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Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California and Baja California, Mexico (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

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The monotypic genus Neopalpa was described in 1998 by Czech entomologist Dalibor Povolný based on two male specimens from Santa Catalina Island, California, which he named N. neonata. The female of this species was discovered recently based on a DNA barcode match and is described. In addition, a new species with marked differences in morphology and DNA barcodes from southern California and Baja California Mexico is described as Neopalpa donaldtrumpi sp. n. Adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated, new diagnosis for the genus Neopalpa is provided, and its position within Gelechiidae is briefly discussed.
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Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 79
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description
of a new species from California and Baja California,
Mexico (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)
Vazrick Nazari1
1 3058-C KW Neatby Building, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 Canada
Corresponding author: Vazrick Nazari (nvazrick@yahoo.com)
Academic editor: D. Lafontaine|Received 5 December 2016|Accepted 9 January 2017|Published 17 January 2017
http://zoobank.org/3175884F-5A42-4662-8F09-7639C0FDE708
Citation: Nazari V (2017) Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California and
Baja California, Mexico (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). ZooKeys 646: 79–94. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.646.11411
Abstract
e monotypic genus Neopalpa was described in 1998 by Czech entomologist Dalibor Povolný based on
two male specimens from Santa Catalina Island, California, which he named N. neonata. e female of this
species was discovered recently based on a DNA barcode match and is described. In addition, a new species
with marked dierences in morphology and DNA barcodes from southern California and Baja California
Mexico is described as Neopalpa donaldtrumpi sp. n. Adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated,
new diagnosis for the genus Neopalpa is provided, and its position within Gelechiidae is briey discussed.
Keywords
Microlepidoptera, new species, nomenclature, taxonomy, Donald J. Trump
Introduction
e tribe Gnorimoschemini currently consists of 44 genera, only six of which have
exclusively Nearctic distributions (Povolný 2002). e dening characters of Gno-
rimoschemini remain vague since it was dened based on genital morphology with
no synapomorphies proposed (Povolný 1964, Huemer and Karsholt 2010), although
the reduction of muscle m7 in male genitalia maybe a unifying trait (Kuznetsov and
Stekolnikov 2001, Povolný 2002). A combination of characters have been suggested
that weakly support the monophyly of Gnorimoschemini, namely the presence of a
ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.646.11411
http://zookeys.pensoft.net
Copyright Vazrick Nazari. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
80
hook-like signum and a ventromedial zone of microtrichia near the ostial area of the
female genitalia (Huemer and Karsholt 1999, Ponomarenko 2006); however, one or
both of these traits are sometimes absent in some genera (e.g., Symmetrischema). e
monophyly and higher classication of the tribe thus remains unresolved.
In November 2011, a non-descript female gelechiid moth collected by J.-F. Lan-
dry from Santa Cruz Island in 1984 (CNCLEP00077350) was submitted for DNA
barcoding. is specimen yielded a unique 407 bp fragment COI barcode that, while
clustering with other Gnorimoschemini specimens in Neighbour-Joining analyses,
morphologically did not match any of the known species of Gnorimoschemini that
I had studied. In May 2012 additional matching barcode sequences from a Malaise
trap catch in California became available that contained samples from both sexes. e
genitalia of the females from this series were identical to the CNC specimen, and dis-
section of the male revealed its identity as Neopalpa neonata as described and illustrated
by Povolný in 1998. Subsequently I examined the holotype and the only paratype of
this species and conrmed the identication. Many additional specimens were later
collected and barcoded from California and Arizona, mainly through the continuous
Malaise trapping initiative by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario BioBus program.
e new species was initially discovered through dissection of Gnorimoschemini
material borrowed from the Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of Califor-
nia, Davis (UCBME). Two males and one female from Algodones dunes in Imperial
County, California, showed a unique genitalia and wing pattern that did not match
known species of Gnorimoschemini. Based on similarities in genitalia of both sexes I
associated these with Neopalpa, and this identication was further supported by DNA
barcoding. A few additional male specimens were later discovered among the mate-
rial borrowed from other institutions. In this paper I provide a new diagnosis for the
genus Neopalpa, illustrate the previously unknown female of Neopalpa neonata Pov-
olný,1998, and describe this newly discovered species.
Materials and methods
Collections. Specimens were examined from the following collections:
BIOUG Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Albu Research collection of Valeriu Albu, O’Neals, California, USA
CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA
EMEC Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, USA
LACM Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California, USA
UCR Entomology Research Museum, University of California, Riverside, Cali-
fornia, USA
UCBME Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, Davis, Cali-
fornia, USA
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 81
Dissections. Genitalia dissections and slide mounts followed procedures outlined
in Landry (2007). Intact male genitalia were excised and photographed in lactic acid
after cleaning and removal of scales. e unrolling technique (Pitkin 1986, Huemer
1988) was used for male slide preparations. e male genitalia slide of the holotype was
dissolved, and genitalia also unrolled and remounted. Intact (in lactic acid) and slide-
mounted genitalia were photographed with a Nikon DS-Fi1 digital camera mounted
on a Nikon Eclipse 800 microscope at magnications of 100×. Nikon’s NIS 2.3 Ele-
ments was used to assemble multiple photos of dierent focal planes into single deep-
focus images. e descriptive terminology of genitalia structures generally follows
Huemer and Karsholt (2010) and Kristensen (2003).
Photography. Pinned specimens were photographed with a Canon EOS 60D with
a MP-E 65 mm macro lens. ey were placed on the tip of a thin plastazote wedge
mounted on an insect pin, with the head facing toward the pin and the fringed parts of
the wings facing outward. is ensured that there was nothing between the fringes and
the background. All specimens were photographed over a white background. Lighting
was provided by a ring of 80 LED covered with a white diuser dome (Fisher 2012 and
references therein). e camera was attached to a re-purposed stereoscope ne-focusing
rail. Sets of 20–35 images in thin focal planes were taken for each specimen and assem-
bled into deep-focused images using Zerene Stacker and edited in Adobe Photoshop.
DNA sequence analysis. DNA extracts were prepared from one or two legs removed
from each specimen. DNA extraction, PCR amplication of the barcode region of COI,
and subsequent sequencing followed standard protocols at the Canadian Centre for DNA
Barcoding (deWaard et al. 2008). Attempts to barcode the type specimens of N. neonata
failed due to their old age. All resultant sequences, along with the voucher data, images,
and trace les, are publicly available in the BOLD dataset “DS-NEOPALPA”, dx.doi.
org/10.5883/DS-NEOPALPA. Sequences > 600 bp are deposited in GenBank (for ac-
cessions, see Suppl. material 1). Uncorrected p-distances were calculated in MEGA5
(Tamura et al. 2011). To infer a phylogenetic framework for Gnorimoschemini, a nexus
le of 35 sequences, including several outgroups and one representative from 32 Gnori-
moschemini genera, together with the sequences from the two species of Neopalpa, was
compiled using public sequences on BOLD and subjected to a Bayesian analysis of 50m
generations in MrBayes v.3.2. (Ronquist et al. 2012) under the GTR + Γ + I model with
two simulations, independent Markov chain Montecarlo (MCMC) runs starting from
dierent random trees, each with three heated chains and one cold chain.
Results
Neopalpa Povolný, 1998
Neopalpa Povolný, 1998a: 141, gs 1, 6.
Type species. Neopalpa neonata Povolný, 1998b (by original designation).
Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
82
Diagnosis. Neopalpa can be dened by the combination of the following geni-
talia characters: male tegumen long and parallel sided, gnathos a short and delicate
spine with distinct V-shaped arms, uncus tall and rounded, valvae sigmoid with antler-
shaped tip, saccus narrow and nearly as long as tegumen, phallus nearly as long as
longitudinal axis of genitalia, with a subovate caecum and a sub-terminal projection.
Female with a well-developed antrum and an aviform signum.
Remarks. Povolný (1998a) did not provide a dierential diagnosis for N. neo-
nata; instead he emphasized the “extremely characteristic” male genitalia, “… mainly
reected in the form of the curious bilobate paired process arising from the sacculus,
in the shape of slender parallel-sided sigmoid valva with its curious tip, and in the
long slender aedeagus with the specialized tip.” As for the adult, he commented, “e
moth shows the monotonous forewing coloration with indistinct blackish stigmata
characteristic of the tribe.” With the discovery of a new species of Neopalpa described
here, none of these characters holds up as a synapomorphy for the genus. While com-
parable structures occur in other Gnorimoschemini (e.g., some species in Ephysteris or
Keiferia), the “curious bilobate paired process arising from the sacculus” is signicantly
reduced in the new species. Also, the sigmoid bifurcating valve is not unique in Gnori-
moschemini (present in some species of Keiferia, Scrobipalpopsis and Symmetrischema),
and the new species does not show a highly-specialized phallus. In addition, the adults
of the new species show a highly-contrasting wing pattern that is very distinct from
N. neonata.
Description. Head. Scaled with light-yellow frons, scales on the vertex converging
towards middle, often with darker tips, ocelli present, small, located behind the base
of antenna. Labial palpi strongly up-curved, segment 3 acute, about 2/3 length of seg-
ment 2; antenna with more or less distinct dark and light rings.
orax. Grey to brown; wingspan 7–12 mm; forewing slender, discal and apical
areas dark brown, termen with black-tipped white scales. Hindwing o-white to grey-
ish with a well-developed tornal lobe and a pointed tip.
Abdomen. Male tergum 8 subtriangular, equilateral, weakly sclerotized and con-
cave anteriorly; sternum 8 more than twice the size of tergum 8, subrectangular,
broader than long, posterior margin broadly rounded, anterior margin bilobate with
a deep ventral emargination. Female segment 7 trapezoidal, tergum 7 approximately
twice the length of other abdominal segments; apodemes in both sexes well developed.
Coremata absent.
Male genitalia. Characterized by elongate shape, long parallel-sided tegumen and
slender, well-rounded uncus; gnathos a short spine; culcitula weakly developed; valva
sigmoid, parallel sided with a bifurcating antler-shaped tip; sacculus parabasally lo-
cated, short and cone shaped; vincular processes variously developed; saccus elongate,
nearly as long as tegumen; phallus elongate with a subovate caecum and a distinct
subterminal spine.
Female genitalia. Segment 8 with almost evenly sclerotized subgenital plate, mod-
erately to strongly sculpted, ventromedial zone membranous; ostium bursae distinctly
edged; antrum wide, tubular and weakly sclerotized, nearly ¾ length of apophysis
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 83
anterioris; apophysis anterioris thin and parallel sided, about same length as segment
8; ductus bursae same width as antrum and same length as apophysis anterioris; corpus
bursae clearly delineated, bulbous; signum aviform with a central spine (hook) and two
wide subtriangular lobes.
Distribution. Western USA (California and Arizona) and Baja California, Mexico.
Biology. Both species specialize in xeric habitats. e host plant is unknown, but is
probably in the Solanaceae (one specimen of N. neonata “collected in tomato foliage”).
Key to species of Neopalpa
1 Forewing predominantly dark brown or gray; male genitalia with large bilo-
bate vincular processes 4× length of sacculus; phallus with a curved tip and
a distinct subterminal hook; female genitalia segment 8 extensively sculpted
with microtrichea, signum aviform with granulated wings .......... N. neonata
– Forewing orange yellow except costal and terminal areas dark brown; male
genitalia vincular processes not longer than sacculus, phallus tip acute with a
subtle subterminal thorn; female genitalia segment 8 with hardly any micro-
trichea, signum aviform with smooth wings ............ N. donaldtrumpi sp. n.
Review of species
Neopalpa neonata Povolný, 1998
Barcode Index Number: BOLD:ABW8320
Figs 1a–f, 2a, b, 3a–d, 4a, c, 5a
Neopalpa neonata Povolný, 1998a: 141, gs 1, 6.
Material examined. Holotype , California: Los Angeles County, Santa Catalina
Island, Middle Cyn. 5.ii.1978, J.A. Chemsak, specimen # EMEC82306, genitalia
slide Pw1173 (EMEC). Paratype , Mexico: Baja California Sur, 21 mi. W. La Paz,
8.9.1966, J.A. Powell, specimen # EMEC342305, genitalia slide Pw1173 (EMEC).
For a complete list of additional specimens examined from California, Arizona and
Mexico (n = 386), see Suppl. material 1.
Diagnosis. Distinguishable from the species described below by dark forewing
and frons, well-developed vincular processes that are more than 4× as long as sacculus,
segment 8 in female genitalia heavily sculpted with microtrichea, and signum heavily
granulated with small stubby spines.
Redescription. Adult (Figs 1a–f, 2a, b). Forewing length: male 3.6–4.9 mm
(mean 4.2 mm, n=50); female 4.2–5.0 mm (mean 4.3 mm, n=50). Head, thorax and
tegula covered with a mixture of grayish-brown scales with darker tips; scales on vertex
and frons with darker tips, often appressed, converging towards middle. Labial palpi
up-curved, annulated, segment 3 acute, about ⅔ size of segment 2; antenna about ⅔
Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
84
Figure 1. Adults of Neopalpa species. a–f N. neonata g–j N. donaldtrumpi sp. n. N. neonata: a holotype
EMEC82306 (CA: Santa Catalina Island) b paratype EMEC342305 (Mexico: Baja California Sur)
c CNCLEP00077350 (CA: Santa Cruz Island) d EMEC407544 (CA: Santa Cruz Island) e LAC-
MENT326744 (CA: San Bernardino County) f EMEC408849 (CA: Modoc County); N. donaldtrumpi
sp. n.: g Holotype UCBMEP0201628 (CA: Imperial County) h Paratype UCBMEP0201482 (CA:
Imperial County) i Paratype UCBMEP0201629 (CA: Imperial County) j Paratype EMEC408498
(Mexico: Baja California Sur). For detailed specimen data see Suppl. material 1. Scale bar 2 mm.
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 85
length of forewing, with more or less distinct dark and light rings, scape covered with
yellow and dark-brown scales. Mesoscutum grayish brown, tegulae greyish brown to
brown. Forewing upper surface ground coloration consists of a mixture of grayish-
brown scales with dark tips, the dorsal region and subterminal fascia distinctly paler
partly mixed with orange scales; three to four obscure black tear-shaped stigmata situ-
ated axially, rst near forewing base, second in wing center, third in cell; additional
one or two stigmata in the dorsal forewing fold, the rst near wing center, the second
rather indicated by a group of chocolate-brown scales before external transverse band
near forewing dorsum; apical area and fringes generally dark grey mottled with lighter
suusion. Hindwing deep grey, unmarked, slender, with distinctly protruding tip.
Sexes similar.
Variation. Adult size and the intensity of forewing pattern variable. A large female
specimen (wingspan=6.3mm, not included in mean wingspan calculation) from Cedar
Pass Campground, Modoc County (EMEC408849, dissection VNZ 591, Fig. 1f)
shows gray ground coloration on wings instead of dark brown, but the female genitalia
are identical to those of N. neopalpa (Fig. 1f).
Male genitalia (Figs 3a–d, 4a) (seven preparations examined). Tergum 8 subtri-
angular, equilateral, weakly sclerotized and concave anteriorly; sternum 8 more than
2× the width of tergum 8, subquadrate, broader than long, posterior margin broadly
rounded, anterior margin bilobate with a protruded anterolateral corner.
Tegumen slender, parallel-sided, the anterior margin laterally notched; uncus
long and narrow with a round apex, nely setose; gnathos a short delicate spine with
distinct V-shaped arms about same width; culcitula weakly developed. Valva sigmoid,
long and slender, parallel-sided, bifurcating at about length of valva towards tip
into two equally-sized acute branches in form of antlers; sacculus parabasally locat-
ed, short and cone-shaped, nely setose; posterior margin of vinculum with a strik-
ing paired bilobate process separated by a deep, narrow excision; this process with a
shorter truncate lobe provided with a brush of long, sti hairs, their tips extending
over second (longer) lobe with obtuse upper edge and with rounded lateral side,
both armoured with numerous short spinules; lateral side of the paired process fused
basally with oblique wall of sacculus; (ventral) wall of sacculus strengthened basally
by a distinct, paired, heavily-sclerotized curved ledge; saccus elongate, ligulate, nearly
as long as tegumen, with distinctly-sclerotized lateral edge and a moderately rounded
tip; phallus nearly as long as the longitudinal genitalia axis, moderately sigmoid, with
a strongly-curved, rounded tip, a distinct subterminal hook-like spine, and an irregu-
larly subovate caecum.
Female genitalia (Fig. 5a, c) (eight preparations examined). Segment 8 paral-
lel sided on slide mounts, subgenital plate heavily sculpted with microtraechia, two
distinct dense round patches of microtraechia on Segment 8 posterolaterally; ostium
bursae subspherical, distinctly-edged anterolaterally; antrum wide, tubular, weakly
sclerotized, nearly ¾ length of apophysis anterioris; apophysis anterioris thin, parallel
sided, about the same length as segment 8; ductus bursae about same width and length
of antrum, lightly sculpted with speckles; corpus bursae clearly deliniated, bulbous,
Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
86
Figure 2. Close up of the head of male Neopalpa species. a, b N. neonata (LACMENT326885, Mexico:
Baja California) c, d N. donaldtrumpi sp. n., holotype (UCBMEP0201628, CA: Imperial County). Left:
lateral aspect, right: frontal aspect. Scale bar 1 mm.
lightly sculpted; signum aviform with a central spine and two subtriangular wings
covered with several rows of spinules.
Distribution. Povolný’s assumption that this species is a Channel Islands endemic
is incorrect, as it seems to have a much wider distribution on the mainland. Examined
specimens are from the USA: California (Imperial, Inyo, Los Angeles, Modoc, River-
side, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara and Solano counties); Arizona (Cochise
and Coconino counties), as well as Mexico (States of Sonora, Baja California, and Baja
California Sur).
Biology. Adults y throughout the year, probably in more than one generation.
Studied specimens were collected in every month of the year in almost even numbers
(the high number of samples collected in March is likely an artefact of high-volume
Malaise trapping in one location). e two males that formed the type series of this
species were collected in the “xeric maritime habitats extending from California Chan-
nel Islands.” Additional specimens examined were collected in a variety of generally
dry habitat types in canyons, creeks, campgrounds, microphyll forest, dry bush, dunes
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 87
and desert habitats. e life history and host plant remain unknown; nearly all speci-
mens examined were collected at light or in Malaise traps, although one specimen
(UCREM 4318, UCR) was “collected in tomato foliage.”
Neopalpa donaldtrumpi Nazari, sp. n.
http://zoobank.org/5FA78DB3-9FB8-409A-AD01-34567BB3C396
Barcode Index Number: BOLD:ACR1768
Figs 1g–j, 2c–d, 3e–h, 4b,d, 5b
Type material. Holotype : [label 1] “USA: CA: Imperial Co. | Algodones Dunes –
Niland- | Glamis Rd. 7.4 km NW Glamis”, [label 2] “33°02N 115°08.3W | 21-25
April 2009 AL173 | Bohart Museum Team”, [label 3] “UC BME | P 0201628”, [label
4] “Barcode of Life Project | Leg(s) removed | DNA extracted”, [label 5] “genitalia
slide | VNZ240 .” Condition of specimen: double mounted, wings partly spread, left
antenna and part of right antenna missing, left hind- and all right legs missing, partly
removed for DNA barcoding. Deposited at UCBME.
Paratypes. 5 males, 1 female. 1 same data as for holotype, specimen # UCB-
MEP0201629 (CNC); 1 USA: CA: Imperial Co., Algodones Dunes, Mammoth
Wash, Niland-Glamis Rd., 29 km N. Hwy 78, 2008AL20, 6-9.II.2008, Malaise
trap, S.L. Heydon & T.J. Zavortnik, specimen # UCBMEP0201482, slide VNZ241
(UCBME); 1 CA: Riverside Co., P.L. Boyd Desert Research Center, 3.5 miles S.
Palm Desert, 13–18.VI.1969, Malaise trap, Saul Frommer & R. Worley, specimen #
UCREM 18373, slide VNZ580 (UCR); 1 ibid, 16–17.8.1970, P.L. Boyd, specimen
# UCRC ENT 461717 (UCR); 1 CA: Imperial Co., Deep Canyon, Coyote Creek,
5.IV.1975, J.B. Tucker, specimen # UCIS 313268, slide VNZ556 (UCR). 1 Mexi-
co: Baja California Norte, Arroya Catavina, Hwy 1, 35 mi S Progresso, 1.IV.1976,
Blacklight, P.A. Rude, specimen # EMEC408498, slide VNZ327 (EMEC).
Diagnosis. e new species can be easily distinguished from N. neonata by its ex-
ternal appearance, the yellowish-white scales covering the frons of the adult head, and
the distinctive orange-yellow coloration on the forewing dorsum. In the male genitalia,
the valvae are strongly curved, the saccus has an acute tip, and the highly-developed bi-
lobed processes of the vinculum, characteristic of N. neonata, are absent. In the female
genitalia, the subgenital plate is simpler than in N. neonata and much less sculptured
with microtrichea, and the signum wings are smooth.
Description. Adult (Figs 1g–j, 2c, d). Forewing length: male 3.0–4.6 mm (mean
3.6 mm, n=6); female 4.3 mm (n=1). Head and thorax o-white, tegula greyish brown
to brown, scales on vertex and frons yellowish white, often rough, converging towards
middle. Labial palpi strongly up curved, annulated, segment 3 slender and acute, about
⅔ size of segment 2; antenna about ⅔ length of forewing, with more or less distinct
dark and light rings, scape covered with yellow and light-brown scales. Forewing upper
surface with costal region dark brown with sparse, lighter speckles; dorsal region and
discal fascia orange yellow to pale bu, the sinuous margin with two or three scallops;
Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
88
Figure 3. Male genitalia of Neopalpa species. a–d N. neonata e–h N. donaldtrumpi sp. n. a, b ventral
and lateral view of intact genitalia, unmounted, stored in lactic acid (LACMENT326710, CA: River-
side County) c, d Unrolled genitalia and phallus of the Holotype (EMEC82306, dissection Pw1168)
e, fventral and lateral view of intact genitalia, unmounted, stored in lactic acid (UCRC ENT 461717,
CA: Riverside County) g, h Unrolled genitalia and phallus of the Holotype (UCBME021628; dissection
VNZ241). Scale bar 100 μm.
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 89
Figure 4. Last abdominal segment of male Neopalpa species. a N. neonata (specimen BIOUG01860-D04,
dissection MIC6545; CA: San Diego County) b N. donaldtrumpi sp. n. (UCIS 313268, dissection VNZ556;
CA: Riverside County). Scale bar 100 μm.
apical area and fringes dark brown heavily mottled with lighter suusion. Hindwing
pale bu, unmarked, with slightly darker fringe. Sexes similar.
Male genitalia (Figs 3e–h, 4b) (four preparations examined). Tergum 8 subpent-
agonal, weakly sclerotized and concave anteriorly; sternum 8 more than 2× the width of
tergum 8, subquadrate, broader than long, posterior margin broadly rounded, anterior
margin bilobate with a protruded anterolateral corner. Genitalia comparatively small-
er than for N. neonata, tegumen slender and parallel sided, anterior margin laterally
notched, uncus long and narrow with a round tip; gnathos a short spine with distinct
V-shaped arms about same width; culcitula weakly developed. Valva sigmoid, parallel
sided, with a short spine at about ⅔ length towards tip; sacculus parabasally located,
short and cone shaped; vinculum with lateral projections spine shaped and about the
same size as sacculus, vinculum posterior margin weakly developed with a shallow
anteromedial incision; saccus elongate, nearly as long as tegumen, narrowing towards
an acute tip; phallus elongate with a subovate caecum and a distinct subterminal spine.
Female genitalia (Fig. 5b, d) (1 preparations examined). Segment 8 with almost
evenly sclerotized subgenital plate, with ventromedial zone membranous and moder-
ately sculpted with microtraechia; ostium bursae subtriangular, distinctly edged anter-
olaterally; antrum wide, tubular and weakly sclerotized, nearly ¾ length of apophysis
anterioris; apophysis anterioris thin and parallel sided, about same length as segment
8; ductus bursae about same width and 2× length of antrum, lightly sculpted with
wrinkles; corpus bursae clearly deliniated, bulbous, lightly sculpted; signum aviform
with a central spine and two smooth subtriangular wings.
Etymology. e new species is named in honor of Donald J. Trump, to be in-
stalled as the 45th President of the United States on January 20, 2017. e reason
for this choice of name is to bring wider public attention to the need to continue
protecting fragile habitats in the US that still contain many undescribed species. e
specic epithet is selected because of the resemblance of the scales on the frons (head)
of the moth to Mr. Trump’s hairstyle. e name is a noun in the genitive case.
Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
90
Figure 5. Female genitalia of Neopalpa species. a N. neonata (CNCLEP00077350, dissection MIC6530;
CA: Santa Cruz Island) b N. donaldtrumpi sp. n. (UCBMEP0201482, dissection VNZ241; CA: Impe-
rial County); Close-up of signa c N. neonata (UCBMEP0201495, dissection VNZ239; CA: Imperial
County) d N. donaldtrumpi sp. n. (same as b). Scale bar 100 μm.
Distribution. So far only known from Riverside and Imperial counties in south-
ern California and Baja California in Mexico.
Biology. Specimens collected at mercury-vapour light, black-light or Malaise trap
in February, April, June and August, in dry or sandy habitats. Life history and host
plant unknown.
Discussion
e two species of Neopalpa y sympatrically in three localities in southern California
(Deep Canyon and P.L. Boyd Desert Research Center in Riverside County, and Algodones
dunes in Imperial County) (Fig. 6), although none of the examined specimens of N.
donaldtrumpi were collected synchronically with N. neonata (see Suppl. material1). e
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 91
Figure 6. Distribution of Neopalpa species. (Created using simplemappr.net, accessed December 2016)
DNA barcodes of N. neonata and N. donaldtrumpi are 4.9–5.1% divergent from one
another and are placed in separate BINs on BOLD. A Bayesian analysis of DNA barcodes
from representatives of all available Gnorimoschimini genera placed these two species
together, and as a distant sister to Ochrodia Povolný, 1966 and Ephysteris Meyrick,1908
with good support. e tree was rooted using representative from other tribes of
Gelechiinae, and other subfamilies of Gelechiidae. Short mitochondrial fragments such
as the DNA barcode region cannot resolve deeper relationships at the subfamily level,
as evident by these results. In the inferred phylogeny, all genera currently recognized
under Gnorimoschemini (sensu Povolný 2002) group together in a large unresolved clade
with weak support, except Kiwaia Philpott, 1930; in addition, Neofaculta Gozmany,
1955 (Gelechiinae: Chelarini) appears within the Gnorimoschemini clade as sister to
Vazrick Nazari / ZooKeys 646: 79–94 (2017)
92
KeiferiaPovolný, 1967 (Fig. 7). Ochrodia has been treated as a valid genus (Povolný 2002,
Huemer and Karsholt2010) or a subgenus of Ephysteris (Karsholt and Sattler 1998, Li
and Bidzylia 2008). ese two taxa share the same “Ephysteroid” type of genitalia (sensu
Povolný and Šustek 1988) with Neopalpa, and appear to be the most similar group to it
within Gnorimoschemini.
e discovery of this distinct micro-moth in the densely populated and otherwise zoo-
logically well-studied southern California underscores the importance of conservation of
the fragile habitats that still contain undescribed and threatened species, and highlights the
paucity of interest in species-level taxonomy of smaller faunal elements in North America.
By naming this species after the 45th President of the United States, I hope to bring some
public attention to, and interest in, the importance of alpha-taxonomy in better under-
standing the neglected micro-fauna component of the North American biodiversity.
Acknowledgements
I am indebted to Jerry Powell and Pete Oboyski (EMEC), Doug Yanega (UCR), Julian
Donahue and Weiping Xie (LACM), Norm Penny † (CAS), Je Smith and John
DeBenedictis (UCBME), and Valeriu Albu for loan of the material studied, to Scott
Figure 7. Bayesian Inference of COI barcode sequences for selected Gnorimoschimini species. Values
are posterior probabilities for each node.
Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California... 93
E. Miller (USNM, Washington D.C.) and Erik van Nieukerken (Naturalis, Leiden) for
permission to use unpublished sequences, to Peter Huemer, Ole Karlshot, Don Lafontaine,
John Huber, Lyubomir Penev and Terry Erwin for their reviews and comments on
earlier drafts of the manuscript, and to Paul Hebert and Jean-François Landry for their
continuous support throughout this study.
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Supplementary material 1
Material examined and GenBank accessions
Authors: Vazrick Nazari
Data type: species data
Explanation note: Material examined and Genbank accessions.
Copyright notice: is dataset is made available under the Open Database License
(http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). e Open Database License
(ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and
use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the
original source and author(s) are credited.
... DNA barcodes are now used widely in species delineation to help interpret or supplement ambiguous morphological data and to associate sexes (e.g. Huemer & Hebert 2011;Huemer & Mutanen 2012;Landry et al. 2013;Nazari 2017). We successfully obtained DNA barcodes for four of the recognized species but the few barcoded specimens were males only. ...
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The following genus group names are synonymized: Hedma Dumont, 1932 and Megalocypha Janse, 1960 syn n. of Microlechia Turati, 1924. The following new combinations are introduced: Scrobipalpa karadaghi (Povolný, 2001) comb. n.; Scrobipalpa acuta (Povolný, 2001) comb. n.; Scrobipalpa alterna (Falkovitsh & Bidzilya, 2006) comb. n.; Scrobipalpa grossoides (Povolný, 2001) comb. n.; Microlechia rhamnifoliae (Amsel & Hering, 1931) comb. n.; Microlechia karsholti (Nupponen, 2010) comb. n. The following taxa are recalled from synonymy: Gnorimoschema nilsi Huemer, 1996 sp. rev.; Gnorimoschema hoefneri (Rebel, 1909) sp. rev.; Scrobipalpa divisella (Rebel, 1936) sp. rev.; Scrobipalpa salicorniae (Hering, 1889) sp. rev.; Scrobipalpa spegulariella (Chrétien, 1910) sp. rev.; Scrobipalpa thymelaeae (Amsel, 1939) sp. rev.; Scrobipalpa halymella (Millière, 1864) sp. rev.; Klimeschiopsis terroris (Hartig, 1938) sp. rev.; Microlechia Turati, 1924 gen. rev. The specific status of following taxa is revised: Gnorimoschema alaskense Povolný, 1967 stat. rev.; Scrobipalpa stabilis Povolný, 1977 stat. n.; Ephysteris inustella gredosensis (Rebel, 1935) stat. rev.; Ephysteris insulella praticolella (Christoph, 1872) stat. n.; Lutilabria lutilabrella olympica Huemer, 1993 stat. n.; Caryocolum blandella horoscopa (Meyrick, 1926) stat. n. Finally the synonymy of Gnorimoschema antiquum Povolný, 1966 syn. rev. and the generic combinations of Scrobipalpa lagodes (Meyrick, 1926) comb. rev. and Scrobipalpa ergasima (Meyrick, 1916) comb. rev. are revised. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Phthorimaea calaritanella Amsel, 1952; Gelechia portosanctana Stainton, 1859; Gelechia lyciella Walsingham, 1900; Gelechia salinella Zeller, 1847; Teleia hyoscyamella Rebel, 1912; Oecophora moritzella Treitschke, 1835; Lita roseella Zetterstedt, 1839.
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On the basis of comparative morphological analysis, taking into account the male genital musculature, a cladogram of the tribes and subfamilies of gelechiid moths is proposed. In accordance with the main branches of the cladogram the new system of the family Gelechiidae consisting of 5 subfamilies (Physoptilinae, Anomologinae, Gelechiinae, Anacampsinae, and Dichomeridinae) is developed. The subfamily Physoptilinae is considered as a sister-group to other gelechiids, the monophyly of the latter is supported by a complex of synapomorphies (female retinaculum with anteriorly directed row of scales located on the base of radial stalk; muscles m 3 running across the longitudinal body axis, connecting the lateral arms of vinculum with margins of juxta; protractors of aedeagus m 5 divided into two bunches m 5a and m 5b). The subfamilies Anacampsinae and Dichomeridinae are regarded as sistergroups. The monophyly of the subfamily Dichomeridinae is based on the complex of synapomorphies (presence of parategminal sclerites, which are the apodemes for muscles m 4; presence of distinct ventral wall in tegumen; intrategminal position of the muscles m 2). The subfamily Dichomeridinae is considered to consist of three tribes, Anarsiini, Chelariini and Dichomeridini, with 34 genera in total. The cladogram for the genera of the subfamily Dichomeridinae is proposed.