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THE EFFECTS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION PROGRAM WITH ENRICHED PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT DIMENSION ON SCHOOL READINESS OF 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

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The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of “Preschool Education Program With Enriched Parental Involvement Dimension” which was applied to the children aged 5-6 year old. The study group was consisted of totally 57 children and their parents, 26 of which were formed in the experimental group and 31 of which were formed in the control group who continued on to two different preschools in Bursa. School Readiness Test was performed to children for the pre-test and posttest. Program was applied to the experimental group during an academic year. In this study pretest-posttest control group design was used. Covariance analysis was used to the data to determine whether experimental process is effective or not. It was determined that the children who participated to the “Preschool Education Program With Enriched Parental Involvement Dimension” were more ready to school than children who didn’t participate.
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Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
Pınar BAĞÇELİ KAHRAMAN
1
Handan Asûde BAŞAL
2
THE EFFECTS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION PROGRAM WITH
ENRICHED PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT DIMENSION ON SCHOOL
READINESS OF 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN
3
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of Preschool Education
Program With Enriched Parental Involvement Dimension which was applied to
the children aged 5-6 year old. The study group was consisted of totally 57 children
and their parents, 26 of which were formed in the experimental group and 31 of
which were formed in the control group who continued on to two different
preschools in Bursa. School Readiness Test was performed to children for the pre-
test and posttest. Program was applied to the experimental group during an
academic year. In this study pretest-posttest control group design was used.
Covariance analysis was used to the data to determine whether experimental
process is effective or not. It was determined that the children who participated to
the “Preschool Education Program With Enriched Parental Involvement
Dimension” were more ready to school than children who didn’t participate.
Key words: family involvement, school readiness, preschool education
AİLE KATILIMI BOYUTU ZENGİNLEŞTİRİLMİŞ OKULÖNCESİ
EĞİTİM PROGRAMININ 5-6 YAŞ ÇOCUKLARIN İLKOKULA
HAZIRBULUNUŞLUK DÜZEYLERİNE ETKİSİ
Özet
Bu araştırmanın amacı; “Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Eğitim
Programı”nın çocukların ilkokula hazırbulunuşluklarına etkisini saptamaktır.
1
Dr., Uludag Üniversity Education Faculty Preschool Teacher Education, pinarbag@uludag.edu.tr
2
Prof. Dr. Uludag University Education Faculty Preschool Teacher Education, asubasal@uludag.edu.tr
3
This research was produced from a doctoral thesis which supported by Scientific Research Project
Department and accepted by Uludag University Educational Sciences Insitute.
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Pınar Bahçeli Kahraman, Handan Asûde Başal
Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, Bursa ilinde iki farklı resmi anaokulunda okul
öncesi eğitim almakta olan 26’sı deney, 31’i kontrol grubunda toplam 57 çocuk ve
ebeveynleri oluşturmuştur. Çocuklara öntest ve sontest olarak “Okula
Hazırbulunuşluğu Değerlendirme Testi” uygulanmıştır. Deney grubuna alınan
çocukların ebeveynleri ile birlikte “Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş
Okulöncesi Eğitim Programı” eğitim-öğretim yılı süresince uygulanmıştır.
Araştırmada öntest-sontest kontrol gruplu deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. Deneysel
işlemin etkili olup olmadığına belirlemek için Kovaryans Analizi (ANCOVA)
uygulanmıştır. Aile Katılım Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okul Öncesi Eğitim
Programı’na katılan çocukların katılmayan çocuklara göre ilkokula daha fazla hazır
olduğu belirlenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile katılımı, ilkokula hazırbulunuşluk, okul öncesi eğitim
Introduction
Children’s growth rates and learning capacities are at their highest levels in the 0-6-
year-old age range. Parents shape a large part of the behaviors and personality structure of
a child as well as his/her habits, beliefs and value judgments. They also underlie the
development of physical health (Oktay, 2010). School readiness includes that the child,
school and society are ready. Readiness which means a lot more than academic
information grounds on all aspects of the development in a multi-directional way.
Although some children have strong language skill, their social skills may be insufficient.
And while some children have social skill, the others may have weak social skills verbally
(California Child Care Health Program, 2006).
There are four factors relating to readiness. These factors are as follows
(Oktay and Polat- Unutkan, 2005):
1. Physiological factor: In this factor, it was focused on chronological age, general
health status and brain and body development (Oktay, 2010). Nutrition of the child,
his/her general development and the fact that whether he/she is healthy or not are very
important in adapting to school and fulfilling instruction of teacher. Besides, visual and
auditory and eye hand coordination are considered as important subjects which should be
emphasized due to its effect on reading-writing (Oktay, 2007).
2. Cognition factor: This factor includes skill, information and capacity usage. It
also includes being enthusiastic, wondering, having desire to fulfill a duty, temperament,
cultural structure and values (Zaslow et al., 2000).
3. Social and Environmental factor: People start to a social life as from the date
when they are born and establish their first relation with their parents or another person
who looks after them (Bayhan and Artan, 2007).
4. Emotional factors: The child creates his/her first social relations by establishing
emotional relation with his/her environment and forms a personality structure according
to negative or positive emotional attitude models that he/she gained. Thus, emotional
problems that the child had and personality characteristics have influenced in the school
(Oktay, 2007).
Senemoğlu (1994) orders the emotional characteristics that the children should
obtain in pre-school period as follows:
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okulöncesi Eğitim Programının 5-6 Yaş
Çocukların İlkokula Hazırbulunuşluk Düzeylerine Etkisi
1. Being able to define, describe the emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger
and joy and accepting to talk about them.
2. Being able to recognize the relations between emotions and social attitudes.
3. Being able to sensitive to needs and emotions of the others.
In pre-school period, the children become individuals who can benefit from all
external stimulus sources, reach their learning skills and potential to the top level, want to
read and develop positive attitude against the school only with involvement of the parents
in education (Polat-Unutkan, 2006).
Permanent change in behaviours of children in preschool education institutions
can only be possible by maintaining the family life as they are planned in the program.
Briefly, children encounter two main educators throughout their lives; their families and
their teachers. For this reason, preschool education programs are not very effective on
children unless they are supported by families, no matter how well-prepared they are
(Department for Education, 2008; Aral, Kandır and Can Yaşar, 2000).
Extending the interaction zones of home and school lives can only be possible with
the active involvement of parents in their children’s school lives (Bakkal, 2007). Fullan
(1982) states that the more interested the families are in their children’s education, the
more they have impact on the development and educational success of their children
(Kasting, 1994). Ekinci-Vural and Gürşimşek (2009) indicate that family involvement
can be secured in a short span of time with systematic and planned studies aimed at
family involvement in preschool education period. They also state that these families may
use their experiences in different levels of education. However, researches conducted
show that parents need orientation, motivation, education and instruction; they need to be
included in the management process; they lack family education; family involvement
can’t be practiced properly because of reasons arising from parents or teachers or it is
only practiced as helping with the activities and participating in school activities (Kaya,
2002; Tezel-Şahin and Turla, 2004; İnal, 2006; Akkaya, 2007; Işık, 2007; Köksal-Eğmez,
2008; Abbak, 2008; Erdoğan and Kasımoğlu, 2010; Ünüvar, 2011).
Wright (2009) suggest that Sociocultural Development Theory of Vygotsky and
Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner set ground for teachers to understand the
lives of students and their families and to produce ideas on the subject.
Sociocultural Development Theory, which involves values, beliefs and traditions,
is briefly interested in transfering the culture to the next generation (Berk, 2009) and
Vygotsky (1978) states that social communication plays an important role in education.
Social environment involves the family, school, society and all social components that the
child can reach. Cultural differences affect both the family and the child’s way of
thinking. According to Vygotsky (1978), sense making abilities of children firstly
develop when they communicate with other people, then turn into privates speeches and
become internalised. One of the most important points that preschool education programs
adopting the Sociocultural Development Theory of Vygotsky should consider is to
provide an interaction zone based on cooperation among students and between students
and teachers, to be in communication with social cultural environment and to make it
easier for parents to access to the class (Oktay and others, 2006).
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Pınar Bahçeli Kahraman, Handan Asûde Başal
Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner (1979) also states that children
develop in a complex social environment involving siblings, parents, grandparents,
animals, school friends and friends. According to Breadkamp and Copple (2002), the
development of children can be explained within the context of family, education and
society. In this theory, the development of the child is made of a layer chain and
homocentric circles. The relation between the systems develop as the child develops
(Wortham, 2002). These systems are discussed on five layers being microsystem,
mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem.
1. Microsystem: Being the innermost layer of environment, microsystem involves
the personal development of the child and the closest environment (family, school, peers).
It is where the child gets together with people who have certain roles like teachers in
certain activities (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). This system is the deepest layer that affects the
development of the child (Wright et al., 2007).
2. Mesosystem: This system emphasizes the communication of the child with
microsystems like family, school and neighbours (Wortham, 2002; Berk, 2009).
3. Exosystem: Exosystem is the broader version of mesosystem. It involves the
main institutions of the society (Bronfenbrenner,1977). Municipalities that are obliged to
open playgrounds, recreation sites and libraries are among the examples of exosystem
(Oktay et al., 2006).
4. Macrosystem: The outmost layer of Bronfenbrenner model, the macrosystem
involves cultural values, laws, traditions and resources. Macrosystem primarily values the
needs that affect the support from the environment (Berk, 2009).
5. Chronosystem (Evercontinuing system): According to Bronfenbrenner, it
doesn’t have a stable power to affect the child. On the contrary, it is variable. Situations
like twins, starting school, moving to another house and divorced parents affect the
development. Change in living statuses may deeply impact the child. These impacts
depend on environmental opportunities and personal, physical and mental features.
Therefore, the development is neither controlled by environmental conditions nor
maintained by internal disposition. Children are both the producers and the products of
the environment (Berk, 2009).
A successful program should be able to provide various forms of family
involvement and give families various roles, such as being a listener, taking on a task at
home, being a supporter of the program, being advisor and decision-maker (Ömeroğlu
and Can Yaşar, 2005). Knowing general characteristics of children and their families,
their needs and expectations, teacher considers the manner of family involvement and
includes family involvement activities in his annual program. For example; family
involvement activity's name and subject, date, consultant to be invited, applications to be
done with family involvement in classroom, parent-teacher meeting, notice-bulletin
board, brochures to be prepared, home visits, field visits.
Aim of the research
The Pre-School Educational Program which was applied in 2013 - and which was
applied from 2006 onward - was updated. The 2006 Preschool Education Program had an
annual program, and there were a few sample activities. There was little detailed
information in it about parent involvement. In the 2013 Preschool Education Program
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okulöncesi Eğitim Programının 5-6 Yaş
Çocukların İlkokula Hazırbulunuşluk Düzeylerine Etkisi
there are some application samples for family involvement and detailed information was
provided.
In general, when considering studies that have been carried out in Turkey on the
subjects of family involvement and readiness in general, no research to date has
specifically examined the effects of family involvement on readiness. Such research is
usually about social development or parents’ and teachers’ opinions about family
involvement. Typically, this research compares different regions’ children for school
readiness or evaluates some aspect of school readiness. Research abroad suggests that
family involvement and school readiness develop together. However, we could not find
any direct research evaluating the effectiveness of family involvement for the
development of school readiness.
It is believed that children in preschool institutions will be ready for primary school
if the parents participate more in school activities. For this reason, we felt the need to
apply a children’s program with enriched family involvement activities. This research is
likely important for children in terms of determining their school readiness level before
beginning first class and emphasizing the effectiveness of family involvement activities
for the development of school readiness. This research can be performed in school easily,
and it will guide teachers as to how they can develop family involvement activities.
A group of 5-6-year-old children who develop within a family and school are
in Bronfenbrenner’s Microsystem. Thus, a preschool program needs to work
intensely with the family. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of a
Preschool Education Program with an Enriched Family Involvement Dimension,
which was improved in accordance with the objectives of the 2006 Preschool
Education Program for children aged 5-6 years old.
Methods
In the research, an experimental design with a pre-test and posttest was used. The
pre-test was applied to both experimental and control groups. Intergroup equivalence was
provided according to the point averages that participants obtained from pre-test. The
research was performed in two different classes per experimental group, for a total of four
classes, and in this manner, it was possible to accommodate the loss of subjects. Groups
were determined randomly. In September, the “Evaluation Test of School Readiness” was
applied to 62 children who were 5-6 years old who were receiving preschool education,
and their levels of readiness for the school were determined. Our “Preschool Education
Program with an Enriched Family Involvement Dimension” was applied by researchers
with a group of parents of 31 children who were included in the experimental group and
who were receiving a pre-school education. No intervention was performed for the
control groups. However, the parents of 5 children in the experimental group were not
included in the program. Thus, these 5 children were removed from the group at the end
of the program. As such, there were 26 children and their parents included in the
experimental group. The total number of children who were included in the experimental
and control groups was 57. After the implementation of the program was completed, the
“Evaluation Test of School Readiness” was applied again to children in June, and the
levels of readiness of children for the school were evaluated.
Study Group
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Pınar Bahçeli Kahraman, Handan Asûde Başal
This study was performed during the 2011-2012 academic year. The study group
consisted of 57 children and their parents, 26 of whom formed the experimental group
and 31 of whom formed the control group. The children attended two different preschools
in the Bursa province. Of these, 29 of children were female and 28 were male. The
majority, 84.2 % of the participant parents, were mothers, and 71.9 % of the parents' ages
were between 31 and 36.
Data Tool Collection
Test of Evaluation of School Readiness
The Brainline Test of School Readiness, which was developed by the Distance
Education Center of Africa Brainline in 2003 to assist parents and teachers in determining
whether their children are ready for school, consists of 8 tests, 22 subtests and 281 items.
While some parts of the test are based upon observations of teachers/families, the other
parts are based upon individual applications. Some items are in the form of yes (1)/ no (0)
questions, and others are graded according to the number that is stated next to the said
articles and obtained points are tallied into ready very good, ready sufficient and not
ready categories according to a given point chart. Points that are obtained in total
determine whether the child is ready to go the primary school.
The Turkish adaptation study was carried out by Kahraman and Başal (2013) and
was applied to 30 children who completed preschool education, continuing into education
in the first-grade of the same primary school, who were 7 years old. Adaptation of the test
was completed in three phases. The first phase was language equivalence Turkish
translation. The second phase was the reliability study, and the third phase was the
validity study. The validity of the scale was analyzed with scale validity and reliability
was analyzed with the Kuder Richardson 20 coefficient and test-retest test correlation.
Scale-referenced validity was determined by considering the correlation between the total
number of general points that belonged to posttest items, determined as a result of item
analysis and a total score for developmental form. The reliability coefficient for the
Turkish Evaluation Test of School Readiness is .89. This value shows that the scale
chosen is very reliable. Reliability coefficients of subscales were determined as follows:
general development, 78; emotional development, .79; social development, .72; analysis,
.70; cooperation, .63; balance, .88; distinguishability, .68; shape-ground, .66; small
muscle development, .72; large muscle development, .78; short-term memory, .79;
laterality-directionality, .93; body image 1, .63; body image 2, .89; side-middle line, .93;
eye dominance, .95; position-in-space, .91; synthesis, .78; integration, .65; sequencing,
.75; shape constancy, .69; mathematical skill 1, .66; mathematical skill 2, .93; and
language development, .88. In its final shape, the scale consists of 201 items.
Process
In the beginning of the study, the importance of family involvement in preschool
education institutions was determined by evaluating family involvement applications in
the Preschool Education Program of 2006 and in previous preschool education programs
as well as family involvement applications prepared by preschool teachers.
Preschool Education Program with Enriched Family Involvement Dimension
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okulöncesi Eğitim Programının 5-6 Yaş
Çocukların İlkokula Hazırbulunuşluk Düzeylerine Etkisi
An Education Program with Enriched Family Involvement Dimension was
prepared based on the purpose and gains, concepts and specific days and weeks specified
in Preschool Education Program of Ministry of Education. First, an annual family
involvement plan was prepared within the process of program development. Afterwards,
a "Daily Plan” was developed within the scope of this “Annual Family Involvement
Plan”. Various preschool education books were utilized during the development of the
Annual and Daily Family Involvement Plans. Opinions of three different specialists were
taken into account during the preparation stage of plans.
The program was applied for an entire academic year. Families were informed
about the program in a meeting before it was applied.
The program was prepared based upon evaluations of parents' involvement in their
children’s education. For this purpose, families were given an activity booklet, which
explained daily activities to be performed, each week. Books were gathered the next week
to control the process, and they were then returned to families so that they could file
them. By doing so, family involvement in activities was determined. Families were given
a checklist for activities and asked to make evaluations.
During the entire process, families were contacted via telephone interviews. A
journal with pictures of in-class and outdoor activities was sent to parents every month to
inform them about school activities. Brochures, which included important days and weeks
of the month, were attached to journals. Families were also asked to take photos of
activities at home. These photos were collected, and a family involvement journal was
sent to families every month. Once a month, an education meeting was held with the
involvement of families, and booklets about meeting subjects were distributed to families.
Each month, a value was determined and families were notified to inform them
about children’s value acquisition and to offer activity models.
Families were asked to participate in in-class activities on specific days. Galleries
of the Things I Did with My Family were organized twice with the help of families, at the
end of Fall Semester and Spring Semester.
Analysis of Data
SPSS 20 package software was used in statistical analysis. Kolmogorov-
Smirnov test was applied to determine if acquired data showed normal distribution or not
(Karaaltı, 2006). Result of Kolmogorov- Smirnov test, which was applied to the data,
show normal distribution (p=.09; p>.05). Moreover, Levene's statistics test was used to
determine if data showed homogeneous distribution or not and it was determined that
variances were homogeneous (p=.074; p>.05). Pre-test scores from the Evaluation of
School Readiness were analyzed using Independent Samples t-test to define whether there
was a difference between the experimental and control groups in prestests. Analysis of
Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to define whethere there was a difference between the
average scores on the posttests which was corrected with the pre-test scores on the
Evaluation of School Readiness.
Covariance analysis is the most suitable statistical process in pretest - posttest
control group design where researchers focus on the effectiveness of experimental
process (Pallant, 2003; Büyüköztürk et al., 2012).
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Pınar Bahçeli Kahraman, Handan Asûde Başal
Findings
Table 1.Pre-Test Scores In The Experimental And Control Groups Obtained From
The Evaluation Of School Readiness And Subtests
Experimental Goup
Control Group
n
ss
n
ss
t
p
31
6.58
2.78
31
7.87
2.8
-
1.82
.07
31
1.13
1.18
31
1.26
1.23
-
0.42
.68
31
4.94
3.1
31
4.19
3.2
0.91
.37
31
5.13
2.63
31
6
2.16
-1.4
.16
31
4.52
2
31
4.29
1.66
0.48
.16
31
4.03
1.68
31
4.55
1.82
-
1.16
.25
31
5.32
3.05
31
5.13
2.14
0.29
.77
31
3.61
1.84
31
3.45
1.63
0.37
.72
31
2.48
2.11
31
1.77
2.71
1.12
.26
31
8.45
4.54
31
7.35
4.22
0.99
.33
31
0.29
0.46
31
0.32
0.48
-
0.27
.79
31
0.87
1.15
31
0.58
1.06
1.03
.3
31
3.35
3.96
31
2.96
2.96
0.44
.66
31
1.35
1.7
31
0.87
1.38
1.23
.22
31
3.16
1.44
31
3.41
1.39
-
0.72
.47
31
4.77
2.17
31
4.94
2.43
-
0.28
.78
31
7.1
2.28
31
7.97
2.89
-
1.32
.19
31
3.32
2.17
31
3.68
2.8
-
0.56
.58
31
3.65
1.02
31
3.29
1.54
1.07
.287
31
5.94
.85
31
5.39
1.36
1.9
.06
31
2.06
2.52
31
2.1
3.12
0.75
.85
31
31
5.58
1.31
31
5.81
1.19
-
0.71
.48
31
8.06
3.08
31
8.55
2.16
-
.48
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okulöncesi Eğitim Programının 5-6 Yaş
Çocukların İlkokula Hazırbulunuşluk Düzeylerine Etkisi
0.72
31
5.81
1.14
31
5.26
1.69
1.5
.14
31
102.5
19.34
31
101.71
23.25
0.15
.87
When examining pre-test scores in the experimental and control groups obtained
from the Evaluation of School Readiness; no significant differences were found (t=0.15;
p>.05); differences were not statistically significant on any subscale of said test.
Table 2. Post-Test Scores In The Experimental And Control Groups, Obtained
From The Evaluation Of School Readiness And Subtests
Tests
Groups
N
Pre-test
Posttest
Corrected
Test
SS
SS
SH
Small Muscle
Development
Experimental
26
4.03
1.68
8.73
0.53
8.73
0.13
Control
31
4.55
1.82
8.58
0.76
8.58
0.12
Laterality-
Directionality
Experimental
26
2.87
2.31
41.6
14.92
41.52
2.59
Control
31
2.06
3.28
29.81
11.27
29.88
2.37
Position-In-
Space
Experimental
26
1.35
1.7
4.54
2.56
4.52
0.53
Control
31
0.87
1.38
2.39
2.75
2.41
0.48
Language
Development
Experimental
26
1.35
1.7
4.54
2.56
4.52
0.53
Control
31
0.87
1.38
2.39
2.75
2.41
0.48
General
Development
Experimental
26
5.58
1.31
7.77
0.82
7.77
0.16
Control
31
5.81
1.19
7.06
0.81
7.06
0.15
Total
Experimental
26
102.31
20.23
224.12
23.58
224
4.73
Control
31
101.71
23.26
196.06
26.28
196.16
4.33
Both groups increased their average scores on the Evaluation of School Readiness
after participating in preschool. The mean scores in the experimental group increased
from 102.31 to 224.12 at post-test. The mean scores in the control group increased from
101.71 to 196.06. When the pre-test scores were controlled, a corrected post-test mean
score of 224 in the experimental group and 196.16 in the control group was used. This
result indicated that children in the experimental group were more ready than those in the
control group for primary school.
Table 3. Results of Analysis of Covariance of The Evaluation of School Readiness
Source of
Variance
s
Sum
of
Squa
re
d
f
Mean
Squa
re
F
p
Small
muscle
developm
Pretest
15.69
1
15.69
4.0
1
0.0
5
Experime
31.89
1
31.89
8.1
0.0
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
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Pınar Bahçeli Kahraman, Handan Asûde Başal
ent
ntal
Group
6
1*
Error
211.1
7
5
4
Total
259.4
7
5
6
Laterality
-
Direction
ality
Pretest
37.7
1
37.7
0.2
2
0.6
4
Experime
ntal
Group
1894.
41
1
1894.
41
10.
95
0*
Error
9343.
29
5
4
Total
11352
.88
5
6
Total
150.6
7
5
6
Position-
In-Space
Pretest
2.1
1
2.1
0.2
9
0.5
9
Experime
ntal
Group
62.49
1
62.49
8.6
6
0.0
1*
Error
389.7
2
5
4
Total
457.2
6
5
6
Error
54.05
5
4
Total
60.84
5
6
Language
Developm
ent
Pretest
170.9
3
1
170.9
3
6.8
1
0.1
2
Experime
ntal
Group
470.3
5
1
470.3
5
1.3
5
0.0
1*
Error
3615
5
4
66.94
Total
4229.
1
5
6
General
Developm
ent
Pretest
0
1
0
0
0.9
8
Experime
ntal
Group
6.9
1
6.9
10.
22
0*
Error
36.49
5
4
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
11
Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okulöncesi Eğitim Programının 5-6 Yaş
Çocukların İlkokula Hazırbulunuşluk Düzeylerine Etkisi
Total
43.51
5
6
Total
Pretest
3223,
68
1
3223,
68
5,5
4
.02
2
Experime
ntal
Group
10959
,27
1
10959
,27
18,
85
.00
0*
Error
31398
,85
5
4
Total
45748
,88
5
6
* p<.05
The difference between the post-test score averages, corrected according to pre-test
score averages, was statistically significant [F(1.54)=18.85, p<.05]. Moreover, the
differences between the sub-tests for Small Muscle Development [F(1.54)=8.16, p<.05],
Laterality-Directionality [F(1.54)=10.95, p<.05], Position-in-Space [F(1.54)=8.66,
p<.05], Language Development [F(1.54)=6.81, p<.05] and General Development
[F(1.54)=10.22, p<.05] were statistically significant. However, no significant differences
were found in the analysis for [F(1.54)=3.17, p>.05], Balance [F(1.54)=3.39, p>.05],
Cooperation [F(1.54)=3.69, p>.05], Distinguishability [F(1.54)=1.96, p>.05], Shape-
Ground [F(1.54)=8.16, p<.05], Big Muscle Development [F(1.54)=.99, p>.05], Short-
Term Memory [F(1.54)=.07, p>.05], Body Image 1 [F(1.54)=.96, p>.05], Body Image 2
[F(1.54)=.088, p>.05], Side Middle Line [F(1.54)=3.9, p>.05], Eye Dominance
[F(1.54)=.34, p>.05], Position-In-Space [F(1.54)=8.66, p<.05], Synthesis[F(1.54)=.07,
p>.05], Integration [F(1.54)=3.69, p>.05], Sequencing [F(1,54)=1.04, p>.05], Shape
Constancy [F(1.54)=2.52, p>.05], Mathematical Skill 1 [F(1.54)=1.28, p>.05],
Mathematical Skill 2 [F(1.54)=1.55, p>.05]. Emotional Development [F (1.54) =.13,
p>.05] or Social Development [F(1.54)=.62, p>.05] between children in the experimental
and control groups, after correcting for differences in pre-test score averages. As a result,
children involved in the Preschool Education Program with Enriched Family Involvement
Dimension were thought to be more ready for primary school than those whose parents
were not involve in the parent program.
Discussion and Conclusion
In parallel with the general purpose of the research, considering that readiness for
primary school is an integral skill set composed of multiple sub-skills, study results
showed that children whose parents participated in the Preschool Education Program with
an Enriched Family Involvement Dimension were more ready for primary school than
those whose parents did not participate. In brief, although both groups received a
preschool education, the children of parents in the Preschool Education Program with an
Enriched Family Involvement Dimension showed greater gains on their Evaluation of
School Readiness.
Various researchers have shown that preschool increases the readiness of children
for primary school (Esaspehlivan, 2006; Kırca, 2007; Kılıç, 2008; Cinkılıç, 2009; Jeon et
al., 2010;Teke, 2010; Erkan, 2011; Tozar, 2011). However, the purpose of this study was
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
12
Pınar Bahçeli Kahraman, Handan Asûde Başal
to determine specifically whether enriched family involvement has an additional
readiness effect for the preschool child for primary school. This study suggests that
family involvement has a noticeable effect on the readiness of the child for primary
school. In parallel with results of this research, other researchers have also found that
family involvement has more effect on readiness for primary school (McCarrik et al.,
2007; Sheridan et al., 2010; Baker, et al., 2012; Bulotsky-Shearera, et al., 2012; Lau,
2013;). McWayne et al. (2004) also determined that there is a relationship between the
academic and learning skills of children and their family involvement levels. In addition
to this, Kephart (2007) determined that there is a significant relationship between family
involvement and the development and behaviors of the child. Moreover, Fan and Chen
(2001) examined the relationship between family involvement and academic success in
the literature. They found a significant relationship between family involvement and the
academic success of child. The children of parents who participated at a high level show
higher academic success (Taylor-Allen; 2004). Pelletier and Brent (2002) state that
parents are an important part of the educational process and that family involvement is a
great chance for children to gain skills and academic readiness.
A significant difference in favor of children whose parents were involved in the
Preschool Education Program with an Enriched Family Involvement Dimension was for
the sub-tests of Shape Ground, Position-in-Space, Language Development and General
Development on the Evaluation of School Readiness. However, when considering
subtests in terms of means for Balance, Relationships, Small Muscle Development, Short-
Term Memory, Demonstrative Body Image, Side-Middle Line, Eye Movements,
Synthesis, Consecutiveness, Shape Constancy, Mathematical skills according to Teacher,
Mathematical skills according to Student, Emotional Development and Social
Development, these differences did not reach significance. We consider the “Hawthorne
effect” as a possible cause for these results. Because of artificial physical and
psychological effects created by the test environment, some subjects reacts to effects to
which subjects do not react under normal circumstances. There should not be any
relationships between these spontaneous test reactions and reactions shown to the
independent variable. Because those who participated in the research knew that they were
part of an experimental process, the Hawthorne effect is important to mention (Işık et al.,
2007; Karasar, 2005). The Hawthorne effect can be reduced by conducting studies in
which a new method is for a longer time and by creating different control groups. In this
study, we evaluated the efficiency of a Preschool Education Program with an Enriched
Family Involvement Dimension. However, the children may also have gained in their
studies because their teachers were involved in a research group, and they informed their
parents of the relevant material. It was found that some parents who were involved in
experimental group had friends in the control group who were performing the activities
that were distributed to the experimental group. It is thought that parents who were
involved in control group may have also supported their child in their own homes.
This program is compatible for use with children and parents from different socio-
economic and cultural environments. Children show more readiness for primary school
after parent participation in this program, especially when they were from a lower socio-
economic background or more rural background. Hence, inequalities of opportunity that
The Journal of Academic Social Science, Yıl: 3, Sayı: 13, Haziran 2015, s. 1-10
13
Aile Katılımı Boyutu Zenginleştirilmiş Okulöncesi Eğitim Programının 5-6 Yaş
Çocukların İlkokula Hazırbulunuşluk Düzeylerine Etkisi
may occur among children in the first-grade can be minimized through use of this
program.
Education seminars can be organized so that families raise their awareness
concerning preparatory studies for primary school. These seminars, which will provide
idea for how to help children become more ready for primary school, can be provided by
booklets and brochures.
The Preschool Educational Program, which was applied in 2006 and was updated
in 2013, was again updated. Although some application samples for family involvement
are available, there is no detailed information in updated program. Thus, the Preschool
Educational Program can be re-organized as a Preschool Educational Program with an
Enriched Family Involvement Dimension. It can be sent to relevant institutions, and the
program can be expanded into a more enriched state through the contributions of these
institutions.
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... Such studies mostly deal with the effects of the EEPs in terms of students' achievement, their attitudes towards the course content, and their motivation and conclude that in-depth knowledge and skills are extremely significant to improve their higher-level of cognitive processes and creativity (Lee, Olszewski-Kubilius and Peternel, 2010;Markowitz, 2004;Reis and Boeve, 2009;Stake and Mares 2001;Walsh, Kemp, Hodge & Bowes, 2012). Studies carried out in Turkey (Çoruhlu, 2013;Durukan, 2018;İdin and Aydoğdu, 2016;İkikat, 2019;Kahraman, 2012;Koyuncu, 2009;Marangoz, 2018;Özdemir, 2017;Özmen, 2017;Şahin, 2016;Tekfidan, 2018;Uluç, 2019) mostly deal with the enrichment of the existing educational program through various activities and educational practices. Uluç (2019) analysed the effects of the EEPs on fourth grade primary school students' achievement in geometry course, their visual perceptions and on their attitudes towards the mathematics course. ...
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The enrichment model is a model that aims to be used in the education of gifted children and is based on the development of some additional programs for children. Enrichment educational programs (EEP) consist of high-level content products and processes which are designed to develop problem-solving skills, to support creativity and independent learning, and which are based on individualized programs and teaching. The aim of this study is to determine the views of the classroom teachers about the EEPs designed for gifted students who continue their education through inclusion in primary schools. Therefore, the case study model, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the research. The participants of the study are ten primary school teachers who taught gifted students. The data were collected using the "Semi-structured interview form" which was developed by the authors. The findings of the research show that the teachers do not have knowledge about EEP practices in general. Therefore, there is a need for the support of the field experts in the planning and implementation of the EEPs.
... Nitekim Ersoy (2012) velilerin çocuk haklarını yeterince bilmediklerini ve çocukların da haklarını yeterince öğrenemediklerini belirtmektedir. Literatürde yer alan çalışmalarla, aile eğitimi ve katılımının çocukların gelişimlerine ve eğitimlerine katkı sağladığını göstermektedir (Bağçeli-Kahraman & Başal, 2015;Benner, Boyle & Sadler, 2016;Bruïnea, Willemse, D'Haem, Griswold, Vloeberghs & Eynde, 2014;Sheridan, Knoche, Kupzyk, Edwards & Marvin, 2011). Seyhan ve Cansever (2017) de öğretmenlerin aileler ve çocuklar için çeşitli eğitim materyalleri hazırlayarak çocuk haklarını öğretmesi gerektiğini ifade etmektedir. ...
... Nitekim Ersoy (2012) velilerin çocuk haklarını yeterince bilmediklerini ve çocukların da haklarını yeterince öğrenemediklerini belirtmektedir. Literatürde yer alan çalışmalarla, aile eğitimi ve katılımının çocukların gelişimlerine ve eğitimlerine katkı sağladığını göstermektedir (Bağçeli-Kahraman & Başal, 2015;Benner, Boyle & Sadler, 2016;Bruïnea, Willemse, D'Haem, Griswold, Vloeberghs & Eynde, 2014;Sheridan, Knoche, Kupzyk, Edwards & Marvin, 2011). Seyhan ve Cansever (2017) de öğretmenlerin aileler ve çocuklar için çeşitli eğitim materyalleri hazırlayarak çocuk haklarını öğretmesi gerektiğini ifade etmektedir. ...
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Parental involvement is a key factor in the success of students, but research shows differing perceptions on the definition of parent involvement. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional survey study was to compare and contrast the perceptions of parents and teachers about the parent involvement strategies they find most effective. This study also sought to find differences within each population based on demographic factors. Using a researcher generated survey based on Dr. Joyce Epstein's Six Types of Parental Involvement (2002), elementary school parents and teachers of a rural Georgia school district were asked to use a rating scale to indicate the level of effectiveness of 28 parent involvement activities. Field testing was conducted to enhance face validity, and content validity was strengthened through the use of a wide variety of parent involvement strategies. The responses of parents (N=478) and teachers (N=104) were compared using an independent samples t-test, and statistically significant differences were found in six of the seven parent involvement dimensions studied. Within the parent population, ANOVA and post-hoc analyses were used and found statistically significant differences within the parent population in three of the five demographic areas studied. Within the teacher population, two demographic areas were studied, and only one statistically significant difference was found. This study suggested that parents and teachers have significant differences in their views of what defines effective parental involvement, and differences were apparent when some demographic factors were taken into consideration.
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Parents' perceptions and practices of parental involvement during the transition from kindergarten to primary school were captured through individual interviews with 18 Chinese parents after their children had entered primary school. The responses revealed that in order to facilitate children's adjustment during school transition, parents tended to become more academic-focused in their involvement at home. Parents also reported their dissatisfaction with the infrequent home–school communication as well as the lack of opportunities for active involvement in school (e.g. volunteering and decision-making). The implications of this research for promoting a smooth school transition for children are discussed, together with directions for future research.