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Even as leadership books outnumber followership books by a large factor, the social sciences and training fields have created large numbers of assessments related to leadership while leaving a near desert of followership assessments. I argue the case that followership assessments are foundational for followership development—that descriptive language for differentiated styles is needed to understand one's own followership style and the potential paths for performance improvement. The assessment I use consists of four styles: partner, implementer, resource, and individualist. I review the ways this assessment has been integrated into followership developmental initiatives to activate the potential for assessments to stimulate growth. The paper closes with an overview of additional research and developmental instruments that will be needed as the field of followership matures.

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... However, Kelley (1992) provides a unique definition of followership that modifies followership status positively. The contribution of followers to organizational success is highly significant, as Chaleff (2016) claims that followers' and leaders' collaborative work is essential for achieving the common institutional purpose. Moreover, effective followers never remain bound to the instruction of leaders, but they do the effort for organizational purposes. ...
... Therefore, along with leadership, the significance of followers is extremely worthwhile. In this regard, Chaleff (2016) also theorized the importance collaborative role of followers with their leaders for the achievement of institutional goals. When we talk about followership in schools, it seems somewhat different than other organizations because teachers are the most highly qualified followers of their leaders. ...
... There are many different models and approaches for leader and leadership development. Some focus on the development of leaders [9,10,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] and followers [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] per se, whereas others focus on leadership and followership in practice or on the organizational or systems levels [29][30][31][32]. There is value to both levels of development to achieve optimal performance of individuals within organizations and systems. ...
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Leadership and followership development are increasingly recognized as important in all fields of the workforce. The Innovative Leadership Model helps leaders increase self-understanding and optimize the performance of organizations by focusing on Leader Type, Developmental Perspective, Resilience, Situational Analysis, and Leadership Behaviors and Mindsets. The Leader-Follower Framework identifies key elements – Character, Competence, Communication, Context – to guide the development of individual leaders and followers across four psychosocial levels – Personal, Interpersonal, Team, Organizational. Each of these approaches has value and has been applied in various settings and contexts. The present chapter offers a new insight relevant to leadership by combining these two perspectives and their component elements. Understanding and developing each of these elements will optimize effective leadership and followership in a wide range of situations and settings.
... 8). According to Chaleff (2017), courageous followers commit to great leaders and challenge the ineffective ones as they steward the organization's resources together. ...
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This chapter will examine the exemplary followership of Charles Spurgeon during his 38-year ministry pastoring the Metropolitan Tabernacle. It may appear odd at first to ascribe followership attributes to such a high-profile leader, but Spurgeon’s correspondence between himself and the deacons displayed courageous followership behaviors. Followership is a mutual reciprocation of communication, compensation, and co-creation that concurrently forms and re-forms between both parties furthering the organization’s primary cause. Given the pitfalls of power by many charismatic leaders within Christian organizations, the need to study exemplary followership is critical. The chapter’s methodology is a bounded case study in the field of pragmatic qualitative research utilizing primary (autobiographies) and secondary sources (biographies). Additionally, Spurgeon’s sermons’ underwent syntactic concordancing to determine what the Prince of Preachers thought and taught about leadership. This chapter’s underlying theme is that Christian leadership is paradoxically followership, and Spurgeon’s life exemplified it.
... However, only a few investigations considered followership as a component of the leadership process (e.g. Manning and Robertson, 2016;Leroy et al., 2015;Uhl-Bien et al., 2014;Chaleff, 2016), and studied the correlation between followership styles and leadership styles. This potentially broadens the understanding of both leadership and followership (Burke, 2009). ...
Purpose Followership is the free will recognition of leadership in the commitment toward realization of the collectively adopted organization vision and culture. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationship between project managers’ leadership and their followership. Most project managers are both leaders and followers at the same time, but research typically investigates only their leadership. This ignores followership as an important aspect in understanding and predicting behavior, and further in the selection of project managers. Design/methodology/approach The method used for this paper is the explanatory in nature and a deductive approach, within which the above research hypothesis is tested through quantitative techniques. Data are collected through a nation-wide survey in China. Data analysis was done through factor analysis, canonical correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Findings The results show that transformational leadership is positively correlated with transformational followership and transactional followership, and that transactional leadership is negatively correlated with transactional followership. Research limitations/implications The paper supports a deeper investigation into leadership and followership theories. A model for both leadership and followership is developed. The findings from this paper will guide organizations to choose the project managers. Originality/value The originality lies in the new way to examine the relationship between leadership and followership. It is the first study on the relationship of project managers. Its value is new insights, which introduced a new perspective to understand leadership and followership.
Aim: To explore the followership styles and their associations with nurses' sociodemographic profiles in Saudi Arabia. Background: In Saudi Arabia, nurses' role is seen as less important and passive. However, whether they were actually passive followers has not been examined. No previous research has examined nurses' followership styles in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a convenience sample of nurses. The Kelley followership questionnaire-revised was used to determine the prevalence of the five followership styles. Participants' demographic characteristics, which included age, gender, nationality, education level, years of experience, and role, were collected to investigate their associations with followership styles. An online survey was designed and distributed using SurveyMonkey®. Data were analyzed with logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios. Results: This study included 355 nurses. Findings revealed that the predominant followership style was exemplary (74%), followed by the pragmatist (19%), conformist (4%), and passive styles (3%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that expatriates, higher education, and a leader role had an independent association with an exemplary followership style. Male gender was associated with a passive style. Younger age, male gender, Saudi Arabian nationality, undergraduate qualification, no previous leadership experience, a follower role, and fewer years of experience increased the odds of having a pragmatist style. Conclusion and implications: Followership styles were influenced by sociodemographic and work-related factors. Young nurses with less experience tend to be pragmatist followers. Nursing managers should integrate followership styles when planning leadership and team development courses to ensure maximum team effectiveness as leadership and followership are interdependent.
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The leadership industry has experienced an unprecedented growth in popularity, and business management effectiveness has become synonymous with leaders’ roles. However, in this egalitarian twenty-first century little mention has been made of followership due to its negative stereotype. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the understanding of followership by presenting a “balanced” approach that views both leaders and followers as co-producers of leadership. Specific practical implications for followership development are discussed as well as barriers to create high levels of follower commitment. A brief case study of active followership is presented for training purposes. A range of research and practitioner papers are reviewed with the aim of reigniting dialogue on followership, and to suggest a practical implication for its development. By understanding the benefits of followership development, the author will suggest that followership and leadership skills be built as an integrated package, thus improving innovation and efficiency in organisations. Organisations need to be aware of the important role followership plays in organisational success. Bringing followership out of the closet may help to introduce practical followership development programmes. This article highlights the importance for an organisation to focus in nurturing the environment to allow active followership to flourish
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