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WASI-II: wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence - second edition

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... School records were used to identify children who had a score of less than or equal to 92 on the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement III Letter-Word Identification (W-J WID) and/or Word Attack (W-J WA) (Woodcock et al., 2001), and a documented diagnosis of dyslexia. In order to be included in the study, children had to score at least 80 on Verbal, Performance, and Full IQ on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) (Wechsler, 1999). All children were in good health and free of other developmental disabilities, neurological and psychiatric disorders or any disease affecting brain function, except for ADHD (children taking medication for ADHD had to refrain taking it prior to the scans). ...
... Except for IQ, the entire testing battery was administered at all three visits (prior to and following interventions). The WASI (Wechsler, 1999) was used to measure IQ. The Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement III was used to assess reading ability: Word Identification (W-J WID) subtest for single real word reading, Word Attack (W-J WA) subtest for single pseudoword reading, and Passage Comprehension (W-J PC) for understanding of written text (Woodcock et al., 2001). ...
... The Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement III was used to assess reading ability: Word Identification (W-J WID) subtest for single real word reading, Word Attack (W-J WA) subtest for single pseudoword reading, and Passage Comprehension (W-J PC) for understanding of written text (Woodcock et al., 2001). In addition, we measured skills that play a role in acquiring reading and are typically impaired in dyslexia: the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC) for phonemic awareness (Lindamood and Lindamood, 1971), the Rapid Automatized Naming test (RAN L&N and C&O) for naming fluency of letters/numbers and colors/objects (Denckla and Rudel, 1976a,b), the Digit Span test for working memory (Wechsler, 1999), and the Symbol Imagery (SI) test for visual imagery (memory for letters and orthographic patterns) (Bell, 1997). These measures were used to gauge improvement in reading and readingrelated skills, which were expected to increase following the reading intervention but not following the math intervention. ...
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Studies of reading intervention in dyslexia have shown changes in performance and in brain function. However, there is little consistency in the location of brain regions associated with successful reading gains in children, most likely due to variability/limitations in methodologies (study design, participant criteria, and neuroimaging procedures). Ultimately for the results to be meaningful, the intervention has to be successful, be assessed against a control, use rigorous statistics, and take biological variables (sex) into consideration. Using a randomized, crossover design, 31 children with dyslexia were assigned to a phonological- and orthographic-based tutoring period as well as a within-subjects control period to examine: (1) intervention-induced changes in behavior (reading performance) and in brain activity (during reading); and (2) behavioral and brain activity pre-intervention data that predicted intervention-induced gains in reading performance. We found gains in reading ability following the intervention, but not following the control period, with no effect of participants’ sex. However, there were no changes in brain activity following the intervention (regardless of sex), suggesting that individual brain changes are too variable to be captured at the group level. Reading gains were not predicted by pre-intervention behavioral data, but were predicted by pre-intervention brain activity in bilateral supramarginal/angular gyri. Notably, some of this prediction was only found in females. Our results highlight the limitations of brain imaging in detecting the neural correlates of reading intervention in this age group, while providing further evidence for its utility in assessing eventual success of intervention, especially if sex is taken into consideration.
... Participants included 12 individuals with a previous diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2; (Lord et al., 2012), some college experience (e.g., community college, technical college, 4-year university), and an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 85 or higher on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; (Wechsler, 2011). Ten participants completed the full 10-week intervention. ...
... Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2; Lord et al., 2012) The ADOS-2 is a gold-standard, semi-structured observational measure with extensive evidence as a reliable and valid instrument to assess the presence of ASD. (WASI-II;Wechsler, 2011) This abbreviated measure of verbal and nonverbal IQ produces a Full-Scale IQ estimate (FSIQ-2) using the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subscales. The FSIQ-2 has been found to have adequate reliability and validity. ...
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Background: Autistic young adults are at elevated risk for poor employment/internship outcomes, despite having many strengths relevant to the workplace. Currently, very few employment interventions for this population comprehensively promote skills development and success across the various stages of employment. Aims: To address this gap, the current study aimed to test the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel college to career intervention program, PEERS® for Careers. Methods and procedures: Twelve autistic young adults (19-30 years old) were enrolled and matched to a career coach. The pilot program consisted of 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for 10 weeks, covering content relevant to obtaining, maintaining, and thriving in employment/internship settings. Outcomes and results: Results indicated that young adults showed a significant improvement in employment-related social skills knowledge, p < .001. Participants also reported significant improvements in their feelings of preparedness for employment over the course of the study, p = .009, with all young adults self-identifying as "somewhat prepared" or "very prepared" post-intervention. Additionally, in only a brief 10-week intervention, a slight increase in participants who secured or maintained internship/employment-related activities was observed. Overall, lesson content and coaching were perceived as helpful. No significant changes were observed in self-reported autism symptomatology. Conclusions and implications: In sum, the PEERS® for Careers program shows promise as a college to career intervention program for autistic young adults. What this paper adds: There is a dearth of evidence-based interventions for autistic young adults, despite significant need for supports to bolster vocational and relational success. This paper is the first to evaluate the PEERS® for Careers intervention in a pilot study by exploring feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this novel college to career intervention program, which teaches ecologically valid employment-related skills using a strengths-based approach. Results suggest PEERS® for Careers shows significant potential as a comprehensive intervention to address the multi-faceted needs of autistic individuals in the workplace through didactic lessons, behavioral rehearsals to practice skills, and out of group assignments. Autistic young adult participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the program and lessons surrounding employment-related social skills. They also endorsed increased feelings of internship/employment readiness and increased knowledge of workplace etiquette, with most participants maintaining or securing employment. This study supports PEERS® for Careers as a feasible intervention that likely benefits autistic individuals' vocational outcomes, which emerge as a strong correlate of well-being in adulthood. This work is essential to furthering the development and provision of effective services to meet needs of the autism community.
... These, if found excessive, may constitute risk factors for bullying victimization in children who otherwise develop normally in the cognitive and intellectual domain. Children completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests including Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-II (WASI-II) [61] with Block Design and Matrix Reasoning subtests to assess visual perceptual organization, concept formation, and visual motor coordination; and Vocabulary and Similarities subtests to assess early learned, crystalized verbal knowledge, concept formation and reasoning. The results showed no significant deficits in verbal or visual-spatial skills (W-VCI or W-PRI), that potentially could pose a confounding variable for the current investigation. ...
... PRI; t 30 = −1.74, p = 0.09), calculated from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-II (WASI-II) [61]. Furthermore, since peer bullying of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly prevalent and since we focused on excessive early developmental rituals, considered in prior studies to be a possible prodromal symptom of OCD, we decided to exclude current clinical cases of pediatric OCD from participation in this study. ...
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Bullying victimization has a profound negative impact on a child’s emotional, social, and cognitive development. Childhood bullying victimization is reported across various social settings, suggesting common characteristics that increase a child’s vulnerability to victimization. It is critical to identify early markers of such vulnerability to design preventative tools. Comprehensive semi-structured clinical interviews from mothers of child-victims and non-engaged control children included assessment of early developmental rituals and behavioral inhibition to social novelty, as potential behavioral correlates of anxiety. Neuropsychological and clinical assessment tools were used, and resting state spectral resting state EEG (rsEEG) was recorded. Increased frequency/severity of early developmental rituals and behaviorally inhibited responses to social novelty were apparent in all child-victims, alongside significantly reduced power of ventral prefrontal brain rsEEG alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz). This triad of findings, in line with prior studies, suggested an elevated early childhood anxiety, which, as current findings indicate, may be a cross-diagnostic marker of increased risk for life-long bullying victimization. Gaining insight into early childhood markers of anxiety may meaningfully complement neuropsychiatric prognosis and preventative efforts.
... We measured IQ with the 2-subtest version of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 2007). Other cognitive functions were assessed with Matrics Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB: Nuechterlein and Green, 2009). ...
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This study examined social cognitive heterogeneity in Norwegian sample of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 82). They were assessed with three social cognitive tests: Emotion in Biological Motion (emotion processing), Relationships Across Domains (social perception), and Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (theory of mind). Hierarchical and k-means cluster analyses using standardized scores on these three tests provided two clusters. The first cluster (68 %) had mild social cognitive impairments (<0.5 standard deviations below healthy comparison participants). The second cluster (32 %) had severe social cognitive impairments (>2 standard deviations below healthy comparison participants). Validity of the two social cognitive subgroups was indicated by significant differences in functioning, symptom load and nonsocial cognition. Our study shows that social cognitive tests can be used for clinical and cognitive subtyping. This is of potential relevance for treatment.
... All participants completed a standardized neuro psychological test battery sensitive to cognitive impairment associated with traumatic brain injury. The cognitive functions of particular interest were indexed through: (i) current verbal and non-verbal reasoning ability via the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Similarities and Matrix Reasoning sub-tests (Wechsler, 1999); (ii) associative learning and memory via the immediate recall score on the people test from the doors and people test (Baddeley et al., 1994); (iii) the executive functions of set-shifting, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and word generation fluency via the trail Making test (Reitan, 1958) alternating-switch cost index (time to complete alternating letter and number Trails B-time to complete numbers-only trail A) and two indices from the Delis-Kaplan executive function system (Delis et al., 2001), namely the inhibition/switching minus baseline score from the color-word sub-test (high scores indicating poor performance) and the total score on Letter Fluency; and (iv) information processing speed via the median reaction time for accurate responses on a simple computerized choice reaction task (see Supplementary material for further info). ...
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White matter disruption is an essential determinant of cognitive impairment after brain damage, however conventional neuroimaging underestimates its volume. In comparison, diffusion tensor imaging presents a confirmed and sensitive way of figuring out the impact of axonal damage. the connection among cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury and white matter damage is probably to be complicated. We implemented a flexible approach-tract-primarily based spatial statistics-to explore whether damage to particular white matter tracts is associated with particular patterns of cognitive impairment. The commonly affected domain names of memory, executive function and information processing speed were investigated in 28 patients within the post acute/chronic segment following traumatic brain injury and in 26 age-matched controls. evaluation of fractional anisotropy and diffusivity maps found out significant differences in white matter integrity among the groups. patients showed massive regions of reduced fractional anisotropy, as well as increased mean and axial diffusivities, compared with controls, despite the small amounts of cortical and white matter damage visible on preferred imaging. A stratified analysis primarily based at the presence or absence of microbleeds (a marker of diffuse axonal damage) revealed diffusion tensor imaging to be more sensitive than gradient-echo imaging to white matter damage. The region of white matter abnormality anticipated cognitive function to some extent. The structure of the fornices became correlated with associative learning and memory across both patient and control groups, while the structure of frontal lobe connections showed relationships with executive function that differed in the groups. those results highlight the complexity of the relationships between white matter structure and cognition. although widespread and, sometimes, chronic abnormalities of white matter are identifiable following traumatic brain injury, the impact of these changes on cognitive function is likely to depend on damage to key pathways that link nodes in the distributed brain networks assisting high-level cognitive functions.
... The WASI-II allowed obtainment of a child's Full Scale Intelligence Quotient-2 score (FSIQ-2), and adolescents who received an estimate of 75 or above were considered eligible for participation in the study. The WASI-II is normed for individuals ages six through 90, and the FSIQ-2 has been found to have a test-retest reliability of 0.93 (Wechsler, 2011). ...
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Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of experiencing academic difficulties due to organizational deficits. Impairment can be exacerbated through poor sleep hygiene and excessive daytime sleepiness, prevalent sleep challenges for adolescents with ADHD. Given established relationships among sleep, memory consolidation, and executive functioning, sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness may affect academic and organizational treatment outcomes. The current study examined the influence of pre-treatment daytime sleepiness and sleep hygiene on academic and organizational treatment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention for 171 high school students with ADHD. Participants were assigned to either the treatment group (n = 85, Mage = 15.0, SD = 0.8, 80% male, 71% White/Non-Hispanic) or the control group (n = 86, Mage = 15.1, SD = 0.9, 78% male, 87% White/Non-Hispanic). Multiple regression analyses with an interaction term were conducted, finding significant main effects for poor pre-treatment sleep hygiene and excessive daytime sleepiness predicting worse post-treatment GPA, organizational skills, academic problems, and homework problems. A significant moderation effect was found such that greater pre-treatment daytime sleepiness was associated with more post-treatment homework problems, but only for the control group. Incorporating efforts to improve sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness in interventions for adolescents with ADHD may enhance treatment-induced improvements. Future studies should utilize objective sleep measures to gain greater understanding of sleep’s impact on adolescents’ response to psychosocial treatment.
... All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery pre-and post-intervention measuring general intellectual ability, EF, and PS. General intellectual ability was measured by the Norwegian version of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), to better describe the sample and potentially explain dropout (refer to Table 1). The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis et al., 2001) subtests TMT, and the Color Word Interference Test (CWIT), an updated version of the Stroop task, was used to measure PS and EF. ...
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IntroductionRemission from major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with residual symptoms related to reduced functioning, quality of life, and relapse risk. Previous studies have raised questions about mechanisms involved-in and affected by cognitive training. This study investigated the associations and changes among depressive symptoms, rumination, processing speed (PS), executive functioning (EF), and emotional working memory (e-WM) pre- post computerized working memory training (CWMT).Method Twenty-nine remitted participants were included in a pre- post pilot study of within-subject effects of online CWMT. A total of 20 participants completed the intervention and pre- post tests of EF and PS, e-WM, in addition to symptom and rumination measures. Associations between changes in symptoms and cognition were investigated pre- post. Associations between improvements in CWMT, depression history, and changes in cognition were explored. Hypotheses and statistics were preregistered before data were analyzed.ResultsManipulation of negatively valanced stimuli in e-WM showed an inverse association with rumination pre-intervention, but the association disappeared post-intervention. Cognitive functioning improved in most conditions with largest effects in EF. Symptoms did not change in the remitted sample. CWMT improvements were related to improvements in some aspects of EF and PS, but also to worse self-reported attention. Depression history was related to less improvement in EF.LimitationsSample size was small and there was dropout from the study. There was no control group, thus precluding practice and placebo effects and causal relationships.Conclusions Computerized WM training improves cognitive functions and could influence associations between e-WM and rumination. This could counteract functional impairment following MDD.
... Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) 53 for individuals 16 years of age or older and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) 54 for individuals younger than 16 years of age. Independent samples t tests revealed that the ASD group was significantly older (t = 2.33, p = 0.02) than the ASD Control group and had a significantly lower full scale IQ (t = − 5.01, p < 0.001), verbal IQ (t = − 5.04, p < 0.001), and performance IQ (t = − 3.53, p < 0.001) than the ASD Control group. ...
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Entrainment, the unconscious process leading to coordination between communication partners, is an important dynamic human behavior that helps us connect with one another. Difficulty developing and sustaining social connections is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subtle differences in social behaviors have also been noted in first-degree relatives of autistic individuals and may express underlying genetic liability to ASD. In-depth examination of verbal entrainment was conducted to examine disruptions to entrainment as a contributing factor to the language phenotype in ASD. Results revealed distinct patterns of prosodic and lexical entrainment in individuals with ASD. Notably, subtler entrainment differences in prosodic and syntactic entrainment were identified in parents of autistic individuals. Findings point towards entrainment, particularly prosodic entrainment, as a key process linked to social communication difficulties in ASD and reflective of genetic liability to ASD.
... Means for each of the attention dimensions were calculated based on the age-based standard scores generated from each test variable. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence also was used as an estimate of overall intellectual functioning (Wechsler, 1999). ...
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Objective To compare specific attention functions for school-age children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to those of a typically developing control group. Methods A cross-sectional study examined attention dimensions for children and adolescents with CKD ( n = 30) in comparison to a typically developing control group ( n = 41). The CKD group consisted of those receiving maintenance dialysis ( n = 15) and those with mild/moderate CKD treated conservatively ( n = 15). Measures aligning with Mirsky’s conceptual multidimensional model of attention were selected to compare groups across five dimensions of attention: Focus/Execute, Sustain, Stability, Shift, and Encode. Results Significant group differences were revealed, with the CKD group performing worse than controls on the Focus/Execute, Sustain, and Encode dimensions. The CKD group also had a larger proportion of children with scores one standard deviation or more below the mean on the Shift and Encode domains, suggesting an at-risk level of functioning in these dimensions. Secondary analyses showed disease severity to be correlated with worse attention functions for children with CKD. Conclusion Children with CKD may be vulnerable to subtle, specific deficits in numerous attention dimensions relative to their typically developing peers, particularly for those with more severe disease.
... Cognitive domains commonly associated with dysfunction following TBI were selected based on previous work and clinical need. [27][28][29][30] Testing lasted between 3-4 hours and included measures of general intellectual abilities, 31 verbal and non-verbal memory, 32-34 attention, executive functions and speed of information processing, [35][36][37][38] and academic attainment. 39 Assessments of everyday functioning were collected through self and carer reports. ...
Article
Long-term outcomes are difficult to predict after paediatric traumatic brain injury. The presence or absence of focal brain injuries often do not explain cognitive, emotional and behavioural disabilities that are common and disabling. In adults, traumatic brain injury produces progressive brain atrophy that can be accurately measured and is associated with cognitive decline. However, the effect of paediatric traumatic brain injury on brain volumes is more challenging to measure because of its interaction with normal brain development. Here we report a robust approach to the individualized estimation of brain volume following paediatric traumatic brain injury and investigate its relationship to clinical outcomes. We first used a large healthy control dataset (n > 1200, age 8-22) to describe the healthy development of white and grey matter regions through adolescence. Individual estimates of grey and white matter regional volume were then generated for a group of moderate/severe traumatic brain injury patients injured in childhood (n = 39, mean age 13.53 ± 1.76, median time since injury = 14 months, range 4-168 months) by comparing brain volumes in patients to age-matched controls. Patients were individually classified as having low or normal brain volume. Neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric outcomes were assessed using standardized testing and parent/carer assessments. Relative to head size, grey matter regions decreased in volume during normal adolescence development whereas white matter tracts increased in volume. Traumatic brain injury disrupted healthy brain development, producing reductions in both grey and white matter brain volumes after correcting for age. Of the 39 patients investigated, 11 (28%) had at least one white matter tract with reduced volume and seven (18%) at least one area of grey matter with reduced volume. Those classified as having low brain volume had slower processing speed compared to healthy controls, emotional impairments, higher levels of apathy, increased anger and learning difficulties. In contrast, the presence of focal brain injury and microbleeds were not associated with an increased risk of these clinical impairments. In summary, we show how brain volume abnormalities after paediatric traumatic brain injury can be robustly calculated from individual T1 MRI using a large normative dataset that allows the effects of healthy brain development to be controlled for. Using this approach, we show that volumetric abnormalities are common after moderate/severe traumatic brain injury in both grey and white matter regions, and are associated with higher levels of cognitive, emotional and behavioural abnormalities that are common after paediatric traumatic brain injury.
... Consistent with past STPs, families were asked to keep medication status stable and to notify clinical supervisors of any changes in medication status. Study participants were required to: (a) meet formal DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and/ or have a previous diagnosis of ADHD, (b) be between the ages of 7 and 12, (c) have an estimated IQ of 70 or higher as measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), and (d) have no history of autism spectrum disorder according to parent report of diagnostic history. ADHD diagnoses were made using evidence-based assessment procedures . ...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder defined by pervasive symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Furthermore, children with ADHD show marked deficits in executive functioning (EF) such as attention, effortful control, and behavior, and are more likely to have poor self-regulatory skills. Current evidence-based interventions for children with ADHD include behavioral treatment (BT), psychopharmacological treatment, and their combination. Many other interventions are often used conjunction with or in lieu of evidence-based treatments for ADHD. One such example is the use of mindfulness-based interventions which have been shown to improve attention, reduce maladaptive behaviors, and increase self-regulatory abilities among children in general education settings. The current study is the first to evaluate the effect of mindfulness intervention in combination with BT on behavior, task-based executive functioning (EF), and mindful awareness in elementary-aged children with ADHD (N = 58). The study took place in a controlled analogue summer program setting (STP) in which children were randomized to receive either the mindfulness intervention in conjunction with BT or to a BT active control condition. Children completed a variety of EF cognitive tasks at baseline and post-treatment. Child behavioral responses were measured as teacher and staff-recorded frequencies of observed behavior. In addition, parent-reported and child self-reported measures on mindful awareness were collected. Overall, there were no beneficial incremental effects of mindfulness when used in combination with intensive BT with regard to observed child behavior, attention and inhibitory control, or mindful awareness.
... Several indicators for maternal, child, and family characteristics, including multilevel social determinants, were harmonized across cohorts. Maternal characteristics included age at enrollment; regionand inflation-adjusted household annual income 64 ; household members (2-3 vs. 4 vs. 5 vs. ≥ 6); education level (<high school vs. high school/Graduate Equivalency Diploma vs. college/technical school vs. graduate or professional degree); marital status (married/living as married vs. single/living as single); pregnancy smoking (smoker vs. nonsmoker); pregnancy alcohol consumption (ever vs. never); pregnancy vitamin supplement intake (ever vs. never); prepregnancy body mass index (BMI); IQ measured by Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence [the composite score of four subtests (Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning) from the first edition 65 in CANDLE, the composite score of two subtests (Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning) from the second edition 66,67 in TIDES and GAPPS]; depression, assessed at the visit when child outcome assessments were taken, by either the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 68 or the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) 69 and quantified as t-scores; and breastfeeding practice (ever vs. never). Child characteristics included age at cognitive and behavioral assessments; sex (male vs. female); birth order (first born vs. not first born); birth year; and secondhand smoking exposure (anyone living in the child's home smoked vs. no one smoked). ...
Article
Background: Population studies support the adverse associations of air pollution exposures with child behavioral functioning and cognitive performance, but few studies have used spatiotemporally resolved pollutant assessments. Objectives: We investigated these associations using more refined exposure assessments in 1,967 mother-child dyads from three U.S. pregnancy cohorts in six cities in the ECHO-PATHWAYS Consortium. Methods: Pre- and postnatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) exposures were derived from an advanced spatiotemporal model. Child behavior was reported as Total Problems raw score using the Child Behavior Checklist at age 4-6 y. Child cognition was assessed using cohort-specific cognitive performance scales and quantified as the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ). We fitted multivariate linear regression models that were adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors to estimate associations per 2-unit increase in pollutant in each exposure window and examined modification by child sex. Identified critical windows were further verified by distributed lag models (DLMs). Results: Mean NO2 and PM2.5 ranged from 8.4 to 9.0 ppb and 8.4 to 9.1 μg/m3, respectively, across pre- and postnatal windows. Average child Total Problems score and IQ were 22.7 [standard deviation (SD): 18.5] and 102.6 (SD: 15.3), respectively. Children with higher prenatal NO2 exposures were likely to have more behavioral problems [β: 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39, 2.08; per 2 ppb NO2], particularly NO2 in the first and second trimester. Each 2-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 at age 2-4 y was associated with a 3.59 unit (95% CI: 0.35, 6.84) higher Total Problems score and a 2.63 point (95% CI: -5.08, -0.17) lower IQ. The associations between PM2.5 and Total Problems score were generally stronger in girls. Most predefined windows identified were not confirmed by DLMs. Discussion: Our study extends earlier findings that have raised concerns about impaired behavioral functioning and cognitive performance in children exposed to NO2 and PM2.5 in utero and in early life. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10248.
... All NH participants had no known hearing problems and passed a pure tone audiometry air-conduction hearing screen performed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz at 20 dB HL in both ears [test adapted from the British Society of Audiology (2011)]. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II) (Wechsler, 2011;McCrimmon and Smith, 2013) was administered to assess intelligence, and all the participants were determined to have normal intelligence. More details of participants are shown in Table 1 and Supplementary Appendix I. ...
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Catchy utterances, such as proverbs, verses, and nursery rhymes (i.e., “No pain, no gain” in English), contain strong-prosodic (SP) features and are child-friendly in repeating and memorizing; yet the way those prosodic features encoded by neural activity and their influence on speech development in children are still largely unknown. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), this study investigated the cortical responses to the perception of natural speech sentences with strong/weak-prosodic (SP/WP) features and evaluated the speech communication ability in 21 pre-lingually deaf children with cochlear implantation (CI) and 25 normal hearing (NH) children. A comprehensive evaluation of speech communication ability was conducted on all the participants to explore the potential correlations between neural activities and children’s speech development. The SP information evoked right-lateralized cortical responses across a broad brain network in NH children and facilitated the early integration of linguistic information, highlighting children’s neural sensitivity to natural SP sentences. In contrast, children with CI showed significantly weaker cortical activation and characteristic deficits in speech perception with SP features, suggesting hearing loss at the early age of life, causing significantly impaired sensitivity to prosodic features of sentences. Importantly, the level of neural sensitivity to SP sentences was significantly related to the speech behaviors of all children participants. These findings demonstrate the significance of speech prosodic features in children’s speech development.
... We used years of education as proxy indicator for socioeconomic status. Further, we assessed current IQ with a licensed translated version of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) [34]. We assessed alcohol use with the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) [35] and drug use with the drug use disorder identification test (DUDIT) [36]. ...
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Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses (SMI) linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a common neurotropic pathogen which after the primary infection establishes latency with periodic reactivations. We hypothesized that the latent HSV1 infection is associated with brain structural abnormalities and cognitive impairment, especially in SMI. We included 420 adult patients with SMI (schizophrenia or bipolar spectrum) and 481 healthy controls. Circulating HSV1 immunoglobulin G concentrations were measured with immunoassays. We measured the total grey matter volume (TGMV), cortical, subcortical, cerebellar and regional cortical volumes based on T1-weighted MRI scans processed in FreeSurfer v6.0.0. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Seropositive patients had significantly smaller TGMV than seronegative patients (642 cm³ and 654 cm³, respectively; p = 0.019) and lower IQ (104 and 107, respectively; p = 0.018). No TGMV or IQ differences were found between seropositive and seronegative healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that (a) in both schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum, seropositive patients had similarly smaller TGMV than seronegative patients, whereas the HSV1-IQ association was driven by the schizophrenia spectrum group, and (b) among all patients, seropositivity was associated with smaller total cortical (p = 0.016), but not subcortical or cerebellar grey matter volumes, and with smaller left caudal middle frontal, precentral, lingual, middle temporal and banks of superior temporal sulcus regional cortical grey matter volumes. The results of this cross-sectional study indicate that HSV1 may be an environmental factor associated with brain structural abnormalities and cognitive impairment in SMI.
... In addition, TDs in the CoCoA study exhibited no social communication disorders on a DSM-5 based symptom checklist and had no first-degree relatives with ASD. Lastly, in the CoCoA study, both autistic and TD individuals were required to have a Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 1999Wechsler, , 2011 Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) ≥ 70, no other reported neurodevelopmental disorders (except for ADHD in ASD participants), and no history of seizure disorders. TD participants had no parent-reported Axis 1 psychopathology. ...
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We used parent report data to investigate video game playing, aggression, and social impairment in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Parents of autistic adolescents were more likely to report that their child plays video games as a hobby compared to parents of adolescents with typical development and also reported that their children spent more time playing video games. For autistic participants, we found no differences in aggression levels or social impairment when comparing players versus non-players. However, playing video games “more than average,” as compared to “average” was associated with greater aggression and greater social impairment on “awareness” and “mannerisms” subscales. Future studies should focus on how type of video game(s) played is associated with these clinically important variables.
... To be included in the study, participants were required to have an intelligence quotient (IQ) ≥ 70 as estimated by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II, Wechsler, 2011). Participants in the ASD group had a confirmed diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 criteria (APA, 2013). ...
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Prolonged dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) may increase propensity for physical or psychiatric illness. The current study examined differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) regulation in 215 adolescents with or without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at Time 1 (T1; 10-13 years old) and 1 year later (Time 2; T2). Linear mixed effects models demonstrated lower RSA regulation in ASD, and a small interaction effect, showing blunted change in RSA from T1 to T2. Developmental differences in RSA regulation were particularly notable in females with ASD and those taking psychotropic medications. Results expand previous findings of reduced parasympathetic regulation in ASD by revealing a blunted developmental slope, indicating diagnostic differences may persist or worsen over time, particularly in females.
... The mean CAPS-5 score among trauma-exposed individuals was 19.10 (SD = 15.44). Intelligence quotient (IQ) was estimated using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, 2nd Edition [47], using one subscale from the verbal comprehension index (vocabulary) and one perceptual reasoning index (matrix reasoning). The mean IQ score of the sample was 105.02 (SD = 12.32), indicating average intelligence of the sample. ...
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Recent meta-analyses highlight alterations in cognitive functioning among individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), with performance deficits observed across multiple cognitive domains including executive functioning, memory, and attention. Moreover, impaired concentration is a formal diagnostic criterion for a major depressive episode. Notably, cognitive impairment is reported frequently in MDD and is associated with poor treatment response. Despite this knowledge, research examining the effectiveness of top-down, adjunctive treatments for cognitive dysfunction in MDD remains in its infancy. The primary aim of the present study was to perform a pilot investigation of the implementation of a standardized cognitive remediation program, Goal Management Training (GMT), among individuals with a primary diagnosis of MDD. A secondary aim was to explore how comorbid symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among those MDD patients exposed to trauma may affect treatment response. A final sample of thirty individuals were randomized to either participate in the nine-week GMT program (active group; n = 16) or to complete a nine-week waiting period (waitlist control; n = 14). One participant was excluded from the GMT group analysis following study completion due to meeting an exclusion criteria. In total, 60% of the individuals allocated to the GMT program were trauma exposed (n = 9). Groups were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and at three-month follow-up. The assessment comprised neuropsychological tasks assessing a variety of cognitive domains, subjective measures of functioning and symptom severity, as well as a clinical interview to establish a primary diagnosis of MDD. Significant gains in processing speed, attention/concentration, and response inhibition were observed for the participants in the GMT condition relative to participants in the waitlist control condition. Individuals in the GMT condition also reported improvements in subjective cognitive functioning from baseline to post-treatment. Heightened PTSD symptom severity was associated with reduced response to treatment with respect to the domain of processing speed. The results of this pilot investigation highlight not only the potential utility of GMT as an augmentative treatment in MDD, but also highlight the contribution of comorbid symptoms of PTSD to diminished treatment response among trauma-exposed individuals with MDD. The study is limited primarily by its small pilot sample and the absence of a program evaluation component to gauge participant opinions and feedback of the treatment protocol.
... At both time-points, IQ was measured with four subtests from the Norwegian version of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 2011). Premorbid IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test, Norwegian version (NART; Blair and Spreen, 1989). ...
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Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are well-documented, present across several cognitive domains and found to be relatively stable over time. However, there is a high degree of heterogeneity and indications of domain-specific developmental courses. The present study investigated the 10-year cognitive course in participants with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and healthy controls on eight cognitive domains and a composite score, looking at group- and individual-level changes. A total of 75 FES participants and 91 healthy controls underwent cognitive assessment at baseline and follow-up. Linear mixed models were used for group-level analyses and reliable change index (RCI) analyses were used to investigate individual change. The prevalence of clinically significant impairment was explored at both time points, using a cut-off of < −1.5 SD, with significant cognitive impairment defined as impairment on ≥2 domains. Group-level analyses found main effects of group and time, and time by group interactions. Memory, psychomotor processing speed and verbal fluency improved, while learning, mental processing speed and working memory were stable in both groups. FES participants showed deteriorations in attention and cognitive control. Individual-level analyses mainly indicated stability in both FES and controls, except for a higher prevalence of decline in cognitive control in FES. At baseline, 68.8 % of FES participants had clinically significant impairment, compared to 62.3 % at follow-up. We mainly found long-term stability and modest increases in cognition over time in FES, as well as a high degree of within-group heterogeneity. We also found indications of deterioration in participants with worse cognitive performance at baseline.
... Liver fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy at age 6 years. The brain structure volumes were assessed by MRI at early infancy and cognitive intelligence was measured using Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition [22] at age 7 years. The kidney volume was measured from abdominal MRI scans acquired at early infancy and at age 6 years. ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the relationship of the levels of maternal alcohol consumption during the 1 year before pregnancy recognition with childhood cardiorenal, metabolic, and neurocognitive health. Methods: In 1106 women and their children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort, quantity of maternal alcohol consumption in the 12 months prior to pregnancy recognition was categorized as high (≥75th percentile: 1.9 g/day), low (<1.9 g/day), and none, and frequency of alcohol consumption was categorized as high (≥2-3 times/week), low (<2-3 times/week), and none. Offspring MRI-based abdominal fat depot, kidney, and brain volumes, blood pressure, metabolic syndrome score, and cognitive intelligence scores were assessed. Child prehypertension/hypertension at age 6 years was defined using a simplified pediatric threshold of 110/70 mmHg. Results: The average maternal alcohol consumption in the year prior to pregnancy recognition was 2.5 g/day, which is lower than the daily maximal limit of one standard drink (10 g) recommended for women by Singapore's Ministry of Health. After adjusting for participant characteristics, alcohol consumption at least 1.9 g/day was associated with over two-fold higher risk (risk ratio = 2.18, P = 0.013) of child prehypertension and 15% greater kidney growth between early infancy and age 6 years (P = 0.040) compared with abstinence. Alcohol consumption was not associated with metabolic and neurocognitive health at age 6-7 years. The associations with high frequency of alcohol consumption were concordant with those obtained for quantity of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Maternal self-reported alcohol consumption at least 1.9 g/day prior to pregnancy recognition was associated with increased risk of child prehypertension and rapid kidney growth. Our findings highlight the potential detrimental effects of low periconceptional alcohol consumption, below national guidelines on offspring cardiorenal health.
... Nonverbal IQ was assessed with the Test for Nonverbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition (Brown et al., 2010) for HK participants, and Performance IQ (PIQ) was obtained from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-Third Edition), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), or the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-Third or Fourth Editions (Wechsler 1991(Wechsler , 1997(Wechsler , 1999(Wechsler , 2008 for US participants. TONI-4 and the Perceptual Reasoning Index (specifically, the Block Design and Matrix Reasoning subtests) on the WISC-III are highly correlated (including in those with ASD) (Mungkhetklang et al., 2016), supporting their comparability. ...
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Differences in visual attention have been documented in ASD, and appear linked to clinical symptoms. However, most research has been conducted in Western cultures. Because striking differences in visual attention patterns have been documented in other cultures, it is important to understand how culture may influence attentional patterns in ASD. This study compared differences in visual attention in ASD across Western and East Asian cultures, where differences in attention to contextual and global information have been repeatedly demonstrated, to investigate potential culturally-specific ASD phenotypes. One hundred thirty-two total participants included individuals with ASD (n = 24) and controls (n = 47) from Hong Kong (HK), along with a previously studied group of age- and IQ-comparable participants from the United States (n = 26 ASD; n = 35 control). Gaze was tracked while participants completed two narrative tasks that differed in social-emotional complexity. Proportions of fixations to face, bodies, and setting were examined across groups using linear mixed-effect models and a series of growth curve models. Cultural differences were found across tasks and groups. Both the ASD and control HK groups attended more to global contextual setting information, more to the body regions, and less toward faces of characters compared to US groups. Growth curve models indicated that these differences attenuated over time in certain stimuli. ASD-related effects were only observed in the more complex stimuli depicting characters with ambiguous facial expressions. Findings indicate a notable cultural influence on visual attention patterns in ASD, and underscore the importance of stimuli complexity in differentiating cultural versus diagnostic effects on attentional styles.
... The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) was administered, with the FSIQ score used to characterize general intellectual functioning (Wechsler, 2011). Parental socioeconomical status (SES) was measured using a standardized composite score based on Likertscaled questions of parental education, parent occupation status, and mean family outcome collected on a self-report questionnaire. ...
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Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of acquired disability and has significant implications for executive functions (EF), such as impaired attention, planning, and initiation that are predictive of everyday functioning. Evidence has suggested attentional features of executive functioning require behavioral flexibility that is dependent on frontostriatial circuitry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface-based deformation of a specific frontostriatial circuit in pediatric TBI and its role in EF. Regions of interest included: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in a sample of children ages 8–13 with complicated mild, moderate, or severe TBI (n = 32) and a group of comparison children with orthopedic injury (OI; n = 30). Brain regions were characterized using high-dimensional surface-based brain mapping procedures. Aspects of EF were assessed using select subtests from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). General linear models tested group and hemisphere differences in DLPFC cortical thickness and subcortical shape of deep-brain regions; Pearson correlations tested relationships with EF. Main effects for group were found in both cortical thickness of the DLPFC (F1,60 = 4.30, p = 0.042) and MD mean deformation (F1,60 = 6.50, p = 0.01) all with lower values in the TBI group. Statistical surface maps revealed significant inward deformation on ventral-medial aspects of the caudate in TBI relative to OI, but null results in the globus pallidus. No significant relationships between EF and any region of interest were observed. Overall, findings revealed abnormalities in multiple aspects of a frontostriatial circuit in pediatric TBI, which may reflect broader pathophysiological mechanisms. Increased consideration for the role of deep-brain structures in pediatric TBI can aid in the clinical characterization of anticipated long-term developmental effects of these individuals.
... The WASI-II measures cognitive capabilities and intelligence (Wechsler, 2011). Because the WASI-II verbal subtests correlated with Miranda understanding and appreciation in previous research (e.g., Colwell et al., 2005), we administered the Vocabulary and Similarities subtests of the WASI-II in the present study. ...
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Objective: Law enforcement officers often encounter alcohol-intoxicated suspects, suggesting that many suspects are presented with the challenge of grasping the meaning and significance of their Miranda rights while intoxicated. Such comprehension is crucial, given that Miranda is intended to minimize the likelihood of coercive interrogations resulting in self-incrimination and protect suspects' constitutional rights. Yet, the effects of alcohol on individuals' ability to understand and appreciate their Miranda rights remain unknown-a gap that the present study sought to address. Hypotheses: Informed by alcohol myopia theory (AMT), we predicted that intoxicated individuals would demonstrate impaired Miranda comprehension compared to sober individuals and those who believed they were intoxicated (but were in fact not; i.e., placebo participants). Method: After health screenings, participants completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition verbal subtests, rendering a Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) score. We randomly assigned participants to consume alcohol (n = 51; mean breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] = 0.07%), a placebo condition (n = 44; BrAC = 0.00%), or a sober control condition (n = 41; BrAC = 0.00%). All participants (N = 136) completed the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI), which measured participants' understanding of the Miranda warnings, recognition of the warnings, appreciation of their rights in interrogation and court settings, and understanding of Miranda-related vocabulary. Results: We found a significant effect of intoxication condition on participants' understanding of Miranda warnings (η²p = .14) and Miranda-related vocabulary (η²p = .05) when controlling for VCI scores. Specifically, intoxicated participants received lower scores for understanding of warnings compared to sober and placebo participants, and lower scores for understanding of Miranda vocabulary compared to sober participants. Alcohol did not significantly impact Miranda rights recognition or appreciation. Conclusions: Alcohol intoxication may detrimentally impact some facets of Miranda comprehension. Thus, it is important that law enforcement consider refraining from questioning intoxicated suspects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... In order to ensure that participants in the dyslexic group had a profile consistent with their assessment of developmental dyslexia, we administered a short battery of cognitive and literacy tests. These tests included both verbal and non-verbal IQ (expressive vocabulary and matrix reasoning) from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI, Wechsler, 2011). Literacy measures with an emphasis on latency were also administered, including rapid naming (Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing; CTOPP; and word / nonword reading (Test of Word Reading Efficiency; TOWRE; . ...
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Readers with developmental dyslexia are known to be impaired in representing and accessing phonology, but their ability to process meaning is generally considered to be intact. However, neurocognitive studies show evidence of a subtle semantic processing deficit in dyslexic readers, relative to their typically developing peers. Here, we compared dyslexic and typical adult readers on their ability to judge semantic congruency (congruent vs. inconcongruent) in short, two-word phrases, which were further manipulated for phonological relatedness (alliterating vs. non-alliterating); “dazzling-diamond”; “sparkling-diamond”; “dangerousdiamond”; and “creepy-diamond”. At the level of behavioural judgement, all readers were less accurate when evaluating incongruent alliterating items compared with incongruent nonaliterating, suggesting that phonological patterning creates the illusion of semantic congruency (as per Egan et al., 2020). Dyslexic readers showed a similar propensity for this form-meaning relationship despite a phonological processing impairment as evidenced in the cognitive and literacy indicative assessments. Dyslexic readers also showd an overall reduction in the ability to accurately judge semantic congruency, suggestive of a subtle semantic impairment. Whilst no group differences emerged in the electrophysiological measures, our pupil dilation measurements revealed a global tendency for dyslexic readers to manifest a reduced attentional response to these word stimuli, compared with typical readers. Our results show a broader manifestation of neurocognitive differences in dyslexic and typical readers’ linguistic skills than a straightforward difference in phonological processing.
... We used purposeful and criterion sampling to select participants who could relate to and describe the pain experience (Creswell and Poth, 2017). Inclusion criteria were as: (a) adults with Level 1 ASD, as diagnosed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule™ (2nd ed.; Lord et al., 2012); (b) verbal performance and full-scale estimate of 80 and above on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-II (Wechsler, 2011); and (c) proficiency in the Hebrew language with an ability to provide in-depth descriptions of life experiences. The exclusion criterion was any chronic pain diagnosis. ...
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Pain sensation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been a growing research field in the last two decades. Existing pain research has focused on pain sensitivity, suggesting either hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity to pain in individuals with ASD. However, research about other aspects of pain experience is scarce. Moreover, most pain-related research in ASD focused on quantitative measures, such as neuroimaging or parental reports. Instead, this paper aimed to illuminate the various aspects of pain experience as perceived by adults with ASD. Its descriptive qualitative research design incorporated semi-structured interviews and deductive thematic analysis. This phenomenological approach captured the subjective pain experience through the lens of people with ASD. Four primary themes emerged from the data: (a) physical pain experience, including the sequence of pain sensitivity, pain awareness, pain-related emotional aspects, and pain communication; (b) direct and indirect coping strategies; (c) function and participation outcomes; and (d) suggestions for Healthcare Providers. The findings echo the crucial role of pain awareness and communication in the pain experience of people with ASD. These two factors have been reported as profoundly influencing coping strategies, function, and participation. The results emphasize the need to expand the exploration of pain in this population, calling for greater understanding, and listening to this population’s unique pain profiles and experiences to promote better-suited evaluation, diagnosis, and intervention in pain conditions.
... Exclusion criteria were neurological disease or having been hospitalized following a head trauma. For the current study, schizophrenia participants with an IQ of 115 or higher, as assessed with the subtests Similarities and Matrix Reasoning from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) [30], were selected for the high IQ schizophrenia group, whereas participants with an IQ between 71 and 95 were selected for the low IQ schizophrenia group. The upper cutoff of 95 was chosen to achieve statistical power and to adhere to our previous studies [23]. ...
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Background: Social cognitive impairment is common in schizophrenia, but it is unclear if it is present in individuals with high IQ. This study compared theory of mind (ToM) in schizophrenia participants with low or high IQ to healthy controls. Methods: One hundred and nineteen participants (71 healthy controls, 17 high IQ (IQ ≥115), and 31 low IQ (IQ ≤95) schizophrenia participants) were assessed with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, providing scores for total, cognitive, and affective ToM, along with overmentalizing, undermentalizing, and no-mentalizing errors. IQ was measured with Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; clinical symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: Healthy controls performed better than the low IQ schizophrenia group for all ToM scores, and better than the high IQ schizophrenia group for the total score and under- and no-mentalizing errors. The high IQ group made fewer overmentalizing errors and had better total and cognitive ToM than the low IQ group. Their number of overmentalizing errors was indistinguishable from healthy controls. Conclusion: Global ToM impairment was present in the low IQ schizophrenia group. Overmentalizing was not present in the high IQ group and appears related to lower IQ. Intact higher-level reasoning may prevent the high IQ group from making overmentalizing errors, through self-monitoring or inhibition. We propose that high IQ patients are chiefly impaired in lower-level ToM, whereas low IQ patients also have impaired higher-level ToM. Conceivably, this specific impairment could help explain the lower functioning reported in persons with intact IQ.
... Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was derived from the two-subtest version of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, 2nd Edition (WASI-II [30]) and was thus separable from the remaining measures of executive functions and cognitive control. Measures of verbal memory, verbal and visual working memory, and orthographic processing speed were obtained from the digit-span forward, digitspan backward, picture span, and coding subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 5th Edition (WISC-V [31]), respectively. ...
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Background Heterogeneity in neurodevelopmental disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in particular, is increasingly identified as a barrier to identifying biomarkers and developing standards for clinical care. Clustering analytic methods have previously been used across a variety of data types with the goal of identifying meaningful subgroups of individuals with ADHD. However, these analyses have often relied on algorithmic approaches which assume no error in group membership and have not made associations between patterns of behavioral, neurocognitive, and genetic indicators. More sophisticated latent classification models are often not utilized in neurodevelopmental research due to the difficulty of working with these models in small sample sizes. Methods In the current study, we propose a framework for evaluating mixture models in sample sizes typical of neurodevelopmental research. We describe a combination of qualitative and quantitative model fit evaluation procedures. We test our framework using latent profile analysis (LPA) in a case study of 120 children with and without ADHD, starting with well-understood neuropsychological indicators, and building toward integration of electroencephalogram (EEG) measures. Results We identified a stable five-class LPA model using seven neuropsychological indicators. Although we were not able to identify a stable multimethod indicator model, we did successfully extrapolate results of the neuropsychological model to identify distinct patterns of resting EEG power across five frequency bands. Conclusions Our approach, which emphasizes theoretical as well as empirical evaluation of mixture models, could make these models more accessible to clinical researchers and may be a useful approach to parsing heterogeneity in neurodevelopmental disorders.
... The cognitive ability of all participants was assessed using the WASI-II (Wechsler 2011), an individually administered, standardized test. Four subtests gave an estimate of general cognitive ability (Full Scale IQ; FSIQ). ...
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Background Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the clinical and cognitive presentation of schizophrenia. The current study extends the field by examining both global and regional patterns of brain aging in schizophrenia, as inferred from brain structural data, and their association with cognitive and psychotic symptoms.Methods Global and local brain-age-gap-estimates (G-brainAGE and L-brainAGE) were computed using a U-Net Model from T1-weighted structural neuroimaging data from 84 patients (aged 16–35 years) with early-stage schizophrenia (illness duration <5 years) and 1,169 healthy individuals (aged 16–37 years). Multidomain cognitive data from the patient sample were submitted to Heterogeneity through Discriminative Analysis (HYDRA) to identify cognitive clusters.ResultsHYDRA classified patients into a cognitively impaired cluster (n = 69) and a cognitively spared cluster (n = 15). Compared to healthy individuals, G-brainAGE was significantly higher in the cognitively impaired cluster (+11.08 years) who also showed widespread elevation in L-brainAGE, with the highest deviance observed in frontal and temporal regions. The cognitively spared cluster showed a moderate increase in G-brainAGE (+8.94 years), and higher L-brainAGE localized in the anterior cingulate cortex. Psychotic symptom severity in both clusters showed a positive but non-significant association with G-brainAGE.DiscussionAccelerated aging in schizophrenia can be detected at the early disease stages and appears more closely associated with cognitive dysfunction rather than clinical symptoms. Future studies replicating our findings in multi-site cohorts with larger numbers of participants are warranted.
Article
Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic syndrome associated with growth delay, phenotypic facial characteristics, microcephaly, developmental delay, broad thumbs, and big toes. Most research on RTS has focused on the genotype and physical phenotype; however, several studies have described behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional characteristics, elucidating the behavioral phenotype of RTS. The reporting of this review was informed by PRISMA guidelines. A systematic search of CINAHL, Medline, and PsychINFO was carried out in March 2021 to identify group studies describing behavioral, cognitive, emotional, psychiatric, and social characteristics in RTS. The studies were quality appraised. Characteristics reported include repetitive behavior, behaviors that challenge, intellectual disability, mental health difficulties, autism characteristics, and heightened sociability. Findings were largely consistent across studies, indicating that many characteristics are likely to form part of the behavioral phenotype of RTS. However, methodological limitations, such as a lack of appropriate comparison groups and inconsistency in measurement weaken these conclusions. There is a need for multi-disciplinary studies, combining genetic and psychological measurement expertise within single research studies. Recommendations are made for future research studies in RTS.
Article
Shortened versions of assessments are widely used and can play a valuable role in the assessment process. Caution, however, is required when adopting such tests as there are many nuances specific to the development of shortened tests that can limit their utility. This paper synthesizes some prime concerns based on test development practices and principles from the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA,, & NCME, 2014), and by bringing together the perspectives from other authors who have critically evaluated short forms. A series of potential pitfalls are presented in areas such as the over-focus on reliability statistics to drive item selection, item response theory, and the mis-application of classification statistics. These pitfalls, as well as associated best practices, are framed using examples that are of direct relevance to the practice of pediatric neuropsychology. Awareness of these pitfalls is relevant to test development professionals, and provides guidance for clinical practitioners in evaluating and selecting shortened tests. In addition, relations between item counts and alpha coefficients, inter-item correlations, and standard error of measurement are provided, and it is asserted that optimal test length is a function of this interplay as well the test’s purpose. In general, this paper aims to provide information that will help avoid both the unfair rejection and unmindful acceptance of short scales.
Article
Objective Despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties in autistic youth, little is known about the patterns of developmental continuity and change in psychiatric symptoms between childhood and adolescence. Using a stratified community-derived sample of autistic youth (N=101; 57 male, 44 female), we test within (homotypic) and between (heterotypic) domain associations between psychiatric symptoms in childhood to adolescence, and whether any continuities are moderated by sex, IQ, autism symptom severity, social economic status or parental mental health. Method Autistic youth were assessed for emotional, behavioral and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood (age 4-9 years) and adolescence (age 13-17 years) using parental diagnostic interview. Unadjusted and adjusted (accounting for the co-occurrence of psychiatric symptoms in childhood) weighted models tested homotypic and heterotypic associations between symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Moderation of significant pathways was tested using multi-group analysis. Results Adolescent psychiatric symptoms were all predicted by symptoms of their childhood counterparts (emotional symptoms incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.06, 95% CIs = 1.02 – 1.10, p < .01, behavioral symptoms IRR = 1.38, 95% CIs = 1.21 – 1.59, p < .01, ADHD symptoms IRR = 1.11, 95% CIs = 1.05 – 1.19, p < .01), the only heterotypic pathway that remained significant in adjusted analyses was from childhood emotional symptoms to adolescent ADHD symptoms (IRR = 1.04, 95% CIs = 1.01 – 1.07, p = .02). Sex moderated the homotypic ADHD symptoms pathway; associations were significant in female participants only. Child IQ moderated the homotypic behavioral symptoms pathway; the association was stronger in youth with IQ<70. Conclusion Results from this community-based sample suggest that psychiatric symptoms in autistic youth exhibit substantial developmental continuity and thus highlight the importance of early screening and intervention. Sex and IQ may be important factors to consider when predicting likelihood of stability of ADHD and behavioral symptoms.
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Background: Research suggests that adults with autism tend to have poor outcomes. Outcomes have mostly been defined using summary outcome ratings, with less focus on specific outcomes such as employment, living situation, social satisfaction, loneliness, and friendships. This study aimed to explore social and community outcomes, including employment, education, living arrangements, friendships, and social satisfaction, for autistic adults with and without intellectual disability. Method: Eighty-four adults with autism (mean age 34.2 years, SD = 4.5; 67% with co-occurring intellectual disability), recruited as children and adolescents, participated in the current study. Adult social and community inclusion outcomes were explored through interview and questionnaire, both parent/carer-report and self-report. Results: Participants predominantly lived with family or in supported accommodation, did not pursue higher education, and mostly participated in day activity programmes. Most had limited friendships as reported by parents/carers; however, self-report data (n = 28) indicated that adults were largely satisfied with their social relationships. Overall outcome was poor for 57%, and good/very good for 34%. Adults with intellectual disability generally had poorer outcomes. Conclusion: Autistic adults encountered numerous difficulties in leading an independent life. Adults with co-occurring intellectual disability were most likely to experience difficulties; however, outcomes ranged from poor to very good for adults without intellectual disability. Discrepancies in parent/carer-report and self-reported experiences of friendships highlight the need to ensure individual experiences are captured in addition to parent/carer-report. Appropriate resources and programmes are crucial for adults with autism to support them to have the choice to live independently.
Article
The relationship between structural variability in late-developing association cortices like the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the development of higher-order cognitive skills is not well understood. Recent findings show that the morphology of LPFC sulci predicts reasoning performance; this work led to the observation of substantial individual variability in the morphology of one of these sulci, the para-intermediate frontal sulcus (pimfs). Here, we sought to characterize this variability and assess its behavioral significance. To this end, we identified the pimfs in a developmental cohort of 72 participants, ages 6–18. Subsequent analyses revealed that the presence or absence of the ventral component of the pimfs was associated with reasoning, even when controlling for age. This finding shows that the cortex lining the banks of sulci can support the development of complex cognitive abilities and highlights the importance of considering individual differences in local morphology when exploring the neurodevelopmental basis of cognition.
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Research in sickle cell anemia (SCA) has used, with limited race-matched control data, binary categorization of patients according to the presence or absence of silent cerebral infarction (SCI). SCI have primarily been identified using low-resolution MRI, with radiological definitions varying in lesion length and the requirement for abnormality on both fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted images. We aimed to assess the effect of published SCI definitions on global, regional, and lobar lesion metrics and their value in predicting cognition. One hundred and six patients with SCA and 48 controls aged 8-30 years underwent 3T MRI with a high-resolution FLAIR sequence and Wechsler cognitive assessment. Prevalence, number, and volume of lesions were calculated using a semi-automated pipeline for SCI defined as: (1) Liberal: any length (L-SCI); (2) Traditional: >3 mm in greatest dimension (T-SCI); (3) Restrictive; >3 mm in greatest dimension with a corresponding T1-weighted hypo-intensity (R-SCI). Globally, as hypothesized, there were large effects of SCI definition on lesion metrics in patients and controls, with prevalence varying from 24-42% in patients, and 4-23% in controls. However, contrary to hypotheses, there was no effect of any global metric on cognition. Regionally, there was a consistent distribution of SCI in frontal and parietal deep and juxta-cortical regions across definitions and metrics in patients, but no consistent distribution in controls. Effects of regional SCI metrics on cognitive performance were of small magnitude; some were paradoxical. These findings expose the challenges associated with the widespread use of SCI presence as a biomarker of white-matter injury and cognitive dysfunction in cross-sectional high-resolution MRI studies in patients with SCA. The findings indicate that with high-resolution MRI: (1) radiological definitions have a large effect on resulting lesion groups, numbers, and volumes; (2) there is a non-negligible prevalence of lesions in young healthy controls; and (3) at the group-level, there is no cross-sectional association between global lesion metrics and general cognitive impairment irrespective of lesion definition and metric. With high-resolution multi-modal MRI, the dichotomy of presence or absence of SCI does not appear to be a sensitive biomarker for the detection of functionally significant pathology; the search for appropriate endpoints for clinical treatment trials should continue.
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Objective Ketamine, an N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, can promote rapid action in the management of individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at sub-anesthetic doses. However, few studies have investigated the long-term use of ketamine administered intravenously (IV) and intranasally (IN). We report the design and rationale of a therapeutic trial for assessing the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of repeated-dose intramuscular (IM) ketamine vs. active treatment (escitalopram and aripiprazole) in TRD patients.MethodsA comparative, parallel-group, randomized double-blind trial assessing the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of acute (4 weeks) and maintenance (24 weeks) use of IM ketamine (0.75 mg/kg) vs. active control (escitalopram 15 mg and aripiprazole 5 mg) in individuals with moderate-severe intensity TRD (no psychotic symptoms) with or without suicide risk will be conducted. Patients with TRD (18–40 years) will be randomized and blinded to receive ketamine IM or active treatment at a 1:1 ratio for 4 weeks (active treatment) and 24 weeks (maintenance treatment). Subjects will be assessed using clinical scales, monitored for vital signs (VS) after application of injectable medication, and undergo neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome will be changed on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) during the course of the trial. The study is in running.ResultsThis study can potentially yield evidence on the use of IM ketamine in the treatment of depressive disorders as an ultra-rapid low-cost therapy associated with less patient discomfort and reduced use of medical resources, and can elucidate long-term effects on different outcomes, such as neuropsychological aspects.Conclusions The trial can help promote the introduction of a novel accessible approach for the treatment of complex disease (TRD) and also allow refinement of its long-term use.Clinical trial registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04234776, identifier: NCT04234776.
Article
Objective Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is a first-line treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, the brain mechanisms involved in CBIT are poorly understood. Enhanced frontomesial EEG coherence during a Go/NoGo task has been suggested as a mechanism involved in voluntary tic control. In the current study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether EEG coherence during a Go/NoGo task was associated with CBIT outcome. Methods Thirty-two children with TS who were randomly assigned to CBIT or to treatment-as-usual (TAU). Treatment outcome was assessed by a blinded evaluator with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and the Clinical Global Impression – Improvement Scale (CGI-I). EEG was recorded during a Go/NoGo task at baseline and endpoint. EEG coherence was computed in the alpha frequency band between a priori selected channel pairs spanning the frontal and motor areas. Results Tic severity decreased significantly in the CBIT group. However, CBIT did not impact EEG coherence and baseline EEG coherence did not predict treatment outcome. Conclusions Although CBIT was superior to TAU on blinded clinical outcomes, EEG coherence during the Go/NoGo task was not associated with change in tic severity. Significance The brain processes involved in the inhibition of motor responses do not appear to be involved in CBIT.
Article
Background: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) appear to perform at a level that is commensurate with developmental expectations on simple tasks of selective attention. In this study, we examine how their selective attention is impacted by target changes that unfold over both time and space. This increased complexity reflects an attempt at greater ecological validity in an experimental task, as a steppingstone for better understanding attention among persons with DS in real-world environments. Methods: A modified flanker task was used to assess visual temporal and spatial filtering among persons with DS (n = 14) and typically developing individuals (n = 14) matched on non-verbal mental age (mental age = 8.5 years). Experimental conditions included varying the stimulus onset asynchronies between the onset of the target and flankers, the distances between the target and flankers, and the similarity of the target and flankers. Results: Both the participants with DS and the typically developing participants showed slower reaction times and lower accuracy rates when the flankers appeared closer in time and/or space to the target. Conclusion: No group differences were found on a broad level, but the findings suggest that dynamic stimuli may be processed differently by those with DS. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the developmental approach to intellectual disability originally articulated by Ed Zigler.
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This study examined differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors between school-aged boys and girls diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Eighty-nine children between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated in this study: 17 girls (M = 11.5 years, SD = 2.3) and 72 boys (M = 11.3 years, SD = 2.2). Participants were matched on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ > 64). The results indicated that, girls had higher reported instances of Bullying, less Anger Control, and poorer Emotional Self-Control than boys on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. Groups did not differ on subscales of the Social Communication Scale. While evidence of increased externalizing behaviors is less common in girls, there is evidence supporting these differing behaviors that warrant further research.
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Sensory features are common and impairing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but there are few observational sensory assessments that are valid across ages. We used the Sensory Processing 3-Dimensional (SP3-D) observed Assessment and parent-reported Inventory to examine sensory responsivity in 41 ASD and 33 typically-developing (TD) youth across 7–17 years. ASD youth had higher and more variable observed and reported sensory responsivity symptoms compared to TD, but the two measures were not correlated. Observed sensory over-responsivity (SOR) and sensory craving (SC) decreased with age in ASD, though SOR remained higher in ASD versus TD through adolescence. Results suggest that in ASD, the SP3-D Assessment can identify SOR through adolescence, and that there is value in integrating multiple sensory measures.
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Emotion recognition difficulties are considered to contribute to social‐communicative problems for autistic individuals and awareness of such difficulties may be critical for the identification and pursuit of strategies that will mitigate their adverse effects. We examined metacognitive awareness of face emotion recognition responses in autistic (N = 63) and non‐autistic (N = 67) adults across (a) static, dynamic and social face emotion stimuli, (b) free‐ and forced‐report response formats, and (c) four different sets of the six “basic” and six “complex” emotions. Within‐individual relationships between recognition accuracy and post‐recognition confidence provided no indication that autistic individuals were poorer at discriminating correct from incorrect recognition responses than non‐autistic individuals, although both groups exhibited marked inter‐individual variability. Although the autistic group was less accurate and slower to recognize emotions, confidence‐accuracy calibration analyses provided no evidence of reduced sensitivity on their part to fluctuations in their emotion recognition performance. Across variations in stimulus type, response format and emotion, increases in accuracy were associated with progressively higher confidence, with similar calibration curves for both groups. Calibration curves for both groups were, however, characterized by overconfidence at the higher confidence levels (i.e., overall accuracy less than the average confidence level), with the non‐autistic group contributing more decisions with 90%–100% confidence. Comparisons of slow and fast responders provided no evidence of a “hard‐easy” effect—the tendency to exhibit overconfidence during hard tasks and underconfidence during easy tasks—suggesting that autistic individuals' slower recognition responding may reflect a strategic difference rather than a processing speed limitation. It is generally considered that autistic individuals may have difficulty recognizing other people's facial emotions. However, little is known about their awareness of any emotion recognition difficulties they may experience. This study indicates that, although there is considerable individual variability, autistic adults were as sensitive to variations in the accuracy of their recognition of others' emotions as their non‐autistic peers.
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Previous research has indicated that autistic adults experience higher rates of co‐occurring mental health difficulties and poorer quality of life (QoL) than their non‐autistic peers. Little is known, however, about these aspects in older age or whether younger and older autistic adults experience similar patterns This cross‐sectional study investigated potential age‐related effects on autism symptoms, self‐reported mental health, and QoL in younger and older autistic adults (n = 79, aged 19–71 years) compared to a non‐autistic control group (n = 57) matched for gender, age and IQ. Results showed that autistic adults had higher levels of self‐reported autism symptoms and poorer QoL than controls. There were no significant age effects on autism symptoms or on most self‐rated mental health symptoms. However, significantly more autistic adults in the younger versus older group scored above the clinical threshold for anxiety, somatoform disorders and eating disorders. Older autistic adults rated social QoL as significantly better than younger autistic adults; there was no significant age difference in the control group. Self‐reported QoL was best predicted by self‐ratings of severity of depressive symptoms in both groups. Further research is needed to track autism and co‐occurring mental health symptomatology across the lifespan, so that service provision can be tailored accordingly. Young autistic adults have reported more psychological difficulties and poorer quality of life (QoL) than the general population. We investigated whether these difficulties continue into older age. Autism symptoms and mental health problems were common in autistic adults, with no difference between age groups, except for anxiety, physical and eating problems. Although QoL was poorer in both younger and older autistic compared to non‐autistic adults, older autistic adults reported better social QoL than those who were younger.
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While much research has highlighted phenotypic heterogeneity in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), less work has focused on heterogeneity in neural activity. Conventional neuroimaging approaches rely on group averages that assume homogenous patient populations. If subgroups are present, these approaches can increase variability and can lead to discrepancies in the literature. They can also obscure differences between various subgroups. To address this issue, we used unsupervised machine learning to identify subgroup clusters of patients with OCD who were assessed by task-based fMRI. We predominantly focused on activation of cognitive control and performance monitoring neurocircuits, including three large-scale brain networks that have been implicated in OCD (the frontoparietal network, cingulo-opercular network, and default mode network). Participants were patients with OCD (n = 128) that included both adults (ages 24–45) and adolescents (ages 12–17), as well as unaffected controls (n = 64). Neural assessments included tests of cognitive interference and error processing. We found three patient clusters, reflecting a “normative” cluster that shared a brain activation pattern with unaffected controls (65.9% of clinical participants), as well as an “interference hyperactivity” cluster (15.2% of clinical participants) and an “error hyperactivity” cluster (18.9% of clinical participants). We also related these clusters to demographic and clinical correlates. After post-hoc correction for false discovery rates, the interference hyperactivity cluster showed significantly longer reaction times than the other patient clusters, but no other between-cluster differences in covariates were detected. These findings increase precision in patient characterization, reframe prior neurobehavioral research in OCD, and provide a starting point for neuroimaging-guided treatment selection.
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