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Legitimate peripheral participation. Learners, learning and assessment

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... We send these 410 users an email introducing the background and goal of our work and providing access to the survey. Among these 410 users, we collect 61 valid survey replies 17 . Figure 11 summarizes the results of the three likert scale questions. ...
... However, our tool may still indirectly impact social process and quality control. 17 Available at http://tagreorder.appspot.com/surveyResults.html First, if the suggested highlighting feature is supported, it may impact to which posts human editors allocate their attention. ...
... Third, novice post editors can use our tool to learn to correct minor textual issues in others' posts. Such small editing tasks can provide a mechanism of legitimate peripheral participation [17] for novice users. However, the increasing post edits by novice editors may impact the edit review process in Stack Overflow. ...
Article
Community edits to questions and answers (called post edits) plays an important role in improving content quality in Stack Overflow. Our study of post edits in Stack Overflow shows that a large number of edits are about formatting, grammar and spelling. These post edits usually involve small-scale sentence edits and our survey of trusted contributors suggests that most of them care much or very much about such small sentence edits. To assist users in making small sentence edits, we develop an edit-assistance tool for identifying minor textual issues in posts and recommending sentence edits for correction. We formulate the sentence editing task as a machine translation problem, in which an original sentence is "translated" into an edited sentence. Our tool implements a character-level Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) encoder-decoder model, trained with about 6.8 millions original-edited sentence pairs from Stack Overflow post edits. We evaluate our edit assistance tool using a large-scale archival post edits, a field study of assisting a novice post editor, and a survey of trusted contributors. Our evaluation demonstrates the feasibility of training a deep learning model with post edits by the community and then using the trained model to assist post editing for the community.
... This contrasts with ecological identity that emphasizes the physical place (Williams and Chawla 2016;Thomashow 1995). These social interpretations are rooted in social identity theories such as the communities of practice framework (Lave and Wenger 1991;Wenger 1998), structural symbolic identity theory (Burke and Stets 2009), and the identity theory that guides this research, social practice theory (Holland et al. 1998). Student identity in school settings is often defined through Gee's (2000) lens, encompassing who a student thinks they are, who a student wants to become, and how others perceive them to be, recognizing that students have multiple competing identities that vary in salience depending on social context (Stryker 2004). ...
... It can also generate the 'imaginings of self' that helps students perceive themselves as an environmental actor with agency to take these actions into other social contexts (Holland et al. 1998, 5). Action/practice/experience has been recognized by many researchers as an essential component of learning and identity development (Dewey 1938;Lave and Wenger 1991;Holland et al. 1998). Lave and Wenger (1991) argued that identity development exists within the social relationships of learners through their shared practice that they refer to as forging 'identities-in-practice' (3). ...
... Action/practice/experience has been recognized by many researchers as an essential component of learning and identity development (Dewey 1938;Lave and Wenger 1991;Holland et al. 1998). Lave and Wenger (1991) argued that identity development exists within the social relationships of learners through their shared practice that they refer to as forging 'identities-in-practice' (3). Furthermore, providing opportunities for students to engage in environmental action with their peers supplies the antecedent that is necessary for reflection (Rogers 2001), understanding that reflection is a form of identity work in itself (Vetter 2011). ...
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As environmental and sustainability issues are becoming embedded in the school curriculum, there is a need to understand how environmental identity develops within the complex social structure of the classroom. Reflection is a potentially valuable classroom process to consider as it intersects student learning, identity work, and agency. This embedded qualitative case study explored how three elementary students from a school in British Columbia, Canada, reflected on their experiences during an in-school program focused on the issue of marine pollution. Analysis of student focus group transcripts and journal entries found evidence of inquiry reflection, emotional reflection, and critical reflection on the facilitated environmental action. These appeared to play different roles in supporting a student’s ability to connect their experiences in the program to the curriculum and/or their developing environmental identities. An individually reflective lens, however, taken by students to critically self-reflect on how their own actions might contribute to the issue of marine pollution appeared to be challenging for them. Five strategies are offered to educators to support the design of activities that might foster environmental identity development (EID) in the classroom through inquiry reflection, emotional reflection, critical reflection, and self-reflection.
... Enculturation into a discourse community involves taking on the values of the community and learning the theory, practice and discourse of the profession, often simultaneously. Newcomers to a community, such as apprentices, do this through what Lave and Wenger (1999) call legitimate peripheral participation, or situated learning, where they participate in activities in order to acquire the necessary skills, knowledge and practices of the community. Like the practices of a profession, or the talk amongst professionals, both of which the apprentice legitimately participates in, writing too is a socially situated activity. ...
... Because the Builders' Diary is ungraded, adoption of particular linguistic conventions is likely to have little influence on the grades students receive. Thus changing use of genre conventions is more clearly the result of socialization (Duff, 2008), a response to the changing needs of the writer, their increasing knowledge of carpentry and the carpentry profession, their move from peripheral participation to fuller participation (Lave & Wenger, 1999) in the building industry as indicated in their move from building a house on campus to building work in paid employment, and their increasing participation in community values and ideology. ...
Article
Vocational students' writing has received little scholarly attention. This article investigates a key written genre produced by carpentry trainees: the Builders' Diary. This is a professional genre that has been adapted for pedagogical purposes. Both quantitative corpus methods and qualitative methods (interviews and textual analysis) were employed. Our corpus included Builders' Diaries written by students during an initial on-campus year, and ones written during employment in later years. A range of grammatical features was investigated including use of: personal pronouns, passives, imperatives/bare infinitives and obligation modals. Findings indicate a developmental trend from personal narrative writing in the first year reflecting how trainees' identify as carpenters and situate themselves in the profession, to concise impersonal writing in later years as trainees mature into carpentry professionals.
... They learn practices and gain knowledge from each other through processes like apprenticeship or mentoring. In these communities, novices learn by watching and taking peripheral activities that add value to the community, in a process called Legitimate Peripheral Participation [30]. ...
... • Another opportunity is to study peripheral participation in news aggregatorsÐhow newcomers (or readers) may move from peripheral to central participation (posters or moderators) to maximize their own and others' learning (cf. Lave-Wenger [30]). ...
Conference Paper
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Many developers rely on modern news aggregator sites such as Reddit and Hacker News to stay up to date with the latest technological developments and trends. In order to understand what motivates developers to contribute, what kind of content is shared, and how knowledge is shaped by the community, we interviewed and surveyed developers that participate on the Reddit programming subreddit and we analyzed a sample of posts on both Reddit and Hacker News. We learned what kind of content is shared in these websites and developer motivations for posting, sharing, discussing, evaluating, and aggregating knowledge on these aggregators, while revealing challenges developers face in terms of how content and participant behavior is moderated. Our insights aim to improve the practices developers follow when using news aggregators, as well as guide tool makers on how to improve their tools. Our findings are also relevant to researchers that study developer communities of practice.
... One of the fundamental contributions to social learning theory is the concept of "communities of practice," which describes learning as a matter of enculturation into a practice culture (Lave and Wenger, 1991). The studies that contributed to this ground up theory of learning were almost all exclusively conducted in in situ studies of informal learning in which a novice practitioner transforms through socioculturally supported activity (Cain, 1991;Hutchins, 1996;Jordan, 1989;Marshall, 1972 ). ...
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This paper presents findings from a survey of members of Ravelry.com, a massive online community of over four million registered members that supports the co-­‐ creation, sharing, and stewarding of fiber craft knowledge across subdomains including knitting, crocheting, and weaving. Community members responding to the survey distinguished among a diverse repertoire of search media, and made strategic choices
... Nineteen inactive students in an online course said they felt they were learning just as much or more from reading others' comments than from writing their own (Beaudoin, 2002). Lave and Wenger (1999) regarded lurking behavior in a community of practice as a form of cognitive apprenticeship, which can be perceived as legitimate peripheral participation. In an online community, peripheral members are less visible, but they benefit more from knowledge exchange and contribute as much as nonperipheral members (Zhang & Storck, 2001). ...
... CoPs are social structures for developing and sharing knowledge in an organisation or a wider group (Lave and Wenger, 1991), where individuals are bound by both formal and informal relationships and share common practices and activities (Triggs and John, 2004). The value of a CoP lies in connecting the personal development of practitioners with the strategy of the group or the organisation. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the views of partners as to the process and operation of TE3 in relation to community of practice (CoP) principles in order to identify success factors fundamental to continued active participation in and promotion of enterprise education. Design/methodology/approach – This study used a narrative methodology via semi-structured interviews. The aim was to capture both positive and negative perceptions of involvement from key partners within the project. A manual thematic approach was taken to analyse the data collected and through this common threads, trends and issues were identified. Findings – The findings of this paper focus on the nature, benefits and power of this unique cross-university collaboration, in facilitating and stimulating enterprising and entrepreneurial activity amongst students, graduates, and potentially, local small to medium-sized enterprises. Practical implications – These findings are set within the context of delivering some key policy-driven objectives, i.e. to support and create not only future entrepreneurs, but also enterprising groups and individuals, and to increase the use of technology-enhanced and blended learning throughout higher education. It will be of interest to individuals and educators working in those areas and to policymakers seeking new routes to develop an entrepreneurial culture. Originality/value – This is a unique project in terms of multiple university partners collaborating on third stream activity. The findings of this evaluation and its approach add to this otherwise scarce and under researched territory.
... In most of the learning actions we developed from our observations, students continuously interacted with peer students and/or tutors. In opposition to learning in the clinical setting where students are peripheral legitimate participants in practice, [29] students in the skills centre have the opportunity to be similarly active and equal in their possibilities for learning. The learning actions we observed exemplify both how knowledge was distributed among the individual students and tutors, and embedded in the artefacts they used during learning. ...
Article
Background: Learning in skills centers has a long tradition in nursing education. Nurse educators struggle to substantiate their opinions on the efficacy of simulation technologies over traditional methods of instruction and it is suggested that they should re-evaluate their methods when teaching psychomotor skills. A necessary step before evaluation is to unravel what the students are actually doing in the skills center. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore nursing students’ practical skills training in the skills center to label and define generic learning actions used during the learning of two specific skills; wound care and dressing, and sterile gloving. Methods: A qualitative observational study of nursing students’ practical skill training in the skills center was developed. Students across three cohorts were video recorded while practicing wound cleaning and dressing, and donning and removing sterile gloves. Verbal interaction on the video recordings was transcribed. The core analytical process was the joint listening to and watching of videos with following discussions of interpretations and development of categories. Results: Seven categories of learning actions were developed: Parallel action and self-instruction, watch and copy, collaborating to find solutions, giving support, seeking support, recontextualising the skill, and humorous enactment with the equipment. The categories are exemplified and discussed in light of learning theory and research on aspects of scaffolding. Conclusions: The learning actions described in this study are a starting point in detailing students learning actions during skills training. Students’ learning in other practical nursing skills should be studied to accumulate more knowledge about students’ learning actions and how peer interaction supports or hampers learning. The relevance of the learning actions should be explored in the clinical setting. A goal is to lay the groundwork for better design of learning in skills centers in nursing education.
... Third, the post editors can use our tool to learn to correct minor domain-specific issues. Such small editing tasks can provide a mechanism of legitimate peripheral participation [34] for novice users who have no experience in Mathematics Stack Exchange . This may help to on-board novice users in Mathematics Stack Exchange and improve the quality of their post edits. ...
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Collaborative editing questions and answers plays an important role in quality control of Mathematics Stack Exchange which is a math Q&A Site. Our study of post edits in Mathematics Stack Exchange shows that there is a large number of math-related edits about latexifying formulas, revising LaTeX and converting the blurred math formula screenshots to LaTeX sequence. Despite its importance, manually editing one math-related post especially those with complex mathematical formulas is time-consuming and error-prone even for experienced users. To assist post owners and editors to do this editing, we have developed an edit-assistance tool, MathLatexEdit for formula latexification, LaTeX revision and screenshot transcription. We formulate this formula editing task as a translation problem, in which an original post is translated to a revised post. MathLatexEdit implements a deep learning based approach including two encoder-decoder models for textual and visual LaTeX edit recommendation with math-specific inference. The two models are trained on large-scale historical original-edited post pairs and synthesized screenshot-formula pairs. Our evaluation of MathLatexEdit not only demonstrates the accuracy of our model, but also the usefulness of MathLatexEdit in editing real-world posts which are accepted in Mathematics Stack Exchange.
... Third, the post editors can use our tool to learn to correct minor domain-specific issues. Such small editing tasks can provide a mechanism of legitimate peripheral participation [34] for novice users who have no experience in Mathematics Stack Exchange . This may help to on-board novice users in Mathematics Stack Exchange and improve the quality of their post edits. ...
Article
Collaborative editing questions and answers plays an important role in quality control of Mathematics StackExchange which is a math Q&A Site. Our study of post edits in Mathematics Stack Exchange shows that there is a large number of math-related edits about latexifying formulas, revising LaTeX and converting the blurred math formula screenshots to LaTeX sequence. Despite its importance, manually editing one math-related post especially those with complex mathematical formulas is time-consuming and error-prone even for experienced users. To assist post owners and editors to do this editing, we have developed an edit-assistance tool, MathLatexEdit for formula latexification, LaTeX revision and screenshot transcription. We formulate this formula editing task as a translation problem, in which an original post is translated to a revised post. MathLatexEdit implements a deep learning based approach including two encoder-decoder models for textual and visual LaTeX edit recommendation with math-specific inference. The two models are trained on large-scale historical original-edited post pairs and synthesized screenshot-formula pairs. Our evaluation of MathLatexEdit not only demonstrates the accuracy of our model, but also the usefulness of MathLatexEdit in editing real-world posts which are accepted in Mathematics Stack Exchange.
... In practice, the socialization of medical professionals is influenced by the health-care system and organizational environment (Cruess et al., 2014). Therefore, medical professionals may adapt further to become members of an organization, and are aware of belonging to the hospital community (Lave & Wenger, 1999). ...
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Clinical guidelines, as vehicles for evidence‐based practice (EBP) attempt to standardize health‐care practice, reduce variation and increase quality. However, their use for surgery has been contested, and often resisted. This article examines professional responses to EBP in hip replacement surgery using data from case study observations and interviews in three English orthopaedic departments. A professional identity perspective is adopted to explain how standardization through EBP, represents an empirical phenomenon around which surgeons enact their identities as Paragons, Mavericks or Innovators, to enhance legitimacy and stratify themselves in their response to EBP. Attention is drawn to variation between Paragon surgeons working in university (teaching) hospitals and Maverick and Innovator types located in general hospitals, and the ways this interacts with adoption of EBP. The typology shows how practice variation is related to surgeons' tendencies to align to characteristic types, with distinct social processes, power and prestige, and which are in turn influenced by organizational context. The dynamics of EBP and professional identity continues to limit attempts to standardize surgical practice. The typology contributes to the understanding of failures to follow EBP, as associated with the identities individuals create and negotiate, and with identity narratives used to legitimize differing responses to EBP.
... At the same time, collective activity was approached by organization science researchers in the nineties, with the study of communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991;Wenger & Snyder, 2000). But, while practicioners were looking first at processes, researchers rather analyzed communities of practice and their approaches did not seem to converge. ...
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The notion of “process”, which describes the cooperation of heterogeneous practices and competences for a given output, has gained a major position in managerial practices for the last twenty years. This paper presents three ideas about organizational dynamics and processes and tests their applicability in the case of work safety improvement in a building company. The first idea is that the success of the process notion shows the central role of “conjoint” (as opposed to “common”) collective activity in organizational learning. Conjoint collective activity is dialogical (“acts speak”) and mediated by the utilization of semiotic systems (languages and technical and managerial tools). The second idea is that organizational learning is neither based on the actors’ individual subjectivity nor on the technological and objective artefacts engaged in the processes, but rather on the reflexive understanding and ongoing redesign of processes by the process actors themselves, in the frame of a reflexive inquiry, a “collective activity about collective activity” which is triggered and kept in motion by axiological judgments (process evaluation). The third idea is that the possibilities to configure processes in a given organization are multiple. The reflexive inquiry enacts a specific social, spatial and time configuration of the process, its “chronotope” in Bakhtin’s vocabulary, which plays a major role in the way actors can make sense of their collective activity and transform it. A longitudinal case study about work safety on the building yards shows that it is difficult to “control out” risk at work once designs have been established, in the frame of the “project execution” process, but it is easier to “design out” risk, when the actors of the process collectively design and redesign their collective activity, from the very first phases of a building project to the end. Therefore a major way to improve safety consists in extending th
... In the context of clinical dental education, students and academics come together in pursuit of a shared enterprise. Through "legitimate peripheral participation", active engagement and assuming increasing responsibility, the student in this session acquired the role, skills, and values of the culture and community (Lave & Wenger, 1999). ...
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Purpose: To gain a deeper understanding of factors which contribute to development of competence in tooth extractions during undergraduate dental education. Methods: A qualitative approach was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of a range of stakeholders. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the participants which included undergraduate dental students, new graduates, dental academic staff, and clinical supervisors. The focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and data were imported into NVivo 12. Data were analyzed thematically using an inductive approach. Results: Two focus groups were conducted. Ten undergraduate students participated in the Student Focus Group while eight dental academics and clinical supervisors participated in the Staff Focus Group. Participants expressed their views on a range of issues related to teaching and training of tooth extractions. The key themes cantered on structured teaching underpinned by patient safety; focus on breadth of clinical experience; and constructive feedback to enhance reflective practice amongst students to enhance the learning experiences of students. Conclusions: This study provides useful insights into how undergraduate dental students develop competence in tooth extractions as perceived by the participants and may help dental educators to reflect of their teaching model.
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This study was conducted to better understand Wikibookian apprenticeship and identity as well as the environment or community they operate in. Our initial study explored the basic demographics, purpose and goals, ownership, collaborative work experiences, successes and failures, and advantages and disadvantages of wikibooks. Those initial results revealed interesting issues related to the Wikibookian community and practices within the Wikibooks website. The survey data of this second of a two-part study suggested that while there is a unique sense of community among Wikibookians, most members work independently and without direct guidance or apprenticeship from other more experienced Wikibookians. We conclude that Wikibooks is not a social-networking site where people share profile pictures and make friends. Nevertheless, many Wikibookians do not have difficulties in communicating with other Wikibookians or in contributing to Wikibooks. In addition, this is an open educational environment where sharing knowledge is the primary goal.
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Images of pedagogical practice in educational curriculum materials on mathematical modelling was the research object of this dissertation. Qualitative method was used and data were produced by the document analysis. To guide the research, we used the theoretical framework of Basil Bernstein, from which we built the concept of image of pedagogical practice and considered this image from two dimensions: the interactional dimension (relations between subjects) and the structural dimension (relations between discourses and spaces). Results showed that the image of the interactional dimension of pedagogical practice in the educational curriculum material on mathematical modelling suggests that control over the relationship between subjects sometimes is teacher-centered, while other times the control is shared with the students. Given this feature, consider the image of the interactional dimension in educational curriculum materials on mathematical modeling as an image displacement. This image was characterized by intense variation between a strong framework in which pedagogical practices approach the comfort and weaker values frameworks zone in which pedagogical practice can be described by an approximation of the risk zone. In terms of the structural dimension, the image of the pedagogical practice presented in the materials can be described as flexible, which can be understood as one that creates, organizes and determines the possibilities for dimming level of insulation in the discursive relations (relations between discourses) as well as the spatial relationships (relationships between spaces). These images were made from the texts of educational curriculum materials on mathematical modeling. Theoretically and opposite side, the images of dislocations and flexible images when possible, from the analysis in this study suggest two other images of pedagogical practice in educational curriculum materials. In the opposite direction the flexible images, this other image is constituted when the text creates conditions and possibilities for conservation limits/partitions between discourses and spaces and creation/maintenance of hierarchies and specializations between subjects. To this, we call the disciplinarian images. In the opposite direction to the images of dislocations, we call image of accumulation those that create, organize and constrain the possibilities to maintain control in the relationship between subjects. Images of accumulation may be able to suggest fully open educational practices, which the acquirer participates in all the choices and decisions of their learning process or at the other extreme, in which the acquirer is fully oblivious to these choices and decisions. Keywords: Educational curriculum materials; Texts; Pedagogical Practice; Teachers.
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RESUMO Este trabalho descreve o uso de um MOOC, um curso online, aberto e massivo, para a capacitação inicial de estudantes ingressantes nos cursos a distância de Letras e Matemática vinculados ao Sistema UAB, de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior, sobre o uso do ambiente virtual de aprendizagem e dos recursos de comunicação digital para a aprendizagem online. Discutiremos os recursos de aprendizagem explorados no MOOC, apresentando dados sobre o engajamento dos participantes na construção dos conhecimentos pretendidos e os descritores da avaliação dos(as) alunos(as) sobre a experiência. Por fim, refletiremos sobre o processo de aprendizagem online e as vantagens e desvantagens do uso deste modelo de curso na formação do estudante a distância. Palavras-chave: aprendizagem online; tecnologias digitais; MOOC; EaD. ABSTRACT This paper describes the use of a MOOC, an open online massive course, for the early training of students on the use of virtual learning environment and digital communication resources for online learning in undergraduate courses of Language and Mathematics. We will discuss the learning resources explored in the MOOC, presenting data on the participants' engagement in the construction of knowledge and descriptors of the students' assessment of the experience. Finally, we will reflect upon the online learning process and the advantages and disadvantages of using this course model in distance learning.
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Citizen Science (CS) projects provide a space for collaboration among scientists and the general public as a basis for making joint scientific discoveries. Analysis of existing datasets from CS projects can broaden our understanding of how different stakeholder groups interact and contribute to the joint achievements. To this end, we have collected publicly available forum data from the “Chimp&See” project hosted on the Zooniverse platform via crawling its Talk pages. The collected data were then analysed using Social Network Analysis (SNA) and Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA) techniques. The results obtained shed light on the participation and collaboration patterns of different stakeholder groups within discussion forums of the “Chimp&See” project.
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O objeto deste artigo é relatar as ações envolvidas na criação, manutenção e oferta do MOOC Discente Digital em resposta à situação de reorganização do ensino de graduação, decorrente dos efeitos da pandemia de Covid-19 e da suspensão de atividades acadêmicas presenciais na Universidade Federal da Paraíba. O MOOC Discente Digital pretendeu apoiar os processos de adaptação ao ensino remoto no tocante à capacitação do(a) estudante para o uso das tecnologias digitais. Apresentamos, neste relato, os processos de conceptualização do MOOC como um curso on-line, aberto e massivo; descrevemos o design; o processo de execução do curso; os resultados alcançados, a partir dos dados coletados por meio da apli-cação de questionários; e refletimos sobre os impactos nas práticas da comunidade acadê-mica participante. Palavras-chave: Aprendizagem On-line. Tecnologias Digitais. MOOC. Pandemia Covid-19.
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Este trabalho descreve o uso de um MOOC, um curso online, aberto e massivo, para a capacitação inicial de estudantes ingressantes nos cursos a distância de Letras e Matemática vinculados ao Sistema UAB, de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior, sobre o uso do ambiente virtual de aprendizagem e dos recursos de comunicação digital para a aprendizagem online. Discutiremos os recursos de aprendizagem explorados no MOOC, apresentando dados sobre o engajamento dos participantes na construção dos conhecimentos pretendidos e os descritores da avaliação dos(as) alunos(as) sobre a experiência. Por fim, refletiremos sobre o processo de aprendizagem online e as vantagens e desvantagens do uso deste modelo de curso na formação do estudante a distância. Palavras-chave: aprendizagem online; tecnologias digitais; MOOC; EaD. This paper describes the use of a MOOC, an open online massive course, for the early training of students on the use of virtual learning environment and digital communication resources for online learning in undergraduate courses of Language and Mathematics. We will discuss the learning resources explored in the MOOC, presenting data on the participants' engagement in the construction of knowledge and descriptors of the students' assessment of the experience. Finally, we will reflect upon the online learning process and the advantages and disadvantages of using this course model in distance learning.
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We learn many things in our daily life through experiences by using our bodies. To earn practical knowledge, it is important to actually practice the activity and to interact with people of same interests. In this paper, by introducing our product, we will show the availability of an interacting media focused on the user's activity to support him expand his practical experience.
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