Chapter

Strategic Brand Management Process

Authors:
  • WHU Otto Beisheim School of Management, Düsseldorf, Germany
Chapter

Strategic Brand Management Process

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Abstract

Brands with a strong equity are no accident – they are a result of thoughtful and imaginative planning and a strategic brand management process. Firms launching a new product need to carefully and creatively craft brand strategies and tactics to maximize the probability of success. This article concentrates on four steps that brand marketers must take in branding: 1) Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values, 2) Planning and implementing brand marketing programs, 3) Measuring and interpreting brand performance, and 4) Growing and sustaining brand equity. For each step, we highlight core concepts, illustrative examples, and practical guidelines. Accomplishing the four steps helps to ensure that a brand strategy is put into place that maximizes the potential value of the new product or service.

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... Also note that the willingness to pay a price premium is posited as key linkage between the other core/ primary CBBE facets of PQ, PVC, and brand uniqueness and the brand response variables. Five related brand associations are also included in Fig. 1. Brand awareness, familiarity, popularity, organizational associations, and brand image consistency are brand associations that are viewed as related to the core/primary CBBE facets (as indicted by the curved line) in several brand equity frameworks ( Aaker, 1996a;Blackston, 1995;Farquhar, 1989;Keller, 1993Keller, , 1998). Consistent with these frameworks, brand awareness is viewed as the degree to which consumers automatically think of a brand when a given product category is mentioned (i.e., a top-of-the-mind awareness). ...
... PQ is considered a core/primary CBBE construct because it has been associated with the willingness to pay a price premium, brand purchase intent, and brand choice. PQ may also be a surrogate for other elements of CBBE (i.e., PVC), and it is applicable across product classes ( Aaker, 1996a;Keller, 1993Keller, , 1998). Theories based in consumer memory, particularly the means-end chain model and expectancy value theory, offer useful frameworks for explaining how PQ judgments are formed. ...
... We also correlated the core/primary CBBE facets with brand awareness, brand familiarity, and brand popularity. Several frameworks suggest that these constructs are related to the core/primary CBBE facets ( Aaker, 1996a;Keller, 1993Keller, , 1998). Of the 144 correlations pertaining to these constructs, 141 were significant in the expected direction. ...
Article
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This article presents four studies that develop measures of “core/primary” facets of customer-based brand equity (CBBE). Drawing from various CBBE frameworks, the facets chosen are perceived quality (PQ), perceived value for the cost (PVC), uniqueness, and the willingness to pay a price premium for a brand. Using numerous advocated scale developmental procedures, the measures of these facets showed evidence of internal consistency and validity over 16 different brands in six product categories. Results also suggest that PQ, PVC, and brand uniqueness are potential direct antecedents of the willingness to pay a price premium for a brand, and that willingness to pay a price premium is a potential direct antecedent of brand purchase behavior.
... An advertisement with a brand differentiating message is defined as the one in which the principal message stresses a unique benefit of the product that can be a tangible or an intangible dimension of the product distinguishing that offered by any competitor (Taylor, Wilson, and Miracle, 1994). Very often, companies try to establish desirable, exclusive and strong associations with a product via messages to consumers (Keller, 2003). According to Jacobson and Nicosia, (1981), one of the main advertising research traditions refers to the advertisement of a particular brand, service, image or a product. ...
... Previous studies (Keller, 2003;Lassar, Mittal and Sharma, 1995;cited in Blair and Chiou, 2014) postulated that by passing time, based on the attitudes of consumers, the identity of products may evolve and gain new attributes which are not necessarily related to formal marketing efforts. According to past studies (Keller, 1993;cited in Blair and Chiou, 2014) positive brand image and knowledge can have an impact on customer perceptions, preferences, and purchasing behavior toward a product, thereby, enhancing brand attitude, brand choice and brand loyalty. ...
... 1989;cited in Laroche, Kim, and Zhou, 1996) proposed a multibrand model of intentions postulating that a consumer's intention to buy a specific brand is determined not only by the attitude toward that brand, but also by attitudes toward other competing brands in their choice set (i.e. the distribution of attitudes toward all the brands in the choice set). Previous studies (Keller, 2003(Keller, , 1993cited in Blair and Chiou, 2014) argued that attributes, usage occasions, benefits and attitudes are the associations that can be linked to the consumers'brand node. Established brands have the advantage to benefit from higher degrees of brand awareness, more positive images and associations, better perceived quality, and consequently stronger brand loyalty (Aaker, 1991;Keller, 1993;cited in Lee, Lee, and Lee, 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose This study's purpose is to examine the effects of – the country-of-origin antecedents on overall attitudes and the impact of overall attitudes on satisfaction and loyalty. Research design, data, and methodology This study provides useful insights into international female purchasing behavior in the cosmetic industry in South Korea. This study explores the elements of country-of-origin antecedents, (cultural interest, perception of brand image, perception of fashion, perception of product quality, perception of price, and perception of advertising), on overall attitudes as well as the effect of overall attitudes on satisfaction and loyalty. Results The results show that the effects of such ante –-cedents are significant. Additionally, the effect of overall attitudes on satisfaction and of satisfaction on loyalty were significant. Conclusions The findings of this study provide some important practical implications. First, with customer brand awareness growing along with products standards, considering the concepts points of parities and points of differences, the Korean cosmetic industry should try to establish brand associations with natural organic ingredients in its cosmetic items, distinguishing them from the majority of non-Korean brands.
... In order to determine the value of the brand in the 2000s by Keller consumer based brand equity in other words, the model has been developed Marking Pyramid. Keller (2003)in the Consumer-Focused Branding Pyramid; told in the form of a hierarchical structure to the value of the brand. ...
... Günümüzde marka değeri konusu detaylı anlatılmamakla beraber gelişen ve değişen ortamla paralel olarak güncelliğini yitirmiştir. Keller (2003); tüketici odaklı markalama piramidi modelinde; marka değerini hiyerarşik bir yapı şeklinde anlatmıştır (76). Tüketici temelli marka değerini, tüketicilerin bir markanın pazarlanma faaliyetleri ve programlarına verdikleri tepkiler üzerindeki, marka bilgisine bağlı farklı bir etki olarak tanımlamaktadır. ...
... Ancak, Keller'in ortaya koyduğu Tüketici Temelli Marka Değeri (Markalama Piramidi) modeli güncelliğini yitirmiştir. Keller (2003) markalama piramidi modelini; sadece tüketici açısından değerlendirmiş ve hiyerarşik bir yapı olarak bir piramit şeklinde ele alarak çizgilerle ayırmıştır. Ancak, günümüzde markalama piramidini oluşturan elemanların çizgilerle tam olarak ayrılamadığı, zamanla çizgilerin belirsizleştiği, birbirinin yerine geçtiği ve sadece tüketici açısından marka değerinin ele alınamayacağı, üretici açısından da ele alınması gerektiği belirlenmiştir. ...
... [5] defines CBBE as a multidimensional concept, which is"a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol that adds to or subtracts from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or to that firm's consumers." Keller [14] defined customer-based brand equity as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer has a high level of awareness and familiarity with the brand and holds some strong, favorable, and unique brand associations in memory [14]. ...
... Keller [14] defined customer-based brand equity as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer has a high level of awareness and familiarity with the brand and holds some strong, favorable, and unique brand associations in memory [14]. CBBE is"a set of perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors on the part of consumers that results in increased utility and allows a brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name" [15]. ...
... Brand associations are the informational nodes linked to the brand node in memory and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers (Keller, 2013). Brand association refers to all the thoughts in consumers' minds related to a brand [22]. ...
... Nevertheless, customers may use brands as a vehicle or mode of expression of attitudes, individualism, and needs (Keegan et al., 1992). According to Keller (2008), brands can simplify choices, be synonymous with a particular level of quality, reduce risk, and generate trust. ...
... The model of brand equity proposed by Keller (1993) is dominant, providing the link between its two dimensions: brand awareness and image. A set of associations (Keller, 2008;Keller and Lehmann, 2006) characterizes the image of a brand in the consumer's mind. In this perspective, the brand's meaning derives from functional elements of performance or more abstract elements related to the imaginary (Keller, 1993(Keller, , 2001. ...
... These functions can be useful both for customers (placement, guarantee, personalization, practicality, pleasure functions), and for manufacturers (protection, positioning, capitalization). According to Keller (2008) the structure of the brand centers on three fundamental components: the identity component (signs of recognition); the perceptual component (cognitive associations and perceptions) (Peter and Olson, 1987); and the trust component (confirmation of expectations). ...
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This research aims to update the factors influencing consumer purchase of luxury goods and, more specifically, to consider the combined effect of brand and country of origin (CoO) on the purchasing decision. This article extends an exploratory phase constructed from qualitative data previously gathered on this topic. The study includes administering a questionnaire online in seven countries (China, France, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the USA) to a total sample of 1102 respondents. The richness of this research relates to the possibility of an intercultural analysis of the results from seven countries. These results concern the differences in the relative importance of components of the consumer decision-making process in respect of the purchase of luxury and non-luxury goods; the relative importance of CoO for consumers making purchasing decisions relating to luxury goods; and the variation in consumers' decision-making criteria depending on the maturity of the luxury market. This research allows the authors to confirm, develop, and generalize results previously obtained in the exploratory phase of their work. They are interesting in terms of management recommendations for a company that wishes to expand internationally in a geographic area covered by the study, since the research found significant differences. The results of the research contribute also to the theoretical controversy concerning the importance of CoO in the consumer decision-making process.
... The brand has become an important symbol that guiding customers to identify products and helping enterprises differentiating their products from competitors. It is not only a kind of intangible asset that more important and more lasting than normal products, but also the core competitiveness of enterprises (Kevin Lane Keller, 2009) [1]. Combining brand theory with enterprise core competitiveness theory is the theoretical requirement in strategic development stage of brand, while combining brand management with traditional enterprise management is the practical requirement. ...
... The brand has become an important symbol that guiding customers to identify products and helping enterprises differentiating their products from competitors. It is not only a kind of intangible asset that more important and more lasting than normal products, but also the core competitiveness of enterprises (Kevin Lane Keller, 2009) [1]. Combining brand theory with enterprise core competitiveness theory is the theoretical requirement in strategic development stage of brand, while combining brand management with traditional enterprise management is the practical requirement. ...
... ccording to American Marketing association (AMA), a brand is a " name, term, sign, symbol, or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition " (Keller, 2009). As such, when a marketer creates a name, logo or symbol for a new product, he or she creates a brand. ...
... Brand positioning is at the heart of the marketing strategy (Keller, 2009). It is the act of designing the company's offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customer's mind. ...
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... These assets, in turn, provide various benefits and value to the firm. Keller (2003) defined customer-based brand equity as the differential effect that customer knowledge about a brand has on their response to marketing activities and programs for that brand. According to this view, brand knowledge is not the facts about the brand—it is all the thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, and so on that become linked to the brand in the minds of customers (actual or potential, individuals or organizations). ...
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... He thinks the corporate image refers to the associations about manufactured products and services as a whole in consumer's brain. When the corporate brand occupies the important position in the enterprise brand strategy, the corporate image is a very important associated factor [2]. At the same time, Keller strengthens the concept of corporate brand, he defines the corporate brand as differential responses of consumers, customers, employees, other companies and any other related supporters due to the speech, actions, products and services about brand assets [3]. ...
... For example, a large tweet volume and positive sentiment may indicate that the organization has a large and satisfied customer base and strong customer equity, which, in turn, enhances the firm's future cash-flow and stock market performance. An alternative explanation is derived from the brand equity theory (Keller, 2003). According to this theory, a strong brand image and reputation represent critical intangible assets of a firm, influencing the firm's long-term stock value. ...
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With the growing realization that brands are one of a firm's most valuable intangible assets, branding has emerged as a top management priority in the last decade. Given its highly competitive nature, branding can be especially important in the retailing industry to influence customer perceptions and drive store choice and loyalty. We integrate lessons from branding and retail image research to provide a better understanding of how retailers create their brand images, paying special attention to the role of the manufacturer and private label brand assortment. We also highlight some important areas that deserve further research in the form of three sets of research priorities.
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Long-term brand value depends on how well a firm understands and recognises the potential of a brand, as well as how well a firm capitalises on that brand potential in the marketplace. Realising this potential, in turn, depends on maximising long-term brand persistence and growth. Brand persistence comes from current customers maintaining their spending on the brand; brand growth results from current customers increasing their spending and from new customers being attracted to the brand in the future. Based on this conceptualisation, guidelines are offered and future research directions suggested.
Article
Traditionally, the people responsible for positioning brands have concentrated on the differences that set each brand apart from the competition. But emphasizing differences isn't enough to sustain a brand against competitors. Managers should also consider the frame of reference within which the brand works and the features the brand shares with other products. Asking three questions about your brand can help: HAVE WE ESTABLISHED A FRAME?: A frame of reference--for Coke, it might be as narrow as other colas or as broad as all thirst-quenching drinks--signals to consumers the goal they can expect to achieve by using a brand. Brand managers need to pay close attention to this issue, in some cases expanding their focus in order to preempt the competition. ARE WE LEVERAGING OUR POINTS OF PARITY?: Certain points of parity must be met if consumers are to perceive your product as a legitimate player within its frame of reference. For instance, consumers might not consider a bank truly a bank unless it offers checking and savings plans. ARE THE POINTS OF DIFFERENCE COMPELLING?: A distinguishing characteristic that consumers find both relevant and believable can become a strong, favorable, unique brand association, capable of distinguishing the brand from others in the same frame of reference. Frames of reference, points of parity, and points of difference are moving targets. Maytag isn't the only dependable brand of appliance, Tide isn't the only detergent with whitening power, and BMWs aren't the only cars on the road with superior handling. The key questions you need to ask about your brand may not change, but their context certainly will. The saviest brand positioners are also the most vigilant.
Brand development processes and planning
  • K L Keller
How do brands create value? Marketing Management
  • D R Lehmann
, & Lehmann, D. R. (2003). How do brands create value? Marketing Management, -31.
Understanding retail branding: Concepfüal insights and t prionhes
  • , Keller
( I,,, & Keller, K. L. (2004). Understanding retail branding: Concepfüal insights and t prionhes. Journal of Retailing, 80(4), 33I-342.
Branding in a digitally empowered dernational Journal of Research in Marketing
  • K L Keller
  • D Kuksov
  • R Pieters
Keller, K. L., Kuksov, D., & Pieters, R. (2016). Branding in a digitally empowered dernational Journal of Research in Marketing. 33, 3-10.
Are brands forever? How brand ge and relationships affect current and fufüre purchases
  • T Langner
  • B H Schmttt
  • P Geus
Langner, T., Schmttt, B. H., & Geus, P. (2006). Are brands forever? How brand ge and relationships affect current and fufüre purchases. Journal of Product & Brand nent, }5(2), 98-l05.
ThUenfluofcukriengofthbe apnodwÜe'gr o'f pinte1gr49ateld76m)mrNk How integrated 4C program? Journal ofAdvertising
  • R K Srivastava
  • G Metz
Destgning and implementing brand architecfüre strategies. Journal of Brand 'ient, 2l(9), 702-715. (2015). Brand development processes and planning. hi R. K. Srivastava and G. Metz :2dOsl'6'a).ThUenfluofcukriengofthbe apnodwÜe'gr o'f pinte1gr49ateld76m)mrNk How integrated 4C program? Journal ofAdvertising. h ttps://doi.org/ 10.l O80/009 l3 3 6 7.20l6.l204967. . (20l6b). Reflections on customer-based brand equity: Perspectives, progress, and AMS Review, 6, I-l6.
Brands and branding: Research findings and fufüre Marketing Scrence
  • D R Lehrnann
, & Lehrnann, D. R. (2006). Brands and branding: Research findings and fufüre Marketing Scrence, 25(6), 740-759.
Handbuch Markenführung Band I mit 447 Abbildungen und 46 Tabellen 45
  • Franz-Rudolf Esch Hrsg
Franz-Rudolf Esch Hrsg. Handbuch Markenführung Band I mit 447 Abbildungen und 46 Tabellen 45;'I Qrn-föopr(:,=ihför
Das Werk emschließlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwerhing, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorhengen Zustimmung des Verlags. Das gilt insbesondere für Vervielföltigungen
  • , Basiert Auf
  • Moderne Markenfühmng
Basiert auf,,Moderne Markenfühmng, 2005" Das Werk emschließlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwerhing, die nicht ausdrücklich vom Urheberrechtsgesetz zugelassen ist, bedarf der vorhengen Zustimmung des Verlags. Das gilt insbesondere für Vervielföltigungen, Bearbeifüngen, Ubersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen und die Einspeichemng und Verarbeifüng in elektromschen Systemen.
How do brands create value? Marketing Management
  • K L Keller
  • D R Lehmann
  • KL Keller