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Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ)

Parental Acceptance-Rejection
Questionnaire (PARQ)
Ronald P. Rohner and Sumbleen Ali
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Adult Parental Acceptance-Rejection Question-
naire;Child Parental Acceptance-Rejection Ques-
tionnaire;Early Childhood Parental Acceptance-
Rejection Questionnaire;Parent Parental
Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire
The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire
(PARQ) is a self-report questionnaire designed to
assess childrens current perceptions and adults
retrospective remembrances of the degree to
which they experienced parental (maternal and
paternal) acceptance or rejection in childhood.
The measure consists of four scales: (1) warmth
and affection (or coldness and lack of affection,
when reverse scored), (2) hostility and aggression,
(3) indifference and neglect, and (4) undiffer-
entiated rejection. Undifferentiated rejection
refers to individualsfeelings that the parent
does not really love them, want them, appreciate
them, or care about them in some other way with-
out necessarily having any objective indicator that
the parent is cold, aggressive, or neglecting. Col-
lectively, the four scales constitute an overall mea-
sure of perceived or remembered parental
acceptance-rejection in childhood.
Structure of the PARQ. Four versions of the
PARQ are available: (1) Early Childhood PARQ,
(2) Child PARQ, (3) Adult PARQ, and (4) Parent
PARQ. All versions are nearly identical except
that the Early Childhood PARQ and Child
PARQ say My mother [or father] does...,
whereas the Adult PARQ says My mother
[or father] did...,and the Parent PARQ says I
The Early Childhood PARQ (ECPARQ) is
designed to be used with children from about
4 years of age through about 7 years of age. The
Child PARQ is designed to be used with children
from about 7 through whatever age they continue
to be in more-or-less continuous or ongoing con-
tact with their parents. The Adult PARQ is
designed to be used whenever researchers or prac-
titioners want respondents to reect back onto an
earlier time in childhood with parents. The Parent
PARQ is used when parents want to reect on
their current accepting-rejecting behaviors toward
their child.
All versions of the standard (i.e., long) form of
the measure contain 60 items, 20 in the warmth/
affection scale, 15 in the hostility/aggression and
#Springer International Publishing AG 2016
V. Zeigler-Hill, T.K. Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_56-1
indifference/neglect scales, and 10 in the undiffer-
entiated rejection scale. The short forms of the
measure including the Early Childhood
PARQ contain 24 items, 8 in the warmth/affec-
tion scale, 6 in the hostility/aggression and indif-
ference/neglect scales, and 4 in the
undifferentiated rejection scale. Sample items on
the Mother version of the Child PARQ include the
following. My mother lets me know she loves
me(warmth/affection), yells at me when she is
angry(hostility/aggression), pays no attention
to me(indifference/neglect), and does not really
love me(undifferentiated rejection).
Response Options and Scoring the PARQ.
On all versions of the measure except for the Early
Childhood PARQ (described below), individuals
respond to items such as these on a 4-point Likert
scale from (4) almost always truethrough
(1) almost never true.Scores on these scales
are summed after reverse scoring the entire
warmth/affection scale to create a measure of per-
ceived coldness and lack of affection (a form of
rejection) and after reverse scoring called-for
items on the indifference/neglect scale.
Possible scores on the long (standard) forms
range from a low of 60 (maximum perceived
acceptance) through a high of 240 (maximum per-
ceived rejection). Possible scores on the short
forms range from a low of 24 (maximum per-
ceived acceptance) through a high of 96 (maxi-
mum perceived rejection). On average it takes
about 1015 min to complete the standard ver-
sions of the PARQ. It takes about 510 min to
complete the short forms.
Though all versions of the PARQ are easy to
score by hand, we strongly recommend that the
researchers employ PARScore6(an online scor-
ing system specically created to score the PARQ
and related measures, available from Rohner
Research Publications, www.rohnerresearchpu, or through the Rohner Center; The program automati-
cally performs all required steps including reverse
scoring, computation of scale scores (including
missing data), as well as total-test scores. It
records scores in a data le that can be exported
to statistical packages such as SPSS and SAS.
Early Childhood PARQ (ECPARQ). The
ECPARQ is slightly different from all other ver-
sions of the PARQ because each item must be read
individually to young children. Though the same
4-point Likert scale is used as on all other versions
of the measures, two ash cards are also used to
help young children make a game (i.e., an enjoy-
able experience) out of the process. After reading
each item aloud to children, the test administrator
asks, Would you say thats true or not true about
your mother/father?. If the child says true,the
test administrator asks Would you say she/he
(4) almost always does that or she/he (3) only
sometimes does that?If, on the other hand, the
child initially said, Thats not true about my
mother/father,then the test administrator asks
Would you say she/he (2) rarely (not very
often) does that or (1) almost never does that?
Childrens responses are marked on the test sheet
by the administrator.
Psychometric Properties of the PARQ
Psychometric Properties of the ECPARQ. The
ECPARQ is a newly developed measure. As a
result, limited evidence exists about its reliability
and validity though research with approximately
1,500 children in Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey
shows promising results. More specically, coef-
cient alpha on the Mother version of the measure
in Greece (Giotsa and Theodoropoulos 2016)
was .87. In Bulgaria it was .71 (Koltcheva and
Djalev 2016) and in Turkey it was .85 (Okur and
Berument 2016). Alpha on the Father version of
the measure in Greece was .90. In Bulgaria it
was .72. The Turkish study did not use the Father
version of the ECPARQ.
Reliability of the Child,Adult,and Parent
PARQ. Khaleque and Rohner (2002) summarized
the reliability of the Child, Adult, and Parent
versions of the PARQ in a meta-analysis of
51 studies worldwide. The results strongly sug-
gest that the measure is reliable for research and
for clinical and applied purposes internationally as
well as for use among ethnic groups within the
United States. More specically, the overall alpha
coefcient (mean weighted effect size) aggregated
2 Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ)
across these three versions of the PARQ and
across all ethnic and sociocultural groups of the
world was .89. More particularly, the mean
weighted alpha coefcient for the Child PARQ
was .89, for the Adult PARQ it was .95, and for
the Parent PARQ it was .84. The Early Childhood
PARQ was not included in this analysis because it
was not developed at the time of that study. This
evidence is especially compelling because no
study anywhere in the world was found where
alpha coefcients were low and nonsignicant.
Moreover, there was no signicant heterogeneity
in effect sizes (alphas) across the major geo-
graphic regions of the world or within the Amer-
ican ethnic groups studied. Additionally, there
were no signicant differences in effect sizes
across the three versions of the PARQ.
Validity of the Child,Adult,and Parent
PARQ. Extensive evidence about the convergent,
discriminant, and construct validity of the PARQ
is provided in Rohner (2005). Additional evi-
dence about the international measurement invari-
ance of the questionnaire is provided in two
articles. One (Gomez and Rohner 2011) tested
the factor structure and invariance of the Adult
PARQ in the United States and Australia. The
other (Senese et al. 2016) did the same in the
United States and Italy. Both studies show full
invariance of the measure across these two sets
of societies thus providing strong evidence for
the universality of a central postulate in interper-
sonal acceptance-rejection theory (IPARTheory),
briey described below.
Use of the PARQ
The PARQ has been used for more than four
decades with tens of thousands of children, adults,
and parents in the United States and internation-
ally. It is used extensively in research, in clinical
setting, in schools, by the courts, and in other
applied contexts. Different versions of the mea-
sure are available in up to 52 languages and dia-
lects (Rohner 2015). Very often the questionnaire
is used in conjunction with the Personality
Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) in the context
of research and practice drawing from
IPARTheory. IPARTheory is an evidence-based
theory of socialization and lifespan development
that aims to predict and explain major conse-
quences and other correlates of interpersonal
(especially parental) acceptance-rejection world-
wide (Rohner 1986,2004,2016). Apropos of that,
nearly six decades of international research in
every continent except Antarctica has shown that
children and adults everywhere regardless of
differences in culture, language, race, gender, or
other such dening conditions experience them-
selves to be cared about (accepted) or not cared
about (rejected) in the four ways measured on the
PARQ (i.e., warmth/affection, hostility/aggres-
sion, indifference/neglect, and undifferentiated
From the evidence presented here as well as
more detailed evidence available in the PARQ
Test Manual (Rohner 2015) and elsewhere we
believe that researchers, clinicians, and other
practitioners in the United States and internation-
ally should have full condence in using the mea-
sure for applied and research purposes.
Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ)
Giotsa, A., & Theodoropoulos, C. (2016). Psychometric
properties of the early childhood acceptance-rejection
questionnaire (ECARQ) in Greece. Paper presented at
the meeting of International Congress on Interpersonal
Acceptance-Rejection, Madrid.
Gomez, R., & Rohner, R. P. (2011). Tests of factor structure
and measurement invariance in the US and Australia
using the adult version of the Parental Acceptance
Rejection Questionnaire. Cross Cultural Research,
45, 267285.
Khaleque, A., & Rohner, R. P. (2002). Reliability of mea-
sures assessing the relation between perceived parental
acceptance-rejection and psychological adjustment:
A meta-analysis of cross-cultural and intercultural stud-
ies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33,8698.
Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) 3
Koltcheva, N., & Djalev, L. (2016). Scale structure and
reliability of Bulgarian version of early childhood
acceptance-rejection questionnaire (ECARQ). Paper
presented at the meeting of International Congress on
Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection, Madrid.
Okur, S., & Berument, S. K. (2016). School readiness of 5-
year old children living in poverty: The role of per-
ceived parenting. Paper presented at the meeting of
International Congress on Interpersonal Acceptance-
Rejection, Madrid.
Rohner, R. P. (1986). The warmth dimension: Foundations
of parental acceptance-rejection theory. Beverly Hills:
Sage. Available as an e-book from Rohner Research
Publications, Storrs.
Rohner, R. P. (2004). The parental acceptance-rejection
syndrome: Universal correlates of perceived rejection.
American Psychologist, 59, 827840.
Rohner, R. P. (2005). Parental Acceptance-Rejection Ques-
tionnaire (PARQ): Test manual. In R. P. Rohner &
A. Khaleque (Eds.), Handbook for the study of parental
acceptance and rejection (4th ed., pp. 43106). Storrs:
Rohner Research Publications.
Rohner, R. P. (2016). Introduction to interpersonal
acceptance-rejection theory (IPARTheory), methods,
evidence, and implications. Retrieved from http://
Senese, V. P, Bacchini, D., Miranda, M. C., Aurino, C., &
Rohner, R. P. (2016). The Adult Parental Acceptance-
Rejection Questionnaire: A cross-cultural comparison
of Italian and American short forms. Parenting,16,
4 Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ)
... Dentro del estudio de la relación entre ajuste psicológico y las relaciones familiares, es habitual el uso de instrumentos que tienen versiones para distintos informantes (madres/padres y menores, principalmente) (Achenbach et al., 2017;. Si bien los instrumentos desarrollados por la IPARTheory permiten recopilar información de distintas fuentes (madre, padre y menor) en relación con la aceptación-rechazo de los hijos (paterna o materna) (Putnick et al., 2015;Rohner y Ali, 2016) y a pesar de la multitud de investigaciones que han apoyado la relación entre rechazo parental y ajuste psicológico infantil (Ali et al., 2015;Rodríguez et al., 2017) muy pocas han abordado su estudio desde una perspectiva multi-informante y menos aún han explorado el efecto moderador que la propia experiencia de aceptación-rechazo del menor tiene en la predicción del ajuste psicológico infantil a partir de la aceptación-rechazo parental. ...
... El punto de corte se establece en 60, valores por debajo de dicho punto indican una percepción mayormente de aceptación por parte de las figuras parentales y, entre 60 y 96 mayormente de rechazo. Este cuestionario ha demostrado tener unas propiedades psicométricas excelentes (Rohner y Ali, 2016). La consistencia interna para cada una de las versiones del instrumento en esta muestra fue: .88 ...
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Parental rejection and children's psychological adjustment: The moderating role of perceived family warmth from a multi-informant perspective. Abstract: This study explores the moderating effect of children's perceptions about family environment on the relation between parental acceptance and children's psychological adjustment, from a multi-informant perspective. The sample consisted in 227 triads, father, mother and child from the same family (children's mean age 12.52, SD =1.81) divided in two groups based on children's level of perceived family warmth. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) was used to assess parental acceptance-rejection, and CBCL (Child Behavioral Checklist) and YSR (Youth Self Report) from Achenbach System were used to assess children's psychological adjustment. Results showed that relations between parental rejection and adjustment depend on the informant used, and that the subjective perception of the child's contextual affection moderated the effect of maternal rejection on exteriorized problems informed by the father. The need to include children, mothers, and fathers in the assessment of family relations and children´s psychological adjustment is highlighted. Resumen: El presente trabajo explora el efecto moderador de la percepción de niños y niñas sobre el ambiente familiar, desde una perspectiva multi-informante, en la relación entre rechazo parental y ajuste psicológico infantil. La muestra estuvo constituida por 227 triadas (padre, madre e hijo/a) de la misma familia (edad media de los menores 12.52, DT = 1.81). La aceptación-rechazo parental se evaluó mediante el PARQ (Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire) y el ajuste mediante el CBCL (Child Behavioral Checklist) y el YSR (Youth Self-report). Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la asociación entre rechazo parental y ajuste condicionadas por la fuente informante, y que la percepción subjetiva del menor del afecto contextual moderaba el efecto del re-chazo materno sobre los problemas exteriorizados informados por el padre. Se destaca la necesidad de incluir tanto a los propios menores como a sus padres y madres en la evaluación de las relaciones familiares y el ajuste psicológico infantil. Palabras clave: Multi-informante; aceptación-rechazo parental; madre; padre; ajuste psicológico infantil. Introducción El ajuste psicológico infantil tiene su mayor exponen-te en el grado de adaptación que alcanzan los menores en el contexto en el que se desarrollan (Ordóñez-López, 2015). En el campo de la psicopatología infantil, dos han sido los grupos de indicadores con los que habitualmente se ha identificado el grado de desajuste psicológico: por una parte, la sintomatología exteriorizada, relativa a los indicadores externamente manifiestos tales como proble-mas de conducta, comportamientos delictivos, agresivi-dad o hiperactividad; y, por otra, la sintomatología inte-riorizada, relativa a indicadores menos explícitos y manifiestamente privados o internos, que incluyen pro-Recibido: 05 de marzo 2020; aceptado: 15 de julio 2020 Correspondencia: Eva Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Universidad a
... Adults' memories of parental acceptance and rejection during childhood were measured using the 24-item short form of the Adult PARQ for fathers and for mothers (Rohner, 2005;Rohner & Ali, 2016a). Items on the measure assess adults' retrospective recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood. ...
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Findings from data originating in individualist Western cultures, such as the US, generally confirm a significant relation between parental rejection and substance use. However, little is known about individuals raised in patriarchal, collectivist, and predominantly religious non-Western societies. To build on prior research, we drew from Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection Theory (IPARTheory) to examine relations among parental (maternal and paternal) rejection, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorder (SUD) in a sample of 960 young adult men in Pakistan. We used MANCOVAs and discriminant function analysis to compare 480 young men diagnosed with SUD with 480 young men without SUD on their memories of parental acceptance and rejection in childhood and on their current level of self-reported psychological maladjustment via the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ). Results showed that remembered paternal (but not maternal) rejection, and rejection-related psychological maladjustment were significantly associated with SUD, F(3, 953) = 1140.39, p < 0.001, λ = 0.218, η² = 0.782. These two predictors distinguished men with SUD from men with lifelong abstinence with 97.3% accuracy. These results highlight the importance in Pakistan of memories of paternal (versus maternal) rejection, along with the specific form of psychological maladjustment known to be transculturally associated with parental rejection in the etiology of substance abuse.
... participants were excluded from filling out the questionnaire because they had filled out all the items contained in the questionnaire. The instrument for measuring parenting style is a combination of items in the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) developed by (Buri, 1991) and the items on the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) developed by Rohner (2005). PAQ consists of 30 items comprising ten items for authoritative, ten items for authoritarian, and ten items permissive. ...
Parenting is a process of how parents treat their children, and it has an essential role in the children's development comprehensively, including children's self-esteem. This research aimed to identify the parenting styles practiced by the Acehnese people, the level of adolescents’ self-esteem in Aceh, and the correlation between four parenting styles and adolescents’ self-esteem. A total of 368 junior high school students in Aceh participated in this research. The research instrument consisted of two questionnaires; to measure parenting styles and to measure adolescents’ self-esteem. This study used Pearson correlation and ANOVA in data analysis. The results show that the authoritative style is the dominant parenting style applied in this study. Meanwhile, most of the adolescents’ self-esteem levels are at a moderate level. The results also show that there is a significant correlation between the authoritative style and adolescents’ self-esteem, as well as authoritarian style and permissive style, but the last two styles have a weak correlation. Meanwhile, there is no significant correlation between uninvolved style and adolescents’ self-esteem. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the optimum parenting style to develop self-esteem is the authoritative style among the four parenting styles.
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Background: Sex chromosomal Disorder of sex development (DSD) is an atypical abnormality of external genitalia which is mismatched with its sex chromosome traits. The condition of children with DSD affects the dynamics in the family. Parents’ reactions after discovering this health problem vary greatly, such as being in a state of shock, confusion, or self-blame. However, parents’ acceptance is extremely important for better quality of caring, to the healthy social and emotional child development, and to make the best decisions regarding gender assignment. Objective: To describe the acceptance process of parents that have children with sex chromosomes mosaicism DSD. Methods: This study used a mixed-method with a sequential explanatory approach, which was preceded by quantitative data collection followed by qualitative. The total respondents consisted of 14 mothers and 12 fathers of 14 sex chromosome mosaicism DSD patients with XX/XY, X/XY, XYY or XXY variants. Quantitative data were collected using the Indonesian version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), and interviews were conducted to determine the acceptance process. Results: Most acceptance cases were based on the surgical stage completion in which a higher number of mothers (71.43%) than fathers (50%). Conclusion: It is uneasy for parents to accept children with sex chromosome mosaicisms DSD, hence the fathers struggle more than mothers in accepting those affected. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study in Indonesia to help parent understand and accept their child condition.
This study aimed to (a) devise the Child PARQ (Child Parental Acceptance‐Rejection Questionnaire), Japanese version (Child PARQ‐J), and evaluate its construct validity; (b) select the best items for developing a shorter version; and (c) assess the reliability and validity of the shortened Japanese Child PARQ (Child PARQ‐J‐SF). The sample consisted of 603 Japanese adolescents (61% boys), aged 12–15 years (Mage = 13.95 years, SD = 0.85 years). Data were collected online by a research company using the Child PARQ‐J, the Japanese version of the World Health Organization's Well‐Being Index (WHO‐5‐J), and the Sense of Authenticity Scale (SOAS). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the proposed four‐factor model for the Child PARQ‐J. Use of the item response theory approach resulted in identical 18‐item versions of the Child PARQ‐J‐SF for both parents. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the predictive validity of the Child PARQ‐J‐SF for adolescents' sense of authenticity and well‐being. The Child PARQ‐J is a robust measure in the Japanese context, and the Child PARQ‐J‐SF is a promising tool for researchers to use for quick assessments or in studies involving multiple constructs.
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While individual parenting behaviors have been shown to account for adolescents’ posttraumatic symptoms, no study has investigated whether parenting profiles can relate to posttraumatic symptoms among Chinese adolescents. This study aimed to identify parenting profiles using person-centered latent profile analysis and examine their associations with psychological distress. Nine hundred and fifty-four Chinese adolescents completed questionnaires measuring their perception of parental psychological control, behavioral control, autonomy granting, mother and father rejection, and psychological distress (PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity). Among them, six hundred and ninety-nine had experienced trauma in the past and were included in the data analysis. Four parenting profiles were generated: controlling-rejecting (lower level), autonomous-accepting, undifferentiated and controlling-rejecting (higher level). Undifferentiated parenting was the dominant profile. Adolescents who had parents with the autonomous-accepting parenting profile showed the least distress, while those with the controlling-rejecting (higher level) profile showed the most. Following trauma, adolescents can develop posttraumatic distress, the level of which can vary depending on different perceived parenting styles. Adolescents with parents who accept and give them autonomy tend to show a low level of distress.
Caregivers play a central role in promoting emotion regulation throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence. However, there are no existing psychometric measures to assess how parents assist children in employing emotion regulation strategies for negative emotions. We therefore developed the Parental Assistance with Child Emotion Regulation (PACER) Questionnaire to assess the degree to which parents assist their children in their use of ten different regulation strategies. In this paper, we describe the development of the PACER and examine its psychometric properties (N = 407 parents of children ages birth to 17 years). In so doing, we also use the PACER to comprehensively explore the links between parent-assisted emotion regulation and indices of parent and child stress, symptomatology, and attachment. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PACER items supported its intended ten-factor structure (corresponding to ten specific regulation strategies), which was invariant across different child age and sex categories. PACER scale scores had excellent internal consistency and generally acceptable test–retest reliability over a one-week period. Convergent validity was established via correlations between PACER scales and indices of parental emotion sensitivity, expressivity, and regulation, as well as parents’ perception of the efficacy of their assistance with children’s execution of emotion regulatory strategies. Lower parental facilitation of stereotypically adaptive emotion regulatory strategies was associated with higher child internalizing and externalizing problems and with poorer parent–child relationship quality. Overall, these findings suggest that the PACER may be a useful tool for the assessment of parental assistance with child emotion regulation across development.
Perceiving one’s self as accepted by important others, such as parents, is fundamental and crucial for the well-being of each individual. One major aspect of interpersonal acceptance-rejection theory (IPARTheory) is examining how parental acceptance-rejection affects people’s psychological adjustment. This theory has been validated in many countries and cultural groups around the world, but has not been utilized in the Vietnamese context. This research aims to assess the reliability of IPARTheory measures in Vietnam and applicability of the theory itself among a Vietnamese sample. Participants included 162 students from a high school in Hanoi (Mage = 15.58 years; 69.8% female). Materials consisted of Vietnamese versions of various IPARTheory measures: Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Interpersonal Relationship Anxiety Questionnaire, and a demographics form designed specifically for this research. Analyses show that psychological maladjustment significantly correlated with perceived paternal rejection, maternal rejection, and their subscales. Cronbach’s alphas were strong, ranging from .73 to .97, except for the dependency subscale and hostility subscale of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Thus, the results provide evidence for the reliability of various IPARTheory measures in Vietnam. The relationships found in this study have implications for parents, teachers, and psychologists to employ in order to provide adolescents with appropriate guidance and intervention based on the importance of perceived parental acceptance-rejection.
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Parental alienation (rejection of a parent without legitimate justification) and realistic estrangement (rejection of a parent for a good reason) are generally accepted concepts among mental health and legal professionals. Alienated children, who were not abused, tend to engage in splitting and lack ambivalence with respect to their parents; estranged children, who were maltreated, usually perceive their parents in an ambivalent manner. The hypothesis of this study was that a psychological test—the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ)—will help to distinguish severely alienated from nonalienated children. The PARQ, which was used to identify and quantify the degree of splitting for each participant, was administered to 45 severely alienated children and 71 nonalienated children. The PARQ‐Gap score—the difference between each child's PARQ: Father score and PARQ: Mother score—was introduced and defined in this research. Using a PARQ‐Gap score of 90 as a cut point, this test was 99% accurate in distinguishing severely alienated from nonalienated children. This research presents a way to distinguish parental alienation from other reasons for contact refusal. The PARQ‐Gap may be useful for both clinicians and forensic practitioners in evaluating children of separating and divorced parents when there is a concern about the possible diagnosis of parental alienation.
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This study uses confirmatory factor analysis procedures to examine the factor structure of the mother and father versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and their measurement invariance across ratings provided by 314 Australian adults and 509 adults in the United States. The adult version of the PARQ is a 60-item self-report instrument designed to measure adults’ perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood. The questionnaire contains four scales measuring warmth/ affection, hostility/aggression, indifference/neglect, and undifferentiated rejection. Results of analyses support the proposed four-factor model. All but six items in the father version and all items in the mother version show invariance across the two national groups. Overall, the results indicate support for the factorial model of the PARQ, as well as measurement equivalence across the national groups tested.
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The research program reported in this article was initiated almost five decades ago in response to claims by Western social scientists that parental love is essential to the healthy social and emotional development of children. After more than two thousand studies, many inspired directly by parental acceptance-rejection theory (PARTheory) described here at least one conclusion is clear: Children everywhere need a specific form of positive response--acceptance-- from parents and other attachment figures. When this need is not met satisfactorily, children worldwide--regardless of variations in culture, gender, age, ethnicity, or other such defining conditions--tend to report themselves to be hostile and aggressive; dependent or defensively independent, over impaired in self-esteem and self-adequacy; emotionally unresponsive; emotionally unstable; and to have a negative worldview, among other responses. Additionally, youths and adults who perceive themselves to be rejected appear to be anxious and insecure, as well as to be disposed toward behavior problems and conduct disorders, to be depressed or have depressed affect, and to become involved in drug and alcohol abuse, among other problems. Evidence reported later suggests that as much as 26% of the variability of children's psychological adjustment can be accounted for by the degree to which they perceive themselves to be accepted or rejected by their major caregivers. In addition, as much as 21% of the variability in adults' psychological adjustment can be explained by childhood experiences of caregiver acceptance-rejection. Of course, these figures leave a large portion of children's and adults' adjustment to be explained by a variety of factors such as other interpersonal relationships, sociocultural factors, and behavioral genetic factors. Nonetheless, evidence reported here confirms that perceived parental acceptance-rejection by itself is universally a powerful predictor of psychological and behavioral adjustment. These bold claims are not made lightly. Testing the universality of such principles is fraught with conceptual and methodological difficulties discussed in this chapter. As a preview, though, we might note that the line of inquiry reported here employs a wide range of research strategies including ethnographic studies, holocultural (cross-cultural survey) studies, and intracultural psychological studies in a broad array of the world's societies and ethnic groups. These ethnographic and psychological studies utilize participant observation procedures, interviews, time-sampled and setting-sampled behavior observations, and self-report questionnaires-- especially the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ).
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Meta-analytic procedures from 51 studies worldwide were used to assess the reliability of the two self- report measures most commonly employed to test the transcultural association between perceived parental acceptance-rejection and psychological adjustment. These measures are the (a) Child, Adult, and Parent versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and (b) Child and Adult versions of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was the primary measure of reliability used. Results of the meta-analysis support the conclusion that the PARQ is a reliable measure for research, clinical, and applied purposes among American ethnic groups and internationally. Meta-analyses also support the conclusion that the PAQ is a reliable measure for use among American ethnic groups. Insufficient evidence is yet available to draw conclusions about its reliability for widespread use in cross-cultural settings.
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This article reviews theory, methods, and evidence supporting the concept of a relational diagnosis here called the parental acceptance-rejection syndrome. This syndrome is composed of 2 complementary sets of factors. First, 4 classes of behaviors appear universally to convey the symbolic message that "my parent (or other attachment figure)...loves me (or does not love me--i.e., rejects me)." These classes of behavior include perceived warmth-affection (or its opposite, coldness-lack of affection), hostility-aggression, indifference-neglect, and undifferentiated rejection. Second, the psychological adjustment of children and adults (defined by a constellation of 7 specific personality dispositions) tends universally to vary directly with the extent to which individuals perceive themselves to be accepted or rejected in their relationship with the people most important to them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
SYNOPSIS Objective. The aims of this article were to test the measurement invariance of the Italian and American versions of the Adult Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire and to compare adults’ remembrances of parental acceptance–rejection across the two nations. Design. The Adult Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire was administered to 564 Italian adults (M = 23.04 years) and 509 U.S. American adults (M = 22.09 years), matched by gender and age. The measurement invariance of the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire was first established by means of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Results. The Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire is fully invariant across the two cultures, and adults organize their remembrances of mothers’ and fathers’ parenting around the same four classes of behavior in both nations. Italian and American adults tend to remember their parents as having been quite loving, with Italian parents being remembered as slightly less warm and more hostile than American parents. Conclusions. The full invariance of the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire across the two populations represents additional strong evidence for the universality of interpersonal acceptance–rejection theory. Measurement invariance also confirmed that the Adult Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire (short form) can be used to measure adult remembrances of parental acceptance–rejection across these two populations.
School readiness of 5-year old children living in poverty: The role of perceived parenting
  • S Okur
  • S K Berument
Okur, S., & Berument, S. K. (2016). School readiness of 5-year old children living in poverty: The role of perceived parenting. Paper presented at the meeting of International Congress on Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection, Madrid.
Psychometric properties of the early childhood acceptance-rejection questionnaire (ECARQ) in Greece
  • A Giotsa
  • C Theodoropoulos
Giotsa, A., & Theodoropoulos, C. (2016). Psychometric properties of the early childhood acceptance-rejection questionnaire (ECARQ) in Greece. Paper presented at the meeting of International Congress on Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection, Madrid.