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STATES OF MATTER defined from The Speed of Light

Authors:
STATES OF MATTER
defined from
The Speed of Light
Jouni Jokela
jouni@jokela-turbine.ch
ABSTRACT
In this Paper, I develop the idea of massless physics further. I continue showing how the
Speed of light defines also the various States of Matter; the Phase transition points of
Condenses-Gas and Gas-Plasma. In this paper the concept of how the Planck constant can
be calculated from the Speed of light, will thus become clearer, as the already developed
idea that molecules have a universal diameter; is more clearly presented.
This concept is broadened with a universal time; As these ideas are
supported by the observations in Atmosphere’s, also the fundamental physical reason for
the Existence of the various boundaries in Atmosphere is explained; Tropopause,
Mesopause and Stratopause. Amazingly a new kind of matter is found, it’s named “Electric
Matter”, and it’s transition point is also defined to be . Based on this
three new atmospheric concepts are laid; Groundsphere, Electrosphere and Electropause.
mxd 9
103.3
xt 103.3
t776.5
s
9
x10 s
5
Content;
Abstract
Introduction,
1. Phases of matter, state of matter.
1.1 Condensed matter
1.2 Kinetic matter –idea.
1.3 Electric matter –idea.
2. The Units. (Avogadro’s number, Gas constant and Boltzmann constant)
2.1 The Units on Condensed-Kinetic (Gas) Transition; 1/c [m]
2.2 The Units on Kinetic (Gas)-Electric (Plasma) Transition; 1/c [s] and it’s
explanation.
2.3 Conclusion.
3 The atmosphere of Earth.
3.1. Earth’s surface, Troposphere, Planetary Boundary layer.
3.2 Tropopause
3.3 Stratosphere
3.4 Stratopause
3.5 Mesosphere
3.6 Mesopause
3.7 Turbopause
3.8 Electropause (New)
3.9 Thermosphere, Thermopause
3.10 Exosphere
3.11 Geocorona
3.12 Various interesting details.
3.12.1 Noctilucent clouds
3.12.2 Aurora’s, (Polar lights, Northern lights)
3.12.3 Magnetosphere, Magnetopause
3.12.4 Geostationary Orbit
3.12.5 Ionosphere
4. Electrosphere, The Space.
4.1 Electropause and it’s the mathematical consequences.
5 Other Planets
5.1 Condensed-Kinetic
5.1 Kinetic-Plasma
5.2. Plasma-Electric
6. Turbulence
7. Gravity.
8 Conclusions
INTRODUCTION
This paper is based on my previous papers and can’t be fully understood without it. This
paper further focuses on “Calculating the consequences” which follows from the
conceptual ideas presented before. The guiding light here is Richard Feynman’s Messenger
Lection, where he clearly defined “The Key to Science”;
1. Theory / 2. Calculating the 3. Comparing to
ObservationsPh
y
sical Law conse
q
uences
The main Flaw of my prev. papers is that the units are still quite messed up, cannot really
explain the Natural constants. The way to this, goes through states of matter. Thus, with this
paper I partially repeat my paper 07.10.2016- “The Math”, as the Condensed-“Gas”
transition was already well presented there. And there after the given theme is completed by
presenting the fundamental reason for “Gas”-“Plasma” transition.
1. Phases of matter, state of matter.
I want to start with asking the very fundamental question. How many phases of matter there
is? The most common answer is “Three”; Solid-Liquid-Gas. Then some of us have more
advanced understanding and answer “Four”, because of Plasma, so their answer basically
describes the Classical elements from Ancient Greece; “Earth, Water, Air, Fire” or “Solid,
Liquid, Gas, Plasma” respectively. Now the people, who have studied quantum mechanics,
may answer “Five”, and name additionally the Einstein-Bose-condensate. This actually
opens a Pandora’s box. Thus, these are already called a “state of matter” to separate it from
the Phases of matter. Indeed, there is a lot of them. There is for example 17 known solid
crystalline phases of water depending on the Pressure and Temperature.
This means that the phase’s (or states) of Matter are not defined universally. If you ask
exact definition between solid and liquid, you don’t get any answer. Studying the chemical
element’s, shows, that there are cases, where these phases do not exist, in any temperature
& pressure combination. Helium is never solid, and Carbon is “never” liquid, because it’s
triple point is at 10.8 ± 0.2 MPa and 4,600 ± 300 K. All material has such a triple points,
meaning, that with certain pressure/temperature combination they are only solid or gas. –Or
in the case of Helium liquid or Gas. Even Helium has such a “triple-point”, it is called
“Lambda-point”. Thus, liquid and solid, are only various states of CONDENSED matter,
without being fundamental phases. Previously I thought that also Gas/Plasma are similarly
only different aspects of the same fundamental phase, but the latest discovery has shown,
that they are both independent fundamental phases having an exact character which defines
the difference precisely. Thus, I now conclude that there is three fundamental phases of
matter.
1. A state where atoms are bound together. Solid, liquid, BEC,
various chrystals, I name them all as Condensed-matter.
2. A state where atoms are not bound together, but they are
interacting so closely, that they share same temperature and
electric potential, which produces homogenous mixture. This is
almost same as gas, but as gas/condensed mixtures can create
viscous (condensed), but gas-alike interactions, for the sake of
clarity, I name this as Kinetic-matter.
3. A state where the interactions are totally free. Knowing all
physical properties of any single particle doesn’t give any reliable
prediction for the next particle beside. This is almost the same, as
Plasma, but again as this is not exactly the same, for clarity, it’s
named as Electric-matter.
1.1 Condensed matter
The definition of the condensed matter is the answer on the question; Is the particle
completely surrounded by another particles with permanent electromagnetic interaction,
including attraction. Only Condensed matter has stresses and tensions and viscosity. The
molecules are able to pull each other.
1.2 Kinetic matter –idea.
This might be simplified to a; “Can the Kinetic theory of gases be applied?” -> Yes. This
question asks practically, if the particles are colliding as a single molecule, or if they are
forming an object, considered a single unit of many molecules. This is the ultimate limit for
attract and repel, and thus the size of a molecule. In Kinetic matter there is no attraction.
Yet, it should be noted, that this definition does not make it very easy to observe this limit;
in the nature we have mixtures and dynamic. The definition of Turbulence (see my paper
11/2015 Turbulence) brings this problem visible. Viscous fluids (Condensed-matter) can be
spitted to so small objects, which behave like Kinetic matter, though it’s condensed,
Similarly like bedrock and sand are both clearly solids, though sand can behave like a fluid,
particularly when it’s mixed with small amount of fluid. Thus this condensed-kinetic phase
transition point in Earth can actually rather be seen at the bottom of the Cumulus clouds
than in the sea surface. At minimum it is said to be in 550 m height above the Sea level.
The fluids below that level can become quite “Condensed” without turbulence, at calm
nights in Polar-regions. This can be noted, when the voice suddenly is transferred over
abnormal distances, because Condenced-matter can transfer tensions.
1.3 Electric matter –idea.
The definition for Electric matter is the answer on the question; “Are all the particles
around able to share the similar Temperature (and electric potential).” -> No. This question
is drawn from the fact that kinetic energy of a molecule can be calculated from the
Temperature. This means that the particles are interacting so far from each other, that their
temperatures can’t be homogenised. This means that Electric-plasma can maintain particles
with completely different velocity and charge, in plasma these differences are not
approaching equilibrium. The differences are amplified or reduced randomly.
2. The Units. (Avogadro’s number, Gas constant and Boltzmann constant)
My claim is that everything is light, and thus all physical constants can be found from the
physical properties of light. Thus, these constants of the Kinetic theory of gases cannot be
an exception. This idea came originally from the observation, that “each liter of gas at a
pressure of one atmosphere and temperature of 0°C contains roughly 27.000 billion billion
(27×1021) molecules” [2] The exact calculation is;
325
233
/1068678.2
15.273/31446.8
/11002214.61101325 mmoleculesx
KmolKJ molxmPa
RT
PVN
A
Which is approxaimately the same value as the speed of light to the third power;
The difference is only 0.28%. This gives me an idea, that a
single molecule has a diameter of 1, when it is in Condenced-
Kinetic transition point, commonly known as Vapor-liquid equilibrium. (“VLE”)
33253 /10694400.2 smxc
mxc 9
1033564.3/
2.1 The Units on Condensed-Kinetic (Gas) Transition; 1/c [m]
Thus this is explained with a simple
picture.
At the picture is shown how red
object is travelling with velocity V,
and how it’s passing objects which
have size L. If we know that the
object passes N=5 objects in certain time, t= 1 hour, and the velocity v=10 km / hour we
can calculate the size of a single object; objectkm
object hhkm
Ntv
L/2
5
1/10
.
The size of a molecule is same. If one cubic meter of volume has
then a 1 m long
particlesx 25
10694400.2 row of these particles has
particlesparticles 299792458xN 10694400.2
325
and if this 1m long row of particles is passed by with a velocity of
smcv 299792458
The time is simply the length dived with velocity;
s
sm
m
v
l
t299792458
1
/299792458
1
So finally, we can calculate that the size of a one particle is;
th time; smt 2997924581/ seconds, as one Light-second is So we
can calculate the size of a single particle.
m299792458
The amount of particles was “c”
The distance which was travelled was 1 m.
The time was 1 m /Light-second seconds, and the velocity was c, so;
m
particles ssm
Ntv
L299792458
1
299792458
299792458/1299792458
And as a reminder to those, who consinder this as only a circular reasoning, this is exactly
that. The only which is shown here, is that the unit is correct; numeric value is 1/c but the
unit is [m] (/particle).
2.2 The Units on Kinetic (Gas)-Electric (Plasma) Transition; 1/c [s] and it’s
explanation.
This whole concept is new, and I haven’t even introduced it before. So starting with an
explaining picture is surely helpful. To fully understand this, the Quantum-effects or
probability amplitudes must be taken into account. These provide the idea that there are
different probabilities for the collision depending how the particles are synchronized.
The 1/c [s] time limit is the point, where this game changes radically. Exactly at this
distance, it’s first time possible, that two colliding protons, which may have been other vice
interacting, might not collide at all! They might continue to travel as in free space without
any interaction. This prevents the plasma from reaching equilibrium, and because of this
behaviour, the velocities can also be amplified.
This Picture above explains what is meant. At first (1. position) two particles (circle) are
colliding and their same Quantum properties are interacting to produce a perfect elastic
collision. (Green arrows) Thus the other particle starts to move with Velocity V towards
another particle which happens to be in perfectly same quantum state. When they collide
after distance L, which happens to be exactly 1/c seconds (position 2.), their Quantum states
and location are perfectly synchronized, and they don’t interact at all. Or they interact, but
as a net result, this interaction is zero. Pls. note that in the picture there is actually two
particles in different locations. In the reality we would only see one particle at that point. So
this is only to show that there really are two particles in same position. The only difference
is that these particle are most probably not travelling on same direction. Thus following
question arises: (See picture below;)
Here at position 1. it can be seen how the particles are “grinding” each other. This way they
already might exchange some kinetic energy and interact to each other. At Position 2. is
now shown how the are identically overlapped. There are yet 4 quantum states, so there
might remain a rule, which makes such an overlapping generally forbidden.
The question arises from Position 3. “what actually happens”. Maybe the particles are
creating a “high-energy-cosmic-ray-proton, maybe the fusion and produce a Deuterium.
But in this paper this issue is not discussed further.
The main idea is the show how Kinetic-Electric transition point can be defined:
The Velocity vrms [m/s] is particle velocity calculated from temperature;
p
B
rms mTk
v3
Boltzmann constant,
KJxkB/1038.1; 23
Temperature, T, i.e. in 55 km height is KT 9.257
257.9 K
mp; mass of the single particle [kg] i.e. Di-Nitrogen kgxN 26
21065.4;
Gives; sm
x
x
vrms /9.483
1056.4
9.2571038.13
26
23
And the l is the Mean- free-Path; pd
Tk
lB
2
2
and as TRp d
thus
d
BRd
k
l
2
2
can be calculated from density.
Diameter of the particle;
mxcd 9
103336.0/1
Density, ρ at 55 km height, 0.0006134 kg/ m3
Rd is 287.058 J/K
Gives;
kgKJmkgmx
KJx
Rd
k
l
d
B
/058.287/0006134.0)103336.0(2
/1038,1
2329
23
2
m000001585.0, dividing this with v gives sx
sm m9
102763.3
9.483
000001585.0
which is almost exactly the
sxc 9
1033564.3/1
Analyzing the atmospheric data more precisely gives the following diagram;
This “mean-free-path-time”-diagram shows that minor variations are not going to make any
big difference, the atmospheric gas-plasma Transition happens very precisely at 53-56 km
height. This is exactly in the very top of the Stratosphere, at Stratopause.
Very interestingly this logarithmic diagram shows a clear turning point at 120-125 km
height. This issue is discussed later in this paper at Chapter 3.6 Elektropause.
2.3 Conclusion.
The Explanation of phase transitions, At first it sounded bit amazing event to me, how the
Solid-gas transition could be defined independently from Temperature or pressure. But this
is actually not the case. Now, as also the second transition point has been found, the rules
are more complete. Obviously the 1/c [m] particle diameter is also not directly the diameter,
of a not moving particle, but rather the space, where in the particle can move, without
loosing the attraction to other particles. This way the Pressure and Temperature are defining
what is the “Water”-molecule of each planet. And this molecule is then component, which
works and cycles under the heat of the sun. Ie. in Venus this “water” seems to be CO2. This
“Water”-molecule then behaves exactly same way, independent what is it’s exact chemical
composition. It defines the thickness of the atmosphere, and it’s “sea” is transparent. Other
molecules in planet are always highly soluble to this “water”. This way, every planet can
have very similar structure, independently from their exact pressure and temperature. The
Pressure and temperature are much rather defined and held approximately constant through
this “water”. Hurricanes must be the extreme actions to correct possible imbalances.
3 The atmosphere of Earth.
The fundamental reasons for various layers in atmosphere can be defined. These are from
bottom to top as follows;
3.1. Earth’s surface, Troposphere, Planetary Boundary layer.
The average solid/liquid surface of the Earth is at the straight bottom line seen in Cumulus
clouds. This level is theoretically at 350-650 m, but due to the water cycle, and simply
because the average land (solid) surface lies at 841 m, this surface is as cyclic as the sea
surface on storm. Already the height of the cumulus cloud base can rise up to 6100 m, but
actually the whole cloud is forming while the water is filling the voids of air up to a
condensation point. Thus this condensed surface can be in anywhere in lower half of the
Troposphere. At the Upper half of the Troposphere, all these condensations are ripped in
parts.
Because there are condensations in troposphere, it’s optically decreasing the speed of light,
and thus it’s seen red from space. (Red-shift analogy.)
3.2 Tropopause
Above Tropopause the atmosphere is always gas. No condensations. This is the coldest
point, because the heat can escape freely by radiation on every direction, but is received
mainly through conduction. At polar regions, The Troposphere is hotter, -45 ºC compared
to over -75 ºC in equator, simply because the distance for conduction is shorter at poles, 10
km compared to 17 km at equator. The height/temperature difference is linear -45 x 1.7 = -
76.5, as thermal conductivity in solids generally is. The small variance is caused by the
height difference of the cumulus cloud base.
3.3 Stratosphere
Stratosphere is the purest example of the states of Matter. It’s purely Kinetic-matter and
Ideal gas. This makes it homogenous and stratified according to temperature. Here the all
the gas theories are completely valid. Vertical convection does not exist, but sudden
stratospheric warming (SSW) can occur, according
to the Ideal Gas law. Increased pressure causes a
Temperature rise. Such a change in pressure can be
only caused be the oscillating Troposphere. (Ie.
Rossby waves)
The Ideal gas character of Stratosphere comes
clearly visible also in the optical character of it. It’s
completely neutral to the wavelengths of light.
Thus it’s seen white, when observed from space.
3.4 Stratopause
Kinetic-Electric phase Transition happens
here. Up to this point, The Homogenity is
hold, and after this point the plasma
Phenomenon’s starts to increase. Though
the exact Theoretical place of Stratopause
depends on the molecule-weight and
density, the difference is yet only few km.
The difference between poles and Equator
is already greater, it can easily be 5 km
lower in Northpole (52 km) than in
Southpole (57.5 km), While equator being
an average (55 km). The Hottest point is 4-
8 km below this theoretical limit. If the
surface of Earth should be defined by the
most spherical and stabile character, then
Stratopause, defined as here, would be the
answer. The diagram on right shows this
clearly. There is the relative temperatures shown stacked to present the heights in 5 km
steps.. The Red straight line is on 50 km height, and is approximately the Stratopause. The
Thick blue line is on 80 km height, and the highest line is at 220 km in Thermosphere.
Because of its fundamental character, every planet and moon with some kind of atmosphere
has a Stratopause.
3.5 Mesosphere
This leyer is similar to Troposphere. Here the mixed phases are the Kinetic and Electric.
Also this layer is very active, waves and huge variations in Temperature occure. It should
by noted, that these waves are not connected to the waves below Stratopause. The causes
for these waves comes outside, from Thermosphere. This comes clearly visible from the
data.
3.6 Mesopause
This is said to be a Temperature Minimum between Mesosphere and Thermosphere. Yet,
the height of this minimum varies continuously. Few variations are shown in the diagram.
Though the present variation is physically clear, it doesn’t describe any particulary stabile
location in Atmosphere.
3.7 Turbopause
This is said to be marking the altitude, which divides the Turbulent mixed homogenous
region (below, homosphere), and region where molecular diffusion dominates. (above,
heterosphere) It’s said to be roughly at an altitude 100 km. Yet, it’s obvious, that molecular
diffusion starts already at Stratopause. This definition is completely in practical and without
any reasonable basis. Yet, it can be noted from the Picture [Relat temp] that ther is two
clearly different regions; which are dived with a mixed region between the green line at 125
km and Blue line at 80. Thus a new definition must be laid.
3.8 Electropause (New)
This is related to ionosphere. Ionosphere is ionized
part of of Atmosphere, which has also various layers,
with high cyclic variations even between day and
night. There is a “E-layer”, which is the middle layer
90-150 km above the the surface of the Earth, and in
the bottom of this layer the Free Electron amount
drops to Zero at least in Night. This drop to zero,
seems to start at ~122 km height, Exactly at this point, there is also the bend in Diagram.
[xx] If this diagram is studied more carefully, it can be seen that the Exponential growth on
Mean-free-path-time follows some clear mathematical rules.
At this diagram are shown few possibilities. The Blue Horizontal line shows the values of
Mean-free-path-time as before, and
c/1 sxc 5
107755.5/1
.
The “H Logreg 55-110 km” Streight Cyan line come’s from equation This is
solved with the LOGEST-function (LOGREG in Fi) with Hydrogen values on 55-110 km.
x
mby
The “H Logreg 130-250 km” Streight Red line come’s similarily.
The Coefficient of Determination for the straight line for values between 0-110 km is 0.997,
independent form the sample range For Values 130-1000 km it varies in range 0.988 …
0.993, depending the Length of the sample. If the whole data form 0-1000 is used, the
determination Coefficient falls to 0.91. This verifies clearly, that in the height of approx
123 km, there is some fundamental change happening in the Atmosphere. This Change is
related with the growth of a free electron amount, and at this point the Particle mean path
time is approximately c/1 seconds. The data which I have examined shows how this
definition gives very constant values in other vice highly variable conditions. If defined
with I.e. N2 the Height is very constantly at approx 117-118 km high, as shown in the
Diagrams below with the Blue vertical line in Left. The Right blue line is The Stratopause.
In these pictures is also clearly seen, how the homogenity starts to break already at 60 km
height.
The mathematical explanation to this c/1 second, mean free path –time, is also very
logical. Velocity is a function of time; t
l
v, and placing the time in root, t
l
v is
mathematically same, as function; t
l
v2
2. Only problem is that units are wrong. This all
must be understood, that it’s a matter of the travelling time of two particles, Positive ion
and Electron, and as they are both in same temperature, they share the same kinetic energy
level, even though their masses are very different. This means that the equation should be
written tll
vv
, Here the subscript means the different electric charge of the particle,
Which means that on electric matter the mean Free Path of both particles must be
multiplied together, “squared” while the time remains the same. Thus, when this time is
calculated from just a single particle, it must be place on root, just to make that equation
correct; c/1 second is therefore a very plausible explanation. This came also in my
mind, when I was seeking the meaning of Planck-constant. My first interpretation to it, was
“Volume” x “Area-velocity”, and this “Area Velocity” seems to be very fundamental to
electricity, as it even defines the new state of matter. The discussion from the Planck-
constant is left out from this paper, yet it can be also named as “mass” x “Area-velocity”,
which concludes, that this concept of “Area-velocity” is independently valid, no matter how
the Gravity is interpreted. This issue is discussed later in this paper with more detailed
calculations.
3.9 Thermosphere, Thermopause
The Thermosphere is defined to begin from Mesopause, which is about 85 km height, and
to extend up to Thermopause, somewhere between 500 and 1000 km high. Interestingly the
current definition for Thermopause, is already made through mean free path, it’s just
defined that this should be an “scale height” which in the case of Earth is 7640 m in
average. The Other definition for Thermopause is the lack of Temperature variations. As at
these heights, the most Common molecule is O, single oxygen atom. The location of
Thermopause could be also defined by the mean free path of Oxygen being 1 second. This
definition is yet completely without any fundamental physical basis, Because the 1 second,
does’t have any fundamental basis. If some data is compared, this definition would change
the location of Thermopause/Exobase from ie. 564 km to 458 km height. It’s yet
questionable, if these definitions have any practical use.
3.10 Exosphere
The Exosphere extends to outer space. It’s upper limit is seen to be the level where Solar
radiation pressure and Earth’s gravitational pull are in balance. This is somewhere 200 000
km away from the Earth.
3.11 Geocorona
The term "geocorona" refers to the solar far-ultraviolet light that is reflected off the cloud of
neutral hydrogen atoms that surrounds the Earth. Solar far-ultraviolet photons scattered by
exospheric hydrogen have been observed out to a distance of approximately 100,000 km
(~15.5 Earth radii) from Earth.
[http://pluto.space.swri.edu/IMAGE/glossary/geocorona.html]
3.12 Various interesting details.
3.12.1 Noctilucent clouds
- Hydrogen depletion in 85 km height.
- Connection to Solar cycle
- Mostly in Polar regions.
3.12.2 Aurora’s, (Polar lights, Northern lights)
The Interesting thing in Thermosphere is Auroras, and
3.12.3 Magnetosphere, Magnetopause
Th
3.12.4 Geostationary Orbit
Th
3.12.5 Ionosphere
Th
4. Electrosphere, The Space.
This concept can be best understood from it’s opposites;
Electrically Neutral vs. Electrically Active region. Planets, or Condenced matter generally,
is Electric neutral. They share the same potential. “Grounded” is very describing word
indeed for the neural reference point in electrical circuit. Thus the regions on the opposite
site of Electropause, could very logically named as a “Groundsphere” (Planet, i.e. Earth)
and “Elektrosphere” (Space).
4.1 Electropause and it’s the mathematical consequences.
As shown in Chapter xxx , well
describing exponentially growing
equations in form can be
solved from the data, when these are
defined separately for
x
mby
- Groundsphere (0-110 km height),
- Electrosphere (130 -> km height)
The interest must be focused on m-
values;
- Groundsphere; mG = 1.157…1.182
- Electrosphere; mE = 1.029…1.059
This depends how the example is chosen.
For the whole data range (0-1000 km) gives m= 1.10015, but as said, then the curve doesn’t
quite fit. Thus, also this following math, must be considered only as preliminary. The most
presentative values seems to be mG = 1.160 , which was achieved with 0-108 km data, and
for the mE = 1.05 m, which is produced with 130-160 km height data. As
or
157.105.1 3051.116.1
3, it seems that there is some 3rd –power mathematical
connection between these two values. Or maybe simply a factor
105.1~05.1/16.1
This numerology doesn’t seem to offer any immediately acceptable solutions. There seems
to be immediate parallels to the physical laws of electromagnetism. But I avoid to use, them
as they are not enough familiar for me. I rather try to make a comprehensive picture, what it
practically means, when this kind of change occurs.There is a simple thumb-rule for any
Exponential-growth from Albert Bartlett; the doubling time is given by 70 / divided with
the growth-%. And this is very describing.
The exact math is 1
)2ln(
m,
this gives for mG a “doubling time” of 33.4
116.1
)2ln(
1
)2ln(
G
m
and for mE a “doubling time” of 86.13
105.1
)2ln(
1
)2ln(
E
m
Their ratio, is of course directly 2.3
33.4
86.13
05.0
16.0
but as the values are not exact, it’s more safe to state, that the factor is approximately ~3.
But what does this mean? The Picture xxxx above shows, that it’s about the growth rate of
Mean-free-path. This simply means, that the particle amount which is needed to create the
current atmospheric pressure, is suddenly only 1/3, on the Electrosphere compared to
Groundsphere. Or that the Electric particles are 3 times more powerful transmitters than
normal kinetic particles. The Electric-plasma theory (Compared to Kinetic-gas theory)
should therefore be written as follows.
Electric plasma Kinetic gas theory
Somehow this doesn’t make any sense. If the logic from Kinetic-gas theory is followed, this
number 3 comes to the Equations from the 3-Dimensions. Therefore the plain interpretation
of this would be that the Electrosphere, or Space is only 1-Dimensional. Though, there are
these 1-Dimensional Structures on sight. It just sounds too simple that the galaxies and
solar-systems would be reduced to a simple rotating disk through so simple mechanism.
Maybe I try to solve this through Turbine theories;
The true meaning of the “time squared” is also rather difficult to impress in classical
physics, as there is no Acceleration, Force, Power or Energy units which could be derived
from “Area-velocity”. It would mean that Area velocity was written as a t
l
v2
2,
But as this is not mathematically correct, because velocity doesn’t have a unit [m2/s], thus I
use “y” to describe area-velocity, as Y from Euler’s Turbine equations can directly be used
for Area-acceleration [m2/s2].
These equation would be then correctly written t
l
y2
, and t
y
Y2
2
t
l, yet I can’t see
any way to build the theory further through these. Thus I start to seek this from the speed of
light idea.
Force; L
Nmv
F2
Force; L
Nmv
F3
2
Pressure; V
Nmv
P2
Pressure; V
Nmv
P3
2
or or
or
2
NmvPV 2
mvTkB
3
2
Nmv
PV or 3
2
mv
TkB
The Mean free path was calculated with
d
BB Rd
k
pd
Tk
l
22 22
and the velocity with
p
B
rms mTk
v3
and the time with pd
Tmk
Tkpd
mTk
Tk
m
pd
Tk
vl
tpB
B
pB
B
p
B
rms 222 632
3
2
,
which in the Kinetic-Plasma limit was ct /1
[s], while the diameter was [m], cl /1
thus pd
Tmk
cpB
2
6
/1
Yet if the diameter, at Condensate/Kinetic limit is dcl
/1 ,
then the mean-free-path should be calculated as
p
Tk
c
p
Tk
c
pc
Tk
pd
Tk
lc BBBB 3
3
22
2
2
/1
)/1(22
/1
,
again, with the wider definition of p, pressure, we get
d
B
d
BB R
k
TRTk
p
Tk
c
3
2,
and while, m
k
RB
d,here “m” being the molecular mass of the gas, we can write
2
23
3
mcm
kmk
R
k
cB
B
d
B, and while V
m
, thus it can be written;
2
3
mc
V
m
mV
c
3
2
, Numerical value ][1065.1
1
44.4 325
3m
c
V
The volume of a sphere with a radius of 1/c [m], would be 3
3
4
c
VS
, thus from here can
be following factors be
calculated for Sphere;
06066.1
3
4
1
2
,
and value might actually
even be the searched mE.
If this IS the case, then the
data supports the idea of
(1-mG)=3 x(1-mE), as this
gives quite exactly the
value mG =1.182, yet the
difference to mG=mE3 =1.193 is not so big either. To show how variable the data actually is,
a diagram was created. Here the is solved own value for every hight-km, from 4 km wide
sample. The change in concept at 117 km is as clear as before, but from this data it’s not
possible to make any further conclusions with the current level of Understanding.
5 Other Planets
5.1 Condensed-Kinetic
The atmosphere of Venus has a pressure of 9.2 MPa, it’s mostly Carbon dioxide, and has a
temperature of around 740 K. The air density is 67 kg/m3. So, the question is, if this is the
solid/liquid “surface” of Venus? It’s not so obvious. The density of fluid carbon dioxide is
713 kg/m3 @ 25°C, And the Coefficient of thermal Expansion of Liquid @ 25 °C is
0.02066 1/°C. Thus with ΔT of 467 K, the volume of this liquid will change with a factor of
9.648 and 713/9.648 = gives 73.0 kg/m3 which compared to 67 kg/m3 is in the right order.
The most probable cause for this 9% variation is that the Expansion coefficient is not
constant. As the troposphere of Venus seems like a liquid (reduced visibility compared to
gas) behaves like a liquid (flow velocities are in same range as in the ocean currents of
Earth), and it’s physical properties are similar to liquid, I assume it is a liquid in the sense
we are talking here. Thus the Surface of Venus, must be there where the visible surface of
this liquid is. According to this picture, it’s also in Venus about there where the pressure is
1 bar. The temperature at this point is approx. 350 K. The “water” in Venus seems to be
“Sulfuric acid”, H2SO4 It’s Melting point is 283 K, and boiling point 610 K at 1 atm.
Careful analysis with the Wikipedia-data places the “c3- point” to 48.65 km height, with a
pressure of 133000 Pa and 357.5K. A paper “Venus Cloud Structure and Radiative Energy
Balance of the Mesosphere” from Yeon Joo Lee,2012 Page 14 fig. 1.3 supports this idea.
Quick wiev, to other planets supports this
too, The cloud bottoms are approximately
on these conditions;
Jupiter; 49 kPa-132K.
Saturn; 33.5 kPa-90K.
The data I found for Uranus and Neptunus is
approximate, but it seems that these values
might suit;
Uranus 35 kPa-94 K,
Neptunus 13 kPa-35 K
5.1 Kinetic-Plasma
Following data for Stratopause’s were
found;
Venus; Height 65 km, 9900 Pa, 233 K, mean
free path of CO2; 2.7x10-13 s.
This is obviously NOT the Stratopause as
explained here.
At 100 km height, 2.7 Pa, 160 K, Mean free
path of CO2; 4.8x10-10 s, from here can be
concluded, that the Stratopause of Venus
might be at ~105 km height, in 0.4 Pa, and
165 K temperature. The picture of the atmosphere of Venus, supports this.
Mars; There is not enough data easily found from Mars, but obviously the pressure and
Temperature are really low, and the gas is mainly CO2. This values could be 110 Pa, 90 K
and as the Surface pressure is just 600 Pa, this would mean that the Stratosphere is on 13
km height.
Jupiter provides much better
data; 0.1 Pa, 150-200 K, at
320 km height, mostly
Helium. This (175 K, 0.1 Pa)
gives already really close
figure. The accurate values
seems to be 300 km hight,
and 0.2 Pa. The Picture from
Wikipedia Supports clearly
the idea;
5.2. Plasma-Electric
While starting to write this
paper, I had no idea that this
new matter is to be found. As it’s analysis is not exact even in Earths atmosphere. It makes
little sense to try to interprete some incomplete data from other planets to support this. The
proof for this idea, is much easier to be searched in a lab. Thus further evidence from other
planets is not looked at all.
6. Turbulence
My solution, or explanation for Turbulence also Supports this idea. If the occurrence of
viscous-forces needs the matter to be Condensed, and the full appliance of Kinetic theory
requires, that no molecule Condensation are aloud, then it’s more than obvious, that a
laminar fluid, works as a condensed matter, and a fully turbulent fluid, with very small
homogenous condensed particles, works like kinetic gas. This all is already principally
explained in my old paper. And it’s therefore not needed to repeat here.
Yet, the Electric aspect of Turbulence is not seen. In Water the hydrogen bonding, is a
phenomenon, where Hydrogen atoms are changing their parent atom in very high
frequency. When shear velocity exceeds the velocity of these ions -they most be ions for a
short time in such a process- then the fluid intern surface is developed simply because the
electric charges repels each other. The exact time, when Turbulence Starts, must also be
able to be calculated, from the speed of light with the principles shown here. This task is
left uncompleted.
7. Gravity.
These observations supports strongly the simple Gravity Theory presented originally by
Nicolas Fatio in 1690, further developed in 1748 by Le Sage, and thus known as “Le-Sage-
Gravitation”. As the complexity behind this simple idea is too remarkable, in this paper is
said no more.
8 Conclusions
The fundamental idea behind this paper is that everything is light. That mass is a fictitious
like the fictitious forces. The “key to science” presented in the introduction has been my
guiding light here. It’s been really annoying to notice, that though I’ve actually had the
basic idea and supporting observations for quite a while (Since 2012), it has been more than
painful to found the combining math and easily comprehensive observations.
Now, white the observations presented here this verification must be straight forward.
1. The Matter must be compressed in pressure and temperature, which forces the
molecule to a space less than 1/c [m] to force it to Condensated Matter.
2. The Molecular density must be compressed below pressure and temperature, which
forces the molecule to have less than 1/c [s] mean-free-path to force it to form
tensionless Kinetic Matter.
3. The Molecular density must be compressed below pressure and temperature, which
forces the molecule to have less than c/1 [s] mean-free-path to force it to form a
Grounded Matter free of permanent Electric potential differences.
4. Matter which doesn’t have the required pressure and Temperature remains permanently
charge carrying Electric Matter.
9 Acknowlegements
Thanks for all those who helped me to improve this paper, namely;
Everything is light.
There is only 4 dimension.
Everything is real.
Nothing is dark.
Jouni Jokela, Frutigen, Switzerland 19.01.2017
[1]
[2]
The rest of the information is searched mainly from Wikipedia.
I also want to mention Feynman lections, as a source of inspiration.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.