ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Background The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. Methods The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. Results According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.
Content may be subject to copyright.
R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Open Access
Chemical composition and some biological
activities of the essential oils from basil
Ocimum different cultivars
Arpi Avetisyan
1
, Anahit Markosian
1
, Margarit Petrosyan
2
, Naira Sahakyan
2
, Anush Babayan
2
, Samvel Aloyan
1
and Armen Trchounian
2*
Abstract
Background: The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source
of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great
variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var.
purpureum,O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora,andO. citriodorum Vis.were the subjects of our investigations.
Methods: The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass
selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils
were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils
were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the
agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed.
Results: According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different:
O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had
68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant
activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase
inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity.
Conclusions: The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal
activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.
Keywords: Ocimum, Essential oil, Methyl-chavicol, Linalool, Nerol, Citral, Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity
Background
The plants belonging to the basil genome or Ocimum
genus of the Lamiaceae family are aromatic ones [1] and
are considered to be a rich source of essential oils-the
metabolites, synthesized by plants for specific functions,
using various secondary metabolic pathways. Humans
have learned to use these metabolites since antiquity for
food preservation, flavoring, and as medicine. The basil
essential oils are usually extracted from the leaves and
flowering tops of basil plants. Through the centuries
basil was cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes
in many countries, which created a great diversity of
species within the Ocimum genus: the genus Ocimum
comprises more than 150 species and is considered as
one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family.
It is known, that different cultivars of basil have the
genetic ability to generate and keep different sets of
chemical compounds. This ability leads to a great variety
of chemotypes within the same basil species. According
to some investigations [2], the essential oils distilled
from various basil cultivars can contain alcohols (linalool),
oxides (1,8-cineole), phenols (eugenol, methyl eugenol,
methyl isoeugenol, thymol), esters (methyl cinnamate),
aldehydes (citral), and camphor. The 1,8-cineole, methyl
cinnamate, methyl chavicol, and linalool are constituents
responsible for the distinct aroma of basil plants [3].
* Correspondence: Trchounian@ysu.am
2
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology & Biotechnology, Biology Faculty,
Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60
DOI 10.1186/s12906-017-1587-5
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Lawrence [4] named four major chemotypes of basil:
methyl chavicol-rich, linalool-rich, methyl eugenol-rich,
and methyl cinnamate-rich. Both methyl chavicol and
methyl eugenol are phenylpropanoids produced by
shikimic acid pathway and are reported to be toxic to in-
sects and microbes. Linalool is a terpenoid produced by
mevalonic acid pathway and known to possess antioxi-
dant and antimicrobial activity [5]. Methyl cinnamate is
the methyl ester of cinnamic acid. It is found naturally
in many aromatic plants, including fruits like strawberry
and is known to attract pollinators. According to
Marotti et al. [6] the European basils are mostly of linal-
ool and methyl chavicol types, whereas tropical basils
have methyl cinnamate as their major constituent. Basils
of methyl eugenol chemotype could be found growing in
North Africa, Eastern Europe, and parts of Asia [7].
Numerous papers have been published on the anti-
microbial and antioxidant properties of basil essential
oils and its constituents. Koeduka et al. [8] and Zabka et
al. [9] reported the antimicrobial activity of eugenol with
analgesic properties for humans. Liu et al. [5] investi-
gated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of
linalool and geraniol. While Sokovićet al. [10] and
Huang et al. [11] investigated the usage of linalool, me-
thyl chavicol, and thymol for skin protection against all
sources of environmental skin aggressors and treatment
of various dermatological disorders.
Since the chemical composition (chemotype) and bio-
logical activity of essential oils distilled from the plants
belonging to the same species may vary significantly,
depending on the variety of cultivars, environment, ele-
vation and cultivation methods, it is interesting to study
the essential oils obtained from the different kinds of
basil grown in Armenia, in similar conditions, at a sig-
nificant elevation (1600 m above sea level).
In the present study the comparative analysis of the
chemical composition and biological activities of essential
oils distilled from three varieties of basil, O. basilicum var.
purpureum,O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora,andO. xcitrio-
dorum, was carried out.The plants under investigation
were grown in the same soil, at the same elevation, and
under the same climatic conditions. The first two cultivars
were varieties of O. basilicum species, or Sweet basil, and
the third one, the Lemon basil (O. x citriodorum) was a
hybrid between O. basilicum and O. americanum.
The purpose of this paper was also to study the
biological activities of given oils and to evaluate their
potential using in food industry, cosmetics and
medicine.
Methods
Plant material
The three basil cultivars (O. basilicum var. purpureum,
O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. xcitriodorum) were
grown from the seeds sown in the greenhouse, with sub-
sequent transplantation of the seedlings to the same
field, in the Kotayk Region of Armenia, where they have
been growing side by side, at an elevation of 1600 m
above the sea level. Plant materials were collected during
blossoming period (JulyAugust, 2014). The plant mate-
rials were identified at the Institute of Botany, National
Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia).
The plants were not included in the herbarium as there
were cultivated species and not typical for the flora of
Armenia. The samples of basil cultivars are available at
the Department of Microbiology & Plants and Microbes
Biotechnology, Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University,
Yerevan, Armenia.
Essential oil extraction
Essential oils were extracted from air dried plant material
(aerial parts only) by hydro-distillation, using a Clevenger-
type apparatus and lasted 3 h. The distilled essential oils
had been dehydrated with anhydrous sodium sulphate
and stored at 4 °C in dark airtight bottles until further
analysis [12].
Determination of essential oil chemical composition
The gas chromatography (GC) mass selective (MS)
analysis of the essential oils was performed using a
HewlettPackard 5890 Series II gas chromatograph,
fitted with a fused silica HP 5MS capillary column
(30 m × 0.25 mm, in thickness 0.25 μm). The oven
temperature varied from 40250 °C with the scanning
rate of 3 °C/min. Helium (purity 5.6) was used as a car-
rier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The GC was
equipped with HewlettPackard 5972 Series MS de-
tector. The MS operating parameters were ionization
voltage70eVandionsourcetemperature25C.The
diluted samples of essential oils (1/100, v/v in HPLC
methanol) of 1 μL had been injected manually. To
avoid overloading the GC column, the essential oils
were diluted 1:100 (v/v) in methanol. The identifica-
tion of peaks was tentatively carried out based on li-
brary search using National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST)-2013. Relative Retention Index
(RRI) was calculated for HP-5MS column. For RRI cal-
culation a mixture of homologues n-alkanes (C9-C18)
was used under the same chromatographic conditions
as for analysis of the essential oils.
Investigation of antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion
method
The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential
oils was determined by the agar diffusion method [13].
This method was preferred over the dilution method be-
cause of low solubility of essential oils in water and in
meat peptone broth. The following concentrations of
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 2 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
essential oils were used: 150; 100; 50; 25; 12.5; 6.25 μL/
mL; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as the solvent.
The 100 μL of each oil solution was introduced to the wells
in the agar with test microorganisms. Different Gram-
positive (Bacillus subtilis WT-A, isolated from metal pol-
luted soils of Kajaran, Armenia; Staphylococcus aureus
MDC 5233 (Microbial Depository Center, Armbiotechnol-
ogy Scientific and Production Center, Armenia; laboratory
control strain) and Gram-negative (E. coli VKPM-M17
(Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorgan-
isms at the Institute of Genetics and Selection of Indus-
trial Microorganisms, Russia; laboratory control strain),
Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRP3 (Soil and Water Re-
search Institute, Iran) bacteria and ampicillin-resistant
E. coli dhpα-pUC18 were used. Bacterial cultures were
grown on Mueller-Hinton agar. Ampicillin (25 μg/mL)
as a positive control and DMSO as a negative control
were used. The yeasts (Candida albicans WT-174 iso-
lated from infected vaginal microbiota of hospitalized
patients (clinical strain) and Debariomyces hansenii
WT (French National Institute for Agricultural Re-
search, France; laboratory control strain) were grown
and maintained on Sabouraud-dextrose agar for 24 h at
room temperature. As the positive control fluconazole
(25 μg/mL) was used. Data were expressed in minimal
inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values.
The selected pieces of nutrient medium from the
zones of microorganism growth absence were trans-
ferred to the nutrient medium corresponding to each
microorganism and then they were incubated for 2
3 days at appropriate temperature to determine the
bacteriostatic or bactericidal action of the oils. The
action of oils is evaluated as bacteriostatic in case of
renewed growth of test-microorganisms after the re-
cultivation.
Determination of radical scavenging activity
Free radical scavenging ability of the essential oils was
tested using ethanol solution of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydra-
zyl (DPPH) [14]. Catechin was used as a positive reference.
Sample solution contained 125 μL (1 mM) DPPH, 375 μL
ethanol and 500 μL of test-solution (essential oils or
catechin with different concentrations). In the control solu-
tion the test-solution was replaced by ethanol. The absorb-
ance was measured at the wavelength of 514 nm.
The radical scavenging activity was calculated using
the following formula: Radical scavenging activity (%) =
AcAs/Ac × 100, where Ac is absorbance of control
(DPPH without the addition of test solution), and As-
the absorbance of the sample.
IC
50
calculated denote the concentration of investi-
gated samples required to decrease the DPPH absorb-
ance at 514 nm by 50%.
Tyrosinase inhibition colorimetric assay
Tyrosinase inhibition colorimetric assay was carried out
according to the method, as described [15, 16]. Each es-
sential oil was dissolved in DMSO to obtain concentra-
tion of 20 mg/mL. These stock solutions were diluted to
600 μg/mL concentration in 50 mM potassium phos-
phate buffer (pH 6.5). Arbutin acid was prepared in
similar way and used as positive control. 700 μLofeach
sample solution or positive control were combined with
300 μL of mushroom tyrosinase (333 Unit per mL in
phosphate buffer, pH 6.5). After incubation at 2022 °C
for 5 min, 1100 μL tyrosine (2 mM) were added to each
well. Plates were incubated at room temperature for
30 min and the absorbance was measured at the wave-
length of 492 nm using the spectrophotometer Genesys
10S UVvis (Thermo Scientific, USA). Percent inhibi-
tion of tyrosinase activity was calculated according to
the formula: inhibition (%) = 100-(W
sample
/W
blank
) × 100,
where W is absorbance at 492 nm. W
blank
is absorbance
of control reaction (containing all reagents without test
compound).
Statistical analysis
Experimental data (n= 4) were expressed as means
with standard errors. The latter did not exceed 3% (if
not indicated). The validity of differences between ex-
perimental and appropriate control data were evalu-
ated by Students criteria (P) using Microsoft Excel
2010 with the help of Ttest function; P<0.05 (if not
indicated).
Results
Determination of chemical composition of essential oils
The results from the quantitative and qualitative analysis
of essential oils constituents are presented in Table 1:
the average yield of the essential oils was 0.2%. More
than 40 compounds were isolated, detected and most of
them identified for each essential oil sample. The domi-
nant components were identified to be linalool, methyl
chavicol, citral and nerol.
According to the data obtained, O. basilicum var.
purpureum contains 57.3% methyl chavicol, with the
second largest component being linalool (18%). This
places the given variety of O. basilicum into methyl
chavicol-rich chemotype. O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora
belongs to linalool-rich chemotype, with concentrations
of linalool and methyl chavicol being 68 and 20% re-
spectively. These data are in a good accordance with the
results reported by Sishu et al. [17]. For the essential
oil from O. xcitriodorum species the predominant
constituents were identified to be citral (21%) and
nerol (23%), therefore it could not be classified as be-
longing to any of the chemotypes mentioned above,
but will rather form its own, nerol-rich chemotype.
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 3 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
ThedataonO. xcitriodorum are somewhat consist-
ent with the similar results published by Carović-
Stanko et al. [18] on essential oil distilled from the
plant of the same species, except for the fact that
there were more than 45 constituents of O. xcitrio-
dorum essential oil identified in the present study, as
opposed to 20 components identified by Carović-
Stanko et al. [18].
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils
The present investigation revealed that Gram-positive
bacteria tested were more sensitive to all three essential
oils than Gram-negative bacteria (Fig. 1). Such tendency
is also observed by other authors [19]. The essential oil
of O. xcitriodorum was quite active against B. subtilis
and St. aureus, with the MIC of 3.125 μL/mL. The same
MIC was recorded for the essential oil of O. basilicum
Table 1 Chemical composition of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum var.purpureum,Ocium basilicum var. thyrsiflora,Ocimum
citriodorum
Chemical components Relative Retention Index
a
O. basilicum var. purpureum, %
b
O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, %O.xcitriodorum, %
1-octen-3-ol 979 0,2 - 0,1
1-8- Cineole 1035 1.40 3.50 -
(Z) -β-Ocimene 1058 - - 0.24
γ-Terpinene 1078 - - 0.22
Fenhone 1089 - - 0.32
Linalool 1100 18.00 68.00 9.42
Camphor 1146 1.30 1.35 -
α- Terpineol 1181 - - 0.62
Methyl chavicol 1203 57.3 20.00 9.45
Nerol 1231 - - 23.00
Neral 1244 - - 4.93
Geraniol 1259 5.20
Geranial 1274 - - 15.77
Bornyl acetate 1291 0.13 - -
Neryl acetate 1321 - - 0.65
Methyl cinnamate 1338 - - 0.49
β-Elemene 1387 3.62 0.67 0.53
β-Caryophyllene 1419 1.72 - 7.80
βCopaene 1428 0.28 - 0.56
trans-α-Bergamotene 1433 4.34 1.34 3.52
α-Humulene 1455 0.55 0.28 1.52
cis- β-Farnesene 1472 0.31 - 0.48
Germacrene d 1482 0.68 0.17 -
β-Cubebene 1497 - 0.75 2.26
α-Bulnesene 1502 1.39 0.68 0.47
α-Amorphen 1510 1.54 0.69 -
δ-Cadinene 1518 - - 0.38
Aromadendrene 1529 1.67 0.28 -
Spathulenol 1544 0.68 - -
Caryophyllene oxide 1550 0.57 - -
αBisabolene 1561 - - 2.29
β- Bisabolenene 1572 - - 8.31
α-Bisabolol 1642 - - 0.29
a
for HP-5 capillary column
b
%: Calculated from MIC data
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 4 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
var. thyrsiflora against St. aureus, and O. basilicum var.
purpureum essential oil against B. subtilis. The MIC of
O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil against B. subti-
lis and MIC of O. basilicum var. purpureum against St.
aureus were twice as high, 6.25 μL/mL. The ampicillin-
resistant E. coli bacteria also displayed sensitivity against
the essential oils tested: thus the MIC values of O. x
citriodorum and O. basilicum var. purpureum against
thosebacteriawere6.25μL/mL, while O. basilicum
var. thyrsiflora displayed MIC of 12.5 μL/mL. The ac-
tion of the essential oils on the all bacteria in this
study was evaluated as bactericidal.
All three essential oils have also displayed high anti-
fungal activity, with O. xcitriodorum being the strongest
antifungal amongst them: MIC of O. xcitriodorum
against D. hansenii and C. guillermondii were 1.56 and
3.125 μL/mL, respectively (see Fig. 1).
Radical scavenging activity
The results of radical DPPH assay for of O. xcitrio-
dorum,O. basilicum var.purpureum, O. basilicum var.
thyrsiflora essential oils are shown on Fig. 2. The highest
antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum
var. thyrsiflora essential oil: IC
50
value for it was equal
0
15
30
45
Minimal inhibitory concentration
(µl/mL)
O. x citriodorum O.basilicum var. thyrsiflora O. basilicum var. purpureum
Fig. 1 The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of O. citriodorum,O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora and O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oils on
selected Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Antibiotic-resistant E. coli dhpα-pUC18 strain was used. For bacteria and fungi strains
and other details, see Methods. *Antibiotic-resistant E. coli dhpα-pUC18 strain
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Grapefruit Seed
Extract (positive
control)
O.basilicum var.
purpureum
O. x citriodorum O. basilicum var.
thyrsiflora
IC
50
value for DPPH radical
scavenging activity (µL/mL)
Fig. 2 IC
50
values of antiradical activity of O. citriodorum,O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora and O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oils. For details,
see Methods
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 5 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
to the standardized Grapefruit Seed Extract which was
used as a control sample (2.5 μL/mL). The antiradical
activity for the other two basil species was lower: IC
50
value for O. xcitriodorum essential oil was 20 μL/mL
and for O. basilicum var. purpureum was 22 μL/mL.
These results were somewhat unexpected, since usually
the oils with higher phenolic content are the ones exhi-
biting higher radical scavenging abilities, whereas in our
case the highest antioxidant properties were displayed by
the cultivar with the highest linalool (terpene alcohol)
content.
Tyrosinase inhibition activity
The enzyme tyrosinase inhibition abilities of all three
oils were also assessed as a part of our efforts to find a
natural treatment for hyper-pigmentation skin disorder.
The values for tyrosinase inhibitory activity of O. basilicum
var. thyrsiflora,O. basilicum var. purpureum and O. x
citriodorum essential oils and arbutin acid (positive con-
trol) were calculated to be 20.1 ± 1.4%; 11.5 ± 0.3%; 17.4 ±
0.9% and 81.5 ± 2.6%, respectively (Fig. 3).
Discussion
Under the experimental conditions of the present study
it was revealed that the dominant constituent for O.
basilicum var. purpureum is methyl chavicol (estragol),
whereas the major component for the other variety of
the same species, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora is linalool.
At the same time, the chemical composition of O. citrio-
dorium hybrid plant differed substantially from the first
two basil varieties: it had significant aldehyde content,
represented by citral, with another prevalent constituent
being nerol (monoterpene alcohol). Neither citral nor
nerol was detected in the two other species of Ocimum
(see Table 1). We observed that the essential oil from O.
citriodorum species displayed the highest antimicrobial
activity against the most of microorganisms tested. The
experiments showed that essential oils from all three
varieties of basil can significantly inhibit the growth of
ampicillin-resistant strain of E. coli bacteria. It is inter-
esting to notice, that the observed antibacterial activities
of the essential oils from O. citriodorum and O. basili-
cum var. purpureum against E. coli where much higher
in case of ampicillin-resistant strain than in the case of a
non-resistant one. At the same time, the essential oil
from O. thyrsiflora cultivar displayed the same, relatively
high antibacterial activity in both cases (see Fig. 1).
The essential oils from all three basil cultivars tested
showed high inhibition activities against fungi and high
radical scavenging activity. Among the three, the essen-
tial oil from the O. thyrsiflora variety displayed the high-
est ability to neutralize free radicals and showed results
similar to the positive control.
The essential oils from all three varieties exhibited
some tyrosinase inhibitory activity, although it wasnt
particularly high.
The essential oils from both O. citriodorum and O.
thyrsiflora varieties of basil show high inhibition rates
against S. aureus bacteria, which makes it possible to
consider using these oils as active natural ingredients for
the treatment of skin irritations, since S. aureus is extre-
meley common on the skin of patients with certain der-
matological diseases [20], and it is often considered to
be a major culprit in causing skin irritation and soft
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Arbutin acid
(positive
control)
O.basilicum
var. purpureum
O. x
citriodorum
O. basilicum
var. thyrsiflora
Tyrosinase inhibitory activity
Fig. 3 The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora and O. basilicum var. purpureum,O. citriodorum essential oils. For details,
see Methods
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 6 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
tissue infections [21]. At the same time, the combination
of very strong antioxidant properties with some tyrosin-
ase inhibition abilities makes the essential oil of O. thyr-
siflora a good candidate to be used as a multifunctional
cosmetic active in various cosmetic formulas, namely as
an antioxidant with some additional skin brightening
properties.
Conclusions
The qualitative and quantitative composition of the
three essential oils of three basil cultivars (O. basilicum
var. thyrsiflora,O. basilicum var. purpureum and O. x
citriodorum), cultivated in Armenia, was quite different:
O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained
57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyr-
siflora oil had 68.0% linalool, and the main constituents
of O. xcitriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral
(20.7%). The presence of thyrosinase inhibitory activity
is enhances the pharmacological value of these oils. They
had also high antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal
activity and could be used as good sources of natural
antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, with possible ap-
plication in food industry, cosmetics or medicine.
Abbreviations
DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; GS: Gas
chromatography; MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration; MS: Mass selective;
NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology; P: Students criteria;
RRI: Relative retention index
Acknowledgement
This study was done in the frame of the cooperation with Nairian CJSC
(Armenia).
Funding
This study was done in the frame of Basic research support by State
Committee of Science, Ministry of Education and Science of Armenia, to
Yerevan State University.
Availability of data and materials
The plant materials and methods used (see hereafter) were available upon
request. All data obtained have been included into the manuscript.
Authors contribution
AA collected plant material, obtained essential oils and identified chemical
structure of essential oil components; AM contributed to manuscript
preparation and improved English; MP identified plants, developed the
methods and contributed to manuscript preparation; NS developed the
methods and prepared the manuscript; AB tested the biological activities of
essential oils and analyzed data; SA obtained essential oils and provided
chemical analyses; AT supervised the study and edited the manuscript. All
authors have read and approved the manuscript.
Competing of interest
The authors declare no commercial, financial or any other conflict of interest.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable.
Author details
1
Nairian CJSC, Khorenatsi 15, Yerevan, Armenia.
2
Department of Biochemistry,
Microbiology & Biotechnology, Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, 1 A.
Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia.
Received: 16 September 2016 Accepted: 14 January 2017
References
1. Paton A, Harley MR, Harley MM. Ocimum: an overview of classification and
relationships. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers
imprint, part of the Gordon and Breach Publishing Group. Amsterdam: OPA
(Overseas Publishers Association) N.V.; 1999;38.
2. Kruger H, Wetzel SB, Zeiger B. The chemical variability of Ocimum species.
J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 2002;9:33544.
3. Klimankova E, Holadova K, Hajslova J, Cajka T, Poustka J, Koudela M. Aroma
profile of five basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under
conventional and organic conditions. Food Chem. 2008;107:46472.
4. Lawrence BM. A further examination of the variation of Ocimum basilicum
L. In: Lawrence BM, Mookerjee BD, Willis BJ, editors. Flavors and fragrances:
A world perspective. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci. Publ. B.V; 1988. p. 16170.
5. Liu K, Cheng Q, Liu Y, Zhou X, Wang X. Isolation and biological activities of
decanal, linalool, valencene, and octanal from sweet orange oil. J Food Sci.
2012;77:115661.
6. Marotti M, Piccaglia R, Giovanelli E. Differences in essential oil composition
of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Italian cultivars related to morphological
characteristics. J Agric Food Chem. 1996;44:39269.
7. Joshi RK. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential
oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West
Karnataka, India. Anc Sci Life. 2014;33:1516.
8. Koeduca T, Fridman E, Gang DR, Vassão DG, Kackson BL, Kish CM, Orlova I,
Spassova SM, Lewis NG, Noel JP, Baiga TJ, Dudareva N, Pichersky E. Eugenol
and isoeugenol, characteriastic aromatic constituents of spices, are
biosynthesized via reduction of a conifer alcohol ester. Proc Natl Acad Sci U
S A. 2006;103:1012833.
9. Zabka M, Pavela R, Prokinova E. Antifungal activity and chemical
composition of twenty essential oils against significant indoor and outdoor
toxigenic and aeroallergenic fungi. Chemosphere. 2014;112:4438.
10. SokovićM, Marin PD, BrkićD. L. van Griensven. Chemical Composition and
antibacterial activity of essential oils of ten aromatic plants against human
pathogenic bacteria. Food Glob Sci. 2007;1:2206.
11. Huang HC, Ho YC, Lim JM, Chang TY, Ho CL, Chang TM. Investigation of the
anti-melanogenic and antioxidant characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis
flower essential oil and determination of its chemical composition. Int J Mol
Sci. 2015;16:1047090.
12. Council of Europe. European Pharmacopeia. 5th ed. Strasbourg: European
Council, European Directorate for the Quality of The Medicines (EDQM).
2005;1.
13. Patel JB, Cockerill FR, Alder J, Bradford PA, Eliopoulos GM, Hardy DJ, Hindler
JA, Jenkins SG, Lewis JS, Miller LA, Powell M, Swenson JM, Traczewski MM,
Turnidge JD, Weinstein MP, Zimmer BL. Performance Standards for
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Fourth Informational
Data scope and type Database
Identification of chemical
substance peaks
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST)-11-2013
(http://www.nist.gov/srd/upload/
NIST1a11Ver2-0Man.pdf)
Protocols of testing of
antimicrobial activities by
agar-diffusion method
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute,
USA
(http://ncipd.org/control/images/
NCIPD_docs/CLSI_M100-S24.pdf)
Protocols for determination
of antiradical activity
International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Division
(http://www.bashanfoundation.org/shela/
shelaiupac.pdf)
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 7 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Supplement. CLSI document M100-S24. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory
Standards Institute; 2014.
14. Apak R, Gorinstein S, Böhm V, Schaich KM, Özyürek M, Güçlü K. Methods of
measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC
Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem. 2013;85:95798.
15. AlMamary M, Abdewahab SI, Al-Ghalibi S, AlGhasani E. The antioxidant
and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of some essential oils obtained from
aromatic plants grown and used in Yemen. Sci Res Essays. 2011;6:68405.
16. Wang YH, Avonto C, Avula B, Wang M, Khan IA. Quantitative determination
of α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-
methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol, and ascorbic acid from skin whitening
products by HPLC-UV. J AOAC. 2015;98:512.
17. Sishu R, Tadesse S, Bucar F, Asres K. Composition and the antioxidant
activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum and
Ocimum americanum. Int J Essent Oil Ther. 2010;4:648.
18. Carović-Stanko K, OrlićS, Politeo O, StrikićF, Kolak I, Milos M, Satovic Z.
Composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of seven Ocimum
taxa. Food Chem. 2010;119:196201.
19. Sarrazin SLF, Oliviera RB, Barata LES, Mourao RHV. Chemical composition
and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Lippia grandis Schauer
(Verbenaceae) from the western Amazon. Food Chem. 2012;34:14748.
20. Baron S. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition, Chapter 6, University of
Texas, 1996.
21. Kong HH, Oh J, Deming C, Conlan S, Grice EA, Beatson MA, Nomicos E,
Polley EC, Komarow HD, Murray PR, Turner ML. Temporal shifts in the skin
microbiome associated with disease flares and treatment in children with
atopic dermatitis. Genome Res. 2012;22:8509.
We accept pre-submission inquiries
Our selector tool helps you to find the most relevant journal
We provide round the clock customer support
Convenient online submission
Thorough peer review
Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services
Maximum visibility for your research
Submit your manuscript at
www.biomedcentral.com/submit
Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central
and we will help you at every step:
Avetisyan et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17:60 Page 8 of 8
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Terms and Conditions
Springer Nature journal content, brought to you courtesy of Springer Nature Customer Service Center GmbH (“Springer Nature”).
Springer Nature supports a reasonable amount of sharing of research papers by authors, subscribers and authorised users (“Users”), for small-
scale personal, non-commercial use provided that all copyright, trade and service marks and other proprietary notices are maintained. By
accessing, sharing, receiving or otherwise using the Springer Nature journal content you agree to these terms of use (“Terms”). For these
purposes, Springer Nature considers academic use (by researchers and students) to be non-commercial.
These Terms are supplementary and will apply in addition to any applicable website terms and conditions, a relevant site licence or a personal
subscription. These Terms will prevail over any conflict or ambiguity with regards to the relevant terms, a site licence or a personal subscription
(to the extent of the conflict or ambiguity only). For Creative Commons-licensed articles, the terms of the Creative Commons license used will
apply.
We collect and use personal data to provide access to the Springer Nature journal content. We may also use these personal data internally within
ResearchGate and Springer Nature and as agreed share it, in an anonymised way, for purposes of tracking, analysis and reporting. We will not
otherwise disclose your personal data outside the ResearchGate or the Springer Nature group of companies unless we have your permission as
detailed in the Privacy Policy.
While Users may use the Springer Nature journal content for small scale, personal non-commercial use, it is important to note that Users may
not:
use such content for the purpose of providing other users with access on a regular or large scale basis or as a means to circumvent access
control;
use such content where to do so would be considered a criminal or statutory offence in any jurisdiction, or gives rise to civil liability, or is
otherwise unlawful;
falsely or misleadingly imply or suggest endorsement, approval , sponsorship, or association unless explicitly agreed to by Springer Nature in
writing;
use bots or other automated methods to access the content or redirect messages
override any security feature or exclusionary protocol; or
share the content in order to create substitute for Springer Nature products or services or a systematic database of Springer Nature journal
content.
In line with the restriction against commercial use, Springer Nature does not permit the creation of a product or service that creates revenue,
royalties, rent or income from our content or its inclusion as part of a paid for service or for other commercial gain. Springer Nature journal
content cannot be used for inter-library loans and librarians may not upload Springer Nature journal content on a large scale into their, or any
other, institutional repository.
These terms of use are reviewed regularly and may be amended at any time. Springer Nature is not obligated to publish any information or
content on this website and may remove it or features or functionality at our sole discretion, at any time with or without notice. Springer Nature
may revoke this licence to you at any time and remove access to any copies of the Springer Nature journal content which have been saved.
To the fullest extent permitted by law, Springer Nature makes no warranties, representations or guarantees to Users, either express or implied
with respect to the Springer nature journal content and all parties disclaim and waive any implied warranties or warranties imposed by law,
including merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.
Please note that these rights do not automatically extend to content, data or other material published by Springer Nature that may be licensed
from third parties.
If you would like to use or distribute our Springer Nature journal content to a wider audience or on a regular basis or in any other manner not
expressly permitted by these Terms, please contact Springer Nature at
onlineservice@springernature.com
... Penyebab lain yang mungkin terjadi adalah adanya perbedaan senyawa aktif yang terkandung di dalam sebuah tanaman dengan genus ataupun spesies yang sama. 26 Karakter dan komposisi dari suatu spesies tanaman juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan seperti temperatur, jenis tanah, wilayah geografis, curah hujan pada masa penanaman, serta musim. 27 Genus Ocimum seringkali diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 kemotipe utama, yaitu kaya metil chavicol, kaya linalool, kaya metil eugenol, dan kaya metil sinamat. ...
... 27 Genus Ocimum seringkali diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 kemotipe utama, yaitu kaya metil chavicol, kaya linalool, kaya metil eugenol, dan kaya metil sinamat. 26 Linalool merupakan terpenoid dan diketahui berpotensi untuk aktivitas antibakteri. 15 merupakan metode yang paling sering digunakan karena kemudahan melakukkan pengujian serta dapat dilakukan dengan biaya yang lebih murah, karena hanya membutuhkan jumlah sampel yang lebih sedikit jika dibandingkan dengan metode difusi agar serta pengujiannya dapat dilakukan oleh peneliti pemula. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pendahuluan: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) merupakan bakteri yang persisten pada saluran akar gigi, sehingga dapat menyebabkan infeksi sekunder pada saluran akar gigi yang telah diobturasi. Bahan irigasi dan medikamen harus diberikan pada saluran akar gigi untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatannya. Daun kemangi (Ocimum basilicum/O. basilicum) merupakan tanaman obat tradisional yang diketahui memiliki potensi antibakteri dan berpeluang untuk dikembangkan sebagai bahan irigasi saluran akar gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui zona hambat ekstrak etil asetat daun O. basilicum terhadap E. faecalis ATTC 29212. Metode:Jenis penelitian eksperimental laboratori. Pengujian zona hambat ekstrak etil asetat daun O. basilicum yang diperoleh dari proses maserasi dilakukan dengan metode difusi cakram dengan menggunakan klorheksidin 0,1% sebagai kontrol positif dan dilakukan tiga kali pengulangan terhadap E. faecalis ATCC 29212. Ekstrak pekat dilarutkan menggunakan DMSO 10% dan dilakukan pengenceran dua tingkat sehingga diperoleh konsentrasi ekstrak 512.000 – 1.000 ppm. Hasil: Ekstrak etil asetat daun O. basilicum pada konsentrasi uji 512.000 ppm telah memperlihatkan zona abu-abu seluas 1 mm di luar cakram uji, sementara konsentrasi uji lainnya tidak memperlihatkan adanya penghambatan. Beragam faktor dalam penelitian ini dapat mempengaruhi hasil pengujian, diantaranya adalah kelarutan ekstrak uji dalam pelarut yang digunakan, prosedur sebelum ekstraksi, dan keterbatasan metoda pengujian. Simpulan: Ekstrak etil asetat daun O. basilicum tidak memiliki zona hambat terhadap E. faecalis ATTC 29212.Kata kunci: Ocimum basilicum, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, zona hambat. ABSTRACTIntroduction: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a bacteria that persist in root canals, cause secondary infection in obturated root canals. Irrigation material and medicament must be administered to the root canal to support the treatment success. Basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum/O. basilicum) is a traditional medicinal plant known with antibacterial potential and has the opportunity to be developed as a root canal irrigation agent. This study was aimed to determine the inhibition zone of the ethyl acetate extract of O. basilicum leaves against E. faecalis ATTC 29212. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory. The inhibition zone test of the ethyl acetate extract of O. basilicum leaves obtained from the maceration process was conducted with the disc diffusion method using 0.1% chlorhexidine as a positive control and three replications E. faecalis ATCC 29212. The concentrated extract was dissolved using 10% DMSO, and two dilution levels were carried out to obtain an extract concentration of 512,000 - 1,000 ppm. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of O. basilicum leaves at the test concentration of 512,000 ppm showed a grey zone of 1 mm outside the test disc, while other test concentrations did not show any inhibition. Various factors in this study can affect the test results, including the solubility of the test extract in the solvent used, the procedure before extraction, and the limitations of the test method. Conclusion: O. basilicum leaf ethyl acetate extract had no inhibition zone against E. faecalis ATTC 29212.Keywords: Ocimum basilicum, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, zone of inhibition.
... The authors attributed this effect to inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and regulation of expression of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6). Using the same experimental model, Kim et al. [111] evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of catechin-7,4 -O-digallate on the reduction of NO production. The results showed an inhibition of the production of this free radical via the downregulation of iNOS expression. ...
... thyrsiflora (20.1 ± 1.4%) and O. basilicum var. purpureum (11.5 ± 0.3%) vs. positive control, arbutin (81.5 ± 2.6%) [111]. Similarly, more recent studies have indicated a moderate inhibition of tyrosinase obtained by extracts and EOs compared to positive controls [74,112]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum L., as well as to evaluate the antibacterial, antidiabetic, dermatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, and the EOs and aqueous extracts of O. basilicum. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against bacterial strains, Gram-positive and Gram-negative, using the well diffusion and microdilution methods, whereas the antidiabetic activity was assessed in vitro using two enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. On the other hand, the dermatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by testing tyrosinase and lipoxygenase inhibition activity, respectively. The results showed that the chemical composition of O. basilicum EO (OBEO) is dominated by methyl chavicol (86%) and trans-anethol (8%). OBEO exhibited significant antibacterial effects against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, demonstrated by considerable diameters of the inhibition zones and lower MIC and MBC values. In addition, OBEO exhibited significant inhibition of α-amylase (IC50 = 50.51 ± 0.32 μg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 39.84 ± 1.2 μg/mL). Concerning the anti-inflammatory activity, OBEO significantly inhibited lipoxygenase activity (IC50 = 18.28 ± 0.03 μg/mL) compared to the aqueous extract (IC50 = 24.8 ± 0.01 μg/mL). Moreover, tyrosinase was considerably inhibited by OBEO (IC50 = 68.58 ± 0.03 μg/mL) compared to the aqueous extract (IC50 = 118.37 ± 0.05 μg/mL). The toxicological investigations revealed the safety of O. basilicum in acute and chronic toxicity. The finding of in silico analysis showed that methyl chavicol and trans-anethole (main compounds of OBEO) validate the pharmacokinetics of these compounds and decipher some antibacterial targets.
... In addition, transcripts of terpenoid synthetases in O. sanctum and transcripts of phenylpropanoid synthetase in O. basilicum were reported by comparing the transcriptomes of two Ocimum species [4]. More importantly, the volatile composition of basil and its essential oil, as well as their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities, have been extensively studied [2,5,6]. To date, more than ninety basil volatiles have been identified [7]. ...
... Previous studies have shown that the flavor compounds identified in this study, such as eugenol, methyl-chavicol, linalool and nerol, have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities and have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry [5,[29][30][31][32]. In addition, terpinen-4-ol exhibited a depressant effect on the central nervous system [33,34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Basil (Ocimum L.) is widely used as a flavor ingredient, however research on basil flavor is limited. In the current study, nine basil species were selected, including Ocimum basilicum L.var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth., Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum cinnamon, Ocimum gratissimum var. suave, Ocimum tashiroi, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Ocimum basilicum ct linalool, and Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum, and their fragrance and flavor characteristics were assessed by sensory evaluation. The results indicated that Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum var. suave have a strong clove smell and exhibited a piquant taste. Metabolomics and volatilomics analyses measured 100 nonvolatile metabolites and 134 volatiles. Differential analysis showed that eugenol, γ-terpinene, germacrene D and malic acid were among the most varied metabolites in basil species. Combined with sensory evaluation results, correlation analysis revealed that β-pinene and γ-cadinene contributed to the piquant smell, while eugenol and germacrene D contributed to the clove smell, and malic acid and L-(−)-arabitol contributed to the sweet flavor in basil. This study provided comprehensive flavor chemistry profiles of basil species and could be used as a guide for basil flavor improvement. The better understanding of objective sensory attributes and chemical composition of fresh basil could introduce the improved cultivars with preponderant traits, which is also in accordance with the various demands of breeders and growers, food producers, and consumers.
... The authors attributed this effect to inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and regulation of expression of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6). Using the same experimental model, Kim et al. [111] evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of catechin-7,4 -O-digallate on the reduction of NO production. The results showed an inhibition of the production of this free radical via the downregulation of iNOS expression. ...
... thyrsiflora (20.1 ± 1.4%) and O. basilicum var. purpureum (11.5 ± 0.3%) vs. positive control, arbutin (81.5 ± 2.6%) [111]. Similarly, more recent studies have indicated a moderate inhibition of tyrosinase obtained by extracts and EOs compared to positive controls [74,112]. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum L., as well as to evaluate the antibacterial, antidiabetic, dermatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, and the EOs and aqueous extracts of O. basilicum. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against bacterial strains, Gram-positive and Gram-negative, using the well diffusion and microdilution methods, whereas the antidiabetic activity was assessed in vitro us- ing two enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. On the other hand, the dermatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by testing tyrosinase and lipoxygenase inhibition activity, respectively. The results showed that the chemical compo- sition of O. basilicum EO (OBEO) is dominated by methyl chavicol (86%) and trans-anethol (8%). OBEO exhibited significant antibacterial effects against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, demonstrated by considerable diameters of the inhibition zones and lower MIC and MBC val- ues. In addition, OBEO exhibited significant inhibition of α-amylase (IC50 = 50.51 ± 0.32 µg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 39.84 ± 1.2 µg/mL). Concerning the anti-inflammatory activity, OBEO significantly inhibited lipoxygenase activity (IC50 = 18.28 ± 0.03 µg/mL) compared to the aque- ous extract (IC50 = 24.8 ± 0.01 µg/mL). Moreover, tyrosinase was considerably inhibited by OBEO (IC50 = 68.58 ± 0.03 µg/mL) compared to the aqueous extract (IC50 = 118.37 ± 0.05 µg/mL). The toxicological investigations revealed the safety of O. basilicum in acute and chronic toxicity. The finding of in silico analysis showed that methyl chavicol and trans-anethole (main compounds of OBEO) validate the pharmacokinetics of these compounds and decipher some antibacterial targets.
... The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde and by the absorption of oxygen because it ages, it darkens color and develops resinous compounds. Chemical composition of volatile oil includes ethyl cinnamate, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, beta-caryophyyllene, linalool and methyl chavicol [7] . Cinnamon leaf oil features a warm, spicy, but rather harsh odors, lacking the rich body of the bark oil [8] . ...
... In addition to these techniques, DNA-based methods have been proven to be robust for the unambiguous identification of the medicinal plant genus; however, these methods fail to identify the mixing of species that is responsible for the lowering of the quality of medicinal plant products [16]. Furthermore, classification based on volatile oil composition requires the distillation and fractionation of oils, and the chemotype classification based on only one major volatile oil is erroneous as one plant may contain two or more chemical compounds in nearly equal amounts [15,20,21]. In addition, the overall oil profile of major constituents above the fixed threshold 20% of total essential oil content should be considered. ...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of plant species is a crucial process in natural products. Ocimum, often referred to as the queen of herbs, is one of the most versatile and globally used medicinal herbs for various health benefits due to it having a wide variety of pharmacological activities. Despite there being significant global demand for this medicinal herb, rapid and comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting approaches for species- and variety-specific classification are limited. In this study, metabolomic fingerprinting of five Ocimum species (Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum sanctum L., Ocimum africanum Lour., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Gurke., and Hybrid Tulsi) and their varieties was performed using LC-MS, GC-MS, and the rapid fingerprinting approach FT-NIR combined with chemometrics. The aim was to distinguish the species- and variety-specific variation with a view toward developing a quality assessment of Ocimum species. Discrimination of species and varieties was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), data-driven soft independent modelling of class analogy (DD-SIMCA), random forest, and K-nearest neighbours with specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 99%. Phenolics and flavonoids were found to be major contributing markers for species-specific variation. The present study established comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting consisting of rapid screening and confirmatory approaches as a highly efficient means to identify the species and variety of Ocimum, being able to be applied for the quality assessment of other natural medicinal herbs.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Strain specificity of the starter culture of the dairy probiotic “Narine” ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to clarify the identity of the starter cultures of a non-ropy fermented milk product called “Narine”, presented on the market. In addition to the absence of the viscosity characteristic of Narine, the samples of this product have higher pH, a short shelf life, significantly lower titer (> 2 log) of living cells by the end of the shelf life. Despite mentioned differences, the starter culture of this product belongs to the species Lactobacillus helveticus. It was found that non-sticky starter culture, when growing in LAPTg medium, begins to lyse after reaching the late logarithmic phase (> 90% of cells). Lysis is characteristic of L. helveticus strains, which are used as starters in the preparation of hard cheeses. Cell lysis of cheese starter cultures is necessary for the release of intracellular endoproteases that break down peptides that give cheeses a bitter taste. However, in the case of probiotic fermented milk products, cell lysis is undesirable because it leads to changes in texture, a decrease in the titer of living bacteria in the product, which makes this strain unsuitable for use as a probiotic. Thus, it can be stated that the strain L. helveticus used in the production of a non-ropy pseudo ″Narine″ product is not the strain L. helveticus MDC9606, and the fermented milk product does not comply with the State Standard of the Republic of Armenia 173-2015 for Narine. Therefore, the non-ropy dairy product has no legal right to be produced under the Narine brand, patented by Professor L. Yerzinkyan. Keywords: Lactobacillus helveticus, sour milk Narine, ropiness, proteases, autolysis, acidity
Article
Full-text available
Visando promover um mapeamento dos trabalhos relacionados à produção e aplicação de antioxidantes naturais em cosméticos, utilizaram-se os bancos de dados Periódicos, Pub Med e Scielo, de forma a avaliar o panorama do estágio atual no desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico nesta área. A pesquisa demonstrou a liderança da China na produção científica voltada ao tema, sendo a maioria dos trabalhos publicados na revista Molecules no ano de 2020. A partir do estudo nas diversas bases, é notável que o número de artigos publicados relacionados à área investigada ainda é limitado, demonstrando a necessidade de mais estudos e investigações para ampliação do aporte tecnológico acerca de tal conteúdo
Article
Full-text available
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an important culinary herb and essential oil source widely recognized worldwide. The oil of the plant is beneficial for medicinal uses, and it has many biological activities such as insect repellent, larvicidal, and bactericidal. This study aimed to investigate basil's essential oil for its chemical composition and repellent activity. The essential oil of basil was extracted from fresh leaves by steam distillation method, and the chemical composition of the oil was determined by using GC/MS. Also, the repellent activity of the oil was tested against American cockroaches. Ebeling Choice-Box test with a little modification used in repellence test. The obtained results of chemical composition revealed that the amount of the oil contained forty-one chemical constituents (~97.1%); the major constituents were methyl cinnamate (25.3%), linalool (19.1%) and estragole (12.3%) as the major oxygenated monoterpenes. While α-bergamoten (5.3%), germacrene (4.6%), γ-cadinene (2.8%), and β-elemene (2.4%) were the main compounds in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Whereas, in oxygenated sesquiterpenes, Tau-cadinol (4.3%) was an important compounds and ocimene the highest compound in monoterpene hydrocarbons. The obtained results also indicated that the essential oil had good activity against the P. American, at a 100% concentration of oil; the repellence reaches 100% after 1 h. The IC50 and IC90 values of basil essential oil against P. Americans were 53.0 and 83.0%, respectively. The major compound methyl cinnamate which exists in basil essential oil is a very important compound and could be used in a wide area of industrial applications as repellent products, medicinal products, and cosmetics.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus camaldulensis flowers oil on melanogenesis and the oil’s antioxidant characteristics were investigated. Assays of mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin content of mouse melanoma cells were performed spectrophotometrically, and the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blotting. The possible signaling pathways involved in essential oil-mediated depigmentation were also investigated using specific protein kinase inhibitors. The results revealed that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil effectively suppresses intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases melanin amount in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The essential oil also exhibits antioxidant properties and effectively decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chemical constituents in the essential oil are predominately oxygenated monoterpenes (34.9%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (31.8%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.0%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.3%). Our results indicated that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil inhibits melanogenesis through its antioxidant properties and by down-regulating both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. The present study indicates that the essential oil has the potential to be developed into a skin care product.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical diversity of natural antioxidants (AOXs) makes it difficult to separate, detect, and quantify individual antioxidants from a complex food/biological matrix. Moreover, the total antioxidant power is often more meaningful to evaluate health beneficial effects because of the cooperative action of individual antioxidant species. Currently, there is no single antioxidant assay for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantification methods. Antioxidant assays may be broadly classified as the electron transfer (ET)- and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT)-based assays. The results obtained are hardly comparable because of the different mechanisms, redox potentials, pH and solvent dependencies, etc. of various assays. This project will aid the identification and quantification of properties and mutual effects of antioxidants, bring a more rational basis to the classification of antioxidant assays with their constraints and challenges, and make the results more comparable and understandable. In this regard, the task group members convey their own experiences in various methods of antioxidants measurement.
Article
Full-text available
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.
Article
Full-text available
In Ethiopia, the aerial parts of Ocimum americanum L. and Ocimum basillicum var. thyrsiflorum (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), are commonly used to preserve and/or flavour butter. In the present study the fresh aerial parts of these herbs were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-three components have been identified in the essential oil of O. americanum, representing 96.87% of the oil, while a total of 28 components comprising 98.02% of the total peak area were detected in the essential oil of O. basillicum var. thyrsiflorum. The main constituents of the essential oil of O. americanum were 1,8-cineole (21.82%), β-bisabolene (15.93%), trans-α-bisabolene (13.74%), estragole (13.41%) and cis-β-ocimene (11.42%). Linalool (42.44%), trans-3-phenyl-2-propionic acid methyl ester (27.96%) and 1, 8-cineole (10.92%) were found to be the major constituents of the essential oil of O. basillicum var. thyrsiflorum. The oils were investigated for their in vitro radical scavenging activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. The results revealed that the oils possess significant antioxidant activity in a concentration dependant manner. IC50 values of 16 and 60 ηl/ml in the DPPH assay, and 102 and 19 ηl/ml in the deoxyribose degradation assay were obtained for the oils of O. americanum and O. basillicum var. thyrsiflorum, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the antioxidant
Article
An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules.
Article
Lippia grandis Schauer is an aromatic plant that has been used as a spice in Brazilian culinary and in traditional medicine to treat liver disease, disorders of the stomach and throat infections. We determined the chemical composition of the essential oil of L. grandis and evaluated its potential for the treatment of clinically-important pathogenic micro-organisms. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), giving carvacrol (37.12%), ρ-cymene (11.64%), and thymol (7.83%) as the main components. The agar disk diffusion method of the essential oil was effective against 75% of the micro-organisms analyzed, in particular, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.57 mg/ml for E. faecalis and 1.15 mg/ml for all the other strains. The results indicate that the essential oil of L. grandis contains chemical compounds with good potential for the treatment of infections.
Article
The composition of the essential oils of samples from the Ocimum gene bank collection (about 270 accessions) of the Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research Gatersleben was investigated. The main components in the essential oils found were linalol (max. 71%), methyl chavicol (max. 92%), citral (max. 80%) and 1,8 cineole (max. 25%) as well as camphor (max. 63%), thymol (max. 35%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (max. 77%), eugenol (max. 80%), methyleugenol (max. 79%), methyl isoeugenol (max. 36%) and elemicin (max. 47%).
Article
GC/MS was used to identify compounds of essential oils from seven Ocimum taxa (O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. campechianum Mill., O. x citriodorum Vis., O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex Gürke and three botanical varieties and cultivars of Ocimum basilicum L.: ‘Genovese’, var. difforme and var. purpurascens). Preliminary screening of their antibacterial activity was done against a number of common pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococus faecium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion technique, while further analyses were done by modification of the disc diffusion method. A broad variation in the antibacterial properties of investigated essential oils was observed. E. coli 0157:H7 was inhibited by O. basilicum ‘Genovese’ essential oil, while Ocimum americanum and Ocimum x citriodorum essential oils were the most effective against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, P. vulgaris, S. aureus and S. epidermis.