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Abstract

Background There are many plants with interesting pharmaceutical activities but Aloe vera is probably the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Since biblical times, aloe has been used for its purgative effect, skin disorders healing and beauty treatments. Scope and approach For this study, an extensive review on Aloe vera was carried out, including its main uses, components (both nutrients and bioactives), biological activities, and applications. Future trends were also assessed. Key findings and conclusions Aloe possesses numerous activities including, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antiulcer and antidiabetic. Some of these activities are due to the presence of polysaccharides (acemamman; glucomannan). A wide variety of commercial products based on Aloe vera are available on the market. However, the knowledge of the relationship between biological and therapeutic properties and its components has to be clearly defined in order to know the exact mechanism of action to develop effective new products, namely pharmaceuticals. The knowledge of the factors that affect Aloe vera variability, such as processing conditions, is also of great importance to be able to standardize the final products.

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... A previous study [5] showed that the application of edible coating retains water and results in bright and shiny colors. Edible coatings on the fruit surface tissue aim to modify the environment, inhibit gas transfer, reduce water and aroma loss, change color and improve the appearance [28]. Fresh-cut mangosteen has the highest water content on the ninth day by a nano-ecogel concentration of 100% for 3 minutes, and the lowest on 25% nano-ecogel for 3 minutes. ...
... Water loss can be suppressed by increasing the concentration of nano-ecogel. [28] stated that edible coating on the surface of fresh-cut fruit aims to modify the atmosphere, inhibit gas transfer, lose water and aroma, delay color change, and improve appearance. Aloe vera gel consists of polysaccharides glucomannan and acemannan which have potential as edible coatings on fruits [18] Table 1 shows no significant result in terms of different days at various treatments. ...
... If the fresh-cut surface is tightly closed, the addition of immersion has no effect. [28] stated that edible coating on the surface of fresh-cut fruit aims to modify the atmosphere, inhibit gas transfer, delay color change, and improve appearance. ...
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Fresh-cut mangosteen is a minimally processed product that is currently popular due to the requirement for fresh produce, quality, convenience, and minimal preparation. The process of skin removal causes fast deterioration in fresh-cut mangosteen. The nano edible coating of aloe vera gel or nano-ecogel can be applied to delay physicochemical changes in fresh-cut mangosteen. This study is intended to determine the effect of nano-ecogel concentration and immersion time to maintain the physicochemical characteristics of fresh-cut mangosteen. The effects of the concentration of nano-ecogel (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%, v/v) and immersion time (1, 2, and 3 min) of fresh-cut mangosteen on acidity, vitamin C, water content, total dissolved solids, weight loss, texture and browning index were evaluated for nine days of cold storage. The concentration of nano-ecogel, immersion time, and interaction affected the acidity, water content, total dissolved solids, weight loss, and browning index of fresh-cut mangosteen. The best treatment was immersion in 50% nano-ecogel for 1 min.
... Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) belongs to the Aloeaceae family with thick, tapered, green lance-shaped, juicy, sharp, and edged leaves [19]. Aloe vera grows in dry regions of Africa, Europe, Asia, and America. ...
... erapeutic effects of Aloe vera in wound healing [22], inflammation, intestinal absorption, and reducing oxidative status were assessed in recent research [23]. It also has been used empirically to increase high-density lipoprotein, reduce low-density lipoprotein, and decrease glycemia in diabetics [19]. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in the human colon were confirmed in vitro by Langmead et al. [24]. ...
... Aloe vera as a powerful antioxidant contains high amounts of anthraquinones such as barbaloin, emodin, and anthranol. Anthraquinones possess strong anti-inflammatory effects that can act as antioxidants and are involved in free-radical-mediated reactions during the inflammatory response to inhibit free radical-mediated cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation [19]. Also, lophenol and cycloartanol as phytosterols found in Aloe can induce the downregulation of fatty acid synthesis involved in lipid peroxidations. ...
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Background. Ulcerative colitis is a worldwide chronic gastrointestinal disease characterized by variable extensions of colon mucosal inflammation. The available drugs have an incomplete response with various side effects and socioeconomic impacts. Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a well-known medicinal plant with diverse pharmacological and therapeutic activities. As a result, in the current study, Aloe vera was selected to evaluate its therapeutic effects on experimental colitis in rats. Methods. This study is intended to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of Aloe vera for the treatment of experimental colitis. Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce experimental colitis in 60 of 70 Wistar rats. The rats were grouped in 7 clusters including healthy control, negative, positive control (received sulfasalazine), and test groups treated with Aloe vera extracts via oral or rectal routes. Macroscopic and histologic factors as well as the biochemical parameters were evaluated on day 7. Results. In the present study, it was found that serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (75 vs. 44 pg./ml), interleukin-6 (41 vs. 21 pg/ml), and nitric oxide (24 vs. 6 μm/ml) in TNBS-induced untreated colitis treatment were significantly increased as compared to healthy control. Similar patterns were also observed in malondialdehyde (76.41 vs. 236.35 μg/mg) and myeloperoxidase (4.24 vs. 29.38 U/mg) in colonic tissue. Among different treatments, rectal administration of Aloe vera extract (400 mg/kg) exhibited the best result in which serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (55 pg/ml), interleukin-6 (24 pg/ml), and nitric oxide (10 μm/ml) and the levels of malondialdehyde (102.67 μg/mg), as well as myeloperoxidase (12.29 U/mg) in colon tissue, were reduced as compared to the untreated group. Also, the body weight and colon weight/length ratios were more improved in the treated group with 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract, rectally. Conclusion. Aloe vera extract exhibited a therapeutic effect in TNBS-induced colitis, and local, rectal administration of Aloe vera extract was more effective than oral administration. 1. Introduction Ulcerative colitis (UC) as an annoying chronic problem is one of the two major subtypes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) with different geographic prevalences and worldwide distribution [1, 2]. Although UC may present insidiously, its hallmark is subacute bloody diarrhea, accompanied by anemia and fatigue. It also may change to acute severe colitis, presenting temperature above 37.5°C, heart rate above 90/min, and hemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/dL with more than 6 bloody stools daily [3, 4]. Its manifestation is due to continuous inflammation of the rectum with the variable extension but usually with decreasing severity up to the cecum [5]. Its etiology and exact underlying pathophysiologic aspects are unclear, but most probably is due to aberrant deregulated mucosal immune responses (humoral and cellular immunity) to environmental factors in a genetically susceptible population. Following epithelial barrier dysfunction and immune cell activation, inflammatory cytokines and mediators (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)) are released which may be used as disease activity indicators [6, 7]. The diagnosis of UC is based on clinical presentation and chronic colon inflammation confirmed by histology [8]. Uncertain definitive pathogenesis, variable presentation, natural course, and lack of standard disease activity index are obstacles for definite therapeutic effect assessment. In any case, the accepted therapeutic goals are (a) accentuating induction of remission and maintenance period, (b) improving the nutritional status, (c) decreasing disease complications, and (d) considering side effects and cost effectiveness. In current medicine, the main treatments are focused on 5-ASA and steroids. Biologic therapies such as antitumor necrosis factor antibodies are prescribed for resistant patients. Antiadhesion molecules and kinase inhibitors are under research for UC treatment [9–12]. The inadequate response, frequent relapse, steroid dependency, and side effects result in developing a new candidate as the second line of treatment. Considering therapeutic effects of some herbal medicine such as heartleaf houttuynia [13, 14], boswellic acid [15, 16], diamonnium glycyrrizhinate [17], slippery elm [18], fenugreek [18], devil’s claw [18], tormentil [18], and wei tong ning [18] in various diseases, especially in China, Middle-East, and Africa, new research in this field is rational. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) belongs to the Aloeaceae family with thick, tapered, green lance-shaped, juicy, sharp, and edged leaves [19]. Aloe vera grows in dry regions of Africa, Europe, Asia, and America. Aloe vera is probably the most applied medicinal plant commercially and the most popular plant worldwide [20]. Various parts of the plant contain amino acids, sugars, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, saponins, anthraquinones, lignin, and salicylic acid. Also, the leaves are the source of various organic acids, phenolic compounds, minerals, and vitamins [21]. Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera in wound healing [22], inflammation, intestinal absorption, and reducing oxidative status were assessed in recent research [23]. It also has been used empirically to increase high-density lipoprotein, reduce low-density lipoprotein, and decrease glycemia in diabetics [19]. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in the human colon were confirmed in vitro by Langmead et al. [24]. In 2017, the healing effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Aloe vera in an animal model of experimentally induced colitis was investigated. The favorable effects confirmed through the significant reduction in Bax mRNA expression and elevation in Bcl-2 mRNA expression when compared with the colitis group without treatment [25]. In another study, 50 and 300 mg/kg of Aloe vera gel extract were used to evaluate the improvement in the symptoms of UC in rats. According to microscopy and macroscopic observations, the symptoms of UC were improved significantly [26]. Park et al. showed that 0.1% and 0.5% aloesin supplement (one of the compounds of Aloe vera) decreased the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities as well as TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expressions on the UC rat colitis model [27]. In another study, glucomannan extracted from Aloe vera balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines regulated the expressions of TLR-2 and improved the health state of colitis in mice [28]. Similarly, assessments on polysaccharides extracted from Aloe vera on UC-animal models depicted an improvement in colitis, via JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT-3, and p-STAT3 protein expression [29]. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, oral Aloe vera gel (100 mL twice daily for 4 weeks, in a 2 : 1 ratio) was administered for active UC patients. The supplement reduced the clinical colitis activity index and histological scores significantly during treatment with Aloe vera [30]. However, it seems that further evaluation about the therapeutic potential of Aloe vera extract on UC as well as its effect on new biochemical factors related to UC is needed to get more insight into signaling pathways. Furthermore, in the current study, for the first time, the different routes and doses of Aloe vera administrations (intragastrically and rectally) were studied. Regarding the therapeutic dose of Aloe vera used in the previous studies with no report of toxicity in the tested range, 200 and 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract were chosen for further study [31–35]. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the dose and route treatment of Aloe vera extract on colitis in rats and its impacts on proinflammatory cytokines. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Ethical Statement The animal experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines of the Laboratory Animal Center of Shiraz Medical University (No. 91-01-36-4560). All the experimental procedures were strictly conducted according to the international standards and national legislation on animal care and the Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Experimental research on the plant was under international legislation and guidelines of the Pharmacognosy Department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. At the end of the study, rats were euthanized with the rapid and humane method using a 70% volume displacement rate of CO2 increased to around 100% in the induction chamber. 2.2. Study Design and Induction of Colitis The Laboratory Animal Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with a pathogen-free environment, constant temperature (23 ± 2), and acceptable humidity (55 ± 5%) provided us with 70 male Wistar rats (175–215 grams) supplied with a balanced diet along with free access to water. The rats were fasted with free access to water for 24 h before induction of colitis. After rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p), the rubber-tipped gavage needle was inserted into the anus of rats (7 cm) and 1 ml solution of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, 150 mg/kg dissolved in ethanol) was slowly injected into the colon while the control group received only ethanol. Animals were held in the head-down position for 30 seconds and then returned to their cages [36–38]. Later, water and food were available. 12 hours after colitis induction, the treatments were started and continued one a day for six consecutive days. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological assessments. The rats’ general conditions were assessed daily. 2.3. Experimental Animals A total of 70 Sprague Dawley male rats (aged 10-12 weeks, weighing initially 220 ± 20 gram) were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Animals were divided into seven groups (10 rats per group, n = 10). Group (1): healthy control group Group (2): TNBS-induced colitis untreated rats Groups (3): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 200 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, intragastrically Groups (4): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, intragastrically Groups (5): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 200 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, rectally Groups (6): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 400 mg/kg Aloe vera extract once a day, rectally Group (7): TNBS-induced colitis treated rats who received 500 mg/kg sulfasalazine once a day, intragastrically as a positive control group The dose of Aloe vera extract for treatments was selected according to previously reported research [33–35]. According to the published articles, evaluation on the acute and subacute toxicity of Aloe vera in rats indicated that the methanol extract at the doses of 1, 2,4, 8, and 16 g/kg B.wt did not produce significant toxic effects [31]. In the other study, assessments on the subacute toxicity test showed that Aloe vera did not produce marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 3330 mg/kg body weight on rats with no mutagenic activity in ICR mice exposed to 10000 mg Aloe vera/kg body weight [32]. As a result, at the tested dose of Aloe vera extract, the toxic effect in rats without colitis was not assessed. Sulfasalazine also was purchased from Merck chemical company. The appropriate amount of extract or sulfasalazine based on the treated group was dissolved in sterile water. Intragastric administration was used in conscious rats with biomedical needles (length 76.2 mm, diameter 3 mm, straight). To prepare extract for rectal administration, 5% glycerol was mixed with 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) as an inert preservative substance [39]. Next, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the dried extract was dissolved in deionized water, and the mixtures were gradually added to the glycerol-NaCMC solution. The gel was homogenized for 30 minutes, and the gel was collected in an aluminum tube in the refrigerator. For rectal administration, the gavage needle was inserted into the anus of rats (7 cm) and 1 ml of the prepared gel was injected [40]. 2.4. Plant Extract Aloe vera leaves were obtained in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, and its species was endorsed by SUMS taxonomists at a pharmacy school. 100 g dried Aloe vera was powdered and percolated with 70% ethanol (3 times), at room temperature, and the extracts were filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to acquire 9.8 g of dried extracts (9.8% yield). This procedure was repeated several times to get enough amounts of extract for in vitro and in vivo studies. 2.5. Macroscopic Scoring The dosage and period of treatments were accompanied by daily body weights, gross stool evaluation for visible and/or occult bleeding. On the last day of the experiment (7th), the degree of colonic inflammation and damage was scored (Table 1) as described by Morris et al. with slight modifications [41, 42]. Score Gross morphology 0 No damage 1 Localized hyperemia, but no ulcers or erosions 2 Ulcers or erosions with no significant inflammation 3 Ulcers or erosions with inflammation at one site 4 Two or more sites of ulceration and/or inflammation 5 Two or more major sites of inflammation and ulceration or one major site of inflammation and ulceration extending >1 cm along the length of the colon
... Since biblical times, AV has been applied for healing skin disorders and for supplementing beauty treatments (Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017;Cardarelli et al. 2017). AV is a traditional medicinal plant with a polysaccharide matrix (glucomannan and glucose). ...
... It is rich in bioactive secondary metabolites and is one of the most biologically active plants because of its antioxidant content which comprises polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols and antimicrobial chemicals. These usually exist in its leaf exudates and are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries (Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017;Cardarelli et al. 2017). AV gel has already been tested as a new edible coating on kiwifruit (Benitez et al. 2013), peach , raspberry (Hassanpour et al. 2015), strawberry (Sogvar et al. 2016), litchi fruit (Ali et al. 2019) and apple (Ergun and Satici 2012) with the aim of preserving fruit quality and shelf life. ...
... A few studies confirmed that the AV gel can reduce populations of yeast and mold in strawberry (Sogvar et al. 2016), kiwifruit (Benítez et al. 2013), raspberry (Hassanpour 2015) and table grapes (Castillo et al. 2010) which are in agreement with our results. The AV gel is reportedly used as an insect repellent (Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017). The mechanism by which the AV gel controls decay in fruits is reportedly claimed to occur through the suppression of mycelial germination and the inhibition of mycelial diameter. ...
Article
Aloe Vera (AV) gel is commonly used as a natural, inexpensive, edible coating that can improve the quality and shelf life of fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate how two methods of applying AV, i.e. as an edible coating (dry environment) and as a gel solution (aqueous environment: a new method), prevent browning and maintain quality characteristics of fresh kernels of Persian walnut for 60 days during cold storage. Distilled water was used as a control group for both environments. In general, AV caused a reduction in the peroxide value (POV) of kernels, while preserving Total Phenolic Compound and Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA). The AV treatment slowed down the process of color change and maintained sensory properties during storage, compared to the control groups of both methods. The AV gel solution performed better than the AV edible coating in terms of POV, color (L* and h°) and microbial growth. In contrast, the AV edible coating was more effective in preserving TPC and TAA. Also, TAA was found to have a significant, positive correlation with L* and, simultaneously, a negative correlation with POV. As far as we know, this is the first instance that the AV gel was used as a formulated solution and as an edible coating on fresh fruits. This innovative method can be used in commercial practice, while being ecofriendly and non-chemical as a treatment for the maintenance of postharvest quality in fruits.
... The medicinal use of A. vera was mentioned approximately 4000 years ago (Manvitha and Bidya, 2014). According to (S anchez-Machado et al., 2017) the first historical findings about the plant date back to 2100 BCE. Later, approximately 650 years later (1552 BCE), it was mentioned as a plant with laxative properties in the Egyptian Papyrus Ebers. ...
... Although A. vera was initially interested in laxative compounds, the gel has also gained considerable interest since the 1950s (Manvitha and Bidya, 2014). Date that agrees with the beginning of the industrialization and commercialization of the gel of A. vera leaves (S anchez-Machado et al., 2017). ...
... Of these 1236 are accepted species names (The Plant List, 2012). Phytochemical investigations have shown that the main components of this family are flavonoids, monoiterpenoids, polysaccharides, iridoids, secoiridoids and phenylethanoid glycosides (S anchez-Machado et al., 2017;Y. L. Huang et al., 2019). ...
Article
Aloe vera is one of the oldest and most traditional medicinal plant in history, with its use dating back over a thousand years. Today, its biological activity is not limited to curative purposes. The expansion in the A. vera industry became evident during the 90′s, when the development of this crop began to emerge due to a global demand from consumers more concerned with a healthy lifestyle. Considering the agro-industrial and economic relevance that this plant has acquired, this work reviewed its chemical, biological, and nutritional characteristics, plant processing methods, innovations, and industrial applications. Aloe vera is a plant that contain more than 75 bioactive compounds, among them the most relevant are polysaccharides, phenolics, and phytosterols. Additionally, the main processing technologies for A. vera leaves are described, including those used to obtain pressed filleted gel, whole leaf gel and manual filleted gel. This article shows its applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries are presented and the world landscape of the million-dollar market generated around this product, which in 2018 was around $1.60 billion. The applications of A. vera in the food industry as a natural functional ingredient or as fortifier in the food products of animal and vegetable origin has been a trend explored in the last years. Finally, through an in-depth analysis of patents and research articles, the current scenario of science and innovation developed for this industry is described.
... The mucilaginous tissue from the leaves is the part of the plant that generally used and its key constituent is a polysaccharide. The inner layer of the leaf, or Aloe vera gel (AVG), does not contain anthraquinone and has no laxative effect (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017;Steenkamp & Stewart, 2007). ...
... Furthermore, an anti-allergic glycoprotein namely aloprogen, C-glycosyl chromones with antiinflammatory properties, and saponins with antiseptic activities were isolated from AVG (Ahlawat & Khatkar, 2011). A. vera is a rich source of polysaccharides; about 55% of the dry weight basis of AVG consists of polysaccharides (e.g., glucomannan, acetylated polymannan, acemannan and mannose-6phosphate) (Ahlawat & Khatkar, 2011;Liang et al., 2020;Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Lots of therapeutic effects of A. vera are related to the presence of polysaccharides in its gel (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). ...
... A. vera is a rich source of polysaccharides; about 55% of the dry weight basis of AVG consists of polysaccharides (e.g., glucomannan, acetylated polymannan, acemannan and mannose-6phosphate) (Ahlawat & Khatkar, 2011;Liang et al., 2020;Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Lots of therapeutic effects of A. vera are related to the presence of polysaccharides in its gel (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Acemannan, is considered one of the major active components of AVG ( Figure 1). ...
Article
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) comprise the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in both men and women worldwide. CVDs are associated with several risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, tobacco smoking and an unhealthy diet. Currently, in addition to the use of related pharmacological treatments in the management of CVDs, the investigation of other suitable healthcare approaches for these disorders such as the identification of herbal medicines has been considered in the scientific communities. Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is a perennial medicinal plant. The innermost leaf layer of this plant contains transparent gel, which is used as food. Pre‐clinical studies have shown several biological activities of A. vera gel (AVG), including antidiabetic, lipid‐lowering, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Other pharmacological activities of AVG such as anti‐fibrotic, anti‐hypertensive, and anti‐atherosclerotic effects have been reported. Moreover, several clinical studies have demonstrated the ameliorating effects of AVG on some markers of CVDs risk factors. Thus, this study was conducted to review clinical trials besides in vitro and in vivo studies on the cardiac beneficial effects of AVG. However, further high‐quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of the plant.
... The mucilaginous gel has been extensively used in pharmacological and cosmetic applications [70]. It has more than 75 different compounds, including vitamins A, C, E, and B12, enzymes (amylase, catalase, and peroxidase), minerals (zinc, copper, selenium, and calcium), sugars (glucomannans, acetylated mannans, polymannans), polyphenols (anthraquinones), sterols (lupeol and campesterol), and hormones (auxins and gibberellins) [71][72][73]. Traditionally, the therapeutic uses of A. vera have ranged across a broad list of conditions, as do its associated pharmacological activities. This medicinal plant has been employed to treat different skin problems such as rejuvenation, wound healing, and other dermatologic conditions, i.e., burns and inflammatory processes. ...
... This medicinal plant has been employed to treat different skin problems such as rejuvenation, wound healing, and other dermatologic conditions, i.e., burns and inflammatory processes. Indeed, despite its widespread use as a folk remedy, scientific studies on its physiological function in wound repair have only recently been conducted [72]. Numerous A. vera gel-based cosmetics and medicinal products that are marketed are made from the mucilaginous tissue of A. vera leaves. ...
... Numerous A. vera gel-based cosmetics and medicinal products that are marketed are made from the mucilaginous tissue of A. vera leaves. However, Aloe gel has been linked to a variety of beneficial effects and therapeutic indications for skin inflammation [72]. ...
Article
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Wound healing is a complicated process, and the effective management of wounds is a major challenge. Natural herbal remedies have now become fundamental for the management of skin disorders and the treatment of skin infections due to the side effects of modern medicine and lower price for herbal products. The aim of the present study is to summarize the most recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on major herbal preparations, their phytochemical constituents, and new formulations for wound management. Research reveals that several herbal medicaments have marked activity in the management of wounds and that this activity is ascribed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. These phytochemicals can act at different stages of the process by means of various mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, collagen synthesis stimulating, cell proliferation, and angiogenic effects. The application of natural compounds using nanotechnology systems may provide significant improvement in the efficacy of wound treatments. Increasing the clinical use of these therapies would require safety assessment in clinical trials.
... Most common minerals of gel are Ca (16 %), K (4.06 %), Na (3.66 %) and Mg (1.22 %). Aloe gel is rich source of vitamins such as vitamin C (127.6 mg/100 g), E (0.25 mg/100 g), A, B, B12, choline and folic acid (Sanchez-Machado et al., 2017). Acemannan (carbohydrate), a major fraction of Aloe gel, has been extensively investigated and proven to stimulate wound healing and anti-cancer activity in vivo through activation of immune responses (Chantarawaratit, 2014;Sanchez-Machado et al., 2017). ...
... Aloe gel is rich source of vitamins such as vitamin C (127.6 mg/100 g), E (0.25 mg/100 g), A, B, B12, choline and folic acid (Sanchez-Machado et al., 2017). Acemannan (carbohydrate), a major fraction of Aloe gel, has been extensively investigated and proven to stimulate wound healing and anti-cancer activity in vivo through activation of immune responses (Chantarawaratit, 2014;Sanchez-Machado et al., 2017). In conventional cultivation method of Aloe vera, lateral shoots or suckers utilizes as planting material. ...
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The discovery and documentation of the role of plant growth regulators in tissue culture served as major thrust for the crop improvement. For getting maximum response, utilization of suitable growth regulator at appropriate concentration needs to be carefully balanced and controlled. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to optimize the levels of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for micropropagation of Gwarpatha [Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.]. Lateral shoot explant was used for inoculation with incorporation of different concentrations of IAA (0.5-4.0 mg/L) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Diverse regeneration responses were observed for shoot multiplication, root induction and for callus induction at varied levels of IAA. Highest number of shoot per explant (2.90) was recorded in the treatment of 3.0 mg/L with 70 % induction frequency while, maximum number of root (4.10) was induced at 2.0 mg/L. Moreover, highest callus weight (1.24 g) was reported at 4.0 mg/L with yellow brown colour and semi-compact texture. These identified levels of IAA, further can be utilized for efficient micropropagation of Aloe vera in view of reducing economic cost.
... However, vacuum concentration (125 mmHg at below 50 • C for not more than 2 min) of A. vera gel/ juice is necessary as a pre-treatment before using any of these drying technologies [23]. Dehydration of A. vera gel or juice at elevated temperatures causes changes in bioactive compounds and reduce functionality of A. vera [24]. It has been documented that acemannan and barbaloin suffer structural modifications losing their bioactivities, when A. vera fillets are dehydrated at more than 60 • and 70 • C, respectively. ...
... It has been documented that acemannan and barbaloin suffer structural modifications losing their bioactivities, when A. vera fillets are dehydrated at more than 60 • and 70 • C, respectively. Loss of acemannan, the major bioactive, functional polysaccharide in A. vera, can be as high as 40% [24]. In this context, A. vera powder manufacturers are increasingly preferring membrane processing technique such as reverse osmosis, because it is non-thermal, prevents deacetylation of mucopolysaccharides, denaturation of protein, and also maintains bioactivity in the finished product [23]. ...
Article
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Wastage of perishable foods is an enormous challenge in the food sector, and it requires effective mitigation strategies. Aloe vera is one of the oldest remedies for numerous human ailments because of its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other functional properties. Thus, it has been popular for applications in various fields including food preservation, sustainable packaging, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. This paper is a contemporary review on A. vera, its bioactive components, processing, and applications in food especially in preservation and packaging. A. vera and its various active components are being used as natural antimicrobial, antioxidants, and preservative in biopolymer-based edible films and coatings for extending shelf life of perishable food items as sustainable alternatives to synthetic chemicals. A. vera is also used in health drinks and other beverages in the form of powder, as a functional bioactive component. Processing of A. vera by conventional thermal techniques at elevated temperature can degrade major bioactive compounds, and therefore , non-thermal processing technologies such as sonication, high pressure processing and membrane processing are preferred. As a natural food preservative, A. vera can protect food products from oxidative and microbial deteriorations, improve their texture, and enhance nutritional/health-promoting value. A. vera is non-toxic to environment and human at the concentrations required for food preservation and packaging applications, and thus it can be a promising sustainable alternative to synthetic chemical-based preservatives, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents.
... La sábila ha figurado como una planta con propiedades medicinales desde tiempos bíblicos, ya que se utilizaba para curar desordenes cutáneos y por sus propiedades catárticas (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Las hojas de A. vera se dividen en dos partes; la primera parte es la corteza verde externa -la cual secreta un látex amarillo-rojizo, rico en compuestos fenólicos (p. ...
... Las principales propiedades medicinales de las hojas de A. vera con soporte científico son; uso dermatológico, antinflamatorio, anticáncer, antidiabetes y antioxidante (Chung et al., 1996;Patel y Patel, 2013). Además, los extractos de A. vera poseen propiedades bactericidas, fungicidas y para el control de virus (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Debido a los diferentes beneficios a la salud humana que posee A. vera es reconocida como una "planta medicinal" y su uso se generaliza a medida que pasa el tiempo (Grace et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química y el perfil genético de 16 especies, pertenecientes a cinco géneros, de la familia Asphodelaceae. La composición química se determinó empleando ensayos colorimétricos, cromatografía de capa fina (TLC) y espectroscopía infrarroja con transformada de Fourier (FTIR); por otra parte, el perfil genético fue determinado utilizando el marcador molecular de DNA de repetición entre secuencias simples (ISSR). Dicho perfil genético, permitió agrupar a las especies estudiadas a nivel de género. La determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y del contenido de carbohidratos, proteínas, compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides indicó variación entre las especies estudiadas, los niveles de estas determinaciones no fueron consistentes por género (Aloe, x Alworthia, Bulbine, Gasteria y Haworthia). La TLC permitió identificar carbohidratos como glucosa, fructosa, sacarosa y fructooligosacáridos para algunas especies, así como identificar la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, donde predominaron los derivados de flavonoles y flavonas. En el análisis por espectroscopía FTIR, que se realizó en la corteza y en el mesófilo de once especies de la familia Asphodelaceae, se identificaron carbohidratos, lípidos, proteínas y compuestos fenólicos para la corteza y carbohidratos y lípidos para el mesófilo. Las huellas químicas de las cortezas, generadas por espectroscopía FTIR, fueron especie-especificas, lo que permitió ordenarlas de acuerdo con la taxonomía para la familia Asphodelaceae. Los grupos generados por el PCA de los espectros de corteza y del perfil genético tuvieron una correlación de 0.522, sugiriendo que la espectroscopía FTIR tiene un importante potencial taxonómico y que el perfil químico depende del genotipo. Las especies con mayor similitud química con Aloe vera, como A. vera var. chinensis, x Alworthia, B. frutescens y H. cymbiformis, que presentaron compuestos de interés como fructooligosacáridos y compuestos fenólicos, podrían usarse en investigaciones futuras para determinar sus propiedades biológicas y/o medicinales.
... Debido a los componentes bioactivos presentes en el Aloe vera.es usada en la elaboración de bebidas con aloe, leche, helados, suplementos alimenticios, preparaciones de gel, pomadas, cremas, jabones, champús, limpiadores faciales, lociones) (Sánchez et al., 2017), (Mudgil et al., 2016). Por lo tanto, optimizar la cadena productiva en su recolección, manejo, transporte, molienda, deshidratación, extracción, y estabilización del gel, es fundamental para obtener productos que conserven las propiedades fisiológicas y farmacéuticas de esta planta (Sánchez et al., 2017). ...
... usada en la elaboración de bebidas con aloe, leche, helados, suplementos alimenticios, preparaciones de gel, pomadas, cremas, jabones, champús, limpiadores faciales, lociones) (Sánchez et al., 2017), (Mudgil et al., 2016). Por lo tanto, optimizar la cadena productiva en su recolección, manejo, transporte, molienda, deshidratación, extracción, y estabilización del gel, es fundamental para obtener productos que conserven las propiedades fisiológicas y farmacéuticas de esta planta (Sánchez et al., 2017). ...
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Se realizó el análisis de las aplicaciones y técnicas de secado para la obtención de polvo de aloe vera, usado en la elaboración de productos alimentarios, farmacéuticos y cosméticos. Para lo anterior, se tuvo en cuenta las técnicas existentes y aquellas que permiten la mayor conservación de sus propiedades nutracéuticas y funcionales para la elaboración de estos productos, garantizando inocuidad y seguridad para el onsumidor. Se realizó una descripción respecto al funcionamiento y algunas pautas de los equipos, seleccionando el método de deshidratación más adecuado para producir un producto de alta calidad. Para el desarrollo de éste, se consultaron las principal es bases de datos como Science Direct, EBSCO, Springer Journals, Scopus, ProQuest Central, Redalyc, Wiley Online Library entre otras. Se determinó, que las técnicas que permite la mayor conservación de las propiedades del aloe vera fueron: secado por aspersión, liofilización y ventana refractante, debido a las bajas temperaturas usadas, la cual evita la degradación de sus componentes (dada a la alta sensibilidad del gel a temper aturas superiores a 50°C).
... Aloe vera (AV) is one such source of PSMs that comprises the potential properties of PFAs. Aloe barbadensis Mill is the scienti c name of AV commonly found in India, which belongs to the Aloeaceae family (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Aloe vera is used in ethnoveterinary medicine and has a positive impact on animal health and welfare. ...
... Aloe vera has bioactive compounds such as avonoids and polyphenols that exhibit potent antioxidant, anti-in ammatory, and antimicrobial activity. These bioactive compounds can quench free radicals and activate antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, and GPx to prevent oxidative stress (Danish et al., 2020;Kumar et al., 2019;Maan et al., 2018;Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Nonetheless, activation of the antioxidant system by bioactive compounds is more pronounced during stressful conditions (Rubió et al., 2013). ...
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The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing aloe vera extract on rumen fermentation efficiency, nutrient utilization, lactation performance and antioxidant status of goats. Twenty-four crossbreed lactating goats (Alpine × Beetal) were divided into three experimental groups (AV0, AV2 and AV4). AV0 had no supplementation, group AV2 and AV4 received ready to feed aqueous extract of aloe vera at 20 and 40 g/kg dry matter intake, respectively, along with basal diet and experiment lasted for 100 days. Average DMI did not vary ( P > 0.05) among treatment groups; however, the cumulative metabolic bodyweight of AV4 was significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than the AV0 and AV2 groups (AV0 = AV2 > AV4). Intake and digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and EE was unaffected ( P > 0.05) by aloe vera supplementation. The milk production, yield of milk fat, protein, lactose and solids not fat (SNF) of goats in the AV4 group was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than other groups (AV4 > AV2 = AV0). The activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and levels of plasma ferric reducing total antioxidant power were high ( P < 0.01) in the aloe vera supplemented group (AV4 = AV2 > AV0). There was no significant difference ( P = 0.979) in the pH, acetic acid ( P = 0.449), butyric acid ( P = 0.864) concentration of the rumen liquor among the treatment groups. The propionic acid concentration was similar between AV2 and AV4 and significantly higher ( P = 0.024) than the AV0 group (AV4 = AV2 > AV0). Moreover, C2:C3 values were significantly lower ( P = 0.037) in the AV4 group compared to the Control (AV0). Thus, aloe vera supplementation enhanced milk yield, propionic acid production, and antioxidant status without affecting nutrient utilization; however, results were better in the AV4 group. The inclusion of a loe vera at 40 g/kg of DMI would improve the rumen fermentation efficiency, lactation performance and overall health status of the dairy goats.
... One of the advantages of plant-based SeNP biosynthesis is that this strategy is environmentally friendly and economical as it includes natural stabilizers and reductants. Aloe vera leaf extracts have proven themselves as good SeNP reductants and stabilizers as a source of sterols, polysaccharides, vitamins, phenolic compounds, lignin, flavonoids, and proteins [23][24][25]. Also, the biosynthesis of SeNP has been conducted with the use of the extracts of Vitis vinifera [26], Allium sativum [27], Dillenia indica [28], fresh citrus and lemon fruits [29], Roselle plant [30], Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Prunus amygdalus leaf [31], and others. ...
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This review presents the latest data on the importance of selenium nanoparticles in human health, their use in medicine, and the main known methods of their production by various methods. In recent years, a multifaceted study of nanoscale complexes in medicine, including se-lenium nanoparticles, has become very important in view of a number of positive features that make it possible to create new drugs based on them or significantly improve the properties of existing drugs. It is known that selenium is an essential trace element that is part of key antioxidant enzymes. In mammals, there are 25 selenoproteins, in which selenium is a key component of the active site. The important role of selenium in human health has been repeatedly proven by several hundred works in the past few decades; in recent years, the study of selenium nanocomplexes has become the focus of researchers. A large amount of accumulated data requires generalization and systematization in order to improve understanding of the key mechanisms and prospects for the use of selenium nanoparticles in medicine, which is the purpose of this review.
... 13,14 Aloe vera possesses a number of polyphenols, p o l y s a c c h a r i d e s , a n d a m i n o a c i d s a n d has biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antidiabetic. [15][16][17][18] The antioxidant contents of Aloe vera are flavonoids, tannins, α-tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and carotenoids. 18 The previous study stated that extract of Aloe vera has antioxidant activities for phenolic 2.07-40.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g. ...
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Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the pathology that forms the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glycated Albumin (GA) has a role as an index of glycemic control associated with MetS. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is a plant that has anti-diabetic and anti-hypercholesterolemic function. This study aims to investigate the effect of Aloe-based drink on GA and IR in MetS. This study was a true experimental using pre-post randomized control group design. Thirty-eight MetS subjects were divided into two groups: treatment group (n=19) which was provided by 165 g/d of Aloe-based drink for 4 weeks; and the control group (n=19). Both groups were given education regarding of management of MetS. GA was measured by using an ELISA method and IR calculated by HOMA-IR of both groups and statistically analyzed at baseline and the end of treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. At the end of the study, the treatment group showed reduction of GA and HOMA-IR statistically significant (∆GA=-4.3±2.35%; p<0.001; ∆HOMA-IR=-1.6 ±1.87; p=0.001). Compared to control group, the change of GA and HOMA-IR in intervention group were also significantly different (p<0.001; p<0.001). Aloe-based drink was proven to reduce GA and IR in the MetS.
... Many promising studies cited in the literature reported the development of new cellulosic dressing biomaterials functionalized with different biological molecules and biopolymers. Among these active principles we find, chitosan and its derivatives (Lin et al. 2020;Wang et al. 2019), native and modified cyclodextrins (Hedayati et al. 2020;Pinho et al. 2014), alginates (Chiu et al. 2008), propolis (Marquele-Oliveira et al. 2019), honey (Ullah et al. 2020) and different extracted polysaccharides from plants such as aloe vera (Salah et al. 2019;Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017), safflower (El-Ghoul and Alminderej 2021), curcumin (Xu et al. 2018) and so on. Furthermore, following the development of electrospinning technology, several functional dressings have been studied. ...
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Nowadays, functional and entirely natural dressing treated with biological active polymers is a required alternative to treat chronic or acute wounds. First, a Suaeda fruticosa polysaccharide (SFP) was extracted and its pectin-like polysaccharide structure was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), steric exclusion chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and chemical composition analyses. Then, a new natural biopolymer-based chitosan and SFP extract was synthesized and grafted to cellulosic wound textile dressing. Different parameters of grafting such as temperature and curing time were studied and further optimized. The functionalized dressings were characterized by infrared via attenuated total reflectance mode, SEM, and mechanical analysis. The swelling behavior analysis showed a significant improvement of the hydrophilicity after grafting which is a required property for enhanced healing efficiency. Biological analysis was achieved via viability and kinetic cell adhesion tests, using epithelial HepG2 cells. A bacteriological evaluation of functionalized dressings against gram positive and negative bacteria culture strains was also performed. The new functional cellulosic wound dressing revealed efficient and promising microbiological performance able to treat chronic and acute wounds. Graphic abstract
... 2dDr and E2 have been previously used by our group as potent proangiogenic agents capable of inducing vascularization without some of the drawbacks of the current gold standard VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) such as short half-life and high fabrication cost [37][38][39]. Moreover, AV has been previously included within electrospun membranes [40], its regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic effects [41] make it a promising compound to be used for skin regeneration applications. ...
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The introduction of microtopographies within biomaterial devices is a promising approach that allows one to replicate to a degree the complex native environment in which human cells reside. Previously, our group showed that by combining electrospun fibers and additive manufacturing it is possible to replicate to an extent the stem cell microenvironment (rete ridges) located between the epidermal and dermal layers. Our group has also explored the use of novel proangiogenic compounds to improve the vascularization of skin constructs. Here, we combine our previous approaches to fabricate innovative polycaprolactone fibrous microtopographical scaffolds loaded with bioactive compounds (2-deoxy-D-ribose, 17β-estradiol, and aloe vera). Metabolic activity assay showed that microstructured scaffolds can be used to deliver bioactive agents and that the chemical relation between the working compound and the electrospinning solution is critical to replicate as much as possible the targeted morphologies. We also reported that human skin cell lines have a dose-dependent response to the bioactive compounds and that their inclusion has the potential to improve cell activity, induce blood vessel formation and alter the expression of relevant epithelial markers (collagen IV and integrin β1). In summary, we have developed fibrous matrixes containing synthetic rete-ridge-like structures that can deliver key bioactive compounds that can enhance skin regeneration and ultimately aid in the development of a complex wound healing device.
... The industries of A. vera products, such as beverage, dairy products, and food supplement, are very important to the economy and have been increasing year by year [4]. Additionally, A. vera has been widely utilized as a resource for functional food, especially healthy drinks contained A. vera gel [1]. ...
... Aloe vera has bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols that exhibit potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. These bioactive compounds can quench free radicals and activate antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, and GPx to prevent oxidative stress (Danish et al. 2020;Kumar et al. 2019;Maan et al. 2018;Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017). Nonetheless, activation of the antioxidant system by bioactive compounds is more pronounced during stressful conditions (Rubió et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing Aloe vera extract on rumen fermentation efficiency, nutrient utilization, lactation performance, and antioxidant status of goats. Twenty-four crossbreed lactating goats (Alpine × Beetal) were divided into three experimental groups (AV0, AV2, and AV4). AV0 had no supplementation, groups AV2 and AV4 received ready to feed aqueous extract of Aloe vera at 20 and 40 g/kg dry matter intake, respectively, along with basal diet and experiment lasted for 100 days. Average DMI did not vary (P > 0.05) among treatment groups; however, the metabolic bodyweight of AV4 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the AV0 and AV2 groups (AV0 = AV2 > AV4). Intake and digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and EE were unaffected (P > 0.05) by Aloe vera supplementation. The milk production, yield of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solid not fat (SNF) of goats in the AV4 group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than other groups (AV4 > AV2 = AV0). The activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes and levels of plasma ferric reducing total antioxidant power were high (P < 0.01) in the Aloe vera supplemented group (AV4 = AV2 > AV0). There was no significant difference (P = 0.979) in the pH, acetic acid (P = 0.449), and butyric acid (P = 0.864) concentration of the rumen liquor among the treatment groups. The propionic acid concentration was similar between AV2 and AV4 and significantly higher (P = 0.024) than the AV0 group (AV4 = AV2 > AV0). Moreover, C2:C3 values were significantly lower (P = 0.037) in the AV4 group compared to the control (AV0). Thus, Aloe vera supplementation enhanced milk yield, propionic acid production, and antioxidant status without affecting nutrient utilization; however, results were better in the AV4 group. The inclusion of Aloe vera at 40 g/kg of DMI would improve the rumen fermentation efficiency, lactation performance, and overall health status of the dairy goats.
... (iii) The last and most inner layer contains up to 99% water along with lipids, sterols, amino acids, vitamins and glucomannas 13 . The other dynamic constituents contain minerals, enzymes, sugars, saponins, lignin, amino acids and salicylic acid 27 . It has various mono / polysaccharides, several active inorganic ingredients and vitamins B1, B2, B6 and vitamin C 28 . ...
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Background: Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliaceae and genus Aloe with a survival rate of up to 50 years under satisfactory conditions. It has been used since >5000 years to cure many kinds of human diseases. This plant is also used for ornamental purposes as an indoor potted plant. Aloe vera finds applications in allopathic and homeopathic medicine.
... Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) is a succulent plant popularly recognized for its health-promoting effects and broad history of use in traditional medicine [1,2]. It is used worldwide mainly for the treatment of dermatological problems and the maintenance of healthy skin due to its healing, emollient, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and depigmenting effects [3][4][5]. ...
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Aloesin is an aromatic chromone with increasing applications in the cosmetic and health food industries. To optimize its extraction from the Aloe vera leaf rind, the independent variables time (10–210 min), temperature (25–95 °C) and organic solvent composition (0–100%, w/w) were combined in a central composite design coupled with response surface methodology. The solvents consisted of binary mixtures of water with ethanol, propylene glycol, or glycerol. The aloesin levels quantified in each extract were used as response for optimization. The theoretical models were fitted to the experimental data, statistically validated, and used to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. Then, a dose–response analysis of the solid/liquid ratio (S/L) was performed under the optimal conditions determined for each alcohol–water system and revealed that a linear improvement in extraction efficiency can be achieved by increasing the S/L ratio by up to 40 g/L. This analysis also allowed to experimentally validate the predictive models. Furthermore, the aloesin-rich extracts revealed antioxidant activity through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition, antimicrobial effects against bacterial and fungal strains, and no toxicity for PLP2 cells. Overall, this study provided optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of aloesin from Aloe vera rind through an eco-friendly extraction process and highlighted its bioactive potential.
... From Table 1 it can be seen that both A. vera gel and whole leaf materials, as well as the A. muth-muth gel and whole leaf materials contained aloverose (also known as acetylated polymannose or acemannan). Aloverose is one of the marker molecules used to identify plant material to be of A. vera origin and is also a significant bioactive compound responsible for certain medicinal properties of aloe plants (Beneke et al., 2013;Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017). Both A. vera and A. muth-muth whole leaf materials contained the whole leaf marker compound (iso-citric acid). ...
Article
Introduction Melanoma is one of the most common occurring malignancies in humans. The melanoma response rate to the standard anticancer drug, dacarbazine, is relatively low. Medicinal plants have traditionally been used to treat cancer, amongst other diseases. The inner gel of the leaves of aloe plants have been applied topically on the skin for treatment of a variety of conditions including skin cancer. Methods In this study, MTT assays were performed on A375 melanoma cells for A. vera, A. ferox and A. muth-muth gel and whole leaf materials to determine their IC50 values. In addition, clonogenic assays were carried out to determine the cytostatic effect of the selected aloe materials on A375 melanoma cell colony formation. Results and discussion Some of the aloe plant materials investigated (i.e. A. vera gel, A. muth-muth and A. ferox whole leaf extract) exhibited selectivity index (SI) values higher than 2, which means these plant materials were more active against cancerous cells than against non-cancerous cells. All of the selected aloe materials investigated in this study significantly decreased the number of A375 cell colonies formed when compared to the untreated control group. A. vera gel showed relatively high anti-melanoma activity against A375 cells in vitro, but its selectivity was much lower than that of dacarbazine. Conclusion These in vitro studies identified the potential anti-melanoma effects of A. vera gel in A375 cells, but it should be followed up with in vivo studies to be conclusive in terms of its efficacy in the treatment of skin cancer.
... However, the multiple daily insulin injections are associated with pain, discomfort, local infection, deposition of the fat at the injection site, hypertrophy, and trypanophobia (Wong et al. 2017). Also, various vegetables and plants have been assessed and confirmed for their antidiabetic potential in many animal models which propose that the whole world is probing for novel antidiabetic agents from plant resources with fewer side effects (Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017). The identification of specific inhibitors for carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase, is one of the most important therapeutic Figure 4 Anticancer mechanistic actions of SNPs strategies to reduce the high blood glucose level by hampering the uptake of glucose (Bahadori et al. 2018). ...
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Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) by harnessing the natural abilities of plant secondary metabolites has advantages over routine physical and chemical synthetic approaches due to their one-step experimental setup to reduce and stabilize the bulk silver into SNPs, biocompatible nature, and therapeutic significance. The unique size, shape, and biochemical functional corona of SNPs embellish them with the potential to perform therapeutic actions by adopting various mechanistic approaches including but not limited to the disruption of the electron transport chain, mitochondrial damage, DNA fragmentation, inhibition of ATP synthase activity, disorganization of the cell membrane, suspension of cellular signaling pathways, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of enzymes activity. This review elaborates the biogenic synthesis of SNPs in redox chemical reactions by using plant secondary metabolites found in plant extracts. In addition, it explains the synergistic influence of physicochemical reaction parameters such as the temperature, pH, the concentration of the AgNO3, and the ratio of reactants to affect the reaction kinetics, molecular mechanics, enzymatic catalysis, and protein conformations that aid to affect the size, shape, and potential biochemical corona of nanoparticles. This review also provides up-to-date information on the mechanistic actions that embellish the plant-based SNPs, an anticancer, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant potential. The mechanistic understanding of the therapeutic actions of SNPs will help in precision medicine to develop customized treatment and healthcare approaches for the welfare of the human population. Key points • Significance of the biogenic nanoparticles • Biomedical application potential of the plant-based silver nanoparticles • Mechanism of the anticancer, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial actions of the plant-based silver nanoparticles
... Aloe vera shows numerous pharmacological activities viz. anti-inflammatory [15], anti-ulcer [16], chemopreventive [17], anti-tumour [18], antiviral [19], anti-hypercholesterolemia anti-diabetic [20] and anti-asthmatic [21]. It is observed that Aloe vera gel, when applied on wounds, increases the blood supply and oxygenation, which in turn improves wound healing [22]. ...
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Background Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), commonly known as Ghritkumari/Gwarpatha, is a member of the Liliaceae family, used in the traditional medicine system for ages. Aloe vera has made its importance as a therapeutic agent, acting as a cure for various diseases such as skin problems, lungs, and heart disorders, diabetes, ulcers, various microbial infections, and asthma. Despite its tremendous health benefits, the dark side of the plant is a reason of concern as there are several active compounds present in the plant, raising questions on its safe oral consumption and application. Methods and Results The literature review was compiled from information resourced from various national and international journals available at Google Scholar and curated with Mendeley. The data mining was carried out during the period of January to May 2021. This study explored and summarized the dark side of Aloe vera, subjected to various secondary metabolites present in it. Aloin, the most active compound of Aloe vera, is a type of anthraquinone metabolized by human gut microflora, resulting in the formation of aloe-emodin anthraquinone, later being associated with several harmful effects such as carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and purgative. Besides this, several alkaloids and polysaccharides present in the plant are reported to cause hepatotoxicity and male infertility, respectively. Conclusions The harmful effects of the plants are not adequately discovered yet; hence there is a need to come up with some mechanism to understand and suppress the formation of such toxic compounds completely. This review examined the botany, active compounds, and adverse clinical effects in the range of metabolites associated with this herb – “Aloe vera”.
... Also, patients with hypersensitivity reactions to sulfonamide groups have limitations in receiving this treatment. [10][11][12] Aloe vera is one of the medicinal plants used as a topical agent for various local and systemic skin pathologies. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have shown that this agent inhibits thromboxane (i.e., wound healing inhibitor), reduces inflammation, and leads to a swift healing process. ...
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Introduction: Although several studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of Aloe vera on burn wounds, limited clinical evidence exists in this regard. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Aloe vera gel on healing, itching and pain of burn patients. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted at Sina Hospital in Tabriz, Iran. The patients with second and first degree burn wounds on symmetrical organs, were randomly assigned to control (n=34) and experimental (n=34) groups. The Aloe vera gel and silver sulfadiazine cream were used in the experimental and control groups, respectively. To assess the healing effects, the Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BWAT) was employed. Regarding itching and pain, visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for precise evaluation and comparison on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: Although the wounds in both groups healed up completely within two weeks, the healing process among the patients in the experimental group was faster. The peak of wound itching was on day 7 in both groups. The wound itching significantly reduced half an hour after being dressed with Aloe vera gel. The wound pain in the experimental group was less than control group during the study period. Moreover, there was no pain in either experimental or control group on day 14.Conclusion: Aloe vera is an effective agent in reducing itching and pain, and it can substantially increase the rate of healing. Accordingly, this agent can be considered in the treatment of burn wounds.
... In the present work, a 51.8% increase in leaf fresh content was obtained using 149H Paraburkholderia sp. as an inoculate. In general, the latex of A. vera contains a larger amount of aloin than the gel, as noted by Sánchez-Machado et al. (2017), although the inoculation with a strain shown to produce IAA (135V Enterobacter tabaci) increased the aloin content in the latex of the A. vera plants. Spaepen & Vanderleyden (2011) concluded that the growthpromoting effect of the bacteria by phytostimulation through the production of IAA occurs through multiple mechanisms, such as N fixation, phosphate solubilization, and ACC deaminase activity, and results in the promotion of plant growth and increased yield. ...
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Aloe vera is among the world's economically most important medicinal plants, but as the growth of this plant and, consequently, the accumulation of metabolites is slow, we tested the hypothesis that root endophytic bacteria isolated from A. vera plants can promote growth and increase the accumulation of aloin in the gel and latex. For this, we inoculate seedlings with four endophytic bacteria and a combination of them. We confirmed the hypothesis and identified two strains with potential for the formulation of inoculants to improve the cultivation of A. vera. The bacterium 149H Paraburkholderia sp. increases the number of leaves and the accumulation of biomass, but on the other hand, 35V Enterobacter ludwigii inoculation increased the content of aloin in the gel and in the latex. Further research should focus on the association of these two strains in a single inoculant, to both promote growth and increase the synthesis of metabolites. Resumen: Aloe vera se encuentra entre las plantas medicinales económicamente más importantes del mundo, pero como el crecimiento de esta planta y, en consecuencia, la acumulación de metabolitos es lento, probamos la hipótesis de que las bacterias endofíticas de raíces aisladas de las plantas de A. vera pueden promover el crecimiento y aumentar la acumulación de aloína en el gel y látex. Para ello, inoculamos plántulas con cuatro bacterias endofíticas y una combinación de ellas. Confirmamos la hipótesis e identificamos dos cepas con potencial para la formulación de inoculantes para mejorar el cultivo de A. vera. La bacteria 149H Paraburkholderia sp. aumenta el número de hojas y la acumulación de biomasa, pero, por otro lado, la inoculación con Enterobacter ludwigii 35V aumentó el contenido de aloína en el gel y en el látex. La investigación adicional debe centrarse en la asociación de estas dos cepas en un solo inoculante, tanto para promover el crecimiento como para aumentar la síntesis de metabolitos.
... Several reports have provided an overview of the use of conventional cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin, TDZ, etc.) in the in vitro multiplication research on Aloe vera (Daneshvar et al. 2013;Haque and Ghosh 2013;Molsaghi et al. 2014;Gupta et al. 2014;Lavakumaran and Seran 2014;Kumari and Nazeem 2015;Sánchez-Machado et al. 2017;Singh et al. 2017;Gao et al. 2018;Salehi et al. 2018;Surafel et al. 2018;Dixit et al. 2020;Singh et al. 2020 and reviewed by Gantait et al. 2014;Das et al. 2018;Aggarwal et al. 2019;Sivakumar et al. 2019). Meta-topolin (mT) is a proven alternative to existing conventional cytokinins for the large-scale propagation of plants with superior biochemical and physiological traits (Gantait and Mitra 2021). ...
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An in vitro regeneration method with functional morpho-structural and physiological traits has been optimized for Aloe vera L. in the present study. Among the various types and treatments of cytokinins [6-benzylaminopurine, BAP; 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino) purine, mT (meta-topolin), and 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea, TDZ] tested for shoot induction, the best bud break response (100%) occurred on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg L⁻¹ mT with the development of 5.0 shoots with 3.3 cm average length. Liquid MS medium containing a standardized combination of 0.5 mg L⁻¹ mT with 0.25 mg L⁻¹ α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) triggered proliferation of shoots, and maximum 42 shoots with 5.6 cm average length were obtained after 3rd subculture. Meta-topolin and NAA-derived shoots cultured on half strength MS medium containing 1.0 mg L⁻¹ Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) resulted in maximum rhizogenesis than BAP + NAA and TDZ + NAA-derived shoots. Meta-topolin and NAA combination improved photo-pigments, net rate of photosynthesis, and morpho-anatomy of leaves as compared with other treatments. The rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, and field survival was significantly affected by the types and concentrations of cytokinins used during plantlet development. The present findings unraveled the potential of meta-topolin to alleviate in vitro induced morpho-structural and physiological anomalies and improved survival of micropropagated plantlets of A. vera.
... These compounds play a significant role in the green synthesis and stabilization of SeNPs. 39,40 However, keeping in view the importance of eco-friendly extracellular green synthesis of stable SeNPs various experiments were performed by using plant extracts from various plant parts like root, shoot, bark, stem, and flower. Moreover, the reference 41 also reported the green synthesis of SeNPs by using Vitis vinifera (raisin) extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. ...
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... Aloe vera belonging to the family Liliaceae has been used for thousands of years and is often called the wonder plant (Sánchez-Machado et al., 2017;Rehman et al., 2020). The species that is widely grown in Indonesia is Aloe barbadense Miller, which has the characteristics of bright green leaves with irregular white spots as well as an average weight of about 0.5-1 kg. ...
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... However, herbs have been identified as a potential source of various bioactive compounds with powerful antioxidant activity with demonstrated free radical-scavenging abilities [13]. Most of the herbal products including Aloe vera are the rich source of antioxidants [14]. Aloe vera with wide geographical distribution has been described to contain large amount of various secondary metabolites such as terpenoids (carotenoids, iridoids, saponins, sesquiterpenes, steroids), phenolics (lignins, salicylates, tannins, quinolones), glycosides of phenolic (cyanogen, flavonoids, glucosinolates), polysaccharides (mucilages, gums), peptides, resins, alkaloids, and essential oils, vitamins (A, B, C, and E), amino acids, enzymes, minerals, chromones and several natural antioxidant agents [15]. ...
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... The remarkable beneficial properties of the extract from Aloe species are known since long time [36]. Modern pharmacological studies have ascertained scientifically in them various therapeutic activities, i.e. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, anticancer, etc., and antiseptic as well [37,38]. In the present case, we are mostly interested in verifying whether the anti-microbial and anti-viral activities were known in the past, to confirm our main hypothesis on the use of aloe from Aloe vera on the purple wool of the embroidery of MS.8932. ...
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Cactaceae and Asphodelaceae are native desert plants known for their high mucilage content, which is a polysaccharide of growing interest in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, powdered mucilage was obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) and aloe vera (AV) leaves, and their molecular, morphological, and thermal properties were investigated and compared. Additionally, their dietary fiber content was determined. Three-dimensional molecular models were calculated for both mucilages using ab initio methods. Vibrational spectra (FTIR and Raman) revealed intramolecular interactions and functional groups that were specified with the help of theoretical ab initio and semi-empirical calculations. SEM micrographs measured at magnifications of 500� and 2000� demonstrated significantly different superficial and internal morphologies between these two mucilages. Thermal analysis using DSC/TGA demonstrated superior thermal stability for the OFI mucilage. The dietary fiber content in OFI mucilage was more than double that of AV mucilage. Our results show that both dehydrated mucilages present adequate thermal and nutritional properties to be used as functional ingredients in industrial formulations; however, OFI mucilage exhibited better physicochemical and functional characteristics than AV mucilage as a raw material.
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Aloe vera (Aloe vera) is a multifunctional plant which easily found in various yards. Processed AV leaves are used as food, medicine and cosmetics, but in-depth and comprehensive studies of their bioactivity are still limited. The writing of this article is based on the study of literature in various books, the results of research published on line and off line. Aloe vera has long been used as a wound drug and a drug for diabetes mellitus. The use of Aloe vera as a wound medicine is related to its ability to inhibit the growth of microbes (bacteria and fungi). Research shows that AV extracts inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcu aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus Bacillus sphericaus, Cholesterolus, Cholesterolus, Cholesterolus. The use of Aloe vera as a diabetes mellitus drug is related to its ability to improve the function of the pancreas in producing insulin.. Abstrak Lidah buaya (Aloe vera) merupakan tumbuhan multifungsi yang mudah ditemukan di berbagai pekarangan rumah. Olahan daun AV digunakan sebagai pangan, obat, dan kosmetik, namun kajian mendalam dan konprehensif tentang bioaktivitasnya masih terbatas. Penulisan artikel ini didasarkan pada kajian literature pada berbagai buku, hasil penelitian yang terbit secara on line dan off line. Aloe vera telah lama digunakan sebagai obat luka dan obat diabetes mellitus. Penggunaan Aloe vera sebagai obat luka berhubungan dengan kemampuannya sebagai menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba (bakteri dan jamur). Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak AV menghambat pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcu aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus spherius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, dan Candida albicans. Penggunaan Aloe vera sebagai obat diabetes mellitus berhubungan dengan kemapuannya meningkatkan fungsi pankreas dalam menghasilkan insulin. Kata Kunci: Aloe vera, anti mikroba, anti diabetes mellitus PENDAHULUAN Aloe vera (AV) atau yang lebih dikenal sebagai tanaman lidah buaya merupakan salah satu tumbuhan multi fungsi yaitu bahan pangan, kosmetik, obat, dan hiasan. Berbagai bahan kosmetik seperti sampoo, masker, tonik menggunakan ekstrak AV sebagai bahan dasar atau sebagai bahan tambahan. Rajeswari et al (2012) menyatakan bahwa AV merupakan tanaman obat tertua yang pernah dikenal dan paling banyak digunakan di seluruh dunia. Berbagai macam produk komersial berdasarkan lidah buaya tersedia di pasar (Sanchez-Machado et al 2017) seperti sampo, masker wajah dan kosmetik lainnya. Daun AV memiliki daging tebal sehingga dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan makanan dan minuman. Sahu et al (2013) menyatakan bahwa AV mengandung berbagai zat nutrisi seperti vitamin, mineral, enzim, asam amino, gula alami sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai bahan pangan yang menyehatkan. Pemanfaatan AV sebagai bahan makanan memiliki efek ganda karena sekaligus memberi efek yang menyehatkan. Acemannan merangsang produksi makrophage cytokini, pelepasan nitrit oxida, ekspresi molekul permukaan dan perubahan
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Aloe barbadensis Mill. is the botanical name of Aloe vera, which belongs to the Liliaceae family. It is used for medicinal purposes and contains a high range of beneficial nutrients. It is a rich source of carbohydrates, antioxidants and phenolic compounds that work to enhance immunity and prevent various diseases. More than 300 species of aloe vera have been reported, of which 4 or 5 are mostly used for medicinal purposes. Aloe vera leaf contains 75 different compounds and each has remedial properties. These include lignin, saponins, anthraquinone, various minerals, vitamins amino acids enzymes and sugars. Aloe vera is used medicinally to treat several diseases such as wound healing, inflammatory, diabetic, laxative effects and also reduce the risk of cancer and hepatitis. The present review examines the nutritional and medicinal properties of Aloe vera.
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Edible coating is biodegradable and eco-friendly packaging that current developments. Constituent components of edible coatings in the form of hydrocolloid (polysaccharides, proteins), lipids and composite. The edible coating serves as a protective material which is packed from outside influences also functions as a matrix of antimicrobial agents. Synthetic preservatives that many outstanding raises concerns of the community to use it, because of the high risk on health. One of the potential natural ingredients as an edible coating and also as a natural preservative is aloe vera gel. Edible coating of aloe vera (ECOGEL). Consists of polysaccharide that contains many components of bioactive, but the disadvantage easily becomes diluted. Aloe Vera gel should be kept on the proper environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of incorporation of various types of additives (citric acid, ascorbic acid, potassium sorbate) on the chromatic characteristics of Aloe gel as an edible coating for 15-day storage. This study used a completely randomized design. The results showed that the best chromatic attributes of Aloe gel were the incorporation with citric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium sorbate.
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Fresh-cut mango is a very popular product commonly consumed due to its health and safety benefits to the community. The rise in cutting results, which increases respiration, ethylene production, oxidation, and browning processes, tends to shorten its life. Edible coating of aloe gel (Ecogel) serves as an additive matrix to extend the life of fresh-cut mango with the incorporation of antioxidant, acidulant, and antimicrobial additives. The edible coating ability is strongly influenced by molecular structure, size, and chemical constituents, with the nanoparticle used to determine the edible coating capability. This study, therefore, aims to determine the influence of incorporation nano-additive material and its concentration to extend the shelf life of the mango. The complete random design was used to determine the factorial pattern of citric, ascorbic, and potassium sorbate acid using a concentration of 0.15, 0.3, and 0.45 %. The mixture of nano-additives consists of citric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium sorbate at a concentration of 0.15 %, which is the best formulation for Ecogel. The characteristics of fresh-cut fruit coated with Ecogel are suitable at a temperature of 7 ± 1 C until day 6. Therefore, Ecogel prolongs the shelf-life of fresh-cut mango.
Chapter
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) offer several benefits owing to the possible function that they play in the stability of the immune system and the activation of the defensive response. Due to the increased scientific interest the SeNPs have generated in recent years, many synthesis techniques have been used to synthesize them, and the use of plant extracts for green synthesis has become popular since it uses nontoxic solvents and mild temperatures. The reducing agents used are widely available and biodegradable, rendering them ecologically friendly and safe. There are several benefits of phytofabricated SeNPs over their chemical counterparts, biocompatibility of the nanomaterials being one of them and the fact that they may be used in living organisms. This chapter gives updated information concerning the therapeutic potential of phytofabricated SeNPs against a variety of microbial pathogens, viral infections, and cancer cells, and also includes literature on diabetic management, antioxidant characteristics, and hepatoprotective activities.KeywordsSelenium nanoparticlesSeNPsTherapeuticsAntidiabeticAnticancerHepatoprotective and antimicrobial
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Aloe vera is one of the few edible species in the genus Aloe, and its products are widely used in foods, cosmetics, health care products, medicines and other fields. Barbaloin is the highest content of anthraquinones in aloe, which has potential allergenicity, and it is one of the important indicators for the quality control of aloe-containing products. Aiming at resolving the problems of barbaloin instability, easy sensitization and high residue, the transformation and degradation mechanisms of barbaloin under different processing conditions (temperature, pH, food additives and metal ions) were studied in this research, and the toxicity of the products were evaluated. The results showed that the transformation and degradation of barbaloin can be significantly accelerated by high temperature, alkaline conditions, calcium chloride, carboxymethyl cellulose, Fe³⁺ and Mg²⁺ (p < 0.001). However, they can be significantly inhibited by the acidic environment and Pb²⁺ (p < 0.001). And the transformation and degradation of barbaloin in aloe powder were almost the same as those in the barbaloin aqueous solution. The main transformation and degradation products of barbaloin were isobarbaloin, aloe emodin, 10-Hydroxyalloin A and 10-Hydroxyalloin B, and the other two unknown products were isomers. And aloe emodin may have greater toxicity hazards and potential safety risks. The molecular electrostatic potential properties also indicated that the 10th carbon atom of barbaloin, isobarbaloin, 10-Hydroxyaloin A and 10-Hydroxyaloin B may be more likely to break chemical bonds and generate new transformation and degradation products. These research results can be applied to the control of barbaloin and aloe emodin in the processing of aloe-containing products, so as to provide the basis for the better development and utilization of aloe.
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Control of prolific reproduction is vital for a profitable tilapia aquaculture enterprise. All‐male tilapia culture is a popular method used to control prolific breeding, because the male individuals grow faster than female and mixed‐sex populations. Presently, most farmers use 17α‐methyl testosterone (MT) to produce all‐male tilapia individuals, although synthetic hormones are linked to human health and environmental risks. Recently, considerable attention has focused on plant‐based products as alternatives to MT, because they are affordable, safe, and eco‐friendly. Despite the growing interest in using plant extracts to prevent frequent spawning in tilapia production, the available information is not collated to standardize application guidelines. Accordingly, this review article consolidates existing knowledge on the use of plant extracts to control prolific breeding in tilapia culture systems. In addition, limitations to commercial application of the extracts are identified. To date, seed, root, and leaf extracts of 20 plant species, most notably, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens, and Carica papaya, exhibit potential for controlling unwanted breeding in tilapia production systems. The extracts are mainly administered orally, incorporated in fish feeds. Saponins and flavanoids are the main bioactive compounds in the phytoextracts, which induce sex inversion and fertility impairment in tilapia. The commercialization of plant extracts is, however, hampered by lack of standardized information on extract preparation, optimal dosages, and mechanism of action. Thus, future studies should address these technical limitations and highlight economic incentives for commercial use of plant extracts in tilapia aquaculture.
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Numerous endeavours have been developed bio-based polymer packaging films to replace the use of petroleum-based packaging. In this study, as a response and support to the enduring research issues, we have developed the optimization composite film formulation based on chitosan (2%), Dioscorea alata starch (0.5%), and glycerol (1.5%) had satisfactory result on several parameters consisting thickness (0.45 mm), solubility (472.1%), moisture content (29.872%), biodegradability (38.346%), elastic modulus (971.2 N/m²) and tensile strength (98.71 N/m). Further, the optimised chitosan film (CF) formulation was enriched with several essential oils (EO), i.e., lemongrass, garlic and aloe vera oil. Upon the addition of EO, the solubility, biodegradable tests, and elongation to break of CF tended to decrease whereas the contact angle and mechanical properties significantly increased. Finally, the antibacterial properties of CF against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis dramatically increased by the addition of EO. These impressive results are expected to be applied in the food packaging industry to maintain the quality of food products.
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To explore the active polysaccharides from Dendrobium devonianum, a novel O-acetylmannan (DDP-1) with molecular weight of 117 kDa was isolated from D. devonianum. The chemical and instrumental analysis indicated that the DDP-1 was a homopolysaccharide containing a backbone chain composed of →4)-β-d-Manp-(1 → (71.4%) residue with internal →4)-2-O-acetyl-β-d-Manp-(1 → (14.2%), →4)-3-O-acetyl-β-d-Manp-(1 → (7.1%), and non-reducing end β-d-Manp-(1 → (7.3%) residues. Anticancer assay in vitro revealed that DDP-1 had anticancer activity against the growth of HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Moreover, cytokine secretion assays also presented that DDP-1 can promote cytokine production of TNF-α and IL-6 in THP-1 macrophage stimulated by PMA. Finally, the effects of isolation and purification on the microstructure of DDP-1 was studied by scanning electron microscope. The morphological features of DDP-1 indicated that DDP-1 hold high potential application in hydrophilic polymer materials.
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Toothache is one of the most common global health problems, and medicinal plants are widely used to relieve the associated pain and inflammation. Several studies have been conducted on the use of plants to treat toothache, but no study has comprehensively assessed the types of plants and the mechanisms of action of the phytochemical compounds involved in their analgesic effect. This review aims to bridge this gap. This is the first review to collect a large volume of data on the global use of medicinal plants used in the treatment of toothache. It presents the relevant information for dentists, researchers, and academics on using medicinal plants to treat toothache. We found that preclinical studies and state-of-the-art technology hold promise for furthering our knowledge of this important topic. In total, 21 species of medicinal plants used to treat toothache were found in America, 29 in Europe, 192 in Africa, 112 in Asia, and 10 in Oceania. The most common species were Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Acmella oleracea, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypiifolia, and Syzygium aromaticum. The most commonly found family of medicinal plants was Asteraceae, followed by Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, and Myrtaceae. The most common phytochemicals found were flavonoids, terpenes, polyphenols, and alkaloids. The reported mechanisms of action involved in toothache analgesia were antioxidant effects, effects mediated by transient receptor potential channels, the γ-aminobutyric acid mechanism, and the cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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In folk medicine, Aloe, a genus of Aloaceae, is constantly developed into laxative drugs or products and skin remedies with tremendous popularity worldwide. However, almost all products of Aloe are in roughly processed form. Therefore, developing related products of the active ingredients derived from Aloe is of great medical value. Aloin is a quality standard compound based on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CHP). It has a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporotic, organ-protective, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, and laxative potentials. Moreover, it regulates blood lipids and glucose and improves neuropathic pain effects, depicting potential to be transformed into promising medicines and healthcare products. In addition to the functional cosmetics and health products of Aloe, the availability, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics, formulation studies, and toxicity of aloin were summarized after investigating the literature from PubMed, Google, and other databases. Moreover, significant attention had been paid to the development of aloin-derived medicines and healthcare products. Thus, the present review clarified the possibility of aloin as medicines and healthcare products to develop and utilize Aloe resources.
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Aloes zwyczajny Aloe vera L. jest rośliną o właściwościach przeciwgrzybicznych oraz przeciwbakteryjnych, przez co żel z jego liści jest szeroko używany w przemyśle farmaceutycznym i kosmetycznym. Od niedawna aloes jest także przedmiotem badań w kierunku działania przeciw nowotworom. Pojawienie się różnego rodzaju zmian (zgnilizny, plamistości) na roślinie może wskazywać na rozwijającą się infekcję. Patogeniczne grzyby wytworzyły szereg przystosowań, pozwalających na zasiedlenie roślin. Są to m.in. przekształcone strzępki, które z powodzeniem mogą penetrować tkanki gospodarza oraz wydzielane toksyny, które powodują zaburzenia w podstawowych procesach metabolicznych roślin, przez co nie są w stanie kontynuować wzrostu. Naturalnym środowiskiem dla aloesu jest klimat zwrotnikowy, jednakże do badania korzystano z prywatnych, domowych hodowli aloesu zwyczajnego w doniczkach. W niniejszej pracy izolowano grzyby z pięciu roślin. Każda z nich posiadała plamistości na liściach. Przeprowadzono analizę ilościową i jakościową izolatów wyrosłych na pożywce selektywnej, która potwierdziła obecność grzybów na aloesie. Po przeprowadzonej analizie ilościowej stwierdzono, że najwięcej grzybów zasiedlało glebę, a najmniej liść. Hipoteza badawcza zakładała, że grzyb z danej grupy nie zasiedla więcej niż jedną część aloesu – tak było w przypadku tylko jednej grupy; pozostałe grzyby zasiedlały co najmniej dwie części rośliny lub glebę. Używając metody bezpośredniego wyłożenia fragmentu rośliny na podłoże, możliwe było zaobserwowanie zależności między różnymi grzybami. Zaobserwowano, że grzyb zaliczony do morfologii typu Trichoderma zasiedlał korzenie roślin razem z innym grzybem, niezaliczonym do konkretnego typu morfologicznego. Podczas analizy jakościowej zbadano także czy liść, mimo braku plamistości, zasiedlany jest przez grzyby. Wyniki były takie same w blisko 100 % przypadków – mimo braku plamistości na roślinie bytowały grzyby. Co więcej, były to grzyby o takiej samej morfologii, co grzyby izolowane z liści z plamistościami.
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Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article.
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Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes.
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Acemannan is a bioactive polysaccharides promoting tissue repair. However, the roles of acemannan in skin wound healing and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. The goal of this study is to investigate the positive role of acemannan in cutaneous wound healing and its mechanism. Mouse skin wound model and skin primary fibroblasts were used to demonstrate the positive effect of acemannan on cutaneous wound healing. The expressions of cell proliferation nuclear antigen ki-67, cyclin D1 and activity of AKT/mTOR signaling were analyzed in acemannan-treated fibroblasts and mice. Rapamycin and AKT inhibitor VIII were used to determine the key role of AKT/mTOR signaling in acemannan-promoting cutaneous wound healing. We found that acemannan significantly accelerated skin wound closure and cell proliferation. Acemannan promoted the expression of cyclin D1 in cultured fibroblasts, which was mediated by AKT/mTOR signal pathway leading to enhanced activity of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4F (eIF4F) and increased translation of cyclin D1. In contrast, pharmaceutical blockade of AKT/mTOR signaling by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or AKT inhibitor VIII abolished acemannan-induced cyclin D1 translation and cell proliferation. In vivo studies confirmed that the activation of AKT/mTOR by acemannan played a key role in wound healing, which could be reversed by rapamycin. Acemannan promoted skin wound healing partly through activating AKT/mTOR-mediated protein translation mechanism, which may represent an alternative therapy approach for cutaneous wound. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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Aloe vera is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions.
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Use of Aloe vera in nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations draw attention for generation of scientific information. Looking to the importance of biologically active components possessed by the leaves of the Aloe vera plant and its wide spread use, it has become imperative that, the leaf should be processed with the aim of retaining essential bioactive components. In this review paper, different processing aspects like harvesting, handling, transportation, Aloe vera gel expulsion, gel extraction and storage of gel were critically described from different references. Different product prepared from aloe vera whole leaf and gel like food products Aloe juice, Aloe health drink, Aloe desert, etc were reviewed. Aloe vera processing methods for gel expulsion by splitting of leaf, roller method, crushing of whole leaf, hand filleting methods and stabilization are described with various references. Present processing techniques aims at producing best quality aloe products but end aloe products contain very little or virtually no active ingredients. Hence, appropriate processing techniques should be employed during processing in order to extend the use of aloe vera gel.
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The plant Aloe vera is used in Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Allopathic streams of medicine, and not only tribal community but also most of the people for food and medicine. The plant leaves contains numerous vitamins, minerals, enzymes , amino acids, natural sugars and other bioactive compounds with emollient, purgative, antimicrobial, anti in-flammatory, anti-oxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-helmenthic, antifungal, antiseptic and cosmetic values for health care. This plant has potential to cure sunburns, burns and minor cuts, and even skin cancer. The external use in cosmetic primarily acts as skin healer and prevents injury of epithelial tissues, cures acne and gives a youthful glow to skin, also acts as extremely powerful laxative.
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In this study, the bioactive components of Aloe vera leaves have been evaluated using GC/MS. The chemical compositions of the n-hexane extract of Aloe vera were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. GC/MS analysis of n-hexane extract of Aloe vera revealed the existence of twenty six bioactive compounds. The results of this study offer a platform of using Aloe vera as herbal drug for cancer studies.
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The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 +/- 0.45, 20 +/- 0.35, 20 +/- 0.57, and 15 +/- 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.
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Angiogenesis has been an attractive target for drug therapy. Aloin (AL), an natural compound derived from Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves, has been shown to possess anti-cancer potential activities. However, its roles in tumor angiogenesis and the involved molecular mechanism are unknown. To evaluate the antiangiogenic and anticancer activities of AL, endothelial cell scratch, modified Boyden chamber inserts and tube formation assays were done in HUVECs, and MTT and Live-Dead assays were used to determine the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The inhibition effects of AL were further confirmed by a mouse xenograft model in vivo. The expression levels of STAT3 signaling pathway and that mediated-target genes were measured in HUVECs and SW620 cells by Western blots. Here, we demonstrated that AL significantly inhibited HUVECs proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro. Western blotting showed that AL suppressed activation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in endothelial cells. In addition, the constitutively activated STAT3 protein, and the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-xL), proliferative (c-Myc), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins were also down-regulated in response to AL in human SW620 cancer cells. Consistent with the above findings, AL inhibited tumor cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and substantially reduced tumor volumes and weight in vivo mouse xenografts, without obviously toxicity. Our studies provided the first evidence that AL may inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth via blocking STAT3 activation, with the potential of a drug candidate for cancer therapy.
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Background and objective: Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease, found worldwide, causing the destruction of the periodontium. The periodontium is a complex structure composed of both soft and hard tissues, thus an agent applied to regenerate the periodontium must be able to stimulate periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone regeneration. Recent studies demonstrated that acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, stimulated both soft and hard tissue healing. This study investigated effect of acemannan as a bioactive molecule and scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Material and methods: Primary human periodontal ligament cells were treated with acemannan in vitro. New DNA synthesis, expression of growth/differentiation factor 5 and runt-related transcription factor 2, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation were determined using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, biochemical assay and alizarin red staining, respectively. In our in vivo study, premolar class II furcation defects were made in four mongrel dogs. Acemannan sponges were applied into the defects. Untreated defects were used as a negative control group. The amount of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation were evaluated 30 and 60 d after the operation. Results: Acemannan significantly increased periodontal ligament cell proliferation, upregulation of growth/differentiation factor 5, runt-related transcription factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition as compared with the untreated control group in vitro. Moreover, acemannan significantly accelerated new alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation in class II furcation defects. Conclusion: Our data suggest that acemannan could be a candidate biomolecule for periodontal tissue regeneration.
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Physico-chemical modifications promoted by pasteurization treatments, performed at 65, 75 and 85°C, for 15 and 25min, on acemannan, the main bioactive polysaccharide from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) parenchyma, and cell wall polymers (CWP) were evaluated. The fresh Aloe samples were characterized by a relatively low content of acemannan (107–139mg/g dm) probably due to the irrigation system used for its cultivation. Pasteurization seemed to increase the yields in acemannan content. However this effect was probably due to the decrease observed in ethanol-soluble mannose for all treatments. Deacetylation and loss of galactose side-chains might have contributed to the formation of new hydrogen bonds between mannose oligosaccharides and the long chains of acemannan. On the other hand, fresh Aloes exhibited a high content of pectic polysacharides, mainly homogalacturonans, accounting for up to 59% of total CWP. Further, pasteurization also affected the CWP, mainly the pectic moieties, in two different ways. On the one hand, a slight degradation of pectins was observed for samples treated at 65°C which may be due to enzymatic degradation. On the other hand, the marked decrease in the pectic polymers (mainly homogalacturonans), observed for samples treated at 85°C, may be due to their thermal degradation. Compositional and structural modifications on the different polysaccharide types were reflected by the significant changes occurring in the related functional properties, such as swelling (Sw), water retention capacity (WRC), and fat adsorption capacity (FAC). Swelling values were “exceptionally” high for fresh Aloe samples (over 200mL water/g alcohol insoluble residue (AIR)), and pasteurized samples exhibited even higher Sw values. WRC and FAC values were also very high and exhibited similar trends; only samples pasteurized at 85°C presented a significant decrease in comparison to the values determined for fresh samples.
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Background This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different amounts of fertilizers on the polysaccharides of Aloe vera plant. There were four different treatments, viz. T1 = 150% N, T2 = 150% P, T3 = 150% K, and T4 = 150% NPK (50% N + 50% P + 50% K) soil. Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the gel juice, skin juice, and flowers of A. vera planted in these soils. Results Result indicates that skin juice contained 2.4 times the level of polysaccharides in gel juice from one plant, suggesting the potential industrial application of A. vera skin rather than discarding it. After anion-exchange chromatography, neutral polysaccharides accounted for 58.1% and 78.5% of the total recovered neutral and acidic polysaccharide preparations from the gel juice and skin juice, respectively, whereas the crude flower polysaccharides were largely composed of weakly acidic polysaccharides (84.2%). Sugar analysis of the polysaccharides after gel permeation chromatography revealed that glucose and galactose were the most abundant monosaccharide in the neutral polysaccharides from the gel juice and skin juice, respectively. The acidic polysaccharides from the two juices consisted of glucuronic acid, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose with variable proportions. Conclusions Except glucuronic acid (15.4%) in flower acidic polysaccharide, the flower neutral and acidic polysaccharides contained galactose, glucose, and mannose as the main sugar components. Glucuronic acid was the major uronic acid in all acidic polysaccharides from different tissues.
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Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.
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We prepared a crude gel material from Aloe vera succulent leaf tissues. The ethanolic extract of lyophilized A. vera gel was used for the GC-MS analysis. Hexadecanoic acid (22.22%) was identified as major compound. Sitosterol and stigmasterol were found to be 2.89% and 2.1% in the extract. HPLC analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of stigmasterol. The concentration of sterol extract needed to scavenge DPPH free radical by 50% was calculated as 5.2 mg mL(-1) . In the FRAP assay, the sterol extract showed significant hydroxyl radical scavenging in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) value 1.17 µg mL(-1) ). Concentration of the sample required to reduce lipid peroxidation was found to be 4.18 µg mL(-1) , and the extract also possessed acetylcholinesterase activity (IC(50) - 5.26 µg mL(-1) ). Catalase activity was 0.196 μM H(2) O(2) decomposed min(-1)  µg(-1) protein, whereas the peroxidase activity was 17.01 μM of pyragallol oxidized min(-1)  µg(-1) protein. The extract recorded higher activity against growth of S. greseus and C. albicans in the experiments carried out to determine antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Ten (10) young women diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria who did not meet the national criteria for the use of antiretroviral drugs were managed with 30-40 mL of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) gruel daily. Their CD4 counts, general improvement, and physical well-being (including weight gain) were monitored over a 1-year period. The findings were compared with those of 20 age- matched controls who were on antiretroviral drugs. One (1) patient who reacted badly to antiretroviral drug switched over to aloe vera. The average weight gain among those on aloe vera was 4.7 kg compared to 4.8 kg by those on antiretroviral drug (p=0.916). The average rise in CD4 count among them was 153.7 cells/μL compared to 238.85 cells/μL among the controls (p=0.087). There was no significant side effect(s) in either group except in the 1 patient who switched over from antiretroviral drugs to aloe vera gruel. These preliminary data suggest that consumption of aloe vera may be of help to HIV-infected individuals in the tropics, given its availability and inexpensiveness.
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Fractions of leaf extracts from 2 local types, labeledAloe vera (subsequently identified asAloe barbadensis Mill, andA. saponaria Haw.), were prepared by differential centrifugation and tested by in vitro assays for the presence of lectinlike activities and for effects on the attachment and growth of human normal and tumor cells. Fractions of extracts of fresh leaves and commercially “stabilized”Aloe vera gel had high levels of lectin-like substances measured by immunodiffusion and hemagglutination assays. Substances in fluid fractions from both fresh leaf sources were found to markedly promote attachment and growth of human normal, but not tumor, cells and to enhance healing of wounded cell monolayers. In contrast, fractions of “stabilized”Aloe vera gel were equally cytotoxic for human normal and tumor cells in vitro. Results from cell assays suggested that the observed growth promotion and wound healing effects of aloe substances in vitro may be analogous to what has been observed in vivo during healing of wounds and burns.
Article
Many drugs are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when administered by the oral route. One approach to overcome the restriction of the physical barrier to drug absorption is the co-administration of absorption enhancing agents [1]. In this study the effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel and whole leaf extract on the permeability of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers (Caco-2) was determined. Solutions of gel and the whole leaf extract were applied to the cell monolayers and the transepithelial electrical resistance was monitored, which was continued after removal of the test solutions to measure reversibility of the effect. The transport of model compounds in the presence and absence of the A. vera gel and whole leaf extract solutions was also investigated. Both the A. vera gel and whole leaf extract were able to significantly reduce the transepithelial electrical resistance of the Caco-2 cell monolayers at concentrations above 0.5% w/v, which was fully reversible. The A. vera gel and whole leaf extract solutions significantly enhanced the transport of model compounds across the Caco-2 cell monolayers compared with the control. The results suggest that these plant products have a high potential to be used as absorption enhancers in novel dosage forms for drugs with poor bioavailabilities when administered orally. On the other hand, an uncontrolled increase in the bioavailability of drugs that are taken simultaneously with A. vera gel and whole leaf extract products may result in adverse effects. References: 1. Whitehead et al. (2008). Pharm Res, 25:1782–1788.
Article
What is known and objective: Aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Xanthorrhoeaceae family) has long been used in folk or traditional medicine for diabetes. Several studies have been conducted on the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control, but the results appear inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus, http://clinicaltrials.gov, Web of Science, Proquest, LILACS, HerbMed, NAPRALERT and CNKI to the end of January 2016 without language restriction. Historical search of relevant articles and personal contact with experts in the area were also undertaken. Studies were included if they were (1) randomized controlled trials of Aloe vera aimed at assessing glycaemic control in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and (2) reporting fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ). Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference in the final value of FPG and HbA1c between the treatment and the control groups. Results and discussion: Eight trials involving 470 patients (235 each for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes) were included. In prediabetes, Aloe vera significantly improved FPG (mean difference -0·22 mmol/L, 95% CI -0·32 mmol/L to -0·12 mmol/L, P < 0·0001), with no effect on HbA1c (mean difference -2 mmol/mol, 95% CI -5 mmol/mol to 1 mmol/mol). Aloe vera may improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, with a marginal improvement in FPG (mean differences -1·17 mmol/L, 95% CI -2·35 mmol/L to 0·00 mmol/L, P = 0·05) and a significant improvement in HbA1c (mean difference -11 mmol/mol, 95% CI -19 mmol/mol to -2 mmol/mol, P = 0·01). What is new and conclusions: The current evidence suggests some potential benefit of Aloe vera in improving glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, given the limitations of the available evidence and the high heterogeneity in study results, high-quality, well-powered randomized controlled trials using standardized preparations are needed to quantify any beneficial effects of Aloe vera on glycaemic control.
Article
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan-based edible coatings with Aloe vera extract on the postharvest blueberry fruit quality during storage at 5 °C. Firstly, A. vera fractions (pulp and liquid) were extracted from leaves and evaluated in terms of antifungal and antioxidant capacities. The choice of the most adequate chitosan and A. vera fraction concentrations to be incorporated in coating formulation was made based on the wettability of the corresponding coating solutions. Coatings with 0.5% (w/v) chitosan + 0.5% (w/v) glycerol + 0.1% (w/v) Tween 80 + 0.5% (v/v) A. vera liquid fraction presented the best characteristics to uniformly coat blueberry surface. Physico-chemical (i.e., titratable acidity, pH, weight loss) and microbiological analyses of coated blueberries (non-inoculated or artificially inoculated with Botrytis cinerea) were performed during 25 d. Microbiological growth and water loss levels were approximately reduced by 50% and 42%, respectively, in coated blueberries after 25 d compared to uncoated blueberries. After 15 d, weight loss values were 6.2% and 3.7% for uncoated and chitosan–A. vera coated blueberries, respectively. Uncoated fruits presented mold contamination after 2 d of storage (2.0 ± 0.32 log CFU g−1), whilst fruits with chitosan-based coatings with A. vera presented mold contamination only after 9 d of storage (1.3 ± 0.35 log CFU g−1). Overall, coatings developed in this study extend blueberries’ shelf-life for about 5 d, demonstrating for the first time that the combination of chitosan and A. vera liquid fraction as edible coating materials has great potential in expanding the shelf-life of fruits.
Article
Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking towards new therapeutic purpose such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and others. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of Aloe vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous, alcoholic, ethanol and chloroform for the Aloe vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Further, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the Aloe vera and their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar) on Aloe vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.