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Natural antioxidants in milk and dairy products

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Abstract

Milk antioxidants, both lipophilic (conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, vitamins A and D3, coenzyme Q10, phospholipids) and hydrophilic antioxidants (proteins, peptides, vitamins, minerals and trace elements) play a key role in maintaining pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis in the human body. Lipophilic antioxidants are characterised by high thermal stability and they are active in all dairy products. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants interact in the process of deactivating reactive oxygen species and the final products of lipid peroxidation. A negative correlation between milk consumption and the incidence of diet-dependent diseases confirms that the consumption of milk and dairy products delivers health benefits.

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... The main antioxidants present in milk can be grouped into lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol are lipid-soluble antioxidants present in milk fat globule and they have properties such as preventative, chain-breaking antioxidant, and quencher of singlet oxygen in milk, protecting milk fat against autoxidation [6,8,9]. In addition to highly active and more abundant lipophilic antioxidants, milk is also a source of hydrophilic antioxidants constituted by ascorbic acid and a large group of nitrogen compounds, such as casein fractions, whey proteins (in particular lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin), bioactive peptides, low molecular weight nitrogen compounds and uric acid [10]. ...
... Those enzymes form a synergistic system that increases the antioxidant potential of milk. Antioxidant systems in milk can inhibit the free radical mechanism by donating the proton and thus inhibit the onset of autoxidation [9]. ...
... Higher levels of antioxidants (tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol) have been reported in milk from cows that consume fresh grass compared with diets rich in concentrate or silage [11,14]. The vitamin E content of milk is determined by tocopherol levels in feed while vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations are determined by carotenoids supplied with bovine feed [9]. ...
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The oxidative stability of milk and dairy products is a very interesting topic for the dairyindustry due to the growing demand for foods containing bioactive compounds with positive healtheffects. The aim was to evaluate the oxidative stability of milk intended for cheese production. Theeffect of storage time, heat pre-treatment, and milk pasteurization temperature on the characteristicsof milk and cheese was investigated. The cheese samples were produced with pasteurized milk atboth 72 and 77◦C for a time of 15 s using three types of milk: raw fresh milk processed within 48 hof milking, raw stored milk processed within 96 h, and thermized milk that was heat-treated uponarrival at the dairy and processed within 96 h of milking. In total, three repetitions were carriedout for each type of milk and pasteurization. Samples of milk before and after pasteurization andcheese at 14 days of storage were analyzed. Antioxidant activity decreased from starting milk to milkafter pasteurization to final cheese. The longer storage time of the milk had significant effects on theantioxidant stability of the cheese (64.95 vs. 59.05% of antioxidant activity). Thermization of the milkfurther reduced the stability of the cheese (54.05% of antioxidant activity). The greater antioxidantstability of fresh milk and cheeses produced with fresh milk is the first result that encourages theproduction of cheese from a milk that best preserves its original characteristics.
... They contain a wide range of biologically active compounds in varying proportions depending on the animal species (i.e., bovine, buffalo, goat, sheep, and camel), matrix type (i.e., milks, cheeses, fermented milks, and yogurts), and manufactural processes (i.e., mechanical, heating, and fermentative). This class of active compounds include both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants such as proteins (specifically casein), small peptides, coenzyme Q10, vitamins (A, C, E, and D3), carotenoids, some minerals, and elements in trace [101,102]. Cichosz et al. [101] found that milk antioxidants synergistically worked by forming an antioxidant network, improving the antioxidant ability of milk, and protecting milk itself and its fat fraction against the oxidation phenomena. Moreover, these molecules can be involved on important effects on host metabolism and health [32,103]. ...
... This class of active compounds include both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants such as proteins (specifically casein), small peptides, coenzyme Q10, vitamins (A, C, E, and D3), carotenoids, some minerals, and elements in trace [101,102]. Cichosz et al. [101] found that milk antioxidants synergistically worked by forming an antioxidant network, improving the antioxidant ability of milk, and protecting milk itself and its fat fraction against the oxidation phenomena. Moreover, these molecules can be involved on important effects on host metabolism and health [32,103]. ...
... Their presence in peptides is a determinant factor in the antioxidant effect [116]. In fact, free radicals are deactivated by peptides containing hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids (such as Y, H, P, W) and selected free amino acids (Y and C) [101,117]. In particular, the presence of Y and W residues in the peptides sequences is considered essential for a significant increase of the antioxidant effect, because of its strong ability to donate a proton [65,118,119]. ...
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With rapidly ageing populations, the world is experiencing unsustainable healthcare from chronic diseases such as metabolic, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and cancer disorders. Healthy diet and lifestyle might contribute to prevent these diseases and potentially enhance health outcomes in patients during and after therapy. Fermented dairy foods (FDFs) found their origin concurrently with human civilization for increasing milk shelf-life and enhancing sensorial attributes. Although the probiotic concept has been developed more recently, FDFs, such as milks and yoghurt, have been unconsciously associated with health-promoting effects since ancient times. These health benefits rely not only on the occurrence of fermentation-associated live microbes (mainly lactic acid bacteria; LAB), but also on the pro-health molecules (PHMs) mostly derived from microbial conversion of food compounds. Therefore, there is a renaissance of interest toward traditional fermented food as a reservoir of novel microbes producing PHMs, and “hyperfoods” can be tailored to deliver these healthy molecules to humans. In FDFs, the main PHMs are bioactive peptides (BPs) released from milk proteins by microbial proteolysis. BPs display a pattern of biofunctions such as anti-hypertensive, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, and anti-microbial activities. Here, we summarized the BPs most frequently encountered in dairy food and their biological activities; we reviewed the main studies exploring the potential of dairy microbiota to release BPs; and delineated the main effectors of the proteolytic LAB systems responsible for BPs release.
... Considering the above and that there was no significant correlation (p > 0.05) between %DPPH· RSA and INSP, we suggest that DPPH· RSA should be attributed mainly to whey proteins and other pH 4.6-soluble nitrogenous compounds. Previously, Conway et al. [46] have associated radical absorbance capacity with peptides derived from whey proteins, mainly α-LA and β-LG; meanwhile, according to Cichosz et al. [58], all β-LG-derived peptides possess RSA. Khan et al. [59] have attributed RSA of whey proteins to amino acids that contain sulphur compounds, whereas Cichosz et al. [58] have marked the significance of peptide secondary structure. ...
... Previously, Conway et al. [46] have associated radical absorbance capacity with peptides derived from whey proteins, mainly α-LA and β-LG; meanwhile, according to Cichosz et al. [58], all β-LG-derived peptides possess RSA. Khan et al. [59] have attributed RSA of whey proteins to amino acids that contain sulphur compounds, whereas Cichosz et al. [58] have marked the significance of peptide secondary structure. Moreover, RSA has been also associated with MFGM proteins by Conway et al. [46], who suggested butyrophilin as the main source of peptides with potent antioxidant effect. ...
... Moreover, RSA has been also associated with MFGM proteins by Conway et al. [46], who suggested butyrophilin as the main source of peptides with potent antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the PL fraction of MFGM is considered responsible for antioxidant activity, as they contain poly-unsaturated fatty acids capable of binding cations and ether lipids, which act very effectively against hydroxyl radicals [58]. ...
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The objective of the study was to compare the buttermilk released from the churning of sweet cream separated from sheep milk (BSM) or whey (BSW) with the buttermilk from sweet cow milk cream (BCM). Additional experimental factors were the heat treatment (68 °C for 10 or 30 min) and storage of cream (refrigeration or freezing). The composition of BSM was the most advantageous in terms of non-fat solids, protein—which was the most abundant solid component—casein, calcium and phosphorus contents. No significant differences were observed in the phospholipids (PL) content of BSM, BCM and BSW. Antioxidant potential and emulsion stability (ES) of BSM were the highest. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) of BSW was high opposite to chelating activity (CA). Some functional properties of BSW were similar to those of BSM and BCM. The freezing of cream affected the churning, the fat content, the soluble nitrogenous fraction at pH 4.6 (WSN) and some functional properties of buttermilk, but not in a consistent manner. The properties of BSM were marginally affected or unaffected by the use of frozen cream. The freezing of whey cream caused significant changes (p < 0.05) in the protein profile and the functional behaviour of BSW. Cream heat treatment affected the WSN of BSW opposite to its sweet cream counterparts.
... There are certain cell protection mechanisms consisting of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity, non-enzymatic proteins, thiol-containing amino acids, polypeptides and other water-and fat-soluble substances against excess free radical production. In our opinion, the water-soluble substances (including amino acids and some proteins) have the most potent properties [14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... Moreover, these negative correlation coefficients between TAWSA and urea were 7.7% and 23.1% higher after chitosan 1 or 2 addition to the diet (Groups 2 and 3, respectively) than the control Group 1 (Table 5). Urea, synthesized in the liver and in the rumen wall from ammonia nitrogen, amino acids and amides, is the end product of nitrogen metabolism for all ruminants, including ewes [15][16][17]. Urea is usually accounted for at least half of the animal residual nitrogen in the blood and 80%-83% of the urine [15][16][17]. There are interesting notes about the correlations between blood urea changes and protein metabolism for cattle (supporting our abovementioned findings for sheep): "a decrease in blood urea indicates a more efficient use of amino acids of the exchange protein on protein synthesis" [31]; "… a decrease in the level of urea nitrogen in the blood serum indicates a more efficient assimilation of the nitrogen of the diet as a whole" [32]. ...
... Urea, synthesized in the liver and in the rumen wall from ammonia nitrogen, amino acids and amides, is the end product of nitrogen metabolism for all ruminants, including ewes [15][16][17]. Urea is usually accounted for at least half of the animal residual nitrogen in the blood and 80%-83% of the urine [15][16][17]. There are interesting notes about the correlations between blood urea changes and protein metabolism for cattle (supporting our abovementioned findings for sheep): "a decrease in blood urea indicates a more efficient use of amino acids of the exchange protein on protein synthesis" [31]; "… a decrease in the level of urea nitrogen in the blood serum indicates a more efficient assimilation of the nitrogen of the diet as a whole" [32]. ...
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The effects of chitosan as feed additive for animals (FAFAs) on various digestive processes are an important to study because of the animal nutrition and production quality, healthcare and farming. The aims of this study were to evaluate the total amount of water-soluble antioxidants (TAWSA) of chitosan and high protein microbiologically synthesized concentrate as FAFAs; to assess the effect of these FAFAs on TAWSA values, parameters of sheep blood serum and rumen content by biochemical, physical and chemical methods. The laboratory studies of TAWSA values of feed components based on chitosan from different manufacturers or/and a high-protein concentrate were implemented. The animal experiments were carried out on six rumen-fistulated ewes (in three rounds of 14 days each, i.e., three groups) to confirm the results of the laboratory studies. The particular differences of the TAWSA of sheep blood by using both FAFAs by amperometric method were determined. A strong negative correlation −0.67 (or −0.86) was observed between TAWSA and the total protein (globulin’s) content in the blood for the Group 3 of animals. A moderate (0.40) or strong (0.73) positive correlation between TAWSA and total protein content in the blood for the Group 2 of animals than weak correlation 0.23 (or 0.26) for the control Group 1. In conclusion, the correlations between the value changes of TAWSA vs. major biochemical parameters of a blood serum of rumen-fistulated ewes (Group 3 > Group 2 > Group 1) or some indicators of the rumen content (ingesta pH, total content of volatile fatty acids, etc.) were found for the first time.
... Their activity consists in organic free radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation [96,97]. They also have the ability to quench singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, effectively protecting DNA against oxidation [98]. Since they are present in fat globule envelopes, these vitamins prevent automatic oxidation of milk fat. ...
... Consequently, they contribute to an increase in the immunity of animals exposed to stress (weaning, changes in diet, or transport), lead to efficient absorption of essential nutrients, and enhance the antioxidant protection provided by milk [132]. Examples of antioxidant activity of milk after supplementation of feed with natural plant additives are shown in Table 4. grazing significantly increases the content of antioxidant components in milk, thus increasing its antioxidant potential [93,98,105,133]. The improvement is more difficult to achieve when cows are fed preserved fodder, especially silage [134][135][136]. ...
... Many studies indicate that the antioxidant potential of dairy products (yogurt, cheese, kefir) is related to the quality of the raw material and primarily the presence and activity of natural bioactive compounds in milk (i.e., amino acids (including tyrosine and cysteine) and vitamins (e.g., A and E)) [12,98]. The bacterial cultures and plant additives used also have a high impact on the value of the antioxidant potential [3,30,[176][177][178][179][180][181]. ...
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The aim of the study was to present a review of literature data on the antioxidant potential of raw milk and dairy products (milk, fermented products, and cheese) and the possibility to modify its level at the milk production and processing stage. Based on the available reports, it can be concluded that the consumption of products that are a rich source of bioactive components improves the antioxidant status of the organism and reduces the risk of development of many civilization diseases. Milk and dairy products are undoubtedly rich sources of antioxidant compounds. Various methods, in particular, ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH assays, are used for the measurement of the overall antioxidant activity of milk and dairy products. Research indicates differences in the total antioxidant capacity of milk between animal species, which result from the differences in the chemical compositions of their milk. The content of antioxidant components in milk and the antioxidant potential can be modified through animal nutrition (e.g., supplementation of animal diets with various natural additives (herbal mixtures, waste from fruit and vegetable processing)). The antioxidant potential of dairy products is associated with the quality of the raw material as well as the bacterial cultures and natural plant additives used. Antioxidant peptides released during milk fermentation increase the antioxidant capacity of dairy products, and the use of probiotic strains contributes its enhancement. Investigations have shown that the antioxidant activity of dairy products can be enhanced by the addition of plant raw materials or their extracts in the production process. Natural plant additives should therefore be widely used in animal nutrition or as functional additives to dairy products.
... Fat-soluble antioxidants and vitamins present in cows' milk are derived specially from green forage [54,55]. Milk and dairy products are a rich source of carotenoids and bioavailable vitamin A in the daily diet of consumers [56]. However, they have low levels of vitamin E. Vitamin E plays an important role as an antioxidant that protects milk fat against autoxidation [57]. ...
... However, they have low levels of vitamin E. Vitamin E plays an important role as an antioxidant that protects milk fat against autoxidation [57]. Beneficial effects related to the reduction of oxidative stress, which was shown to be a risk factor for a wide range of chronic disease processes including cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, impaired immunity and premature ageing, are associated with consumption of diets with high antioxidant contents [17,56]. ...
... The variability in milk content of carotenoids and vitamins has been associated with the presence of grass in the ration and its levels in the grass are highly related to drying and preservation because of light exposure [22]. Different studies reported that the content of β-carotene and fat-soluble vitamins were up to four times higher in the milk of grazing cows compared to the milk of cows offered total mixed rations or a high proportion of concentrate [56,58]. Milk produced from pasture is yellower in color as a result of the higher β-carotene concentration of the milk [58]. ...
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The optimization of milk production includes a rational use of forages, respect for the environment and offers the best quality to consumers. Milk production based on grass and forages produces healthier milk and it is widely spread throughout the Atlantic arc to maximize milk yield per hectare. However, the mode of offering the grass can have a major influence on milk composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of grass supply mode (grazing, zero-grazing or ensiling) on dairy cows' performance, with particular reference to fatty acids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentration. A three by three Latin square experiment was performed with 18 dairy cows. Experimental treatments consisted of exclusive feeding with grass silage and zero-grazing, both offered ad libitum indoors, or grazing for 24 h. The results showed that grazing cows had a higher dry matter intake and greater milk yield than cows feeding on grass silage and zero-grazing, as well as higher concentrations of protein, lactose, nonfat-solids and urea in milk than housed cows. Milk fat from grazing cows had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids than from cows feeding on grass silage and zero-grazing, with significant differences in the proportion of vaccenic and rumenic acids. The 18:1 trans-11 to 18:1 trans-10 ratio is proposed as biomarker to identify the milk produced from the management system of grazing cattle. Milk from grazing cows had a greater proportion of lutein than cows eating grass silage, with the zero-grazing system having intermediate values. In conclusion, the mode of grass supply affects fatty acid and antioxidant profiles of milk.
... Radical absorbance capacity is related to the scavenging of free radicals by sulfur containing amino acids [51] to some peptides derived from whey proteins, mainly from α-LA and β-LG [52], and Table 1 Among the antioxidative proteins of the whey fraction of milk that could tolerate the conditions of WPC manufacture are the lactoferrin, which can bind considerable amounts of the pro-oxidative iron ions, and the enzyme superoxide dismutase [50]. Radical absorbance capacity is related to the scavenging of free radicals by sulfur containing amino acids [51] to some peptides derived from whey proteins, mainly from α-LA and β-LG [52], and to the secondary structure of the peptides [53]. Fe-CA in milk and dairy products is attributed mainly to casein and casein-derived peptides and especially phosphopeptides, which can interact with metals via the polar side chains of some amino acids [52,53]. ...
... Radical absorbance capacity is related to the scavenging of free radicals by sulfur containing amino acids [51] to some peptides derived from whey proteins, mainly from α-LA and β-LG [52], and to the secondary structure of the peptides [53]. Fe-CA in milk and dairy products is attributed mainly to casein and casein-derived peptides and especially phosphopeptides, which can interact with metals via the polar side chains of some amino acids [52,53]. The antioxidant activity of peptides is affected by the methods used for the isolation of proteinssubstrates, the DH, the type of enzyme, the peptide concentration, and the peptide structure, i.e., composition, configuration, and hydrophobicity [54]. ...
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Tryptic WPHs with considerable residual whey protein content intact were developed from two sheep/goat WPCs (65% and 80% protein) without pH control. Pasteurization was used to avoid denaturation. Changes in non-protein nitrogen (DH_TCASN), free amino groups (DH_TNBS), and major whey proteins were used to investigate the degree and extent of hydrolysis. Antihypertensive potential (ACE-IA), radical scavenging (DPPH-RSA), and iron chelation (Fe-CA) were assessed. No statistically significant changes in pH (5.84–6.29) were observed during hydrolysis and storage. At the start of hydrolysis, DH_TCASN was ≅11% for both substrates whereas DH_TNBS was >10% and >5% for WP65 and WP80, respectively. After one-hour hydrolysis, DH_TCASN was ≅17% for both substrates and DH_TNBS was ≅15% and ≅11% for WP65 and WP80, respectively. The β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and caseinomacropeptide of WP65 were hydrolyzed by 14 ± 1.3%, 73.9 ± 2.6% and 37 ± 2.6%. The respective values for WP80 were 14.9 ± 1.7%, 79.9 ± 1%, and 32.7 ± 4.8%. ACE-IA of the hydrolysates of both substrates was much higher (>80%) than that of controls (<10%). Hydrolysis, substrate type, and storage did not affect the DPPH-RSA (45–54%). Fe-CA of the WP65 and WP80 hydrolysates were ≅40% and ≅20%, respectively; a similar outcome was found in the respective controls. Refrigerated storage for 17 h did not affect the degree of hydrolysis and biofunctional activities.
... Lypophilic antioxidant fraction also known as fat soluble, is mostly consisted of vitamins A, E, phospholipids and fatty acids (Khan et al., 2017). Both antioxidant systems perform an essential role for the human body namely supporting antioxidant and pro-oxidant homeostasis by disrupting the activity of reactive oxygen species (Grażyna et al., 2017). Also, fat-soluble antioxidants present higher thermal stability, remaining active in most of the milk products, compared to hydrophilic antioxidants. ...
... Also, fat-soluble antioxidants present higher thermal stability, remaining active in most of the milk products, compared to hydrophilic antioxidants. Hydrophilic antioxidant system (water soluble) is mainly comprised of minerals, trace elements, proteins, vitamins and bioactive peptides (Basilicata et al., 2018;Grażyna et al., 2017). On one hand elements from milk such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) play a crucial role in the development of human growth. ...
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Buffalo milk due to its high fat content from the energy point of view is more valuable compared to cow's milk. Thepercentage of fat varies depending on the stage of lactation, season, individual, health, animal age and diet. The studyof the chemical composition and the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk is required for both scientific andtechnological considerations, given the importance of this type of milk in the consumer's diet. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the physico-chemical composition of buffalo milk by lactation. Buffalomilk can have different qualities, so the quality of buffalo milk is also determined by its content in its components(protein, fat, lactose, vitamins, fatty acids, water content, antioxidant capacity). The physicochemical parameters andantioxidant capacity were influenced by lactation, presenting the highest values in lactations III and IV. Duringlactation I, parameters such as fat, protein and lactose showed a content of 7.88, 4.35 and 4.71%, respectively.Furthermore, in lactation IV, fat, protein and lactose had increased, showing the content of these parameters as follows9.53, 4.68 and 4.77%. Antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk showed the highest numbers in lactation III (360.1) and IV,358.9 μg/ml. From all of the analyzed parameters, only total dry substance content presented the most increased values18.9% in lactation I.
... Lypophilic antioxidant fraction also known as fat soluble, is mostly consisted of vitamins A, E, phospholipids and fatty acids (Khan et al., 2017). Both antioxidant systems perform an essential role for the human body namely supporting antioxidant and pro-oxidant homeostasis by disrupting the activity of reactive oxygen species (Grażyna et al., 2017). Also, fat-soluble antioxidants present higher thermal stability, remaining active in most of the milk products, compared to hydrophilic antioxidants. ...
... Also, fat-soluble antioxidants present higher thermal stability, remaining active in most of the milk products, compared to hydrophilic antioxidants. Hydrophilic antioxidant system (water soluble) is mainly comprised of minerals, trace elements, proteins, vitamins and bioactive peptides (Basilicata et al., 2018;Grażyna et al., 2017). On one hand elements from milk such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) play a crucial role in the development of human growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Buffalo milk due to its high fat content from the energy point of view is more valuable compared to cow's milk. The percentage of fat varies depending on the stage of lactation, season, individual, health, animal age and diet. The study of the chemical composition and the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk is required for both scientific and technological considerations, given the importance of this type of milk in the consumer's diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the physico-chemical composition of buffalo milk by lactation. Buffalo milk can have different qualities, so the quality of buffalo milk is also determined by its content in its components (protein, fat, lactose, vitamins, fatty acids, water content, antioxidant capacity). The physicochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity were influenced by lactation, presenting the highest values in lactations III and IV. During lactation I, parameters such as fat, protein and lactose showed a content of 7.88, 4.35 and 4.71%, respectively. Furthermore, in lactation IV, fat, protein and lactose had increased, showing the content of these parameters as follows 9.53, 4.68 and 4.77%. Antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk showed the highest numbers in lactation III (360.1) and IV, 358.9 μg/ml. From all of the analyzed parameters, only total dry substance content presented the most increased values 18.9% in lactation I.
... Additionally, the lipophilic antioxidants (conjugated linoleic acids, vitamins A and D3, vitamin E, ß-carotene, coenzyme Q10, and phospholipids), as well as the hydrophilic antioxidants (proteins, peptides, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements) are all discussed to play a role in the antioxidant effects of milk [42,52]. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants interact in the process of deactivating ROS and the finial products of lipid peroxidation [52]. ...
... Additionally, the lipophilic antioxidants (conjugated linoleic acids, vitamins A and D3, vitamin E, ß-carotene, coenzyme Q10, and phospholipids), as well as the hydrophilic antioxidants (proteins, peptides, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements) are all discussed to play a role in the antioxidant effects of milk [42,52]. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants interact in the process of deactivating ROS and the finial products of lipid peroxidation [52]. ...
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High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, strategies to mitigate excessive ROS productions could be useful to reduce the negative consequences of oxidative damage for health, as well as for physical, performances. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of pre-exercise oatmeal consumption on exercise-induced ROS generation in young, healthy women. Thirty-four participants were randomly allocated in one of two groups: oatmeal prior to HIIT (oatmeal; n = 17) or HIIT alone (control; n = 17). Blood samples were obtained at pre-meal, pre-HIIT, immediately post-HIIT, and 15 min after HIIT. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the concentrations of ROS in the capillary blood. In addition, the blood glucose and blood lactate levels were measured. Immediately post-HIIT, the ROS generation in the oatmeal group was significantly lower in contrast to the control group (p < 0.05). A significant interaction effect of time × meal (p < 0.05; η2 = 0.234) was detected from the pre-meal to 15 post-HIIT for ROS production. Moreover, significant differences in the blood glucose levels were observed between the groups at pre-HIIT and immediately post-HIIT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the consumption of oatmeal before HIIT may mitigate exercise-induced ROS production.
... Milk antioxidants include a wide array of free radical scavenging molecules. In this respect, conjugated linoleic acids have been described empirically as one of the most bioactive antioxidant compounds in milk fat, even if the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this physiological effect remain uncertain [5]. Moreover, milk fat globules contain several antioxidant vitamins, mainly vitamin A (retinol), vitamin A precursor (β-carotene), and vitamin E (tocopherols) [5]. ...
... In this respect, conjugated linoleic acids have been described empirically as one of the most bioactive antioxidant compounds in milk fat, even if the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this physiological effect remain uncertain [5]. Moreover, milk fat globules contain several antioxidant vitamins, mainly vitamin A (retinol), vitamin A precursor (β-carotene), and vitamin E (tocopherols) [5]. The most important hydrophilic antioxidants in milk include vitamin C (ascorbate) [6], low molecular weight thiols [7], whey proteins (particularly lactoferrin), and peptides derived from whey protein hydrolysis or fermentation [8]. ...
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Food antioxidants enhance products shelf life and stability during technological treatments through the maintenance of their physical and chemical properties. Moreover, they are endowed with several positive effects on human health, including cell membranes preservation, enzyme functionality, and DNA integrity. Milk has been described in relation to a wide array of fat soluble and water-soluble antioxidant compounds, in particular vitamin A, C, and E, lactoferrin and peptides derived from casein and whey proteins. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of milk is a novel and scarcely explored trait, defined as the sum of antioxidant contributions of the aforementioned compounds. On this background, the aims of the present study were to investigate the variability of milk TAA on a large scale exploiting predictions obtained through mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and to estimate genetic parameters of this trait in Holstein cows. Individual milk samples were collected between January 2011 and December 2018 during the routine milk recording procedure. Samples were analysed for gross composition through MIR spectroscopy and MIR spectra were stored. Milk TAA was then predicted (pTAA) from the stored milk MIR spectra (111,653 test-day records of 9519 cows in 344 herds) using the previously developed prediction model; considering the prediction accuracy, pTAA might be considered a proxy of the TAA determined through the reference method. Overall, pTAA averaged 7.16 mmoL/L of Trolox Equivalents, showed a nadir around 40 days after calving and increased thereafter, following a linear trend up to the end of lactation. The lowest pTAA was observed in milk sampled from June to September. Milk pTAA was heritable (0.401 ± 0.015) and genetically associated to fat yield (0.366 ± 0.049), crude protein (CP) yield (0.238 ± 0.052), fat percentage (0.616 ± 0.022) and CP percentage (0.754 ± 0.015). The official selection index of Italian Holstein put the 49% of the emphasis on fat and protein yield and percentage, therefore it derives that an indirect favourable selection for milk pTAA should be already in progress in Italian Holstein population.
... Therefore, other potentially antioxidant or bioactive molecules are bound to be released during digestion. In addition, other compounds with antioxidant capacity can be found in foods of animal origin, such as taurine [9] and carotenoids from animal feed [10,11]. ...
... In the group of dairy products, butter stood out as the food with the greatest antioxidant capacity. This could be explained, taking into account that some antioxidant compounds in dairy products (such as α-tocopherol, β-carotene, vitamins A and D3, and phospholipids) are found in milk fat, the main component of butter [11]. ...
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The human body is exposed to oxidative damage to cells and though it has some endogenous antioxidant systems, we still need to take antioxidants from our diet. The main dietary source of antioxidants is vegetables due to their content of different bioactive molecules. However, there are usually other components of the diet, such as foods of animal origin, that are not often linked to antioxidant capacity. Still, these foods are bound to exert some antioxidant capacity thanks to molecules released during gastrointestinal digestion and gut microbial fermentation. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of 11 foods of animal origin has been studied, submitted to different culinary techniques and to an in vitro digestion and gut microbial fermentation. Results have shown how dairy products potentially provide the highest antioxidant capacity, contributing to 60% of the daily antioxidant capacity intake. On the other hand, most of the antioxidant capacity was released during gut microbial fermentation (90–98% of the total antioxidant capacity). Finally, it was found that the antioxidant capacity of the studied foods was much higher than that reported by other authors. A possible explanation is that digestion–fermentation pretreatment allows for a higher extraction of antioxidant compounds and their transformation by the gut microbiota. Therefore, although foods of animal origin cannot be compared to vegetables in the concentration of antioxidant molecules, the processes of digestion and fermentation can provide some, giving animal origin food some qualities that could have been previously unappreciated.
... The first is the high protein content observed in cheese made in April (Table 2). Protein, especially casein [79], contains antioxidant activity. The second is diet composition. ...
... It is known that milk fat and protein, sources of healthy compounds, are closely linked to animal species. Few papers simultaneously evaluate and relate CLA, PUFA, antioxidant capacity, and polyphenol content in cheese and those made under different feeding regimens [23,74,79]. In goat Caciotta cheese, produced from the milk of goats fed with different forages, GHIC values were between 10 and 28. ...
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Five natural historic cheeses of Southern Italy were investigated—Caciocavallo Palermitano (CP), Casizolu del Montiferru (CdM), Vastedda della Valle del Belìce (VVB), Pecorino Siciliano (PS), and Caprino Nicastrese (CN)—which are produced with raw milk and with traditional techniques and tools, from autochthonous breeds reared under an extensive system. The effects of the month of production on gross composition, MUFA, PUFA, PUFA-ω6, PUFA-ω3, α-tocopherol, retinol, cholesterol, TPC, TEAC, and GHIC were evaluated. In CP, CLA, TPC, and GHIC were higher in April than in February. CdM showed higher values in terms of fat, saturated fatty acids, PUFA-ω3, α-tocopherol, TEAC, and GHIC in May than in February and September, while low values in terms of protein, moisture, and CLA were found. In VVB, MUFA, PUFA-ω6, and α-tocopherol increased in June compared with April; conversely, protein, FRAP, and TEAC were higher in April. In PS, protein, CLA, PUFA, PUFA-ω3, α-tocopherol, and GHIC increased in May compared with January; on the contrary, moisture, NaCl, and TEAC showed high values in January. CN showed higher values in terms of PUFA, PUFA-ω6, PUFA-ω3, TPC, TEAC, and GHIC in April and June compared with January. It is shown that each cheese is unique and closely linked to the production area. Cheeses produced in the spring months showed a high nutritional quality due to the greatest presence of healthy compounds originating from an extensive feeding system.
... Furthermore, human milk samples contains a greater abundance of differential medium-chain lipid species, including DG (18:2/10:0), PE and PG (7:0/24:1) for the CeH group. In relation to differential PLs containing PUFA S that act as antioxidants in gut mucosa (Grazyna, Hanna, Adam, & Magdalena, 2017), we observed that the differential PLs predominantly contained ARA and DHA and the contents were higher in human milk samples for the two groups. PG (8:0/20:3) and PG (26:1/20:3) containing DGLA were more abundant in human milk samples. ...
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The lipidome and fatty acid composition of human milk and different infant formulas with animal- and/or plant-based fat sources are analyzed and compared in this study. The results obtained using positive and negative ionization modes indicate that there are 48 and 71 lipid species, respectively, that are common between the human milk and infant formulas. Moreover, the fatty acid composition in infant formulas varies significantly, depending on the fat source. Human milk is rich in triacylglycerols that contain linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. Meanwhile, the triacylglycerols in IFB comprise long-chain fatty acids at the sn-1,3 position. Compared to human milk, IFC has the same level of sphingomyelin species. Based on univariate and multivariate analyses, there are 37, 34, 31, and 36 lipid species that can be used to distinguish between human milk and infant formulas. Overall, the results reported herein are useful in designing new milk formulas that better mimic human milk.
... Almost all vitamins contained in ice cream include A, B (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 ), C, D, E, K, the highest amount being registered for vitamins A, C, and B 2 [4]. Besides vitamins, ice cream made from milk also contains natural antioxidants, including conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q 10 , phospholipids, and peptides, where these antioxidants have a key role in maintaining pro-oxidants and antioxidant homeostasis and in the human body [5]. Even though the addition of salt is usually used to increase the melting time of ice cream, some innovations to extend melting time need to be increased to respond to consumer needs. ...
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The effect on the properties of ice cream from cow's milk from the addition of different concentrations of baking soda (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 wt %) was investigated. The ice cream was consumed by 25 panelists to evaluate the sensory properties of the ice cream. The ice cream with the addition of 0.6 wt % baking soda showed an insignificant change of antioxidant activity during the pasteurization process (only a decrease of 10.01 %) and while having good physical properties such as viscosity (923 ± 28.45 cP), overrun (54.16 ± 0.40 %), and pH (7.23 ± 0.06). Furthermore, the addition of 0.6 wt % baking soda into the ice cream also had insignificant effect on the melting time and color. The presence of CO 2 bubbles due to NaHCO 3 led to the formation of small cavities that made the ice cream texture creamer and softer due to the weak bond between the ice cream crystals and other materials such as sugar, fat, and protein. In general, ice cream with the addition of 0.6 wt % baking soda received good acceptability or response from respondents, which means that baking soda can be used as an additive material of ice cream.
... Administration of skimmed milk or permeate enhanced the antioxidant activity in NT-treated rats. The antioxidant properties of milk by-products were suggested in several reports which showed that the fundamental and antioxidative role of amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine in milk by-products have hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities [16] as well as their other nutritive properties [38]. Moreover, whey and its UF permeate could be used as a natural antioxidant [39,40]. ...
... Radical-scavenging milk action is known to be determined by presence of casein, whey proteins and, to a lesser extent, by vitamin-mineral component (Zulueta et al., 2009). Antioxidant activity (AOA) of native proteins and peptides is correlated with reducing properties of amino acid radicals (Grażyna et al., 2017). Biological phenomenon of mutation suppression is expressed as reduced spontaneous and induced mutation rate under the influence of natural and synthetic compounds (Horn and Vargas, 2003). ...
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A comparative analysis of protein and peptide profile, biological activities of hydrolysed bovine colostrum and whey was performed. It was found that the depth of proteolysis, qualitative and quantitative composition of protein component of samples determined the level of their antiradical, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and antigenic properties. SDS-electrophoresis of experimental samples revealed more extensive protein hydrolysis in the course of alcalase treatment than during enzymatic reaction with neutrase. Using fluorimetric method the influence of hydrolysis with endopeptidases and fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus on antioxidant properties of milk proteins was established. 1.7–5.5 times increase in antiradical activity of derived samples in comparison with native proteins was recorded. Reduction in mutation rate induced by whey hydrolysate in tested strain Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 ranged from 15.7 % to 49.2 %, whereas antimutagenic effect on strain TA 100 varied from 18.8 % to 52.1 %, exceeding the similar values shown by colostrum hydrolysates. Samples of colostrum and whey hydrolysed with alcalase are enriched with specific short-chain peptides which determine their relatively high antimutagenic and antiradical properties. Immunoprecipitation reaction demonstrated effective splitting of β-lactoglobulin by alcalase, resulting in production of hypoallergenic hydrolysates. It was found by impedimetric technique that neutrase-cleaved colostrum accounted for maximum inhibition of Escherichia coli АТСС 8739 (82 %) and Staphylococcus aureus АТСС 6538 (19 %). Samples of enzymatic hydrolysates of colostrum and whey proteins with confirmed antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant action were obtained. The use of hydrolysed and fermented colostrum with elevated antioxidant potential in special nutrition appears extremely promising.
... Functional properties of CLA include body fat mass reduction, antiatherogenic and antidiabetogenic activities, and positive effects on atherosclerosis [130À133]. In addition, CLA shows better inhibition of neoplastic growth than tocopherols and omega-3 fatty acids [134]. A multifunctional α-enolase protein was isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 cells, which possesses the ability to produce 9cis-11-trans-CLA from LA upon combination with the membrane-associated protein fraction [24]. ...
... On the other side, milk contains considerable amounts of antioxidants such as caseins, whey proteins, certain peptides, sulfur-rich amino acids, vitamins C, A and E, carotenoids, some minerals and enzyme systems [24]. Dairy products, particularly yogurt and cheese, have higher antioxidant properties as compared to the normal milk. ...
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This study aimed at investigating the impact of adding microbial transgluta-minase (MTGase) after rennet addition on some properties of fresh soft cheese made from camel milk. MTGase was added to milk at concentration of 80, 100 and 120 U⁄L after 20 and 30 min of renneting. The chemical composi-tion, yield, hardness, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of cheese were estimated. Enzymatic protein crosslinking was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Results revealed that MTGase-treated cheeses were higher in moisture and lower in protein content compared to control. In addition, the concentration of MTGase and time of addition significantly (P < 0.05) impacted these pa-rameters. Among treated cheeses, samples with 80 U of MTGase and addition time of 20 min were the highest in total solids and protein content. Adding MTGase significantly (P < 0.05) increased the cheese yield, however, in-creased MTGase concentration at any time of addition did not improve it. The electrophoretic patterns of MTGase-cheese proteins showed a reduction in the intensity of caseins bands and the appearance of new protein fractions with high molecular weights. However, the changes in the intensity of the whey proteins bands were not sufficiently clear as caseins. The cheese hard-ness was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by adding MTGase. Cheese contain-ing 80 U of MTGase had the highest hardness value compared to control and other treated samples. The antioxidant activity of cheese was negatively in-fluenced by adding the enzyme. The use of MTGase enhanced the mouthfeel, texture and overall acceptability of cheese. However, the effect of MTGase concentration and addition time was not significant (P > 0.05) on the sensory attributes. In conclusion, adding MTGase to milk at concentration of 80 U after 20 min of renneting is recommended to improve the yield, textural and some sensory properties of fresh soft cheese made from camel milk.
... Several chronic diseases, such as aging, diabetes, arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and other neurodegenerative disorders, could be induced by the accumulation of free radicals in the body (Gu et al., 2015). Some synthesized antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, play an important role in preventing oxidative damages in an organism and delaying autoxidation in food commodities (Grażyna, Hanna, Adam, & Magdalena, 2017). Moreover, natural antioxidants derived from a dietary source have attracted increasing attention considering the potential adverse effects and toxicity of artificial synthetic antioxidants (Chi, Hu, Wang, Li, & Ding, 2015). ...
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Egg white is a good source of high‐quality proteins in food products and an excellent source of antioxidant active peptides through hydrolysis. The hydrolysis conditions for the preparation of potent antioxidant peptides from egg white with chymotrypsin and pepsin were optimized by the response surface methodology. The antioxidant activity and potential allergenicity of the prepared peptides were evaluated by the oxidative damage model and IgE‐binding capability, respectively. After ultrafiltration, the peptide produced using the optimized parameters (preheating time of 3.16 hr, hydrolysis time of 3 hr, a sample/solution ratio of 10%, multiple enzymes ratio (E 1/E 2) of 1.7:1, and E/S of 0.4%) showed antioxidant activity of was 30.86 μmol AAE/g DW and with low potential for allergenicity. The optimized method is efficient and economical and may be applied to the industrial production of antioxidant peptides to obtain nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agents with low sensitivity. However, further in vivo studies must be conducted. Practical applications Egg is consumed as an excellent source of protein. Antioxidant peptides released from egg white is considered to be used in food preservation and human health. Few researches on the optimization of egg peptides were aimed to obtain practical techniques used in the food industry. In this paper, egg white hydrolysis peptide with high antioxidant property and low potential allergenicity was prepared after the optimization of double enzyme hydrolysis. The products could be a natural health care products derived from a dietary source and considered using in additive during food production and health food. And the methods used are economical and energy‐saving and could be developed to utilize in the food industry.
... Almost all vitamins contained in ice cream include A, B (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 ), C, D, E, K, the highest amount being registered for vitamins A, C, and B 2 [4]. Besides vitamins, ice cream made from milk also contains natural antioxidants, including conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q 10 , phospholipids, and peptides, where these antioxidants have a key role in maintaining pro-oxidants and antioxidant homeostasis and in the human body [5]. Even though the addition of salt is usually used to increase the melting time of ice cream, some innovations to extend melting time need to be increased to respond to consumer needs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect on the properties of ice cream from cow's milk from the addition of different concentrations of baking soda (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 wt %) was investigated. The ice cream was consumed by 25 panelists to evaluate the sensory properties of the ice cream. The ice cream with the addition of 0.6 wt % baking soda showed an insignificant change of antioxidant activity during the pasteurization process (only a decrease of 10.01 %) and while having good physical properties such as viscosity (923 ± 28.45 cP), overrun (54.16 ± 0.40 %), and pH (7.23 ± 0.06). Furthermore, the addition of 0.6 wt % baking soda into the ice cream also had insignificant effect on the melting time and color. The presence of CO 2 bubbles due to NaHCO 3 led to the formation of small cavities that made the ice cream texture creamer and softer due to the weak bond between the ice cream crystals and other materials such as sugar, fat, and protein. In general, ice cream with the addition of 0.6 wt % baking soda received good acceptability or response from respondents, which means that baking soda can be used as an additive material of ice cream.
... According to Farvin et al. (2010) Fe 2+ -CA comes from amino acids and compounds of 3-10 kDa. In the present study, significant proteolysis did not take place, therefore, the major source of the high antioxidant potential observed in all yoghurts is the pool of milk compounds with antioxidant activity (Grażyna et al., 2017). In general, it is difficult to compare findings on antioxidant activity due to the variability of the assay conditions appearing in literature. ...
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This research paper addresses the hypothesis that the fortification of goat milk base with whey protein concentrate (WPC) could affect both the textural and the biofunctional properties of set-style yoghurt. The effect of fortification of goat milk base with two different WPCs on thermophilic bacteria counts, proteolysis, physical and biofunctional properties of set-style yoghurts was studied at specific sampling points throughout a 4-week storage period. Fortification and storage did not influence thermophilic counts. Physical properties were affected significantly ( P < 0.05) by the composition of the protein and the mineral fraction of the WPC but not by the storage. ACE-inhibitory activity was moderate in accordance to low lactobacilli counts and lack of proteolysis. DPPH-radical scavenging activity, Fe ²⁺ -chelating activity and superoxide scavenging activity were high. At 28 d an anti-inflammatory effect was observed, which was not affected by WPC addition.
... As rumen concentration and rumen production/uptake of C18:1 trans-11 are not always related, and rumen volume varies considerably in grass-fed cows, a consistent C18:1 trans-11 supply to the plasma is not precluded by having a rumen concentration flux across the day. C18:1 trans-11 can be converted to C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (rumenic acid) through the action of stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase and it has been estimated that 20% of C18:1 trans-11 can be converted to C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 in humans [43]. Rumenic acid has been identified as anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidative and an immunomodulator [44]. ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term variations of trans fatty acids (TFA) in plasma lipoproteins and ruminal fermentation parameters of non-lactating cows subjected to ruminal pulses of vegetable oils. Three non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows, each with a ruminal cannula, were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three-day pulsing periods and four-day washout intervals between treatments. Cows were treated with single ruminal pulses of: (1) control (skimmed milk (SM); 500 mL); (2) soybean oil (SO; 250 g/d in 500 mL of SM) and (3) partially-hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO; 250 g/d in 500 mL of SM). Time changes after infusion in TFA contents were only observed for plasma C18:1 trans-4, trans-5 and trans-12, and high-density lipoprotein fraction C18:1 trans-9. After ruminal pulses, concentration of acetate decreased linearly; molar concentrations of propionate and valerate increased linearly; molar concentrations of butyrate and isovalerate changed quadratically and were greater at 1 h than at other times. There was an accumulation of several C18:1 TFA in plasma and lipoproteins, especially on the third day of pulsing. Overall, naturally occurring C18:1 TFA isomers (produced during ruminal biohydrogenation of SO) and preformed TFA (supplied by PHVO) elicited differential TFA partitioning and transport in plasma and lipoproteins.
... The antioxidant activity of fermented milk might be also increased by the formation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), one of the major antioxidants in milk fat alongside vitamins A and E, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 [38]. Widodo et al. [18] showed, by analyzing the presence of CLA in fermented and non-fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, that the formation of this class of compounds in milk is dependent on the fermentation process and on the use of selected starters, such as Lb. ...
Article
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Fermented foods have long been produced according to knowledge passed down from generation to generation and with no understanding of the potential role of the microorganism(s) involved in the process. However, the scientific and technological revolution in Western countries made fermentation turn from a household to a controlled process suitable for industrial scale production systems intended for the mass marketplace. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the latest studies which investigated the health-promoting components forming upon fermentation of the main food matrices, in order to contribute to understanding their important role in healthy diets and relevance in national dietary recommendations worldwide. Formation of antioxidant, bioactive, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, and FODMAP-reducing components in fermented foods are mainly presented and discussed. Fermentation was found to increase antioxidant activity of milks, cereals, fruit and vegetables, meat and fish. Anti-hypertensive peptides are detected in fermented milk and cereals. Changes in vitamin content are mainly observed in fermented milk and fruits. Fermented milk and fruit juice were found to have probiotic activity. Other effects such as anti-diabetic properties, FODMAP reduction, and changes in fatty acid profile are peculiar of specific food categories.
... Moreover, numerous FRs and lipid peroxidations are produced in the process of lipid oxidation (62,63). Polyphenols could protect milk oxidation by removing the concentrations of FRs and reducing lipid peroxidation, leading to the maintenance of volatile compounds in milk (64). Therefore, the correlation analysis showed negative (P < 0.05; Table 5) correlations between antioxidant activity and O − 2 , H 2 O 2 , MDA, LPO, alcohols, and esters in milk. ...
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The aim of this study was to observe the effect of purple corn anthocyanin on the light-induced antioxidant activity, free radicals, volatile compounds, color parameters, and sensory properties of milk during storage. There were four groups: (1) negative control, no addition of anthocyanins + exposure to fluorescent light (NC); (2) positive control 1, no addition of anthocyanins + protected from fluorescent light (PC1); (3) positive control 2, the addition of 0.3% (w/v) anthocyanins + exposure to fluorescent light (PC2); and (4) the addition of 0.3% anthocyanins + protected from fluorescent light (AC). The results indicated that the concentration of antioxidant activity parameters in the NC group decreased during the entire storage period, whereas antioxidant activity parameters were unchanged except for the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the AC group. Moreover, the NC group showed lower levels of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and higher levels of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide than the other groups after 1 d of storage period. The extent of malondialdehyde accumulation and lipid peroxidation in the control groups were greater than that of the AC group. Twenty-two volatile compounds were determined in milk, which consisted of eight alcohols, three ketones, five aldehydes, two esters, and four hydrocarbons by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometer analysis. Specifically, individual aldehydes, esters and hydrocarbons in the AC group remained at relatively stable values during storage relative to the other three groups. Stronger positive correlations were detected between several antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, GSH-Px) and DPPH scavenging activity as well as total ketones in milk. Adding of anthocyanin did not impact on the color values of L*, a* and b* in light-protected milk during the entire storage period. Some sensory evaluation parameters (flat, garlic/onion/weedy, oxidized-light, oxidized-metal, rancid) in AC group were significantly higher than that of the control group at the end of the period. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the addition of purple corn anthocyanin pigment to light-protected milk had the potential to prevent lipid oxidation, enhance antioxidant activity, maintain volatile compounds and increase the sensory scores.
... The use of these natural antioxidants (AOX) in fermented milk products is recommended to maintain a favorable sensory profile until Fig. 2 Chemical structures of major antioxidants naturally occurring in plants and herbs consumption. Besides, such natural antioxidants may also contribute to increasing the health-promoting potential of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) containing functional foods (Grazyna et al. 2017). Milk contains many particles of colloidal especially fat globules and protein micelles (casein). ...
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Milk is an incredibly healthy food world-wide. However, the ‘lactase deficient’ individuals cannot digest milk’s carbohydrate lactose. A large part of the world population is depriving of highly beneficial milk proteins like casein, lactoalbumin, lactoglobulin, etc. due to lactose intolerance. Production of functional foods and bioactive peptides from milk with natural antioxidants and the addition of probiotics could be the best alternative to extend the use of milk functionalities. Among different probiotics, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) like Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub sp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and some species of Bifidobacteria and their metabolites (paraprobiotics and postbiotics) have been given more preference to add in milk-derived functional foods. These species are generally considered as heat-tolerant, highly proteolytic, and peptidolytic towards milk proteins and they liberate smaller molecules of bioactive peptides during fermentation and other processes that stimulate the enzyme lactase to help people in digestion of milk carbohydrate lactose. Moreover, the incorporation of natural antioxidants in yoghurt and other dairy products prevents the rancidity of milk fat. The level of bioactive peptides produced in milk-derived functional foods can be determined by capillary zone electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, fractionation, and other modern assessment techniques. Commercial production of functional probiotic products with bioactive peptides could significantly contribute to reduce milk spoilage, enhance health benefits as well as the growth of the agro-processing industry.
... Antioxidants can be classified as hydrophilic (water soluble i.e., glutathione, uric acid, ascorbic acid and lipoic acid) and lipophilic (lipid soluble i.e., ubiquinol and carotene) based on their solubility in a solvent (Mishra & Bisht, 2011;Radenkovs & Feldmane, 2017). Generally, lipophilic antioxidants inhibition lipid peroxidation and protect cell membrane, while hydrophilic antioxidants react with blood plasma oxidants (Grażyna, Hanna, Adam, & Magdalena, 2017). Based on the origin of antioxidants, they can be classified either as synthetic or natural. ...
Article
Minimally processed F&V while being as fresh as the intact product, are characterized by an accelerated produce decay which affects its nutritional value during shelf-life. In this sense, food processing needs to further evolve in terms of better preservation of nutritional properties. Active packaging technology has shown positive and promising results to maintain safety and sensory properties of minimally processed F&V. This review aims to present the recent research results regarding biopolymeric antioxidant film and coating for preservation of nutritional quality of minimally processed F&V. The mechanism by which nutritional losses (around 5-30 % loss of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds) occur from oxidation reactions in F&V and natural antioxidant have been discussed. Furthermore, regulatory aspects related to antioxidant packaging have been also reported. Biopolymers based antioxidant film and coating have been vastly used to pack F&V product. Chitosan, gelatin, casein and alginate were found to be more effective as packaging materials (both as coating and as film) to preserve the nutritional and sensory quality of F&V product. Furthermore, plant extracts (green tea and Aloe vera), essential oils (lemon grass), plant oil compounds (eugenol and citral) and phenolics (thymol) as a component of active film or coating systems have shown promising results in preserving the quality of fresh produce. The collected findings will be useful to accurately design an innovative active film or coating for nutritional quality preservation of minimally processed fresh fruits and vegetables.
... The hydrophilic fraction of milk or cheese, which contains peptides, water-soluble vitamins, etc., and the hydrophobic fraction, which consists of compounds, such as conjugated linoleic acid and vitamins A and D3, are responsible for its antioxidant activity [57]. ...
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In the present work, a fresh spreadable cheese from ovine milk with or without (control) fortification with β-glucan was manufactured. β-Glucan was extracted from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and its concentration in the cheese was 0.4% (w/w). The composition, biochemical, and sensory properties of the cheeses during 21 days of storage were determined. At the end of storage, cheese fortified with beta-glucan had 75.26% moisture content, 10.30% fat, 1.71% salt, and 8.50% protein. Generally, the addition of β-glucan at this concentration did not significantly affect the composition, color, and viscosity measurements or the level of proteolysis and lipolysis and the antioxidant activity of the cheeses. However, cheese fortified with β-glucan showed a higher moisture content than control cheese on the 1st and 21st day of storage while the levels of proteolysis and the sensory properties of the cheeses were unaffected. During the sensory evaluation, panelists evaluated cheese with β-glucan with higher scores regarding the flavor characteristic compared to control cheese. The major free fatty acid was acetic acid in both cheeses and its concentration was higher in cheese with β-glucan. The results of the present study could be used by the dairy industry for manufacturing new products with improved health benefits.
... Antiradical properties of milk are mainly due to the presence of casein and whey proteins [11]. AOA of native proteins and peptides is associated with the reducing properties of amino acid radicals [12]. ...
... More so, the proteolysis of milk proteins such as α-casein, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin by the action of starter culture and the production of bioactive peptides has been found to induce in vitro antioxidant capacity [40]. Also, the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in fermented milk and the presence of coenzyme Q10 and vitamins A and E contribute to the antioxidant activity [41]. ...
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e global renewed interest in plant-based milk and products is increasing amongst health-conscious consumers. ere is increased utilisation of generic probiotics in the processing of legume milk as alternatives to dairy milk are scarce in Africa. is study evaluated the probiotic potential, physicochemical, and sensory properties of novel fermented cowpea-peanut milk with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Yoba. A 3 × 1 factorial design as ratio of cowpea-peanut milk (1 :1, 2 :1, 3 :1v/v) and the application of 2% w/v L. rhamnosus Yoba obtained from Yoba for Life Foundation, Netherlands, was used. e chemical and mineral contents of the fermented cowpea-peanut milk was analysed using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. Quality parameters such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging rate, total antioxidant activity, antinutrient, and amino acids content were determined. e fermented cowpea-peanut milk samples had 7.7-8.1 log CFU/mL viable L. rhamnosus Yoba cells after fermentation. Nutrient content range was given in g/100 g: carbohydrate 5.18-6.05, crude fat 3.3-3.5, crude protein 5.6-7.1, ash 1.04-1.26, crude fibre 0.72-1.18, and total reducing sugars 1.80-2.20. Lysine, leucine, and methionine content was 6.30-7.31, 6.60-8.75, and 1.7-1.86 g/100 g, respectively. Phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor content range was 0.3-0.34 mg/100 g and 0.86-1.12 TIU/mg, respectively. Iron and potassium content (mg/100 g) was 0.48-0.58 and 202-243 with pH 4.1-4.2. DPPH free radical scavenging, and total antioxidant rate was 56-59% and 49-54%, respectively. Physicochemical parameters were significantly different (p < 0.05). e fermented cowpea-peanut milk had an acceptance rating of 78%. e successful application and consumer acceptability of the fermented cowpea-peanut milk has the potential to increase the utilisation of these legumes and enhance their market value.
Chapter
Milk is one of the most important sources of animal derived proteins for all mammalians because of its nutritional properties. In the recent years, raw milk consumption has increased due to the rising interest in unprocessed foods. There are several claims about the benefits of raw milk consumption. Among these claims can be mentioned organoleptics properties, nutritional value, effect on allergy and asthma, lactose intolerance, beneficial microflora and antimicrobial systems. Despite the possible benefits as mentioned above there are also some hazards that need to be taken into consideration. Hazards from raw milk and its products can be defined as physical hazards, microbiological hazards, chemical contaminants and veterinary drugs. The aims of this chapter are to give information about benefits of raw milk consumption, its potential hazards and milk quality for probiotic and prebiotic dairy foods.
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In this study, Enterococcus faecalis milk fermentates were assayed for total phenolic content, related antioxidant activity and the inhibition of key enzymes linked to hypertension and hyperglycaemia. Of the 25 isolates, milk fermented with E. faecalis DPC5154 had the highest level of total phenolic compounds (739.06 µg GAE/ml) and demonstrated the highest level of Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Activity (TEAA) based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (271.27 TEAA (µM) and 272.75 TEAA (µM), respectively). Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and α-glucosidase is considered a useful therapeutic approach in the management of hypertension and hyperglycaemia, respectively. Milk fermented with DPC5154 completely inhibited ACE and displayed the highest level of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (33.41%). These studies provide in vitro evidence for the beneficial use of DPC5154 and other E. faecalis isolates for the generation of bioactive milk products with antioxidant, antihypertensive and anti-hyperglycaemic activity.
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Sheep milk contains a large number of antioxidant molecules, such as whey proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and others. In sheep milk the oxidation process is naturally balanced by the presence of constitutive antioxidant agents, however, the abundance of this antioxidant compounds depends also by the stressor conditions to which animal can be exposed. The stage of lactation together with particular environmental conditions, such as the high ambient temperatures, can cause an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, being responsible for the oxidative stress that can be measured both in plasma and in milk samples. Different methods to measure the antioxidant activity of milk have been proposed, according to each single antioxidant compounds and to the need for consumers’ health of decreasing the exposition to oxidized proteins capable for creation of a novel class of allergens. However, the golden standard for the measurement of antioxidant activity in milk has not still found. Therefore, the present review aims at describing the roles of various antioxidant molecules of milk, and provides an overview of the different methods available to measure the total antioxidant capacity of milk.
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Requeson cheese is obtained from whey proteins. The production of this cheese is the most economical way to recover and concentrate whey proteins, which is why it is frequently made in some Latin American countries. Four requeson cheese treatments were prepared with different concentrations and combinations of salts (sodium chloride and/or potassium chloride) and were conventionally or vacuum packed. Proteolysis, peptide concentration, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS) activities were evaluated over time (one, seven and fourteen days). Requeson cheese presented antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities, however, these values vary depending on salt addition, type of packaging and time of storage. The highest values of antioxidant activity (ABTS) were found in cheese added with 1.5% NaCl and 1.5% (NaCl/KCl, 1:1). Cheese without added salt and vacuum packed presented the highest ACE inhibition percentage at day seven. Therefore, it can be concluded that requeson cheese elaborated exclusively of sweet whey, presents antioxidant and ACE inhibition activity. However, for a cheese with ACE inhibitory capacity, it is recommended not to add salts or add at 1% (NaCl) and vacuum pack it. Additionally, for a cheese with antioxidant activity, it is recommended to add salt at 1.5% either NaCl or (1:1) NaCl/KCl and pack it either in a polyethylene bag or vacuum. In conclusion, requeson cheese elaborate with 100% sweet whey is a dairy product with antioxidant and ACE inhibition activity, being low in salt and fat.
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Although infant formula represents an important human milk substitute, it has been shown to contain many different lipid structures compared to human milk. In this study, the lipidome and fatty acid composition of human, bovine and caprine milk were analyzed and compared. A total of 13 lipid classes (including TG, DG, SM, PC, Cer, HexCer, Hex2Cer, PE, PG, PS, PI, PA and CL) were analyzed. Human milk was richer in TG containing LA, SM containing ULCFA and PLs containing ARA, DHA and DGLA. Moreover, there were no differential DG and SM species between human and caprine milk. A total of 215 and 147 lipids were identified as potential biomarkers that could be used to further analyze differences in the biological properties of human, bovine and caprine milk. This comprehensive analysis will hopefully help in the design of infant formula more suitable for Chinese babies.
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto seeds, linseed oil and their combination on DMI, apparent total tract digestibility, antioxidant capacity and milk composition of dairy cows. Four lactating Holstein cows (120 ± 43 days in milk; 15.98 ± 2.02 kg of milk/day, mean ± SD) were allocated in a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (with or without annatto seeds at 15 g/kg of dry matter (DM); with or without linseed oil at 30 g/kg of DM) and provided four different diets: control (no annatto seeds or linseed oil); annatto seeds (15 g/kg of DM); linseed oil (30 g/kg of DM); and a combination of both annatto seeds and linseed oil. Annatto seeds reduced DM intake, and milk yield, protein and lactose, but increased content of fat, total solids and short chain fatty acid, with no effect on total antioxidant capacity of milk. Linseed oil supplementation decreased medium chain fatty acid proportion and n-6/n-3 ratio, conversely it increased long chain fatty acids and n-3 fatty acid content of milk, ether extract intake and total-tract digestibility. Thus, linseed oil supplementation in dairy cow diets improved the milk FA profile but decreased milk fat concentration, whereas annatto seeds did not influence antioxidant capacity and depressed feed intake and milk yield.
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The aim of the work was to isolate the associate of Fe+3 with NADPH containing lipoprotein from Saanen and local goat milk, to determine O2−-producing reaction to show the immune activity of milk. Results showed that the content of the associate in Saanen milk was lower by 1.7 times compared with the local, which means that its prooxidant status is higher.
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A continued intake of milk with certain contents of environmental pollutants/toxicants can mean health risks for the consumers. This paper is mainly focused on reviewing recent studies on the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in cow milk of different countries. As expected, notable differences in the metal levels in cow milk samples, depending on the countries and the specific areas of collection, have been found. In general terms, based on the studies here reviewed, human exposure to As, Cd, Hg and Pb by frequent consumption of cow milk should not mean significant health risks for the consumers.
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In this study, changes in the chemical characteristics of milk formula stored at 25oC, 30oC and 40oC during 6 months storage were investigated. Three vitamins degraded to varying degrees at all temperatures with the prolonging of storage time. Lipid oxidation continued to occur during storage. Lipid hydroperoxides content was affected by storage time, while the formation of volatile components was influenced by storage temperature and time. According to the Pearson correlation analysis, propionaldehyde was mainly caused by the degradation of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3, DHA), and hexanal was the primary oxidation product of linoleic acid (C18:2n6, LA) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6, AA). Fatty acids composition, except polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), remained stable at all storage temperatures. However, the correlation between PUFAs and volatile components was only shown at 30oC and 40oC. Based on the analysis of physicochemical characteristics, the shelf-life of milk formula was predicted by Multivariate Accelerated Shelf-Life Test combined with Arrhenius model. The commercial shelf-life of milk formula was estimated to be stored at 25oC and 30oC for 12 and 8 months, respectively. Particle size, vitamin A and color difference could be used as indicators for predicting the shelf-life of dairy products with similar matrices.
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This study was conducted to determine the relationship between milk and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, casein concentration, somatic cell count (SCC) and colony forming units (CFU) in cows with subclinical mastitis. Following these tests carried out on 84 lactating cows, 10 of them were classified as cows with subclinical mastitis (SCC values above the limit of 400,000 cells mL -1) and 74 as normal. After microbiological processing of the subclinical mastitis milk samples, nine microorganism species have been isolated, represented by seven bacteria and two types of fungi. Comparative analysis of GPx activity in milk revealed significant differences (p = 0.0013), the average of this parameter is higher for mastitis than normal milk. GPx activity in blood shows no significant changes in cows with subclinical mastitis compared to healthy ones. The average quantity of caseins in mastitis milks was lower compared with regular milks, the difference being significant (p = 0.0007). Mastitis milk GPx activity was directly correlated with the total SCC (r = 0.019) and CFU (r = 0.1785). Correlation coefficient between GPx activity and caseins in mastitis milk showed indirect trend (r = -0.2606). The positive correlation between SCC and GPx activity suggests that this enzyme may have potential to detect subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.
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Objectives: Low antioxidant system may contribute to the severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. This study was performed with the aim of establishing whether there is a relationship between serum vitamin D level and the hyperbilirubinaemia in full-term neonates. Material and methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing serum vitamin D levels in newborns with a pathological level of hyperbilirubinaemia and healthy newborns with a physiological level of hyperbilirubinaemia or without jaundice. Ethical committee approval was obtained and written informed consent forms were received from babies' families. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between newborns with hyperbilirubinaemia and control group (p=0.01). A significant negative correlation was noted between serum vitamin D and serum parathyroid hormone levels among the neonates recruited (r:-0.3, p:0.03). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low level of serum vitamin D may associate with hyperbilirubinaemia in full-term neonates.
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In this article, the influence of different ways of storage on the content of vitamin A and E in powdered cow´s milk was studied. The cow´s whole milk powder was taken directly from the manufacturer and stored for one year in 4 different ways – in the light at room temperature, in the dark at room temperature, in a refrigerator at 8°C and in a freezer at -20°C. The content of vitamins was measured 4 times during the first month and then once a month. The samples were stored for one year. Vitamins A and E were determined by HPLC using DAD and FLD detectors. Vitamin A was identified in all samples but only α-tocopherol (out of various forms of vitamin E) was detected in all samples. In all cases steeper decline of both vitamins in first 14 days of storage was identified. The highest losses of vitamin A and E in powdered milk occurred during storage in the light at room temperature. The value decreased by 91 resp. 95% of the original value.
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Milk-derived bioactive peptides have been identified as potential ingredients of health-promoting functional foods. These bioactive peptides are targeted at diet-related chronic diseases especially the non-communicable diseases viz., obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Peptides derived from the milk of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel exerts multifunctional properties, including anti-microbial, immunemodulatory, anti-oxidant, inhibitory effect on enzymes, anti-thrombotic, and antagonistic activities against various toxic agents. Majority of those regulate immunological, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neurological responses, thereby playing a vital role in prevention of cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension and other disorders as discussed in this review. For the commercial production of such novel bioactive peptides large scale technologies based on membrane separation and ion exchange chromatography methods have been developed. Separation and identification of those peptides and their pharmacodynamics parametersare necessary to transfer theirpotent functional properties into food applications. The present review summarises the preliminary classes of bioactive milk-derived peptides along with their physiological functions, general characteristics and potential applications for health-care.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of all the hydrolysates i.e. flavourzyme (0.81 ± 0.04), alcalase (1.16 ± 0.05) and corolase (1.42 ± 0.12) was higher than the WPC (0.19 ± 0.01). Among these, whey protein hydrolysates prepared using corolase showed maximum antioxidant activity. Total 15 β-lactoglobulin, 1 α-lactoalbumin, and 6 β-casein derived peptide fragments were identified in the WPHs by LC-MS/MS. Due to their size and characteristic amino acid composition, all the identified peptides may contribute for the antioxidant activity. The strawberry and chocolate flavoured milk was supplemented with WPC and WPHs and 2 % addition has shown increase in antioxidant activity upto 42 %. The result suggests that WPH could be used as natural biofunctional ingredients in enhancing antioxidant properties of food products.
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The present paper reports determination of alpha-tocopherol in commercial cow, raw cow and goat milk, as well as an estimation of its nutritive value based on alpha-tocopherol content. The quantification was done by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection (ex 295 nm, em 330 nm) and with UV detector set at 286 and 292 nm. The method of milk sample preparation consisted of alkaline saponification with 30% KOH, denaturation of lipoproteins with methanol followed by liquid liquid extraction with diethyl ether. Recovery values of the extraction method were 78.5, 86.7 and 91.0% for three standard addition levels. Analyzed commercial low-fat milk samples had significant lower alpha-tocopherol levels than milk with higher fat content. alpha-tocopherol concentrations below 0.30 mu g/ml in low-fat cow milk and 0.83-0.86 mu g/ml in whole milk were detected. Raw goat milk had much more alpha-tocopherol (1.25 mu g/ml) compared with commercial and raw cow milk with similar fat content.
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Milk is considered to be the only foodstuff that contains approximately all different substances known to be essential for human nutrition. In terms of cancer risk, dairy foods have been reported as both protective and occasionally as harmful. The evidence that dairy foods can protect against cancer, or increase the risk of cancer is not conclusive. Overall, the proven health benefits of dairy foods greatly outweigh the unproven harm. Dairy foods should be encouraged as part of a varied and nutritious diet as they are essential to maintain good bone and dental health, to prevent osteoporosis, major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndromes, as well as some cancers. The Cancer Council and USDA recommend 3 servings of milk and milk products daily. This article reviews the potential of milk and milk products (its indigenous or exogenous compounds) to inhibit different cancer risks. Also reviewed are the reports over the years that have suggested milk and the dairy industry as responsible agents for causing cancer.
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Milk is considered to be the only foodstuff that contains approximately all different substances known to be essential for human nutrition. In terms of cancer risk, dairy foods have been reported as both protective and occasionally as harmful. The evidence that dairy foods can protect against cancer, or increase the risk of cancer is not conclusive. Overall, the proven health benefits of dairy foods greatly outweigh the unproven harm. Dairy foods should be encouraged as part of a varied and nutritious diet as they are essential to maintain good bone and dental health, to prevent osteoporosis, major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndromes, as well as some cancers. The Cancer Council and USDA recommend 3 servings of milk and milk products daily. This article reviews the potential of milk and milk products (its indigenous or exogenous compounds) to inhibit different cancer risks. Also reviewed are the reports over the years that have suggested milk and the dairy industry as responsible agents for causing cancer.
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Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes in non-ruminant animals (mice, rat, and human). However, the effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA have not been clear in ruminants. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA on adipocyte differentiation of ovine preadipocytes. Differentiation of these preadipocytes was facilitated by treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased the number and size of oil red O-stainable lipid drops as well as the levels of GPDH activity. PPAR- and adipophilin mRNA, adipogenic marker genes, were increased by treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. This result was different from that observed with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, a clonal cell line derived from rodents. Furthermore, trans-10, cis-12 CLA alone induced the adipocyte differentiation of ovine preadipocytes in differentiation-induction medium without troglitazone. These results suggest that CLA is an inducer and regulator in adipocyte differentiation of ovine preadipocytes, with species differences between ovine and rodent preadipocytes.
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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of linoleic acid. Since the identification of CLA as a factor that can inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, thousands of studies have been conducted in the last several decades. Among the many isomers discovered, cis-9, trans-11 CLA is the most intensively studied because of its multiple, isomer-specific effects in humans and animals. This paper provides an overview of the available data on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, including its isomer-specific effects, biosynthesis, in vivo/in vitro research models, quantification, and the factors influencing its content in ruminant products.
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Based on literature data, the composition of milk from different ruminants (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, camel, llama, yak and deer) and equidae (horse and donkey) and of human milk were compared to examine possible nutritional differences. Additionally, the alleged health benefits attributed to some of these milks and the effect of heating are discussed. Very generally, ruminant milk has a lower lactose content, but a higher protein (and casein), fat (with a higher share of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and a higher cholesterol level), vitamin (except for vitamin C) and mineral content compared to horse or donkey milk. Milk composition may however vary largely, not only between ruminants and non-ruminants, but also between different breeding variants of the same species and between individual animals. Consequently, a constant health promoting potential is, if present, difficult to guarantee. Moreover, differences in milk composition do not only concern the relative proportions of the milk components, but also occur at the molecular level (e.g. monomeric versus dimeric proteins, different amino acid sequence). Pasteurization is not expected to affect the nutritional (or presumed health) benefits significantly, regardless of differences observed in thermostability between components of considered types of milk. Even though the milk composition of some animal species resembles to a great extent the composition of human milk, it is recommended to give either human milk or formula milk to babies and infants. For people suffering from milk allergy, milk other than e.g. bovine milk may offer a solution, but this greatly depends from one person to another.
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Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in "oxidative stress", a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective) effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids' unique antioxidative properties.
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Background and objectives: There are increasing evidences about the relationship between vitamin D status and the control of diabetes. Several studies showed that vitamin D has an antioxidant property. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) and glycemic, antioxidant profile in diabetes compared to healthy groups. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 100 healthy controls. Fasting serum levels of 25-OH-D, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone, glucose, HbA(1C), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were measured. Results: Eighty-two percent of type 2 diabetic patients and 75% of healthy subjects were suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. The activities of GR and GSH-PX were higher in diabetic patients compared to control. There was a negative relationship between 25-OH-D and activity of GR, GSH-PX. Also, 25-OH-D had a positive association with activity of SOD in diabetic patients. In the control group, 25-OH-D had an inverse relationship with SOD, GSH-PX, and positively with GR activities. Interpretation and conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency has a high prevalence among Iranian adult population with and without type 2 diabetes. Our results showed that vitamin D may have a beneficial effect on the control of glycemic profiles and oxidative stress in T2DM patients.
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Boreková M., Hojerová J., Koprda V., Bauerová K. (2008): Nourishing and health benefits of coen- 10 in the organisms of healthy people, stressed people, and patients with various diseases. This paper shows the distribution and contents of two ubiquinones in foods, especially in several kinds of grapes, the benefits of CoQ 10 as nutritional and topical supplements and its therapeutic applications in various diseases.
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Free radical damage is linked to formation of many degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and aging. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation can induce oxidative stress, leading to cell damage that can culminate in cell death. Therefore, cells have antioxidant networks to scavenge excessively produced ROS. The balance between the production and scavenging of ROS leads to homeostasis in general; however, the balance is somehow shifted towards the formation of free radicals, which results in accumulated cell damage in time. Antioxidants can attenuate the damaging effects of ROS in vitro and delay many events that contribute to cellular aging. The use of multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVMs) has grown rapidly over the past decades. Some recent studies demonstrated no effect of antioxidant therapy; sometimes the intake of antioxidants even increased mortality. Oxidative stress is damaging and beneficial for the organism, as some ROS are signaling molecules in cellular signaling pathways. Lowering the levels of oxidative stress by antioxidant supplements is not beneficial in such cases. The balance between ROS and antioxidants is optimal, as both extremes, oxidative and antioxidative stress, are damaging. Therefore, there is a need for accurate determination of individual's oxidative stress levels before prescribing the supplement antioxidants.
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Traditional methods used for concentration of whey pro-teins have various levels of performance and effects on the nutritional properties and biological activities of the products. In this study, we showed that the greatest protein content was obtained using ultrafil-tration and salt treatment methods. The effective concentration was approximately 40-53% (w/w) protein. Using electrophoresis and solu-bility tests, we also found that these methods offer the fundamental advantage of maintaining certain proteins in their native states. The products maintained key ABTS • + radical scavenging activity; how-ever, the antimicrobial activity was adversely affected by these sepa-ration methods. Resumen. Los métodos tradicionales para la concentración de proteí-nas de suero lácteo afectan el rendimiento del proceso, las propiedades nutricionales de los productos y su actividad biológica. En este estudio se muestra que el más alto contenido de proteína verdadera 40-53% (w/w) se encuentra en los productos obtenidos de la ultrafiltración y precipitación por adición de sales. Los resultados de electroforesis y solubilidad de las proteínas revelaron que estos métodos ofrecen la ventaja fundamental de mantener las proteínas en su estado nativo. Los productos mostraron una importante actividad antioxidante pero la actividad antimicrobiana se vio afectada por los métodos de sepa-ración. Palabras clave: Lactosuero, concentración de proteínas, actividad antioxidante, actividad antimicrobiana.
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Milk fat is dispersed in milk as small, spherical globules, stabilized in the form of emulsion by its surrounding membrane. This membrane, called the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), is created in the secretory cells of the mammary gland, and represents an ordered and unique biophysical system. This review characterizes the main milk fat globule components, their structure, and intracellular origin. The milk fat globule membrane has many potentially bioactive components. These are discussed in terms of their health effects for the native and processed globules. Because of their functional and nutritional properties, MFGM components can be used as valuable ingredients in the manufacture of new functional foods.
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Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit.
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Sphingolipids are in all eukaryotic cells and modulate cell growth, differentiation, and transformation; however, little is known about the physiological effects of their consumption. Mice were fed diets supplemented with milk sphingomyelin to determine effects on colon carcinogenesis. Cancer was initiated in CF1 mice by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Mice were then fed AIN76A diets supplemented with 0.025 to 0.1 g sphingomyelin/100 g for 28 wk until the supply of sphingomyelin was depleted and then fed unsupplemented diet for 24 wk. Sphingomyelin did not affect weight gain. Mice fed sphingomyelin had a 20% incidence of colon tumors compared with 47% in controls (P = 0.08 for all sphingomyelin-fed mice vs. controls). Tumors were adenomas or adenocarcinomas and located in the distal third of the colon. In shorter-term studies, colonic epithelial cell proliferation was significantly greater than controls in mice fed 0.025 g sphingomyelin/100 g diet, but not in those fed higher amounts of sphingomyelin. The number of aberrant crypts was significantly lower in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated mice fed 0.05 g sphingomyelin/100 g diet than in controls. These results demonstrate that consumption of sphingomyelin affects the behavior of colonic cells. Because sphingolipids are present in food, the reduction in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced premalignant lesions and the incidence of colon tumors in CF1 mice implies that these compounds may be another important class of nutritional modulators of carcinogenesis.
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Coenzyme Q10 is a fat soluble vitamin-like substance produced by the human body. It is necessary for proper functioning of many organs and for basic functioning of cells. It is found throughout the body. Coenzyme Q10 is used both as a food supplement and as an important antioxidant. It is a component of the electron transport chain and plays a key role in producing energy in mitochondria in the form of ATP that functions like a rechargeable battery in the transfer of energy. Coenzyme Q10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low in cardiac conditions, Parkinson's disease, cancer, diabetes, muscular dystrophies, HIV/AIDs, etc. Some drugs also lower Coenzyme Q10 levels. It is not only used as an important nutrional supplement by millions of people all over world but is also used in a number of clinical conditions namely CHF, diabetes, gum disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc. Coenzyme Q10 is fairly safe and well tolerated.
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The study was to investigate the supplemental effect of α-tocopherol, β-carotene or combination of both on antioxidant capacities in plasma, liver and longissimus dorsi muscle (LM), and meat quality of pigs fed a high-linseed oil diet during the final finishing phase. Forty Duroc×Yorkshire×Landrace growing pigs were allocated to four high-linseed oil (3%) experimental diets formulated as basal diet (CON), basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg α-tocopherol (VE), 100 mg/kg β-carotene (β-C), or combination of α-tocopherol (300 mg/kg diet) and β-carotene (100 mg/kg diet) [VE+β-C]. The meat quality traits, as shown by post-mortem changes of pH value, drip loss and Hunter values, were improved in VE group, but not in β-C or VE+β-C groups. α-Tocopherol concentrations in plasma, liver and meat reflected its dietary treatment and was higher in VE and VE+β-C than CON and β-C. Lipid oxidation products (TBARS) was lower and antioxidation capacity (SOD and T-AOC) was higher in response to VE supplementation, combination of α-tocopherol and β-carotene did not result in superior effects on lipid antioxidant capacity compared with α-tocopherol. Collectively, β-carotene was not qualified for quenching free radicals and combination of β-carotene and α-tocopherol was inferior to single use of α-tocopherol to improve meat quality.
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This review discusses the biological properties of the glycoprotein lactoferrin. Lactoferrin has been identified in secretions from exocrine glands and in specific granules of neutrophils. After degranulation, neutrophils become the main source of lactoferrin in blood plasma. Lactoferrin possesses various biological functions, including roles in iron metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation, and antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activity. Many of these functions do not appear to be connected with its iron binding ability. Of late, lactoferrin concentrations have been measured mostly in humans but also in some other species. However, the relationship between its concentration and physiological or pathological effects on body functions is not yet well characterised.