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Teaching pronunciation is often a neglected or ignored in English language. Nevertheless, correct pronunciation is without doubt a fundamental feature of successful communication in the English language. For this reason, attention should be paid to teaching pronunciation right from the beginning of English language teaching. However, different age groups learners require different approaches and techniques and these are addressed in this paper. Abstrakt: Vyučovanie výslovnosti je často zanedbávané, alebo ignorované na hodinách anglického jazyka. Napriek tomu je správna výslovnosť základnou črtou úspešnej komunikácie v anglickom jazyku. Práve preto by sa mala venovať veľká pozornosť vyučovaniu výslovnosti hneď od začiatku učenia sa anglického jazyka. Rôzne vekové skupiny učiacich sa si vyžadujú rôzne prístupy a vyučovacie techniky a autorka článku ich tu rozoberá. Place of teaching pronunciation English pronunciation is very difficult for foreign learners and it is due to the fact that spelling and pronunciation are two different matters. On the top of it, speech sounds of English are unlikely to be identical to the speech sounds of the mother tongue of the learners. There might be differences in placement of word stress, quality and intensity of syllables, speech rhythm, intonation, etc. It is quite common to assimilate English sounds to the mother tongue sounds and to apply other suprasegmental features of the native language to pronunciation of English. However, in teaching English pronunciation, such assimilation should be avoided and learners need to be taught correct segmental and suprasegmental features of pronunciation.
Kľúčové slová:
vyučovanie angličtiny, vyučovanie anglickej výslovnosti, deti, dospelí, vyučovacie techniky,
ELT, teaching English pronunciation, children, adults, teaching techniques,
Teaching pronunciation is often a neglected or ignored in English language. Nevertheless,
correct pronunciation is without doubt a fundamental feature of successful communication in
the English language. For this reason, attention should be paid to teaching pronunciation right
from the beginning of English language teaching. However, different age groups learners
require different approaches and techniques and these are addressed in this paper.
Vyučovanie výslovnosti je často zanedbávané, alebo ignorované na hodinách anglického
jazyka. Napriek tomu je správna výslovnosť základnou črtou úspešnej komunikácie v anglickom
jazyku. Práve preto by sa mala venovať veľká pozornosť vyučovaniu výslovnosti hneď od
začiatku učenia sa anglického jazyka. Rôzne vekové skupiny učiacich sa si vyžadujú rôzne
prístupy a vyučovacie techniky a autorka článku ich tu rozoberá.
Place of teaching pronunciation
English pronunciation is very difficult for foreign learners and it is due to the fact that spelling
and pronunciation are two different matters. On the top of it, speech sounds of English are
unlikely to be identical to the speech sounds of the mother tongue of the learners. There might
be differences in placement of word stress, quality and intensity of syllables, speech rhythm,
intonation, etc. It is quite common to assimilate English sounds to the mother tongue sounds
and to apply other suprasegmental features of the native language to pronunciation of English.
However, in teaching English pronunciation, such assimilation should be avoided and learners
need to be taught correct segmental and suprasegmental features of pronunciation.
According to Gilakjani (2011) those who start learning English after their school years
have greater difficulties in acquiring intelligible pronunciation and the degree of difficulty
increases with age. However, Králová (2010) claims that learners of any age are able to create
additional phonetic categories for new language sounds which do not correspond to the mother
tongue sounds. The fact is that there are learners of English at all ages and that teaching
pronunciation should not be concerning only children but also adults.
Role of teaching pronunciation in schools is very unfavourable next to teaching
grammar or vocabulary. This is a problem of English teaching in many countries. Experienced
teachers are not keen to teach pronunciation and they claim that there is not clear guidance in
textbooks and that the isolated exercises do not bring the wanted effect (Griffiths, 2011).
Teachers often claim that there is not enough time for teaching pronunciation in their classes
(Gilbert, 2008) and they are more confident to teach grammar and vocabulary (Datko, 2013).
Teachers also complain that they do not receive enough training in methodology of teaching
pronunciation. For the fact how difficult the English pronunciation is, there is very little
attention paid to teaching and developing it. According to Haycraft (1978) foreign teachers of
English ignore teaching pronunciation because they themselves do not have enough confidence.
However, teaching pronunciation is inevitable in ELT and it needs to be integrated right from
the beginning, taught regularly and included in to daily classroom procedures.
Factors influencing learning pronunciation
According to Králová (2016) a foreign language competence (including pronunciation
competence) cannot be limited to the contrastive analysis of two language systems. An
individual’s pronunciation competence depends on relations to the language systems (phonic
interference) and extralingual environment (Sabol, 1993). Extralingual factors include the type
of language contact (direct, mediated, occasional, permanent), the form of contact (natural,
artificial), the type of bilingualism (individual, group) and the type of bilingualism (learnt one
of the languages as an adult, learnt both languages as a child, learnt both languages as a child,
one being suppressed).
Gilakjani (2011) names the following factors affecting pronunciation in a foreign
language. Native accent influences pronunciation in a foreign language. The older the learner
gets, the stronger is the effect of native accent. Stress, intonation and rhythm effect
intelligibility more than errors in single sounds. Exposure and motivation for learning the
foreign language also determine learners’ development of pronunciation. Personal or
professional motivation for learning English can result in desire for native-like pronunciation.
Some learners are more adept at requiring correct pronunciation than others. Pronunciation
Attitude Inventory measures learners’ relation to the target language pronunciation. Students
who are more concerned about their target language pronunciation usually gain better
pronunciation. Motivation, positive attitudes, exposure to the target language, and openness to
the target culture influence the success in foreign language proficiency and pronunciation.
According to Pennington (1994) is pronunciation viewed as a component of linguistics
rather than conversational fluency. Teachers regard pronunciation very little importance in
conversational classes and they view it as the least useful out of language skills and therefore
sacrifice teaching pronunciation in order to spend time on other areas of language (Elliot,
1995). There is a question whether explicit instruction can help in learning foreign
pronunciation. It was found out that phonetic instruction to adult learners of English can largely
improve their allophonic articulation.
Age is a strong determining factor influencing foreign language pronunciation. It is
closely connected to the theory of Critical Period Hypothesis (Lenneberg, 1967) which states
that children between 2 and 13 can achieve native-like proficiency in acquiring a foreign
language, especially pronunciation (Loewen, Reiders, 2011). According to this theory, older
learners of a foreign language can rarely achieve native-like fluency and pronunciation.
According to Králová (2010) ability to create separate categories for foreign language sounds
similar to the sounds of the mother tongue is decreasing from the age of six years.
According to Avery and Ehrlich (1992) sound patterns of the mother tongue are
transferred into the foreign language. When the sound is absent in the native sound inventory,
the learners might not be able to pronounce the sounds. Combining sounds rules in native
language might be different to the target language. Stress, rhythm and intonation patterns of the
native language might be transferred to the target language. All these factors might cause
problems for learners because the rules are language specific and can vary from one language
to another.
Teaching English to young learners
In Slovakia, it is compulsory to teach English from the third grade of primary school (8
years of age). However, many schools provide English language from the first grade. English
language teaching should mainly support the pupils’ personalities at primary education.
Knowledge of foreign languages should develop abilities of pupils to understand that there are
differences between languages and cultures. Teaching English to young learners should evoke
interest, joy, desire to explore and discover, and the teachers should support children’s
capabilities and abilities (ISCED 1, 2011).
English language teaching at the primary school level should stimulate interest in the
language, provide basis for further English language education, develop communicative
competences in their mother tongue and English, support universal development of pupils
(social, emotional, cognitive and personal), develop intercultural competences, and all linguistic
activities should focus on listening comprehension, speaking with the accent on pronunciation
(Gadušová, 2009).
The Common European Framework for Languages (CEFR, 2001) recommends teaching
pronunciation right from the beginning of foreign language teaching. During early stages of
learning, pupils should practice correct pronunciation. The emphasis within teaching
pronunciation is to meet the communicative objective of the language (ISCED 1, 2011).
The National curriculum sets the level of proficiency in English of primary school
pupils to A1.1+ according to the CEFR (2001). Concerning pronunciation, pupils should be
exposed to authentic spoken utterances, encouraged to imitate the teacher, audio-recorded
native speakers, video-recorded native speakers, read aloud phonetically weighted texts,
practice ear-training, phonetic drilling, imitation, tongue twisters, explicit teaching, etc.
Clapping, clicking, tapping, gestures and mirrors can be also used in teaching pronunciation.
Young learners are still considered to be in the ideal “Critical Period Hypothesis” age and can
achieve flawless like pronunciation if their teaching pronunciation is addressed correctly.
Suitable techniques for teaching pronunciation to young learners are described later.
Teaching English to adults
According to Harmer (2005), adult learners are those who are over twenty years old.
There is a general assumption that adult learners are much more disadvantaged in learning
foreign languages than younger learners. However, there are not only disadvantages with adult
learners, but adults also have many advantages next to younger learners.
Harmer (ibid.) stated that the ability of adults to work with abstract thoughts and their
life experiences bring advantages into foreign language learning. Adults are often more
disciplined and create patterns to their learning. They are able to struggle with learning even
when it is boring and they can focus even when something is not interesting. A crucial factor in
foreign language learning is motivation and adult learners usually have high motivation, know
what they want to achieve and they follow their goals.
He (ibid.) also stated disadvantages of adult learners in foreign language teaching. Adult
learners can be critical of teaching methods, because their previous learning experiences might
have predisposed them to certain teaching styles and methods and they could feel
uncomfortable with new or different teaching patterns. They can also be negatively influenced
by failure or criticism, which can make them feel anxious and under-confident.
Teaching pronunciation to adults is one of the most difficult issues in ELT (Strevens,
1991). Adults have reduced auditory discrimination and plasticity for language acquisition, they
are inferior to monitor their own pronunciation performance, notice and correct own errors.
Their mimicry is reduced in adulthood too. Their shyness is increased and they are unwilling to
make unfamiliar sounds. Adults prefer writing to speaking, are afraid to make errors in
speaking, especially in public. However, there are some positives of teaching pronunciation to
adults too. Adults can follow detailed instructions and can intellectualise their learning. They
can explicitly learn about speech organs and production of speech sounds, phonemic alphabet,
apply rules to pronunciation, etc. This is what young learners cannot do.
Pronunciation teaching techniques
The Common European Framework for Languages (2001) recommends teaching pronunciation
right from the beginning of foreign language learning. According to the CEFR, pronunciation
should be developed via contact with authentic spoken language. The recommended techniques
are listening and repeating, drilling, minimal pair drills, ear training, phonetic training, reading
aloud, imitation, tongue twisters, sound-colour charts, phonics, songs/rhymes, recording
learners’ pronunciation, etc. Also clapping, clicking, tapping, gestures, mirrors, visual aids, etc.
can be used for teaching pronunciation. It is advised to combine different teaching techniques.
Most popular and common pronunciation teaching techniques recommended by AMEP (2002),
Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin (2002), Reid (2014), Morley (1991), O’Connor (1993), Baker
(2006), Hancock (1995), Hudson (2012) with the focus on age suitability are analysed below.
Listening and repeating.
In this technique, a teacher or recorded native speaker are set as models for imitating sounds. It
is one of the most traditional ways of teaching pronunciation, but it can be made more
interesting with using CDs, interactive boards, internet activities, etc. Pupils could also record
themselves and listen to their own pronunciation. This technique is suitable for all ages from
young learners to adults.
It went out of fashion with introduction of the audio-lingual method, because it was associated
with a repetitive approach. However, drills do not have to be mindless, as they can offer a
chance to learners to practice saying new words and phrases without an extra strain of trying to
communicate. This technique is very useful with beginners even though it is a strictly
controlled activity. Drills can be practiced individually, in pairs or chorally. There can be
repetition drills, transformation drills, substitution drills, chain drills and probably the most
attractive are the Jazz Chants. Jazz chants are great not only for practicing segmental, but also
suprasegmental (rhythm, intonation) levels of pronunciation. As it was mentioned earlier, drills
are suitable especially for beginners and are recommended for all age groups too. Adults might
be reluctant to do playful activities due to their shyness.
Minimal pair drills
Words which have the same pronunciation except one phoneme are called minimal pairs
(man/men, bright/bride, tin/thin, sin/sing, etc.). This technique helps learners to recognize
differences between sounds and it helps them to articulate individual sounds. In practicing
minimal pair drills, learners should first differentiate, then recognize the sounds and finally to
imitate the minimal pairs with correct sounds. This technique should be also used with all age
groups, but probably more suitable for young learners who have the elasticity of the brain to
recognize and imitate sounds they hear. Adult learners might struggle with such activities
without explicit explanation.
Ear training
It is a very effective teaching technique, where learners focus their attention on hearing. In
pronunciation there is a close relationship between speech perception and speech production.
Ear training is also a teaching technique in music. Traditionally, the ear training technique was
connected to identification of individual sounds. However, it can be just as efficient in teaching
suprasegmental features, such as word stress, rhythm or intonation. Recognition of individual
phonemes can be done using minimal pair tests. Listening for a specific task can be used for
both segmental and suprasegmental features. Ear training should be used with all age groups,
but it is more efficient with young learners, who have the ability to hear different or new
sounds, rhythm of the speech and intonation. Adults lose this ability and it can be frustrating for
them not to be able to hear the differences in speech.
Tongue twisters
Tongue twisters are purposefully created sentences or rhymes aiming at certain sounds which
are difficult to pronounce. Tongue twisters are in all languages and are created for
pronunciation training of the mother tongue. However they are very useful in foreign language
learning too. They are useful for all age groups, can bring a lot of fun to the class and learners
usually enjoy saying them. To avoid frustration, they should be practiced once the required
sound has been learnt.
Songs and rhymes
Using songs and rhymes is considered to be a very effective way of teaching English. They are
rhythmical, learners can dance, move or do TPR while singing. By singing or saying rhymes,
learners practice pronunciation drills, rhythm or intonation. Songs and rhymes are especially
useful and loved by young learners who love singing and do not like static exercises. They are
very motivational too. Songs and rhymes can be used for all age groups, but older learners and
adults can be more shy and reluctant to sing.
Reading aloud
This technique is not as popular as it was in the past, because not everybody feels confident to
read aloud and it does not always reflect the way people speak. It includes reading passages of
texts and it can focus on problematic sounds, stress, rhythm, intonation, etc. Choosing the right
text can make this technique interesting and it is suitable for older learners, who can read well
in their mother tongue. The young learners are still learning to read well in their mother tongue
and forcing them to read in English might be confusing and frustrating.
Recording learners’ pronunciation
This technique involves audio-recordings of learners’ speech, free conversations, role plays,
tongue twisters, reading, etc. It is a very useful technique, which is time consuming, as the
follow up listening takes a lot of time. It is valuable though to get a feedback on own
pronunciation. However, it is suitable for older learners who can hear and analyse their own
Visual aids
They are not a technique, but aids which help in teaching pronunciation of individual sounds.
They can be pictures, sound-colour charts, mirrors, etc. Pictures of articulator, position of
articulators in production of individual sounds, phonemic symbols could be used for description
of how sounds are produced. Such pictures help especially adult learners to understand
articulation of individual sounds. A mirror can be a very useful tool for a learner observing
his/her own articulation of different sounds. Mirrors are useful with all age groups, adults
understand the position of different articulators and make purposefully required position, and
they can also bring fun for young learners to see the movement and position of their mouth and
It has been developed for native speakers of English to connect the spoken and written
language. Each letter or combination of letters represent a sound or sounds. Learners must
recognise which symbols (letters) make which sounds in order to read. This technique is
becoming very popular in ELT too, where learners know the letters (can read), but do not know
the sounds of the foreign language. Phonics in ELT teaches learners sounds of English,
connects them to letters (starting with simple words to create a pattern cat, pen, sun). The next
step is to introduce that sounds can be represented by more than one letter (k in cake) and the
final step is to introduce tricky words with alternative spellings. This technique is especially
recommended for young learners.
Sound-colour charts
This is becoming a very popular technique in English pronunciation teaching. It was originally
developed for teaching native speakers how to read and write. It was a spelling programme
connecting letters to colours. The Sound-colour charts give a direct link between sounds and
colours. The teacher trains students to vocal gymnastics, it means that students become aware
of different lip positions, muscular movements for new sounds. Sound-colour charts replace
learning phonemic alphabet and can be suitable for all age groups from small children to adults.
Phonetic training
This technique is quite demanding as it includes phonetically transcribed words or texts.
Learners need to be acquainted with phonemic symbols for consonants and vowels and need to
be able to connect them to individual sounds. Visual aids in a form of phonemic chart,
articulator diagrams are very helpful. This technique is not suitable for young learners but can
be very helpful for adults. Adults have difficulties to hear different sounds and imitate them.
When it is explicitly explained how sounds are produced and they are given concrete visual
form of a symbol, it helps adult learners to understand and pronounce the different sounds.
Teaching sounds and explicit learning
Explicit learning on the segmental level can by done by introducing sounds in new words and it
is explained how these sounds are articulated. Learners can practice new sounds by drilling or
other techniques. The next step is to recognize particular sounds in different words (hut, cat,
cup, hat). Learners are introduced same spelling patterns with different sounds (paid, said/none,
gone). Learners practice connecting words with sounds by grouping words according to e.g.
same vowel sounds in them. Using crosswords focusing on sounds, rhyming crosswords, odd
one out, putting similar sounds in the contrast are some other activities practicing particular
sounds. These explicit teaching techniques are more suitable for older learners who have lower
ability to imitate unknown sounds. But by understanding how to articulate new sound and by
practicing them with such activities, older learners can gain correct pronunciation.
Suprasegmentals and explicit learning
Explicit learning can be on the level of suprasegmentals, where learners learn and practice word
stress, sentence stress, rhythm, weak forms, intonation. Word stress can be practiced by
counting syllables, highlighting stressed syllable, recognizing different stress patterns, grouping
words according to a stress pattern, etc. Sentence stress and rhythm can be practiced by
recognizing lexical (stressed words) and function words (in their weak form). Example
sentences, jazz chants, rhymes, tongue twisters practicing rhythm can be drilled. Songs are also
very good activity to practice suprasegmentals. Intonation is difficult to teach explicitly, as it is
mostly produced at subconscious level. There are some rules to follow on what attitudes and
emotions different tones can carry. Drama techniques and simulations are good techniques
where intonation is especially important. Suprasegmentals taught explicitly are suitable mainly
for adults.
There are many different techniques and activities which can be used for teaching and
practicing pronunciation. Some of them are suitable for age groups and some are better for
young learners and some for adults. This paper analysed most of the available teaching
techniques for pronunciation with the focus on suitability for different age groups.
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Článok sa zaoberá problematikou vyučovania anglickej výslovnosti. Anglická výslovnosť je vo
všeobecnosti zložitá, keďže písaná a hovorená forma slova je vo väčšine prípadov iná a často
zložitá. Napriek tomu, že existujú určité pravidlá výslovnosti, v angličtine je mnoho bežných
slov, ktorých výslovnosť je nepravidelná a tým aj zmätočná. Hlásky, slovný prízvuk, rytmus reči
a intonácia veľmi rozdielne medzi angličtinou a materinským jazykom. Učiaci sa si často
asimilujú hlásky materinského jazyka do angličtiny ako aj ďalšie suprasegmentálne javy.
Učitelia majú často sami problém s jednotlivými javmi vo výslovnosti a snáď aj preto nevenujú
vyučovaniu výslovnosti dostatočnú pozornosť. Je mnoho faktorov, ktoré ovplyvňujú učenie sa
výslovnosti v cudzom jazyku, ako je vek, motivácia, vystavenie sa cudziemu jazyku, atď.
Špecifiká učenia výslovnosti u mladších žiakov a u dospelých rozobraté ako aj výhody
a nevýhody pri učení sa výslovnosti v rôznom veku. Jednotlivé techniky vyučovania výslovnosti
sú vymenované, opísané a odporúčané pre jednotlivé vekové skupiny (počúvanie a opakovanie,
drilovanie, drilovanie minimálnych párov, trénovanie ucha, jazykolamy, pesničky a rýmovačky,
čítanie nahlas, nahrávanie výslovnosti učiacich sa, vizuálne pomôcky, phonics, zvukovo-
farebné diagramy, fonetický tréning, učenie hlások a explicitné učenie, suprasegmentály
a explicitné učenie.
Kontaktná aresa autorky:
Eva Reid, Mgr., PhD.
Katedra lingvodidaktiky a interkultúrnych štúdií
Pedagogická fakulta
Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre
Drážovská 4
94974 Nitra
... All learners' senses should be addressed when teaching pronunciation (Laroy, 2008 (Odisho, 2014, pp.200-201 andReid, 2016). ...
... Auditory reinforcement is created through repetition by listening and imitating (Reid, 2016 andBodorík, 2017). Tactile reinforcement asserts the sense of touch like touching throat to feel vibration of vocal cords. ...
... As an extension to the Kinesthetic reinforcement, Exaggeration of Articulation is a pronunciation teaching technique in which the teacher emphasizes the movements that are made and the sounds that are produced so learners can imitate or notice the difference such as producing the sound /p/ (Avery &Ehrlich, 2013, pp. 209-212 andReid, 2016). ...
... For some teachers and students alike, pronunciation does not seem to be as important as grammar, vocabulary and the four skills. The tendency to avoid teaching pronunciation is grounded in teachers' lack of time, lack of confidence as non-native speakers, lack of clear guidance in course books (Hycraft 1978;Griffiths 2011in Reid 2016. ...
... According to research, native-like pronunciation is best to achieve between 2-13 years old (Loewen andReiders 2011 in Reid 2016, 21). It is widely accepted that acquiring good pronunciation in adulthood is difficult because "the older the learner gets, the stronger is the effect of the native accent" (Gilakjani 2011in Reid 2016. Still, adults are more disciplined, they establish patterns in their learning, can perform abstract thinking and have more self-control so that they can focus even when the learning activity is boring (Harmer 2005in Reid 2016. ...
... It is widely accepted that acquiring good pronunciation in adulthood is difficult because "the older the learner gets, the stronger is the effect of the native accent" (Gilakjani 2011in Reid 2016. Still, adults are more disciplined, they establish patterns in their learning, can perform abstract thinking and have more self-control so that they can focus even when the learning activity is boring (Harmer 2005in Reid 2016. Even if they don't achieve perfect pronunciation, adults should rather strive for fluency, control of structure and above all understanding (Finocchiaro 1989in Carrasquillo 1994. ...
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The intended audience for this book targets pre-service teachers, teacher trainers and practicing teachers who teach English as a foreign language. This book provides, to every audience group, relevant theoretical groundings that support the need to build intercultural communicative competence in the foreign language classroom. Throughout this book, emphasis has been placed on the need to redesign teacher education programmes in order to address the pedagogical changes that multilingual and multicultural classrooms generate. Various practical activities included in this book are meant to develop readers’ content pedagogical knowledge and reflective attitudes towards possible research directions that can foster an understanding of how theory can impact practice. This book addresses also practicing teachers and teacher trainers who teach other subjects but who make use of a foreign language as a tool to teach the subject matter. Keywords for the entire book: intercultural communicative competence, intercultural perspective, identity, the intercultural speaker, intercultural knowledge, intercultural skills, intercultural attitudes, teacher roles, multilingual, multicultural, authentic materials, multimodal resources, formal learning, informal learning, mother tongue, foreign language, digital skills, individual differences, linguistic competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, student-centred learning, professional development.
... Over the last decades there has been an extraordinary increase in the provision of EYL materials worldwide, including an overwhelming growth of English language textbooks (Reid, Kavacikova 2017). It goes without saying that the approach to the teaching of phonetics and phonology needs to be appropriately adapted when it comes to teaching young learners (Komorowska 2016;Reid 2016), and that primary school teachers, as non-language-experts, need 'special' guidelines and practical recommendations to deal with pronunciation instruction. As is known, the most popular activities proposed in EYL coursebooks are songs and rhymes (Ghanbari, Hashemian 2014). ...
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This paper deals with the teaching of English pronunciation in the primary classroom. It starts from two mayor premises. First, the Lingua Franca status of English (ELF), which has prompted a shift in pronunciation teaching from the attainment of a native accent to the achievement of mutual intelligibility. Second, the features of today’s primary classroom, which is de facto an ELF context, the school population being characterised by a growing number of multilingual pupils and of non-native teachers of English. Three English coursebooks for the primary school are analysed to investigate: 1) if and which pronunciation-focussed activities are suggested; 2) if and what support is provided to the primary teacher to make the most of the activities; 3) whether any of such activities/support show a trend towards an early inclusion of ELF-aware pronunciation pedagogy.
... According to Baker (2013); Reid (2016), many languages language teaching contexts, including EFL, have relatively ignored pronunciation teaching and belittled its function and importance. ...
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Oral communication among global speakers needs good pronunciation to be successful. Regardless of its important function and role, EFL teachers often ignore pronunciation in their language teaching and oftentimes they are very lenient towards mispronunciation, which potentially hampers actual oral communication beyond language classrooms. An exploration into EFL teachers’ teaching beliefs is thus necessitated since such beliefs are mutually capable of influencing their classroom behaviors. In the effort to fill the gap of the previous research, the current study attempted to unveil teacher educators’ beliefs on teaching English pronunciation in Indonesian EFL context as well as to describe in what ways their classroom practices matched their beliefs. A qualitative research design using a semi-structured interview was employed to collect data from three Indonesian teacher educators who were experienced in teaching EFL. Similar findings to prior studies were discovered about their teaching beliefs, with one inconclusive issue remaining about teaching prioritization. Their classroom practices also generally went hand in hand with their underlying beliefs. One noteworthy finding that surfaced was the idea to have a dedicated English class for pronunciation, especially in the context of training prospective EFL teachers.
... Clearly, mispronunciation habits acquired in childhood becomes resistant to change, and thereby changing them takes a lot of time and effort (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). Young learners are more likely to achieve flawless, native-like pronunciation with accurate instruction (Reid, 2016). ...
Professionals in the language teaching field have recently shown increased interest in using ultrasound technology as a visual feedback tool in pronunciation instruction. It is difficult for students to interpret and for larger learner groups and independent learners to apply. Further, without specialised equipment and expertise, this technology cannot be incorporated into teaching and learning contexts. Developing ultrasound overlay videos is an attempt to address the limitations of the current technology in language teaching contexts. This study compares the /p/ and /b/ production by learners who received ultrasound overlay video training, as compared to those who didn’t. All learners participated in recordings and perception quizzes before and after the training and 11 days post-training for the treatment group. No effects were noted regarding the perception and pronunciation of the segments between the groups. The same was observed during their follow-up, suggesting that ultrasound overlay videos may not be effective in helping young female learners perceive and pronounce word segments and retain the benefits of language instruction.
... Compared to other levels, the practising of phonetic-phonological level starts earlier and ends later due to several factors such as the ability to imitate, the level of intellect, skilfulness of speech organs, quality of psychological and speech stimulation (Chlebeková, 2014). Reid (2016) points out that pronunciation should be learnt and acquired from the early age because it is a necessary part of foreign language learning. Young learners have an exceptional ability to pick up the sounds of the language and imitate them. ...
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Harkavy and Zuckerman (1999) argue that, effective partnership within higher education sector has a great impact on building the sustainable economic growth, building knowledge economy that would results in employment creation to the greater society. Similarly, a partnership could promote racially and ethnically diverse players in higher education. This could facilitate an appropriate bond between institutional and learners’ achievements. Since many higher educational institutions recruit students from diverse cultural background shared ethnicity could really break the distance between the students and teachers and bring them closer for academic success and would improve the social skill and knowledge among the learners. The main objectives of this research is to conduct a literature review to determine the perceived value on the shared ethnicity among the students and teacher in a higher educational setting, evaluate the impact of shared ethnicity on building effective educational relationship and provide appropriate recommendation on how to improve the effective relationship beyond the ethnicity
... Correctly selected pronunciation teaching techniques can be the key to encourage learners to work on their pronunciation and they are helpful tools for teachers to make their pronunciation teaching organized and meaningful. The most suitable teaching techniques for young learners are drilling, minimal pairs, listening and repeating, ear training, tongue twisters, songs, rhymes, chants, phonics, reading aloud, recording pronunciation (Reid, 2016;Hudson, 2012;Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin, 2002;Morley, 1994;Pawlak, 2014;Levis, Sonsaat, 2018). ...
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Teaching and practicing correct pronunciation is often neglected in English language lessons. The importance of correct pronunciation is unquestionable as it is a fundamental feature of successful communication. For this reason, it needs to be taught and practiced right from the beginning of English language teaching, because young learners are the best recipients and often can achieve flawless-like pronunciation. This study investigates how teachers perceive teaching pronunciation at several primary schools in Slovakia, focusing on teaching techniques and materials used for teaching pronunciation, and aspects of pronunciation. Methods for collecting research data were observation and interview. Findings show that the most used teaching techniques are corrections, drills and songs, and that the most used materials are pictures and textbook CDs. Segmental aspects were practiced when learning new words, but without any particular attention to segmental features and supra-segmental aspects of rhythm were practiced by rhymes, chants and songs and no attention was paid to word stress. The study indicates that teachers pay attention to teaching pronunciation, but without particular focus on different features of pronunciation and using limited teaching techniques and materials.
... The teacher is a prompter who initiates, praises the success and provides the space for improvements in language lesson. Reid (2016) introduces particular techniques enhancing correct pronunciation such as drill and imitation, minimal pairs based on a slight change of a phoneme in the word, model dialogues and phrases, lip reading, reading aloud, chants and riddles, tongue twisters, songs, presentations, interactive games, etc. ...
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In the widest understanding, the principal purpose of ELT is to develop learner`s communicative competence so that they are able to communicate effectively with other native and/or non-native English speakers in a variety of extracurricular contexts. A successful interaction inside or outside the language classroom requires the EFL learner to be trained in both language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and language systems (pronunciation, grammar, lexis, and pragmatics). The ways how these constituents of the communicative competence are developed is one of the most important decisions to have to be made. All the key concepts mentioned above are reflected in the present monograph which consists of six major parts. The first chapter introduces the most important terms related to the key concepts of language pedagogy and basic principles of foreign language teaching in general, as well as in the context of Slovakia. The second chapter focuses on foreign language communication from the point of view of integrating language systems (acquisition of vocabulary with correct pronunciation and grammar issues) and language skills (receptive and productive). The third chapter is devoted to the definition of the term "strategy" from the standpoint of disciplines such as psychology, education and applied linguistics. Further, it explains the difference between learning and teaching strategies and finally it provides information about features and classification of foreign language learning strategies. The fourth chapter summarizes employment of learning and teaching strategies in foreign language teaching and learning in the form of meta-analysis of multiple studies, specifically focusing on English language teaching (ELT). The fifth chapter outlines the research part, research aims and questions, methodology of the research, questions of reliability and validity, sampling and research subjects, data collection and data analysis procedures. This part also provides the results of the quantitative research, their analysis and interpretations, and discussion. The conclusion briefly compares findings of the conducted research in connection with the outcomes of previously conducted studies related to the topic of foreign language learning and teaching strategies. Finally, strategies which would teach learners to acquire higher order thinking skills are identified.
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A list of 350 words that deviate in pronunciation from the standard English pronunciation of these words has been suggested in the present study. To highlight the deviant pronunciation of these words from the standard pronunciation, a wordlist based on observation has been suggested. Transcription of the words according to the British, American, and Pakistani phonetic variants has been given. The general phonological patterns of the pronunciation of these English words by Pakistani speakers as non-native learners of English have also been suggested. The deviation can be found in terms of the elongation of sounds, insertion or omission of schwa, pronunciation of diphthongs as monophthongs, stress patterns, and focus on spellings than sounds. The study not only highlights the unique phonological features of Pakistani English but also offers an opportunity for Pakistani teachers and learners to focus on these words while teaching or learning how to pronounce English words correctly. The study has implications for TESOL, EFL, SLA, and contrastive phonetics and phonology. Keywords: Pakistani English; RP; American English; TESOL; IPA Chart; Contrastive Analysis
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Researchers have been investigating the relationship between foreign language learning and its variables and attempting to systematize the factors of influence for about fifty years. However, the classifications differ in their criteria and most of them lack the systematic character. We introduce the classification of factors related to foreign language phonic competence with the emphasis on the language system. © 2016, Slovenska Vzdelavacia Obstaravacia. All rights reserved.
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The text of this research report presents an in-depth analysis of secondary school EFL teachers' views on their confidence in teaching correct pronunciation. In order to explore how self-confident the eleven Slovak high school teachers of English feel while practising correct pronunciation, we used a semi-structured interview. A detailed analysis of teachers' question responses revealed that a slight majority of our interviewees is confident in teaching correct pronunciation. At the same time we uncovered that some of the participating research subjects are somehow reluctant to teach it. One of the reasons for such a reluctant approach to pronunciation training could be seen in the neglect of methodology of pronunciation teaching in preparatory programmes for EFL/ESL teachers, as our research and the results of other studies suggest.
Conference Paper
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Teaching pronunciation is often a neglected or ignored part of English language teaching. However, correct pronunciation is without doubt a necessary quality of successful communication. For this reason, teaching pronunciation should be included straight at the beginning of English language learning as the correct pronunciation habits should be acquired as soon as possible. The best way to develop pronunciation is via contact with authentic spoken language. The recommended techniques and activities are drilling, ear training, phonetic training, reading aloud, imitation, clapping, tapping, gestures, etc. Combination of techniques is effective in learning pronunciation. This paper introduces several online games, activities and quizzes for primary school pupils using drilling and ear training techniques.
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In many English language classrooms, teaching pronunciation is granted the least attention. When ESL teachers defend the poor pronunciation skills of their students, their arguments could either be described as a cop-out with respect to their inability to teach their students proper pronunciation or they could be regarded as taking a stand against linguistic influence. If we learn a second language in childhood, we learn to speak it fluently and without a 'foreign accent'; if we learn in adulthood, it is very unlikely that we will attain a native accent. In this study, the researchers first review misconceptions about pronunciation, factors affecting the learning of pronunciation. Then, the needs of learners and suggestions for teaching pronunciation will be reviewed. Pronunciation has a positive effect on learning a second language and learners can gain the skills they need for effective communication in English.
The coming of language occurs at about the same age in every healthy child throughout the world, strongly supporting the concept that genetically determined processes of maturation, rather than environmental influences, underlie capacity for speech and verbal understanding. Dr. Lenneberg points out the implications of this concept for the therapeutic and educational approach to children with hearing or speech deficits.
This collection of essays on pronunciation theory and practice as it relates to second language instruction includes: "Pronunciation Assessment in the ESL/EFL Curriculum" (Janet Goodwin, Donna Brinton, Marianne Celce-Murcia); "Empowering Students with Predictive Skills" (Wayne B. Dickerson); "Intonation: A Navigation Guide for the Listener" (Judy B. Gilbert); "Some Perspectives on Accent: Range of Voice Quality Variation, the Periphery, and Focusing" (John H. Esling); "A Multidimensional Curriculum Design for Speech-Pronunciation Instruction" (Joan Morley); "Recent Research in L2 Phonology: Implications for Practice" (Martha C. Pennington); and "The Effects of Pronunciation Teaching" (George Yule, Doris Macdonald). (MSE)
The issue of teaching pronunciation has been severely neglected after the first year of most university foreign language (FL) courses. Moreover, research examining factors affecting the acquisition of the second language (L2) phonological system has been, in general, very scarce. In the present study I examine the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system by adult language learners studying Spanish at Indiana University, Bloomington. The objective of the study was to determine the success of supplementing intermediate Spanish courses with formal instruction in pronunciation. The instruction provided a multimodal methodology aimed to account specifically for individual differences and learning style variation. Variables such as field independence (FI), as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, & Karp, 1971), and subject attitude or concern for pronunciation accuracy were examined in relation to improvement in pronunciation. The findings revealed that neither FI, nor subject concern for pronunciation accuracy, were significant predictors of improvement in pronunciation. In contrast, the multimodal methodology resulted in significant improvement of target language pronunciation for the subjects in the experimental group. The article ends with a classroom model of pronunciation instruction designed to enable teachers to incorporate this multimodal method into most second language (L2) curricula. There are also observations about pronunciation errors as they relate to contrastive analysis theory and several suggestions for future research.
Teaching Pronunciation: A Refernece for Teachers of
  • M Celce-Murcia
  • D M Brinton
  • J M Goodwin
CELCE-MURCIA, M., BRINTON, D.M., GOODWIN, J.M. (2002). Teaching Pronunciation: A Refernece for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521405041.