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Review on Goat Milk Composition and its Nutritive Value



An important component present in goat’s milk is called biorganic sodium. One of the highest sources of biorganic sodium is goat’s milk. Arthritis is thought to be caused by lack of this mineral. The human stomach stores more sodium than any other organ. Therefore, at least some digestive disturbances are thought to be caused by lack of biorganic sodium. The lack of this mineral inhibits the stomach’s production of needed enzymes. This in turn causes bloating, and even ulcers. The typical American diet of processed foods, sodas, sugar, and alcohol greatly depletes the body of biorganic sodium ( One of the most important components of goat milk in terms of proven health benefits is the percentage of medium chain fatty acids. The first three of these Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT), 6:0, 8:0 and 10:0 are known as caproic, caprylic and capric acid, respectively. These three fatty acids comprise 15% of the total of goat milk fat, versus only 5% for cow’s milk. It is also these three compounds that give improperly handled goat milk its characteristic off-taste and smell. As a whole, goat milk has about twice the MCT as cow’s milk 35% compared to 17% ( milk.html). MCT have the triple effects on the human health; a) lowering cholesterol deposition in the arteries, and b) dissolving and preventing cholesterol deposits in the gallstones. The health benefits of MCT are widely known by the medical community, which uses them as treatment for a variety of conditions including malabsorption syndrome, coronary diseases, cystic fibrosis, intestinal disorders, pre-mature infant nutrition, gallstones, steatorrhoea, chyluria, hyperlipoproteinaemia, childhood epilepsy and many others (http://www.goodoledays.weebly .com/benefits-of-goats milk.html).
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Review on Goat Milk Composition and its Nutritive Value
Getaneh G*, Mebrat A, Wubie A and Kendie H
University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Unit of Biomedical Science, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: Getaneh G, University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Unit of Biomedical
Science, Ethiopia, E-mail:
Review Article Open Access
Citation: Getaneh G, Mebrat A, Wubie A, Kendie H (2016) Review on Goat Milk Composition and Its
Nutritive Value. J Nutr Health Sci 3(4): 401. doi: 10.15744/2393-9060.3.401
Volume 3 | Issue 4
Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences
ISSN: 2393-9060
Goat milk is an important nutrient for humans, especially who have problem of lactose intolerance and sensitive to other animals’ milk.
Goat milk is composed of dierent usable nutrients which are important to their young and humans. Among those important nutrients
that are found in goat milk are fat, protein, lactose, vitamins, enzymes and mineral salts. Most of the components of goat milk are greater
than that of other milk producing animals. For instance, goat’s milk contains 25% more vitamin B6, 47% more vitamin A and 13%
more calcium than cow’s milk. However, available information concerning goat milk is mainly limited to data on its gross composition,
and information on the nutritional quality of goat milk, especially important nutritional constituents are scarce. In addition, cultural
beliefs challenge the reputation of the advantage of goat milk consumption and the development of the sector, especially in developing
countries. Knowledge about the nature of goat milk is important to investigate the use of the goat milk to humans. Moreover, goat milk
is also used as therapy against dierent problems including gastrointestinal disturbances, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, constipation and
respiratory problems.
Keywords: Composition; Goat; Milk and Nutritive value
ere are nearly 500 breeds of goats in the world; however, only a half dozen are generally raised for their milk purpose and about
600-700 million of dairy goats are present in the world [1]. ey are living in climates ranging from high altitude mountains to
deserts [2]. More than 95% of the goat population is found in developing countries. Worldwide trends of the evolution of the goat
population and their products between 1969 and 2010 show a continuous and rapid increase relative to either cattle or sheep,
especially in the developing countries [3]. e major species of dairy goats are Anglo-nubian, British alpine, Toggenburg and
Saanen. Toggenburg is the best breed that can produce a lot of milk; it is not uncommon to nd a two gallon (7.57 liters) milk per
day [4].
In Ethiopia goats are raised mainly for three purposes; about 3% of adult goats are kept for milk, about 3.36% for meat, about
46.3% for breeding, and the rest are raised for all the above three and other purposes [5]. According to CSA (2008-2010), there are
about 21.96 million goats in Ethiopia.
Due to rapidly increasing human population, the demand for milk and milk products is on the rise in the tropical developing
countries. e increased demand can be met by increasing ruminant livestock population as suggested by [6]. e contribution of
small ruminants in general and goats in particular in meeting this demand will be very high. Goats are important milk producers
in several parts of the tropics and contribute signicantly to human nutrition in many developing countries [7].
One of the most important contributions of goat milk to human nutrition is the calcium and phosphate that it supplies. Goat
milk contains about 1.2 g calcium and 1 g phosphate per litre; these concentrations are similar to those in cow milk [8]. Human
milk contains much less of these minerals with only one-fourth as much calcium and one-sixth as much phosphate. us goat
milk provides a great excess of Ca and P in relation to energy to human infant, both calcium and phosphorus of goat milk are
absorbed by the human infant [8]. e so curd of goat milk may be an advantage for adult humans suering from gastrointestinal
disturbances and ulcers [9]. High buering capacity of goat milk appears to be useful for treatment of gastric ulcers [10]. Goat
milk has been recommended as a substitute for patients allergic to cow milk. Between 40-100% of patients allergic to cow milk
proteins tolerate goat milk [10]. Medium chain length fatty acid or Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) which are more in goat
milk have been recognized as unique lipid with unique health benets in mal-absorption syndromes, chyluria, steatorrhea,
hyperlipoproteinnemia, and in cases of intestinal resection, coronary bypass, premature infant feeding, childhood epilepsy and
gallstones. MCT also inhibits or limits cholesterol deposition, dissolve cholesterol gallstones and contributes to normal growth of
infants [11].
Received Date: August 19, 2016 Accepted Date: November 21, 2016 Published Date: November 23, 2016
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e gross composition of goat milk is higher than that in bovine milk, except for lactose which is low. Fat globules are smaller and
probably one of the reasons for easy digestion of this milk. Its products are high source of protein, fat, phosphate and calcium. Its
composition varies with factors such as diet, breed, environment, and management [12].
Goat’s milk is the most complete food known which is highly compatible and nourishing natural food. So it is highly nutritious
that it can actually serve as a substitute for a meal. It is also preferred due to its low fat content and its capability to neutralize the
acids and toxins present in the body (ts).
Goat Milk Production
It diers from cow or human milk in higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buering capacity, and certain therapeutic
values in medicine and human nutrition. e nutritional and health benets of goat milk are related to a number of medical
problems, foremost being food allergies and also a substitute for those who suer from cow milk allergy [13].
e natural homogenization of goat milk is, from a human health standpoint, much better than the mechanically homogenized
cow milk product. It appears that when fat globules are forcibly broken up by mechanical means, it allows an enzyme associated
with milk fat, known as xanthine oxidase to become free and penetrate the intestinal wall. Once xanthine oxidase gets through the
intestinal wall and into the bloodstream, it is capable of creating scar damage to the heart and arteries, which in turn may stimulate
the body to release cholestrol into the blood in an attempt to lay a protective fatty material on the scarred areas. is can lead to
arteriosclerosis. It should be noted that this eect is not a problem with natural (unhomogenized) cow milk. In unhomogenized
milk this enzyme is normally excreted from the body without much absorption [14].
One of the more signicant dierences from cow milk is found in the composition and structure of fat in goat milk. e average
size of goat milk fat globules is about 2 micrometers, as compared to 21/2 - 31/2 micrometers for cow milk fat. ese smaller sized
fat globules provide a better dispersion, and a more homogeneous mixture of fat in the milk. Research indicates that there is more
involved to the creaming ability of milk than merely physical size of the fat globules. It appears that their clustering is favored by
the presence of an agglutinin in milk which is lacking in goat milk, therefore creating a poor creaming ability, especially at lower
temperatures (
ere are various factors that aect the content of the goat’s milk. ese factors are including breed, stage of lactation, season of
kidding, species, individual animals, age and parity, colostrums, feed (diet), environment (temperature and humidity, length of
dry period and gestation, disease and body weight [15].
erefore, this paper was embodied with the following objectives:
• To discuss the composition and nutritive value of goat milk
• To explain the potential inuencing factors on goat milk production and composition
• To increase awareness of the nutritive and medicinal value of goat milk
Nowadays, 65%-72% of the world’s population drinks goat’s milk. In many countries in the world, goat’s milk is preferred to cow’s
milk. Goats are naturally immune to diseases, such as tuberculosis, and are used in some countries to actually cure tuberculosis
because of their inherent antibodies ( (Table 1).
Milk production (1000 tons)Country
15,510,411 tone’s per yearWor l d
Table 1: Shows current worldwide Goat Milk production across the world
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Lactation is the secretion or formation of milk, the time during at which a doe produces milk. Depending on the breed and the
environmental condition, the length of lactation varies from 200-350 days. A normal termination of lactation considered to be
305 days [16].
Nondairy breeds of goats in the tropics have daily milk yield up to 0.5 liters while specialized dairy goat breeds, including the
Nubian, Saanen, Alpine, LaMancha and Toggenburg, could give 2-4 liters per day [17].
Milk yield
Goat milk products are; goat cheese, avored goat milk powder, goat milk yoghurt, goat milk colostrums, goat milk powder for
pets, pasteurized goat milk, yoghurt and bottled juice of milk [18].
Milking is the act of removing milk from the udder. Goats should be milked twice a day on a regular schedule, preferably every 12
hours. A reduction in the number of times a goat is milked per day will reduce milk yield. If goats are only milked once a day, then
yield will be reduced by one third [19].
Milking frequency
ere are various factors that aect milk production including body size and weight, age, udder size and shape, growth, litter size,
season of kidding, nutrition, temperature, disease and breed [17].
Factors that aect goat milk production
Body size and weight: ere is positive relationship between body weight and milk yield. Larger does produce more milk, but
research indicates that only about 10% of the variation in milk yield can be accounted for body weight [17].
Age: Age aects milk yield, but it is closely to body weight. Age accounts for much of the increase in body weight. Peak milk yield
is reached when the doe is between four and eight years age [17].
Udder size and shape: A weak udder attachment is considered a major defect, but udder volume is highly correlated with milk
yield (i.e. the larger the udder the greater the milk yield) [20].
Growth: ere is tendency for late maturing animals, with a at growth curve, to be more productive [21].
Litter size: e result of a number of studies indicate that mammary growth during pregnancy. is seems to be reasonable that
more milk is needed [22].
Season of kidding: To some extent, the season of kidding inuences milk yield. Yield from lactation beginning early in the year
(January, February and March) are lower than those beginning later in the year (October, November and December) [23].
Nutrition: e mammary gland needs glucose to form lactose, which in turn largely controls the movement of water in to milk. A
reduction in feed intake quickly lowers the milk yield, since there is very little glucose stored in the body [10].
Temperature: Exposure of lactating goats to cold reduce milk secretion. For example, one study showed that the milk yield at 31
ºF (-0.5 ºC) was about 30% below that obtained from goats in an environmental temperature of 68 ºF (20 ºC) [24].
Disease: It is obvious that the disease lowers milk production, with the degree of the eect determined by the kind and severity of
the specic disease. Subclinical diseases are more dangerous on goat milk yield than clinical ones [23].
Breed: European breeds of dairy goats generally have a far higher potential for milk production than indigenous breeds that have
not been selected for this attribute [10,25].
e composition of milk varies from goat to goat and diers for the various breeds. e primary importance is for young goat, and
especially for man, who drinks the milk, is the composition ( ese compositions of the
milk are discussed below:
Composition of Goat Milk
Fats in milk are called butterfat and occur as suspended globules, which are easily seen via low power microscopes. Goat’s milk
derives many of its most distinctive properties from its lipid fraction. e average total fat content in the milk is similar to that
found in other ruminant species, despite reports that the percentage of fat in goat’s milk exceeds that of the cow. Such a controversy
most likely derived from the fact that the average percentage of milk fat, as with cow’s milk fat, is a variable component, oen
ranging between 3.0 and 6.0 percent. ere are also distinct breed dierences in fat composition. It should be remembered,
however, the quality and quantity of feeds, genetics season, stage of lactation, etc all inuence the average percentage of goat milk
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e relative percentage of protein is similar in both the cow and the goat despite past assertions that the protein content of goat’s
milk is lower. is variation in range is due to in part to a lack of standardization of protein testing procedures as well as the wide
dierences encountered among animals accepted as the same breed and interbreed dierences [27].
Sheep (%)Cow (%)Goat (%)Composition
19.313.513.9Total solid
-0.740.85Ash (minerals)
Source: [6]
Table 2: Composition of goat, cow and sheep milk
fat. In terms of cholesterol, goat’s milk appears to oer a specic distinction in comparison to cow’s milk, cow’s milk typically
contains about 14 to 17 mg cholesterol per 100 g milk, while goat’s milk is more usually recorded at 11 to 25 mg per 100 gram of
milk [26].
e quantity and distribution of amino acids in the casein fractions of the milk of the two species are similar; the sequence of
assembly is almost certainly dierent. A similar dierence appears to be found in the lactalbumin portion as well, with perhaps
more clinical signicance. e lactalbumin of bovine milk elicits an allergic response from many individuals, a serious problem,
especially for young children. ese individuals are oen able to consume the milk of goats without suering that reaction, an
eect attributed to the dissimilarities in structure of the two proteins [28].
Goat’s milk diers from cow’s milk in its much lower content of B1 (thiamine). e meaning of this dierence is not entirely clear.
It is remarkable that caprine milk derives its vitamin A potency entirely from the vitamin itself and entirely lacks the precursor
carotenoid pigments characteristic of bovine milk, which also causes goat’s milk and milk fat to be much whiter in color than the
milk of the cow due to higher casein content. It typically contains 25% more vitamin B6, 47% more vitamin A than regular cow’s
milk, and is mainly contains vit A2 [27].
Lactose is the major free carbohydrate that has been identied in the milk of the goat, though small amounts of inositol are also
found. e lactose concentration is usually found to be lower than that found in cow’s milk, but the magnitude of the dierence is
hard to quantify because of the variation in methods of analysis employed. An agreement has not been developed on whether to
analyze for lactose in the non-hydrated form or the mono-hydrated form, and this water of hydration is capable of introducing a
ve percent variation in the reported concentration of the same actual amount of lactose [26].
A natural minerals nutrition program that includes goat milk can bring excellent health benets. e milk contains major and
trace minerals including Ca, Na, Mg, P, K and Zn, Mn, Se, Co, Cu, Fe respectively. For instance, the milk is a good source of
calcium, containing approximately 13% more calcium per serving than cow’s milk, and making it one of the predominant natural
minerals in milk and containing about 134% more K element [29].
Mineral salt
e enzymes of the milk of the goat are similar to those of the cow, although some specic dierences have been described. Of
primary interest, it has been shown that the level of alkaline phosphatase is slightly lower than that found in the dairy cattle, but
the enzyme demonstrates the same degree of heat susceptibility and therefore serves equally as well as a pasteurization marker.
Peroxidase activity in the milk of both species is the same in all respects, while the xanthine oxidase level is lower in the milk of
the goat. Higher levels of activity are observed for both ribonuclease and lysozyme [27] (Table 2).
According to Malau-Aduli BS, et al. goat milk yield and composition are aected by dierent factors, including breed, age, stage of
lactation, season, plane of nutrition and the like.
Factors that Cause Variation in Goat Milk Content
Goat milk composition can have great dierences depending on breed; for example, milk fat from 2.3 percent to 6.9 percent and an
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European breeds of dairy goats generally have a far higher potential for milk production than indigenous breeds that have not
been selected for this attribute. is dierence applies even when account is taken of the generally higher solids content of the
milk of indigenous goats [31].
Inbreeding is generally undesirable for the improvement of many traits because of the eects of homozygosity in allowing the
expression of undesirable genes, resulting in inbreeding depression. is is usually greatest for characters associated with natural
tness such as viability and reproductive ability [32].
Crossbreeding results in heterosis (hybrid vigour) for certain characteristics. It is apparent when the average performance of
crossbred progeny is superior to the average performance of the two parents. If this is a signicant eect, the benets may not
persist with subsequent crossings or grading-up [31].
Articial insemination technology is now established for goats and can be expected to be used more widely in future. However, the
value is limited for identifying outstanding sires, and by the generally small size of dairy goat herds [33].
Within species and breed it aects the milk contents regardless of species or breed that has the greatest inuence on milk
composition. Many components goat’s milk as in cow’s milk, especially fat and protein, are high in colostrums in early lactation,
much lower thereaer until they rise again markedly at the end of lactation, when yields are low [34].
Regardless of genetics, the composition of the daily diet and its amount in relation to production requirements can cause signicant
changes in milk composition [36,37].
A widely accepted rapid monitor of udder health is the somatic cell count in milk. However, milk secretion in goats is apocrine,
while in cows it is merocrine, which explains why goat milk may have very high counts of somatic cells, especially in late lactation
milk or in the last strippings of milk, without any relationship to mastitis [38,39].
Processing also changes the composition of the milk. Even before cheese precipitation from milk and the eects of fermenting of
cheese, the various methods of processing, heating and freezing can have profound inuences on milk composition. Heating is
applied during pasteurization, UHT processing, condensing and powder production, which will denature milk proteins to varying
degrees and aect avors [40].
average of 3.3 percent; milk protein from 2.2 percent to 5.1 percent and an average of 3.4 percent. A major portion of this variation
includes negative correlations between milk yield and composition (i.e. low yields have higher contents and vice versa). Some goat
milk has low casein contents and unsatisfactory rennet coagulation ability, which aects cheese yield [30].
Stage of lactation
Between morning and evening milking on the same day the gross composition of milk may also change, which again may be
confounded with milk yield. For instance, fat contents of evening goat milk averaged 5.1 percent aer 14 hours of milking interval,
morning milk 5.3 percent aer 10 hours, total protein contents were 3.54 percent versus 3.58 percent, and total solids were 13.94
percent versus 14.30 percent, respectively [35].
Daily variation
ere are also clear seasonal dierences in milk composition of the major and minor components, but they are confounded
with climate and diet eects. Winter climate can aect milk yields and composition, and both are negatively correlated. Winter
feeding is providing usually dierent proportions and qualities of grazing, hays, silage and supplements, which inuence milk
composition considerably [12].
Dierences due to parity, number of lactation or age of animal can be signicant in gross milk composition, but this is also
confounded with milk yield levels [22].
Type of diet
Udder health
When milk is consumed as it becomes available from the animal or if its composition is changed in production and processing, a
principal question in the pediatric and popular literature is how adequate is that milk for infant or general human needs [40-42].
Comparative nutritional adequacy
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Many physiological factors can aect milk contents. Among these physiological factors age, seasonal inuence and multiple birth
are common.
Physiological factors
Age: Age is closely related to body size and parity (lactation number) as it aects milk production. Body mass may increase up to
six years of age and decrease thereaer, and milk yield varies similarly, with peak milk yield at between four and eight years. In
the work done on Alpine goats it has been found that the highest yields (960 kg) in second lactations, and the lowest (634 kg) in
seventh lactations [43].
Although the production volume of goat milk is relatively small in total world milk supply, goat keeping has a signicant economic
importance in countries where climatic conditions are not favorable for cattle raising [46,47].
Goat’s milk is the most complete food known which is highly compatible and nourishing natural food. It is so highly nutritious
that it can actually serve as a substitute for a meal. It is also preferred due to its low fat content and its capability to neutralize the
acids and toxins present in the body. Cow milk is mucus forming for many people; however, goat milk is not only non-mucus
forming, but actually helps to neutralize mucus. It is known for its superior in calcium content, in comparison with other animals’
milk and the healing enzymes present in it (ts).
Children with problems digesting cow’s milk may have a viable alternative in raw goat’s milk which is the second best food option,
rst being mother’s milk, that can consume comfortably, even if they are sensitive to cow or other animals milk. In fact, goat’s milk
is very similar to human milk, children who drink goat’s milk tend to remain more satised between meals and sleep through the
night [47].
e vitamin and mineral content of goat’s milk and cow’s milk are fairly similar, though goat’s milk contains a bit more calcium,
vitamin B6, vitamin A, potassium, niacin, copper and the antioxidant selenium. On the other hand, cow’s milk contains more
vitamin B12 and much more folic acid. Since goat’s milk contains less than ten percent of the amount of folic acid contained in
cow’s milk, it must be supplemented with folic acid. For this reason, be sure you get a goat’s milk that is supplemented with folic
acid, which the best brands usually are. Generally, the American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend the use of goat’s milk
products in infants under one year because they can cause intestinal irritation and anemia. Infants under one year of age who are
allergic to cow’s milk-based formulas, soy formulas or hypoallergenic formulas are sometimes put on goat’s milk formula, but only
with consultation from baby’s doctor or a pediatric nutritionist [49].
Glycerol ethers are much higher in goat than in cow milk which appears to be important for the nutrition of the nursing newborn.
Goat milk also has lower contents of orotic acid which can be signicant in the prevention of fatty liver syndrome. However, the
membranes around fat globules in goat milk are more fragile which may be related to their greater susceptibility to develop o-
avors than cow milk [14] (Table 3 and 4).
Seasonal inuence: Season of kidding can aect milk production and is oen confounded with age eects. Extremely cold weather
can reduce milk production [44]. Goats producing milk are susceptible to heat stress in spite of heat resistant characteristics [45].
Multiple births: Mammary growth during gestation is said to be aected by the number of kids, and this has a subsequent eect
on milk production which is independent of age, body mass and season. Milk production may also be increased in response to
suckling stimuli, but this is not a factor in dairy goats if the kids are taken away and fed by hand [44].
Nutritional Value of Goat Milk
Beyond meeting daily nutrient requirements, it is of special interest that goat milk has unique properties, which distinguish from
cow’s milk and make them a valuable alternative not just for infants, but also for adults and especially nursing mothers [48].
e milk contains vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, trace elements, enzymes, protein, fatty acids and amino acids (especially
tryptophan) that are utilized by human body with ease. Perhaps the greatest benet of goat’s milk, however, is that some people
who cannot tolerate cow’s milk are able to drink goat’s milk without any problems. It is not clear from scientic research studies
exactly why some people can better tolerate goat’s milk; perhaps due to lower in lactose content (7% less from cow milk). In fact,
our body can digest goat’s milk just in 20 minutes while cow’s milk takes 2-3 hours [47].
• Most of the world’s population drinks goat milk.
• Goat milk is more digestible because the fat molecules are a smaller size than those from cow milk – making it easily tolerated
by those with compromised digestive systems.
• Goat milk has less cream separation because of smaller fat molecules.
• Goat milk contains the precursor to vitamin A in the milk fat that allows it to be readily available for use by the body.
• Goat milk is closer to human milk and is more easily accepted especially by those young or frail.
• Goat milk does not form mucous (phlegm) and is better tolerated by asthmatics and those with allergies.
• Goat milk contains more chlorine, uorine, and silicon than any other domestic livestock. Chlorine and uorine are natural
Source: Natures Prescription Milk by Gloria Gilbere, N.D., D.A. Hom., PhD
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Human milk (%)Cow milk (%)Goat milk (%)Nutrient
8.909.028.68Solid not fat
1.223.423.33Total nitrogen protein
31.921.039.0Vit A (IU/gram fat) B1 (µg/100ml)
Vit C (mg ascorbic
0.270.700.70Vit D (IU /gram fat)
Table 3: Average composition of goat, cow and human milk
e symptoms like gastrointestinal disturbances, vomiting, colic, diarrhoea, constipation and respiratory problems can be
eliminated when goat milk is fed to the infants. Pasteurized goat milk is well tolerated by the infants with gastro intestinal or
respiratory symptoms. Fermented milk forms a so curd when compared to cow’s milk and hence helps in easy digestion and
absorption. Regular intake of goat milk signicantly improves the body weight gain, improved mineralization of skeleton, increased
blood serum vitamin, mineral and haemoglobin levels [13].
Medicinal value of milk
Goats’ milk is a good source of K, an essential mineral for maintaining normal blood pressure and heart function. Since a cup
of goat’s milk contains 498.7 mg of K and 121.5 mg of Na, hence it helps to prevent high blood pressure and protect against
atherosclerosis. It is also a good source of protein, phosphorus, riboavin (vitamin B2) and potassium (http://goodoledays. weebly.
germicides and uorine assists in preventing diabetes.
• Goat milk contains 2% curd, which precipitates in the stomach. Cow milk is 10% curd.
• Goat milk is tolerated by a compromised/damaged liver because of the smaller fat molecules.
Protein (%)Fat (%)MY (lb)Weight (lb)Height (inch)Breed
Table 4: Average size, milk yield (MY) and composition of dairy goat breeds [50]
Additional Uses of Goat Milk
An important component present in goat’s milk is called biorganic sodium. One of the highest sources of biorganic sodium is
goat’s milk. Arthritis is thought to be caused by lack of this mineral. e human stomach stores more sodium than any other organ.
erefore, at least some digestive disturbances are thought to be caused by lack of biorganic sodium. e lack of this mineral
inhibits the stomachs production of needed enzymes. is in turn causes bloating, and even ulcers. e typical American diet
of processed foods, sodas, sugar, and alcohol greatly depletes the body of biorganic sodium (
Lipids: e qualities regarding lipids in the composition of goat milk fat are very signicant at dierentiating the special health
qualities of goat milk. ese are the fat globule size, and the percentages of medium chain fatty acids (http://www.everything-goat-
Fat globules in goat milk are smaller than in cow’s milk. is smaller size, combined with the lack of agglutinin, a protein that
causes fat molecules to clump together, and which is present in cow’s milk, has several implications. It is theorized that the
smaller fat globule size, combined with the fact that the globules do not clump together as in cow’s milk, also contribute to the
higher digestibility of goat milk, and the better tolerance of it for individuals with certain digestive disorders (ts/).
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One of the most important components of goat milk in terms of proven health benets is the percentage of medium chain fatty
acids. e rst three of these Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT), 6:0, 8:0 and 10:0 are known as caproic, caprylic and capric acid,
respectively. ese three fatty acids comprise 15% of the total of goat milk fat, versus only 5% for cow’s milk. It is also these three
compounds that give improperly handled goat milk its characteristic o-taste and smell. As a whole, goat milk has about twice the
MCT as cow’s milk 35% compared to 17% (ts-of-goats milk.html).
MCT have the triple eects on the human health; a) lowering cholesterol deposition in the arteries, and b) dissolving and
preventing cholesterol deposits in the gallstones. e health benets of MCT are widely known by the medical community, which
uses them as treatment for a variety of conditions including malabsorption syndrome, coronary diseases, cystic brosis, intestinal
disorders, pre-mature infant nutrition, gallstones, steatorrhoea, chyluria, hyperlipoproteinaemia, childhood epilepsy and many
others (http://www.goodoledays.weebly .com/benets-of-goats milk.html).
Raw milk: It was established that the consumption of raw milk reduces total cholesterol level because of the higher presence of
MCT, 36% in goat milk versus 21% in cow milk, which decreases the synthesis of endogenous cholesterol. It also helps to boost the
immune system. Goat’s milk alkalizes the digestive system and also helps to increase the pH level in the blood stream so prevents
gastric ulcers [51].
Additionally, raw goat’s milk ghts microbes, primarily due to the healthy medium chained fatty acids it contains, such as capric
and caprylic acids. It is very important to note that raw goat’s milk is rich in selenium, a necessary bodily nutrient known for its
immune strengthening and antioxidant properties and also goat’s milk does not produce mucus; it does not stimulate a defense
response from the human immune system. Raw goat’s milk soothes (calm) the digestive tract; people with conditions, such
as bloating, diarrhea, asthma, and irritability may very well be suering from an allergic reaction to cow’s milk (http://www.
naturalnews. com/031586_raw_goats_milk_health.html).
Furthermore, goat’s milk contains less of the enzyme xanthise oxidase. When it is entering the blood stream, this enzyme can cause
tissue scar on the heart that result in the liver supplying more cholesterol in order to protect the heart. Arteriosclerosis can be the
result of this mechanism, and homogenization of milk products has been linked to heart disease [51].
Recently, goat milk consumption and production increases globally as people recognize the advantage of goat milk especially
in the developed nations. It is well known that goat milk has high nutritional value than other species of animals, where there
is adequate browse and water supply and they are mainly raised in rangelands in semi deserts and sub tropic conditions. Goat
has the ability to produce milk of good composition and quality for human consumption. ese compositions of milk are fat,
protein, ash, vitamins, lactose and enzymes. Although it is known that goat can produce milk which have high nutritional value
and composition, various factors including breed, nutritional status, udder size and shape, body weight and litter size aect the
composition and the contents of the milk. Dierent inuencing factors that cause variation to the milk content are genetics, litter
size, season, stage of lactation, parity, daily variation, type of diet, physiological status, udder health and physiological factors.
Moreover, it also has medicinal value for human being and is healthy alternative to cow’s milk that may be more easily digested
than regular cow’s milk, especially to children and those who have sensitive stomachs to other animals’ milk. Goat milk lacks folic
acid and it does not recommend for infants under one year because it can cause anemia. Goat milk also has a higher renal solute
load compared to cow’s milk and can place stress on an infant’s kidneys. is milk has been found to cause metabolic acidosis and
intestinal irritation when fed to infants in the rst month of life.
Conclusion and Recommendations
From the above conclusion the following recommendations were forwarded:
• It is valuable to be aware of the factors that are aecting the composition and nutritional value of caprine milk as the composition
is very important to human beings
• It is very important to be aware about the nutritional value of goat’s milk
• Peoples should be aware of the health benets of consuming goat milk
• e government should participate in the animal and human health care, and developing the sector goat production since it very
important to improve the health of the population
• Studies should be conducted on impact of higher chlorine content of Goat milk for under one year infants.
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Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences
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Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences
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Volume 3 | Issue 4
... Несмотря на давние традиции применения козьего молока в питании детей и взрослых, для производства смесей козье молоко стало использоваться относительно недавно, около 20 лет. Этому способствовало активное изучение особенностей состава козьего молока в сравнении с молоком других видов животных, в первую очередь с коровьим молоком, и грудным молоком [5]. ...
... 2). В остальном козье отличается от белков коровьего молока по фракционному составу, структурным, физико-химическим и иммунологическим характеристикам [4,5]. ...
... Особенности жирового состава. Жиры козьего молока имеют следующие характеристики: ■ жировые глобулы имеют меньшие размеры (2 мкм против 21-31 мкм в коровьем молоке), защищены от слипания (отсутствует агглютинин) -лучшая доступность для ферментов пищеварительного тракта [5], ■ выше содержание эссенциальных жирных кислот -линолевой и арахидоновой, являются структурными компонентами биологических мембран, участвуют в созревании ЦНС, зрительного анализатора [4,8], ■ выше концентрация среднецепочечных триглицеридов (в два раза по сравнению с коровьим молоком) -ус-ваиваются без участия желчных кислот и липазы поджелудочной железы, обеспечивая организм энергией (имеет значение при плохом наборе массы тела, при функциональных нарушениях ЖКТ) [3,9]. ...
From an evolutionary standpoint, breast milk is the optimal food for nutrition of infants, which contains, in addition to macro- and micronutrients, functional components required for the morphofunctional maturation and development of regulatory interactions between organs and systems mostly of the digestive system. The choice of formula for artificial feeding of infants is determined, first of all, on the basis of its functionality. Interest in goat milk as a source of nutrition has been known for a long time, and recommendations highlighting its dietary and healing properties are found in both ancient treatises and modern guidelines. In this regard, goat milk formulas deserve special attention. Based on the results of the research, were identified the features of goat milk composition, which determine the unique metabolic and physiological properties for young children. The article presents comparative data on the features of the chemical composition of goat, cow and breast milk, as well as the functional characteristics of the adapted goat milk based formula. The advantages of goat’s milk allow us to consider goat milk based formula as physiological (providing normal physical development and metabolic processes), as functional (due to growth, regulatory and protective factors) and prophylactic — to prevent the occurrence of functional disorders (regurgitation, constipation) due to compliance with the functional capabilities of the gastrointestinal tract of the child. Such formulas are indicated for healthy infants and can be used in infants with risk factors for the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Such risk factors include caesarean-section delivery, exposure to antibiotics in the first days of life, perinatal pathology of the central nervous system.
... In contrast, linoleic acid was the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid, and capric acid was the principal medium-chain triglyceride [15]. Various factors affect goat milk composition, such as genetics, stage of lactation, season, type of diet, and health [16]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Indonesia and some southeast Asian countries, the number of goats raised for milk production is growing. In these countries, goat milk is the second most produced and consumed milk after cow milk. In Indonesia, dairy goats' development is promising, but the farming of dairy goats and marketing milk products is still scattered and unstructured. The milk is produced from varieties of goat breeds, including Peranakan Etawa, Saanen, Nubian, and their crosses. Goat milk has unique and distinct characteristics and is an excellent source of nutrients for humans. Compared to cow milk, it has smaller fat globules, more homogenous, shorter rennet coagulation time, and softer curd. Goat milk utilization includes fluid milk for direct consumption; frozen fresh milk; dried or powdered milk; fermented milk products such as yogurt, kefir, including its derivatives such as cosmetics, concentrated yogurt, yogurt cheese, ice cream, shakes; cheeses such as fresh cottage-type cheese, acid-coagulated cheese and mozzarella; and also, other traditional products such as sweets & candies and caramels. The development of dairy goats and goat milk consumption is driven by several factors, including the low cost for start-up and production, consumers' demand, alleged health properties of goat milk, and varieties of products.
... The milk composition varies not only from one species to another but also in different breeds, while environmental factors (age, season, nutrition, health, and lactation (stage and parity) in turn cause changes in milk composition (Getaneh et al., 2016). ...
... and corneal opacification. Goat Milk may be hypothesized to be very specific for eye on account of its 47% higher Vitamin A content, 13% more calcium, presence of medium chain triglycerides, smaller fat globules and its capability to neutralize the acids and toxins [37]. It can be summarized that folklore Kerala Ayurveda Ophthalmology treatments has a fair usage of Jangama dravya (animal products) along with Sthavara dravya (herbal products) and Parthiva dravya (mineral products). ...
Full-text available
Vaidya Manorama is a folklore Kerala Ayurveda literature that encompasses time- tested low-budget formulations that can be prepared from easily available resources. Ayurveda Ophthalmology has been described in Chapter twenty-eight of the literature. Many unique formulations like eating firefly (khadyota), preparing ghee from fresh-water shellfish (tadaka-shuktika), Kadali phala (a special type of banana) bidalaka, dropping of juice of palasha (Butea monosperma) into eyes for various clinical conditions are described. We review the unique ophthalmology formulations in this chapter to bring them to limelight. Few herbo-mineral formulations are also described for which toxicity and safety studies are warranted. All these handy formulations may help clinicians in day-to-day practice or may be a lead for novel research.
... The FA composition of any fresh milk differs according to factors such as breed, feeding practice, the season in which the milk was obtained, location and lactation period [11,12]. Additionally, the dairy goat breed affects the yield of milk composition: for instance, GM fat (GMF) content ranges from 2.3% to 6.9%, an average of 3.3% [13]. Moreover, the presence of breed-dependent variances in the lipid makeup of GMF has been demonstrated [14]. ...
Full-text available
Goat milk (GM) is an excellent alternative to cow milk and has recently been used in commercial infant formula preparation due to its superior fat composition. Here, the fatty acid (FA) compo-sition, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, thermal behavior and infrared spectra of extracted milk fat from the milk of the two main breeds of dairy goat bred in China (Guanzhong GM (GZG) and Xinong Saanen GM (XSG)) are investigated. Gas chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and ultra-performance convergence chromatog-raphy with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry are applied. The obtained results evi-dence significant fat compositional differences based on the breed that produced the considered GM. The major FAs in both GM fats were capric (C10:0), myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1 n-9c). GZG presented a higher content of medium-chain saturated FAs, while XSG had higher unsaturated FAs with higher ratios of L/Ln and n-6/n-3. A total of 339 and 359 TAGs were detected and quantified in GZG and XSG, and the major TAGs were those of m/z 740.6712 (14.10 ± 0.27%) and m/z 684.6094 (10.94 ± 0.02%), respectively. Milk TAGs of GZG and XSG showed 24–54 and 26–54 total acyl carbon numbers with a 0–4 and 0–5 double bond number at 68 and 72 various retention times, respectively. Thermal analysis showed that all GM fat sam-ples melted below normal body temperature. Infrared spectra revealed higher absorption values of GZG milk fat. This study provides valuable information to the dairy industry sector about GM fat produced in China, assessing the appropriateness of Chinese GM fat to be applied in Chinese infant formula.
... Lactose intolerance is another medical condition for which people will attempt to avoid dairy products or find adequate replacements 5 . Evidence shows that dairy products from goats and sheep not only maintain the key nutritional features of cow milk, but are also easier to digest 6,7 . This has been cited to support the use of goat milk and sheep milk as more suitable alternatives to cow milk-based dairy produce 8 . ...
Full-text available
This study used desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to analyse and detect and classify biomarkers in five different animal and plant sources of milk for the first time. A range of differences in terms of features was observed in the spectra of cow milk, goat milk, camel milk, soya milk, and oat milk. Chemometric modelling was then used to classify the mass spectra data, enabling unique or significant markers for each milk source to be identified. The classification of different milk sources was achieved with a cross-validation percentage rate of 100% through linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with high sensitivity to adulteration (0.1–5% v/v). The DESI-MS results from the milk samples analysed show the methodology to have high classification accuracy, and in the absence of complex sample clean-up which is often associated with authenticity testing, to be a rapid and efficient approach for milk fraud control.
Full-text available
Background: The use of animals and animal-derived products in ethnopharmacological applications is an ancient human practice that continues in many regions today. The local people of the Himalayan region harbor rich traditional knowledge used to treat a variety of human ailments. The present study was intended with the aim of examining animal-based traditional medicine utilized by the population of the Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: Data were collected from 2017 to 2019 through individual and group interviews. Data on traditional uses of animal products were analyzed, utilizing following indices such as the frequency of citation, use value, relative importance, similarity index, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis to find the highly preferred species in the area. Results: Ethnomedicinal uses of 62 species of vertebrates and invertebrates were documented. Flesh, fat, bone, whole body, milk, skin, egg, head, feathers, bile, blood, and honey were all used in these applications. The uses of 25 animals are reported here for the first time from the study area (mainly insects and birds, including iconic species like the kalij pheasant, Lophura leucomelanos ; Himalayan monal, L. impejanus ; and western tragopon, Tragopan melanocephalus ). The diversity and range of animal-based medicines utilized in these communities are indications of their strong connections with local ecosystems. Conclusion: Our results provide baseline data valuable for the conservation of vertebrate and invertebrate diversity in the region of Himalayan of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. It is possible that screening this fauna for medicinally active chemicals could contribute to the development of new animal-based drugs.
Full-text available
The goals of this study were to determine the weekly milk production of Saanen goats at UniSZA Pasir Akar Farm, and to evaluate milk production and composition in three age groups. From January 2021 to May 2021, a study was conducted at the UniSZA Pasir Akar Farm in Besut, Terengganu. Ninety goat milk samples were collected and stored in sterile falcon tubes. Milk samples were stored in an insulated box at 5 °C before being transported to the laboratory and stored at -20 °C until further analysis. Milk samples were analyzed in four replicates for each sample group using the Milkotester. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was used to analyze raw data among age groups, with p < 0.05 indicating a significant difference. The highest milk yield was produced by four-year-old goats (943.9 g/d), followed by three-year-old goats (850.5 g/d) and two-year-old goats (571.1 g/d), respectively. Solid non-fat (SNF), protein, and lactose content showed the highest in percentage in the 3-year old group, at 7.80%, 2.80%, and 4.27%, respectively. However, the fat content revealed an unusual pattern, with 2.87%, 2.77%, and 3.33% representing 2, 3 and 4 years old. This occurred due to other factors such as feed, breed, and age. In conclusion, this study found a significant difference in milk yield and composition across three age groups. However, this is only a preliminary result based on a small number of animals and a short study period. Future studies will perhaps, use larger sample sizes and parameters to validate the current result.
Full-text available
Milk is the essential component of our daily diet, especially for young ones. So the present research paper studies contents and nutritive properties of milk of livestock. For this study physico-chemical analysis applied. Milk samples of Surti Buffalo had higher pH, titratable acidity, total solids, solid not-fat (SNF), ash, fat, protein, lactose, total Nitrogen and some selected minerals viz., Calcium, Phosphorous and Chloride content than Nimari cow and Sangamneri goat. Whereas Sangamneri goat milk samples were having higher water and magnesium content than that of milk samples collected from Nimari cow and Surti buffalo. Milk of Surti buffalo was rich source of macro nutrients (fat, protein, lactose and selected minerals than that of Nimari cow milk. Surti buffalo milk was more energetic, than that of milk of Nimari cow and Sangamneri goat.
Full-text available
Introducción. La caracterización y diversificación de los productos lácteos caprinos es muy importante para fortalecer a este incipiente sector productivo. Objetivo. Comparar las características fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de leches bovinas y caprinas enteras, descremadas y deslactosadas, así como de sus combinaciones. Materiales y métodos. En San José, Costa Rica, entre enero y diciembre del 2015 se evaluaron los contenidos de grasa (G), sólidos no grasos (SNG), acidez, proteína, densidad, pH, viscosidad y color de los tipos de leches citadas. Además, se efectuó un análisis sensorial descriptivo genérico y pruebas de agrado general. Resultados. La leche caprina entera presentó valores mayores de SNG, densidad y acidez, y menor pH, fue más blanca que la bovina y con una viscosidad similar. El proceso de deslactosado no afectó la viscosidad. Este factor interactuó con el tipo de leche, pero ninguno afectó los contenidos de grasa y proteína. Existió una interacción entre el tipo de leche y las modificaciones aplicadas para los parámetros de color. Los panelistas detectaron diferencias significativas para todos los atributos en los productos con excepción del aroma a ácido. Se estableció la presencia de tres conglomerados para la prueba de agrado compuestos por el 37,4 %, 28,8 % y 34,5 % de los jueces. El primero y segundo presentaron una preferencia por la leche entera y entera-deslactosada de vaca y, el tercero, por leche de cabra entera y entera-deslactosada de vaca y de cabra. El menor agrado general fue para las muestras tanto descremadas como deslactosadas bovinas y caprinas. Conclusiones. Los procesos de deslactosado y descremado modificaron la leche a nivel fisicoquímico, las leches de cabra con mayor agrado fueron las enteras y enteras-deslactosadas; el menor agrado general fue por las leches descremadas-deslactosadas en ambas especies.
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Goats with production demands are susceptible to heat stress in spite of heat resistant characteristics. Depression of feed intake and reduction in production are commonly observed in heat-stressed goats. Upper critical temperatures for goats in maintenance are 25° to 30°C, but this has not been fully established for growing and lactating goats. Effects of heat stress on intake, digestibility and rate of passage in goats are discussed. Guidelines for nutritional manipulation attempting to alleviate heat stress in goats remain to be established. Balancing rations according to reduced level of production, reducing dietary forage to grain ratio, feeding fat, supplementing sodium bicarbonate and other minerals, and maximizing cold water intake may be beneficial for heat-stressed goats. However, validity of these approaches needs to be verified by further research.
A study was carried out in Bauchi from July 1990 to April 1991 to investigate the heat tolerance of Yankasa, Uda, and Balami breeds of sheep. Rectal temperature (RT), respiration (RR), and pulse rates (PR) were taken on five animals from each of the three breeds. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between Yankasa and the other breeds (Uda and Balami) in RT (39.6°C, 39.7°C, and 39.7°C), RR (62.2, 64.9, and 66.0 breaths per minute), and PR (74.8, 76.9, and 77.1 beats per minute), respectively. The Heat Tolerance Coefficient (HTC) and Coefficient of Adaptability (CA) were 86.86, 86.38, and 85.66, and 3.80, 3.85, and 3.91 for Yankasa, Uda, and Balami, respectively. Significant (P < 0.5) differences existed between breeds in HTC but not in CA. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between males and females in RT (39.6°C and 39.7°C), RR (64.30 and 65.09 breaths per minute), PR (76.18 and 76.77 beats per minute), and HTC (86.83 and 85.90), respectively, but no appreciable difference was observed in CA between sexes. Significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between season in RT, RR, PR, HTC, and CA. The combined effects of temperature and humidity had a greater influence on the animals than their separate effects. An increase in respiration rate appeared to be the immediate response of sheep to environmental stress. Generally, the Yankasa breed was more heat-tolerant than the Uda and Balami breeds.
In animal production systems, the value of a species increases in relation to its adaptation, capacity to make socioeconomic contributions, capacity to fill market opportunities, and potential for increasing productivity. In the case of goats, their role and potential contribution to increased productivity are impeded by controversy about their destructive habits, poor understanding of their attributes, functional values, and links to the poverty focus, which together have not helped their contribution to improving natural resource management. Research and development efforts that can significantly improve productivity from goats can simultaneously enhance the livelihoods of the poor. Resource allocation by national programmes and donor agencies to research and development projects on these animals is generally poor. In the search for efficiency in the improved use of the available animal genetic resources, more enlightened thinking is necessary about the role that goats could play. This must be backed by more resources and the use of interdisciplinary systems in priority agroecological zones to increase their productivity, and by so doing, this will enhance the livelihoods of the poor, and protect the environment.
Pathogenesis of cow milk allergy indicates that multiple immunological mechanisms exist. Two types of food allergy reactions occur in infants, children and adults. They are reaginic (IgE mediated) or nonreaginic. About 7% of children in the US have symptoms of cow milk allergy, even though almost all children under age 3 yr have circulating milk antibodies. β-Lactoglobulin (molecular weight 36 000) is the major whey protein of cow milk, not found in human breast milk and mostly responsible for cow milk allergy. Clinical symptomology for patients allergic to bovine milk proteins include: rhinitis, diarrhea, vomiting, asthma, anaphylaxis, urticaria, eczema, chronic catarrh, migraine, colitis and epigastric distress.Goat milk has been recommended as a substitute for patients allergic to cow milk. Between 40 to 100% of patients allergic to cow milk proteins tolerate goat milk. Although some caprine milk proteins have immunological crossreactivity with cow milk proteins, infants suffering from gastrointestinal allergy and chronic enteropathy against cow milk were reportedly cured by goat milk therapy. The higher protein, nonprotein N and phosphate in caprine milk give it greater buffering capacity compared to cow milk. Some physico-chemical properties of caprine milk such as smaller fat globules, higher percent of short and medium chain fatty acids, and softer curd formation of its proteins are advantageous for higher digestibility and healthier lipid metabolism relative to cow milk. Goat milk also has a greater iron bioavailability in anemic rats than cow milk. Further studies of the hypoallergenic and therapeutic significance of goat milk to humans are very much needed.
Milk production (MP) and milk composition (MC) were investigated in 72 ewes of West European sheep breeds: Flemish Milksheep, Suffolk and Texel and their crossbreds, during the first 45 days of lactation and related to postnatal growth of their lambs. Without correction for significant influences, mean daily MP was 1.35 ± 0.47 kg and milk fat, protein and lactose contents were 9.00 ± 1.29, 4.85 ± 0.36, and 5.62 ± 0.25%, respectively. Breed, age of ewe and number of lambs suckled influenced MP significantly (P < 0.05). Flemish Milksheep ewes had the highest average daily MP (3.33 ± 0.29 kg), while Texel ewes produced the lowest amount (1.10 ± 0.15 kg). The other genotypes had 1.5 kg MP. Two-year old ewes produced 200 g/day more milk than one-year olds. Ewes rearing twins had a higher MP of 400 g/day compared to ewes suckling singles. MC was not significantly influenced by genetic and physiological effects. MP and MC did not vary with circadian rhythms, i.e. a.m. vs. p.m. Significant correlations (P < 0.0001) indicated that ewes with a high MP in early lactation also continued for a good performance at 45 d postpartum. Early postnatal growth of lambs was dependent on genotype of lamb, birth weight and number of lambs suckled (P < 0.05). Purebred Milksheep lambs realized a high growth rate (306 ± 37 g/d). Crossbred lambs approximated Milk-sheep, while purebred Texel lambs showed the slowest weight gain. These results were associated with milk uptake and conversion by lambs. Twin lambs grew slower than singles. Regression analyses showed that lambs had to have a chance to suck at least five times/d after 4 h of separation before a good estimation of the realized MP was obtained.
As with cow milk, if goat milk is to be used as the sole source of nutrition during early infancy it needs to be modified. These modifications must include dilution in order to reduce renal solute load and the addition of sugar, vitamins and minerals to make the formulation more like human milk and more nutritionally complete. Infants fed exclusively goat milk are at risk of developing megaloblastic anemia unless the goat milk is fortified with folic acid or the infant is provided with an oral folic acid supplement. In addition to the absolute difference in folate concentration between goat and human milk, the impact of thermal processing and species differences in milk folate bioavailability should be considered in fortification of milk products. More research is needed to elucidate the impact of different feeding regimes (e.g., iron and folate content of diets) on milk folate content. Postweaning, there is little doubt that goat milk is an excellent source of nutrition for the human when used as part of a nutritionally well-balanced diet.
Records from 499 lactations of 220 Alpine does were evaluated to test lactation year, lactation number, and litter size effects on 305-day adjusted mature equivalent milk and fat yields. Milk yield was greater (P < 0.01) in 1986 (968 kg) than in following years (range 777–845 kg). Fat yield was not influenced by lactation year. Positive (P < 0.01) associations were found when phenotypic merits for lactation yield were regressed on birth year and generation. Lactation number affected (P < 0.01) milk yields with production highest at second lactation (960 kg) and lowest at seventh lactation (634 kg). Does delivering single kids had lower (P < 0.01) milk yields (775 kg) than does delivering twins and triplets (834 and 903 kg, respectively). A positive (P < 0.01) coefficient was computed (17.5 ± 4.5 kg milk kg−1 litter weight) when milk yield was regressed on total litter weight. Fat yield was similarly affected (P < 0.01) by lactation number and litter characteristics. Unique were results showing that litter size and litter weight had positive relationships with lactation yields in does despite the removal of kids at birth.