nutritional aspects of cheese, and various methods used for the analysis of cheese. The book contains copious references to other texts and review articles.
Article
Buffalo milk production started to grow rapidly only in recent years with a constantly rising number of buffalos. The nutritional composition of buffalo milk depends on diverse factors such as breed, climate, herd management and feeding, and shows more variation in its parameters than cow milk. These variations also exist, of course, in buffalo milk products. Up to now, reliable data about products manufactured in Germany hardly existed. To fill in this gap, selected products (raw and pasteurised milk, yoghurt, curd cheese and mozzarella cheese) from one farm were examined monthly from June to September 2006 for their content of fat, protein and dry matter. Additionally several chemicophysical parameters (pH-value for all products, specific density and freezing point for milk) were determined. It can be concluded that the fat content (7.49 - 9.57 %) is, as described in international studies, twice as much as in cow milk. Protein content (4.9 % in average) and dry matter (17.2-21.3 %) are higher than in comparable studies, whereas pH (6.58 - 6.95), specific density (1.031 g/ml) and freezing point (-0.5509 - -0.5146°C) are in the range of data delivered from other countries.
Article
Mozzarella cheese samples were prepared from buffalo milk alone and mixture of cow and buffalo (1:1) milk standardized at 1.5 and 2.5% fat level. Indigenous and commercial starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) were used in cheese manufacturing for comparison and cheese samples were stored at 4 degrees C and were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, pH and acidity at specified intervals (0, 20, 40, 60 days). Moisture and protein content significantly affected due to difference in milk sources, fat level, starter cultures during ripening. The pH and acidity also influenced by all variables except fat level whereas the fat content of cheese only influenced by fat levels of milk. Cheese samples were also evaluated for organic acids production (lactic and citric). Ripening days, fat levels and cultures significantly affected the concentration of both acids. Sensory evaluation of cheese texture revealed that only fat level and ripening affect the texture significantly.
Article
An aqueous extract of Withania coagulans was used to prepare cottage cheese from buffalo milk and its quality attributes were compared with cheese made from commercial rennet. Both cheeses contain satisfactory ranges of 49.6-54.7% moisture, 21.3-24.3% fat and 21.4-23.6% protein. The type of coagulant had no significant effect on acidity, protein and ash contents of both the cheeses. W. coagulans cheese showed a significantly (P < 0.05%) higher pH and moisture contents. Similarly, no marked differences were observed in their organoleptic evaluation, actual and theoretical yield. These results supported the fact that W. coagulans is a promising rennet substitute for cottage cheesemaking.
Article
NIR light backscatter technology has been proven successful for monitoring cow milk coagulation and predicting cutting time but has never been tested with milk mixtures. In Spain ∼40% of the cheese produced is made from cow, sheep and goat milk mixtures. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the proposed optical technology could be used to monitor milk coagulation and predict cutting time in milk mixtures. A randomized factorial design with three factors and three replicates was employed. Cow, goat and sheep milk was mixed in two different proportions. Milk mixtures were coagulated at constant calcium chloride addition level, pH and fat concentrations using two different enzyme concentrations and three coagulation temperatures (N = 36 tests). Milk coagulation was monitored using small amplitude oscillatory rheometry and a NIR fiber optic light backscatter sensor. Simultaneously, clotting time was visually evaluated. Optical parameter tmax was highly correlated (0.80 < r < 0.99, P < 0.0001) with the rheological and visual parameters studied. Enzyme concentration and temperature had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on optically-, rheologically-, and visually-derived parameters. Milk mixture proportion was not significant for optical parameters related to clotting time but was significant for the aggregation rate and rheological parameters related to curd firming and syneresis. Models for predicting cutting time were developed successfully with R2 = 0.93. Results strongly suggest that milk mixture proportion exerts an effect on gel assembly (i.e., on both aggregation and curd firming) and syneresis. This finding has important implications for inline process control when goat and sheep milk are used.