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Diet of Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti in Xishuangbanna

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Abstract

Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti are two species of abundant and widely distributed pteropodid bats in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Both are frugivorous and frequently found coexisting in the same areas. Diet of C. sphinx and R. leschenaulti were studied from the beginning of June, 2004 to the end of December, 2004 in Xishuangbanna using field survey, gleaning, feces analysing and seed germination. We also used mist net to catch bats around their feeding roosts in order to identify species of bats and obtain fecal samples to identify food item they fed on. We found fruits of 18 plant species of 11 families and leaves of 2 plant species of 2 families were used by C. sphinx and fruits of 12 plant species of 9 families and leaf of 1 plant species of 1 families were used by R. leschenaulti. They mainly fed on fruits and only leaves of 2 plant species were found. These two species were sympatric and dietary overlap between them was relatively high in rain season (June - October), and 65% of the plant species recorded were used by these two species of bats in this season. In dry season (November - December), R. leschenaulti exploited food resources in other areas to avoid to compete with C. sphinx as quantity and species of food decreased.
西双版纳地区犬蝠和棕果蝠食性的初步研究
唐占辉
1 , 2 , 3
 盛连喜
3
 曹  
23
 梁  
1
 张树义
1 ,4 3
(1中国科学院动物研究所 ,北京 , 100080) (2中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园 ,云南勐腊 , 666303)
(3东北师范大学环境科学与工程系 ,长春 , 130024) (4中国科学院广州生物医药与健康研究院 ,广州 , 510663)
摘要:犬蝠和棕果蝠是西双版纳地区较为常见的两个果蝠物种 ,大多数时间内它们同域分布 ,共同利用当地许
多野生果实2004 6月至 12 ,我们采用拾遗法粪便分析法以及种子萌发鉴定法并结合雾网采样对西双
版纳地区这两种果蝠的食性进行了初步研究结果发现犬蝠利11 18 种植物的果实 , 2 2种植物的叶片;
而棕果蝠利用 912 种植物的果实 , 1 1种植物的叶片研究发现雨季 (610 )两种果蝠食物类型在本地
区重叠程度较高 ,它们共同利用的植物类型占记录植物类型总数的 65 %在干旱季节 (1112 ),棕果蝠避开
与犬蝠在食物方面的竞争而去别的地方开拓食物资源
关键词:犬蝠;棕果蝠;食性 ;西双版纳
中图分类号: Q95811    文献标识码: A     文章编号: 1000 - 1050 (2005)04 - 0367 - 06
Diet of Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti in Xishuangbanna
TANG Zhanhui1 ,2 ,3  SHENG Lianxi3 CAO Min23 LIANGBing1 ZHANG Shuyi1 ,4 3
(1Institute of Zoology , t he Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing , 100080 , China)
(2Xishuangbanna Tropical B ot anical Garden , the Chinese Academy of Sciences , Mengla , 666303 , China)
(3Department of Environmental Science and Engineering , Northeast Normal University , Changchun , 130024 , China)
(4Guangzhou Institute of B iomedicine and Health , the Chinese Academy of Sciences , 510663 , China)
Abstract : Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti are two species of abundant and widely distributed pteropodid bats in
Xishuangbanna , Southwest China1Both are frugivorous and frequently found coexisting in the same areas1Diet of C1sphinx and
R1leschenaulti were studied from the beginning of June , 2004 to the end of December , 2004 in Xishuangbanna using field survey ,
gleaning , feces analysing and seed germination1We also used mist net to catch bats around their feeding roosts in order to identify
species of bats and obtain fecal samples to identifyfood item theyfed on1We foundfruits of 18plant speciesof 11families and leaves
of 2 plant species of 2 families were used by C1sphinx andfruitsof 12plant speciesof 9families and leaf of 1plant speciesof 1fami2
lies were used by R1leschenaulti . They mainlyfed on fruits and only leaves of 2 plant species were found1These two species were
sympatric and dietary overlap between them was relatively high in rain season (June - October), and 65 % of the plant species
recorded were used by these two species of bats in this season1In dry season (November - December),R1leschenaulti exploitedfood
resources in other areas to avoid to compete with C1sphinx as quantity and species of food decreased1
Key words : Cynopterus sphinx ; diet ; Rousettus leschenaulti ; Xishuangbanna
  果蝠主要分布在热带和亚热带 ,包括新大陆的
叶口 (Phyllostomidae)和旧大陆的狐蝠科
(Pteropodidae) (Marshall , 1985)它们中的许多物种
几乎专一地以果实为食物 ,也有一些物种取食花蜜
和花粉 (Fleming , 1993 ; Richards , 1995 ; Tan et al1,
1998)由于果主要以野生果实为食物,所以它
们生存的地方一般具有稳定的食物资源在自然状
态下 ,果蝠的取食范围和食物组成在很大程度上被
物季节性的开花和结果所影响 (Lim , 1966)
Marshall (1983)认为果蝠既不是真正的泛食性
(generalists),也不是真正的专食性动物 (special2
ists),而是时间序列上的专食性动物 (sequential
specialists),也就是在某个季节提的潜的食
资源中喜欢一种或几种植物资源
我国自然分布的果蝠均属于狐蝠科 ,共有 6
11 (王应祥 , 2003),主要分布在我国华南地区 ,
基金项目:中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带雨林生态系统研究与管理开放实验室和国家自然科学基金委重点项目 (30430120)资助
作者简介:唐占辉 (1980 - ),,博士研究生 ,从事动物生态学研究. E - mail : tangzh789 @nenu1edu1cn1
收稿日期: 2005 - 01 - 07 ;  修回日期 :2005 - 06 - 27
3通讯作者 , correspondence author , E - mail : zhangsy @ioz1ac1cn ; caom @public1km1yn1cn
兽类学报 , 2005 , 25 (4): 367 - 372
Acta Theriologica Sinica         
© 1995-2005 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
包括海、福建广、广西、西藏
(Cox et al1, 1991 ; 徐龙辉等 , 1983 ; 张荣祖 , 1997 ;
汪松 , 1998 ; 王应祥, 2003 ; 吴毅等 , 2003)我国
有关哺乳动物食方面研究要集啮齿
(rodent) (王桂明等 , 1992 ; 王权业等 , 2002)、鹿
(deer) (郑生, 1989 ; 陈化鹏和萧前柱 , 1989 ;
宋延龄和李善元 , 1992)黄羊 (Procapra gutturosa)
(高中信等, 1995)、紫貂 (Martes zibellina) (
, 1996)和大熊猫 (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (周材
权等 , 1999)动物。西双版纳是我国果蝠分布较
集中的地区 ,而犬蝠 (Cynopterus sphinx)和棕果蝠
(Rousettus leschenaulti)是这个地区最常见的两个物
,但目前仅见 1篇文献报道犬蝠对小果野芭蕉的
取食 (唐占辉, 2005)关于果蝠食性的报道非
常缺乏 ,本研究通过选取常见的两个物种做研究 ,
填补这个空白由于果蝠在取食果实时可能传播大
量的种子 ,在森林生态系统中它们可能作为重要的
种子传播者我们在 2004 6月至 12 ,通过收
集两种果蝠食物残渣粪便和种子萌发实验研究了
这两种果蝠的食性以及它们食物资源的时间镶嵌格
;这对于保护果蝠的栖息环境有重要意义
1 研究地点与方法
111 研究地点
究地点选在西双版纳勐仑自然保护区内
(21°5321°58N , 101°12101°16E),海拔 550
600 m , 气候为干湿季明显的季风气候 ,年降雨量
1 560 mm , 相对湿度 84 % , 年均温 2114。研究
地点为热带季节性雨林植被 ,乔木树种主要有番龙
(Pometia tomentosa )红 光 树 (Knema fur2
furacea)狭叶(Knema cinerea)阔叶蒲桃
(Syzygium latilimbum);灌木以茜草科植物粗叶木
(Lasianthus spp1)等为常见;草本有冬叶 (Phryni2
um capitatum )、山 (Alpinia spp1)、长
(Bolbites heteroclita)等。研究地点的详细状况见
Cao Zhang (1997)的研究我们选取了 6个果蝠
栖息地作为取样点 ,它们的大致概况见表 1
1 各取样点概况
Table 1  Characteristics of 6 sampling sites
样点 Site 地理坐标 Location 概况 Characteristics
1 21°531948(N), 101°161578(E)植被覆盖 60 % , 靠近罗梭江边
Near LuoSuo River , vegetation coverage 60 %
2 21°551539(N), 101°161729(E)接近石灰岩山 ,植被保存较好 ,覆盖度75 %
Near limestone mountain , little disturbed landscape , vegetation coverage 75 %
3 21°551200(N), 101°161060(E)植被覆盖度50 %
Vegetation coverage 50 %
4 21°551182(N), 101°161551(E)位于沟谷雨林里 ,基本无人为干
Within valley rainforest , little disturbed
5 21°581021(N), 101°121645(E)勐仑镇西 2 km , 路边 ,农林交错带
2 km west of Menglun town , roadside , agriculture - forest joint zone
6 21°571366(N), 101°131099(E)勐仑镇西 3 km , 森林边缘地带
3 km west of Menglun town , margin of forest
112 食性组成取样方法
11211 果蝠栖息地食物残渣及粪便的取样
首先利用雾网在果蝠的 6个栖息地捕获果蝠个
体并鉴定种类 ,而后在其栖息地 (即取样点)下面
(有郁闭树冠的乔木下面)均匀放置 31 m ×1 m
的遮荫网收集果蝠吃剩及吐出的残渣和粪便样品
每晚 19 : 00 ,第二天 06 : 00 检查对各个栖
息地每月分别调查 10 (每个星期调查 23)
将收集到的果实残渣叶子粪便种子等带回实
验室并分析果蝠食物成分果实残渣叶子和种子
直接从形态颜色味道等特征来鉴别;带有种子
的粪便先将其用水冲洗 ,冲洗后对干净的种子结合
粪便的颜色判定其种类分析之前做出一份当地植
物果实种子叶片等形态列表以便比较对于果
蝠粪便样品里和食物残渣中无法识别的种子 ,用镊
子小心地挑出 ,放在具有浸湿滤纸且经过灭菌的培
养皿中 ,人工气候箱 (12 h: 12 h 28
)
发成幼苗鉴别其种类
11212 雾网捕获的果蝠个体粪便的取样
放遮荫网收集样品的同时 ,在取样点周围利用
网捕获果蝠 (雾网布设原则:将雾网 (12 m ×
215 m ,网孔为 34 mm)用竹竿撑开 ,使网的松紧程
863                    兽  类  学  报                     25  
© 1995-2005 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
度适中 ,距离地面215 m19 : 00 放网 , 24 : 00
收网将捕获的蝠放干净布口1 h ,
并详细记录果蝠种类捕获时间等数据 ,待其排出
粪便后释放通过粪便分析食物组成 ,从粪便中辨
认所取食的植物类型;辨认不出的种子经过萌发成
幼苗后鉴别研究期间共捕获犬蝠 56 ,棕果蝠
36
2 结果
211 犬蝠和棕果蝠的食物组成
研究期间 ,共记录到 12 20 种植物其中犬
蝠利用 11 18 种植物的果实 , 2 2种植物的叶
;棕果蝠利用912 种植物的果实 , 1 1种植
物的叶片它们主要取食野生植物的果实 ,其中桑
(Moraceae)和无患子科 (Sapindaceae)被犬蝠利
用的物种数分别为 6种和 4,占其食物种类的
30 %20 %; 被棕果蝠利用的物种数均为3,
食物种类的 23 %。随着
,两种自调整着自己的取食范围 (
2)
2 西双版纳犬蝠和棕果蝠所利用的植(3表示取食)
Table 2  The plant exploited by Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti in Xishuangbanna (3indicating that on whichfruit bats fed)
Family Species 取食部位 Plant part 犬蝠 Cynopterus sphinx 棕果蝠 Rousettus leschenaulti
漆树科Anacardiaceae 芒果 Mangifera indica 果实 Fruit 3 3
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 浆果乌桕 Sapium baccatum 果实 Fruit 3
桑科Moraceae 叶榕 Ficus hispida 果实 Fruit 3 3
聚果榕 Ficus racemosa 果实 Fruit 3 3
厚皮榕 Ficus callosa 果实 Fruit 3
斜叶榕 Ficus tinctoria 果实 Fruit 3 3
水同木 Ficus fistulosa 果实 Fruit 3
环纹榕 Ficus annulata 果实 Fruit 3
桃金娘科Myrtaceae 番石榴 Psidium guajava 果实 Fruit 3 3
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 大果臀果木 Pygeum latifolium 果实 Fruit 3
无患子科 Sapindaceae 红毛丹 Nephelium lappaceum 果实 Fruit 3 3
荔枝 Litchi chinensis 果实 Fruit 3 3
龙眼 Dimocarpus longan 果实 Fruit 3 3
毛瓣无患子 Sapindus rarak 叶片Leave 3
山榄科 Sapotaceae 人心果 Manilkara zapota 果实 Fruit 3 3
芭蕉科Musaceae 小果野芭Musa acuminata 果实 Fruit 3 3
茜草科 Rubiaceae 团花树 Anthocephalus chinensis 果实 Fruit 3 3
红树科 Rhizophoraceae 山红树 Pellacalyx yunnanensis 果实 Fruit 3
柿树科 Ebenaceae 黑皮柿 Diospyros nigrocart 果实 Fruit 3 3
樟科Lauraceae 紫叶琼楠 Beilschmiedia purpurascens 叶片Leave 3 3
总计 Total 12 20 12 families 20 species
212 两种果蝠食物资源的季节性
我们所收集的果蝠粪便和残渣中出现频率最高
的是聚果榕 (Ficus racemosa)这个物种一年结果 5
6,每次间隔 89个星期 ,果期至少持续 2
3个星期 ,而且这个物种与其他野生果实的果期相
互连接重叠在一起对叶榕 (Ficus hispida)也是
这两种果蝠的重要食物来源 ,它与聚果榕的果期重
叠较大 (3)但两种果蝠在不同季节食物类
有较大的差异:
在雨季 (610 ),两种果蝠主要取食野生果
,还取食一些经济水果如荔枝 (Litchi chinensis)
龙眼 (Dimocarpus longan)红毛(Nephelium lap2
paceum)芒果 (Mangifera indica),但与野生果实
相比 ,其数量很少这个季节里 ,两种果蝠共同利
用的食物资源达到 13 (3)
在旱季 (1112 ),物种类和资源量有所
下降 ,研究期间仅11 月初捕获到 1只棕果蝠 ,
但捕获了 21 只犬蝠们除了取食全年果的
生果实 ,如聚果榕对叶榕等外 ,也取食大果臀果
(Pygeum latifolium )、黑 (Diospyros nigro2
cart)小果野芭蕉 (Musa acuminata)和团花树
(Anthocephalus chinensis)这些植物的果期延续时间
较长 ,果实产量也较高。浆果乌桕 (Sapium bacca2
tum)人心果 (Manilkara zapota)、山红(Pella2
calyx yunnanensis)果期较短 ,但果实成熟时犬蝠也
大量取食
963
4期            唐占辉等 :西双版纳地区犬蝠和棕果蝠食性的初步研究              
© 1995-2005 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
3 不同月份西双版纳犬蝠和棕果蝠食用植物的种类+表示观察到取食 ,-表示没有观察到 ,月份后面的括号中为捕获果蝠的样本数
Table 3  Feeding seasonality of Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti on different species of plants1+indicating that plant was used ;
-indicating that plant was not used1Parentheses enclose sample sizes1                   
物种
Species
部位
Parts
eaten
犬蝠 Cynopterus sphinx 棕果蝠 Rousettus leschenaulti
6(7)
Jun.
7(8)
Jul.
8(6)
Aug.
9(9)
Sep.
10(5)
Oct.
11(12)
Nov.
12(9)
Dec.
6(12)
Jun.
7(8)
Jul.
8(5)
Aug.
9(3)
Sep.
10(7)
Oct.
11(1)
Nov.
12(0)
Dec.
芒果
Mangifera indica 果实
Fruit - + + - - - - - + - - - - -
浆果乌桕
Sapium baccatum 果实
Fruit - - + - - - - - - - - - - -
对叶榕
Ficus hispida 果实
Fruit + + + + + + - - + + + + - -
聚果榕
Ficus racemosa 果实
Fruit + + + + + + + + + + + + + -
厚皮榕
Ficus callosa 果实
Fruit - - - - + + - - - - - - - -
斜叶榕
Ficus tinctoria 果实
Fruit - + + + + - - - - + + + - -
水同木
Ficus fistulosa 果实
Fruit - + - - - - - - - - - - - -
环纹榕
Ficus annulata 果实
Fruit - + - - - - - - - - - - - -
番石榴
Psidium guajava 果实
Fruit - - + + + - - - - + + - - -
大果臀果木
Pygeum latifolium 果实
Fruit - - - - - + + - - - - - - -
红毛丹
Nephelium
lappaceum
果实
Fruit - - + + - - - - + + - - - -
荔枝
Litchi chinensis 果实
Fruit + - - - - - - + - - - - - -
龙眼
Dimocarpus
longan
果实
Fruit - + + - - - - - + + - - - -
毛瓣无患子
Sapindus rarak 叶片
Leave - - - - + + + - - - - - - -
人心果
Manilkara zapota 果实
Fruit - - + - - - - - - + - - - -
小果野芭蕉
Musa acuminata 果实
Fruit + + + + + + + + + + + + - -
团花树
Anthocephalus
chinensis
果实
Fruit - - + + + + - - - + + + - -
山红树
Pellacalyx
yunnanensis
果实
Fruit - - - - - + - - - - - - - -
黑皮柿
Diospyros nigrocart 果实
Fruit - + + + - - - - - + + - - -
紫叶琼楠
Beilschmiedia
purpurascens
叶片
Leave - - + + + + + - - - - + - -
3 讨论
本研究发现犬蝠利用 20 种植物 ,棕果蝠利用
13 种植物 ,些植物包括野生的,也有栽培的经
济植物 (如荔枝 ,龙眼等)犬蝠更偏爱榕属 (Fi2
cus spp . )物的果实 ,特别对于全年结实的聚果
073                    兽  类  学  报                     25  
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桑科榕属的植物果期长 ,果期在一年中有好几
,并且各个物种的果期彼此衔接和镶嵌 ,成为两
果蝠稳定的食物来源 (2)其它科的植物果
期也是彼此衔接和镶嵌 ,为两种果蝠食物选择提供
了一个广阔的空间野生果实是两种果蝠利用的主
要食物类型 ,一般来说 ,它们含有较为丰富的糖份
(Mattson , 1980 ; Herrera , 1987 ; Martinez and Restrepo ,
1993 ; Corlett , 1996 ; Ruby et al1, 2000),为果蝠提
供了大量的能量 ,特别是在每晚开始取食的时候
由于果蝠活动需要相当的能量维持 ,而且经过了白
天在栖息地一整天的消耗 ,因此它们十分偏爱糖份
量高的果实 (Elangovan et al1, 2001)亚洲
非洲和澳大利亚的热带和亚热带地区 ,30 多个
属物种的果实被狐蝠科的不同果蝠物种取食
(Wickler and Seibt , 1976 ; Bradbury , 1977 ; Marshall
and McWilliam , 1982 ; Thomas , 1984 ; Fujita , 1991)
同样 ,新大陆热带地区的叶口蝠科的果蝠也大量取
食榕属物种的(Morrison , 1978)大量研究已
经证实 ,榕属物种的果实是果蝠食物的主要组成部
(Bhat , 1994),我们的研究结果与这个结论一
另外 ,犬蝠还以毛瓣无患子 (Sapindus rarak)
紫叶琼楠 (Beilschmiedia purpurascens)的叶片为
食物 ,棕果蝠也以紫叶琼楠的叶片为食物在这些
植物生长的地方 ,经常有大量经过咀嚼的叶片 ,
状椭圆或近似圆形Bhat (1994)Balasubramani2
an (1988)发现腊肠树 (Cassia fistula)
(Moringa oleifera)也被犬蝠取食虽然这两个物种
在本地区也存在 ,但我们没有发现犬蝠取食这两种
植物的叶子 ,这可能是由于毛瓣无患子紫叶琼楠
较这两种植物在研究地点较为常见的缘故果蝠取
食植物叶片可能是弥补能量与营养的特殊策略
植物的叶片蛋白含量较高 (Ruby et al1, 2000),
两种果蝠通过咀嚼把叶片中蛋白丰富可溶的液体
部分吞下 ,其余含大量纤维成分的部分被吐出
个特殊的取食策略被认为是一种更有效的获取氮元
素的方式 (Thomas , 1984 ; Kunz and Ingalls , 1994)
两种果蝠对果实和叶片的取食在时间上存在明显的
差异 ,前半夜主要是取食果实 ,后半夜才摄取植物
叶片这个结果符合如下假说:由于果实相对于叶
片在时空分配上是属于有限的资源 ,果蝠在开始取
食的时候首先去取食这些食物资源 ,然后再转向丰
的叶子资源 (Fleming , 1979 ; Elangovan et al1,
1999)这个取食策略很好地满足了它们对能量和
白的需求,特别是在哺乳期(Ruby et al1,
2000)在西双版纳热森林,不同树种果期在
时空上合理的镶嵌为果蝠提供了相对稳定和丰富的
食物资源有些树种是全年不断地结果 ,如桑科榕
的许多物种;而其它一些则是具有一定的果
这样 ,对于果蝠来说 ,既有选择的余地 ,又有
常年稳定的食物资源
在雨季 (610 ),可以同时捕获到两种果
它们所利用的食物有 13 种相同 ,占总记录食
物类型65 %。雨野生,
为两种果蝠提供了充足而丰富的食物资源 ,它们共
利用所记录的大多数植物类型然而 ,在旱季
(1112 ),仅在 11 月份偶然发现棕果蝠利用聚
果榕作为食物 , 12 月份没有发现棕果蝠在本地区
活动;而犬蝠在旱季仍然在本研究地区常见 ,说明
犬蝠较棕果蝠来说是一种领域行为较强的果蝠
旱季 ,食物资源种类有所下降 ,但可供犬蝠取食的
资源量仍然很高 ,例如 ,小果野芭蕉聚果榕
果臀果木等果实 ,犬蝠会大量地取食这些资源
果蝠在这个季节开和蝠在物资面的
,而去其他地方开辟新的资源 ,可能是它们避免
种间竞争的有效策略
有学者发现,犬蝠取食某些植物的花蜜
(Marshall , 1985),但本研究还没有发现它们取食花
蜜的证据 ,同样也没有发现棕果蝠取食花蜜
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