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Recent Contributions to Development of Herbal-Based Immunomodulators for Farm Animals

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Abstract

Safety and quality of food and feed today is at a high level, the challenge is to ensure a healthy daily diet but affordable for everyone. But the most important link for obtaining sanogen products for food is to use organic, eco-friendly and not polluted agricultural raw materials (vegetable and animal) and most of all, to “produce for man in harmony with nature”. Use of immunostimulants is a unique approach for farm owners as they undertake methods of controlling disease losses in their facilities. Microbial diseases are limiting factors in all forms of intensive culture and a problem is that few approved chemotherapeutic agents are available for use in animal food because of growing concerns for consumers liability and for accumulation of substances in the environment. Many medicinal plants showing immunomodulatory activity have been used instead of drugs because of their low toxicity for the host system. This review aims at presenting recent contributions to development of herbal-based immunomodulators for farm animals, a total of 97 studies from 2000 - 2016 concerning species of economic interest (various categories of fish - tilapia, trout, carp; shrimps; cattle; pigs and chickens). In veterinary practice, innovative eco-friendly products that could improve or prevent some disorders became of great actuality and therefore the research on animals of economic interest should continue for the benefit of both animals and humans.

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... Recently, extensive researches have been initiated to determine the feasibility of using herbs as alternative feed additives to alleviate these problems. They involved in the modulation of host immune responses in addition the prevention of a number of infections caused by the pathogenic MDR bacteria [3]. Thousands of plant species have also been used in-vitro as new therapeutic drugs against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria [4]. ...
... Previous researches suggested that a pharmacological strategy directed towards multiple targets could result in more efficient therapeutic outcomes [17]. Moreover, the use of whole plants instead of isolated chemicals may offer a safer clinical strategy in the treatment of many diseases [3]. ...
... Vaccination is useful for the control of IBDV and the immunostimulant supplementation can reduce bursal lymphocyte losses and improve the IBDV vaccination antibody response [11]. In poultry farms, immunomodulation is an important issue, and innovative products with competitive prices that could improve or prevent some disorders are of great importance for the benefit of both the poultry industry and humans [12]. ...
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The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 microg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 microg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P<0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 microg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 microg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS.
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Active principles from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), a wide spread herbaceous perennial flowering plant, are well known for their anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-ulcer and anesthetic capacity. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of a commercial alcoholic stinging nettle extract in 38 days old chickens on the non-specific immunity. The birds were divided in three equal groups (n = 10) and subjected to sc treatments on days 0 and 7, as follows: 0.5. ml saline/chicken (I-control); 0.5. ml 70° alcohol/chicken, (II-solvent control); 0.5. ml alcoholic nettle extract/chicken (III-treated group). Total leukocyte counts and carbon particle inclusion test to estimate the in vitro phagocytic activity were performed on whole blood sampled on days 0, 7 and 14.Alcoholic nettle plant extract significantly (p <0.05) increased the total leukocyte numbers, from 15,400±3,005/mm3 to 17,125±2,813/mm3, when compared to groups I (16,667±1,807/mm3 to 16,475±2,098/mm3) and II (17,555±2,098/mm3 to 16,875±1,966/mm3). Similarly, the nettle extract treatment significantly enhanced (p <0.01) the in vitro functional capacity of the phagocytes over time for the first (0-30min, 0.347±0.07-1.464±0.06) but not the second (30-40min, 0.196±0.05-0.223±0.06) tested time interval. These results supported the beneficial biological effect of the in vivo alcoholic nettle extract treatment on the innate immune response, which could lead to a higher resistance to diseases and improved post vaccination response of the birds, thus reducing the economic losses.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of essential oils (EO) supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine), and fecal microflora shedding in weaning pigs. Experiment 1: a total of 140 crossed [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] weaning pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 6.44 ± 0.93 kg were used in a 42-day trial. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of nutrient density (normal and decreased nutrient density) and EO (0 and 0.04%) according to sex and BW (7 replicates each with 2 gilts and 3 barrows). Experiment 2: four weaning barrows [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an average BW of 15 ± 0.58 kg were surgically equipped with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 diets and 4 periods for a 60 days experiment, with two levels of nutrient density (normal and decrease nutrient density) and EO (0 and 0.04%). Pigs fed a normal nutrient density diet had an increased average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F) ratio (P < 0.05) than those fed a decreased nutrient density diet. Pigs fed an EO supplementation diet exhibited an increased ADG and G:F ratio (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed a diet without EO supplementation. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) were higher in pigs fed a normal nutrient density diet compared with those fed a decreased nutrient density diet (P < 0.05). The coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of DM, nitrogen, GE and amino acids were improved (P < 0.05) by EO supplementation and a normal nutrient density diet. The ileal digestibility of most amino acids, except threonine, valine, methionine, proline, glycine, alanine, cystine was increased (P < 0.05) in the normal nutrient density diet. In addition, the EO supplementation diet also showed significant positive effects on the CAID of some amino acids (P < 0.05), including isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, and tyrosine. However, no interactive effects were observed in growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and fecal microflora between nutrient density and EO supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.04% EO has beneficial effects on growth performance and apparent ileal digestibility.
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This short communication makes use of Mashelkar's "Golden Triangle" of scientific, modern and traditional medicine as a unified approach to combat Swine Influenza A/H1N1 crisis in a safe, costeffective manner. It considers the theoretical approach that can be effectively utilized when scientific systems take plunge into the unfamiliar waters of Ayurvedic biology. This paper proposes herbal immunomodulators as effective adaptogens along with neuraminidase inhibitors for primary prevention. Finally, in our fight to control H1N1, there is a golden opportunity to bring these different systems together.
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We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila).
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of phytobiotics and organic acids on growth performance of nursery pigs as an alternative to antibiotics. Phytobiotics refer bioactive compounds from plant materials including essential oils and herbal extracts. In Exp. 1, 144 pigs, weaned at 23.4??.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments. Treatment diets were: 1) NC (no antibiotics and no phytobiotics); 2) PC (NC+carbadox, 50 mg/kg); and 3) PB (NC+phytobiotics; 0.1% PEP1000-1??. Each treatment had six replicates with eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 5 wks in 3 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 2 wk; phase 3 for 1 wk). In Exp. 2, 192 pigs, weaned at 19.2??.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments: 1) NC; 2) PC; and 3) PBO (NC+phytobiotics; 0.2% or 0.1% PEP1000-1??and organic acids; 0.4% or 0.2% Biotronic??for the phase 1 and 2, respectively) with eight replicates per treatment and eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the assigned diets for 5 wks in 2 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 3 wk). Body weights were measured at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Feed intake was measured at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Diarrhea score was measured daily during the entire period for Exp. 1 and during the phase 1 for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the PC had a higher (p0.05) from the NC or the PC. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period. The overall ADFI and the overall gain:feed ratio did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period in both Exp. 1 and 2. The PC had a higher (p
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The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1∼6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3∼6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1∼6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4∼6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28°C to 14°C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.
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Although there is evidence on the benefits in the use of immunostimulants in aquaculture, there are few commercial products being used. This study evaluated the use of natural substances as potential sources for the production of immunostimulants. Propolis and Aloe vera have been widely studied and its extracts have different chemical constituents responsible for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant. Tilapia juveniles were fed for two weeks with diets supplemented mix of propolis extracts and aloe (1:1) in different concentrations: 0.5, 1 e 2%. After the experimental period, fish blood was collected for hematoimmunological as follows : hematocrit, total plasma protein, erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), differential leukocyte count, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antimicrobial activity, serum antimicrobial activity (evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterococcus durans and Escherichia coli). Except for higher number of thrombocytes in 1%-supplemented fish, the rest did not show significant difference.
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This study was performed to investigate and compare the effect of different feed additives on growth performance, slaughter parameters, immune response, leukocyte profile and blood biochemical parameters of broilers. A total of 350 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to seven treatments with five replicates each (10 chickens per replicate). Chickens were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5 g/kg black seed (BS1), 10 g/kg black seed (BS2), 20 g/kg black seed (BS3), 1 g/kg probiotic (Pro), 1 g/kg prebiotic (Pre) or 1 g/kg synbiotic (Syn). Average body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were determined during the starter (0 to 10 days), grower (11 to 28 days) and finisher (29–42 days) periods, and also for the total experimental period (0–42 days). Three chickens per replicate were randomly selected to evaluate a cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reaction to phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) on days 35 and 36. Blood samples (2 samples per replicate) were taken for measuring antibody responses (days 28 and 42), and also for hematological and biochemical analysis (day 42). After 6 weeks, BWG was higher for Syn-fed chickens compared with control group (P<0.05). From 0 to 42 days, FCR was improved by diets BS2, Pro and Syn by approximately 6.3, 6.3 and 7.3% respectively, compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The toe web swelling, as cell mediated response to PHA-P, in the chickens fed diets BS3 and Syn was respectively 30.5 and 27.1% greater than in chickens fed control diet (P<0.05). All diets, except diets BS1 and BS2, increased primary antibody response against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) at 28 days (P<0.05). Moreover, broilers fed diets BS3, Pro and Syn showed the higher secondary anti-SRBC titers and lower plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at 42 days (P<0.05). Other measured parameters, including FI, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profile, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio and plasma glucose and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplemented with probiotic, synbiotic or 10 to 20 g/kg black seed improved FCR of broilers and improved plasma lipid profile and antibody-mediated immunity. These findings justify further investigations to evaluate the efficacy of these additives before field application.
Article
Objective The trial involved 240 Ross 308 broiler chicks in order to investigate the effects of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens.Methods Birds were assigned to 4 treatments: control feed, antibiotic group receiving 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and 5 and 10 g/kg pennyroyal powder added to the basal diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at d 1, 14, 28 and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for the determination of carcass traits. Antibody titers against newcastle, influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were determined.ResultsPerformance, Internal organ weights and carcass characteristics were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments at day 42. Humoral immune responses were not affected by dietary treatments.Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of pennyroyal powder seem not to have a positive influence on growth performance of broiler chicks.
Article
This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308) were weighted and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control), control+4.5mg flavophospholipol/kg, or control+7 or 12g neem fruit powder/kg. Body weights of broilers were determined at d 1, 14, 28, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At d 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. Antibody titers against Newcastle, influenza viruses, and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were determined. Dietary supplementation of flavophospholipol increased final body weight of broilers at 42d of age compared with those fed diets supplemented with neem (P
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The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3∼12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 hours. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.
Article
Methanol extract from the dried aerial root of Ficus benghalensis, was used to evaluate antibacterial activity on the bacterial strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli, by disc diffusion method. In order to study, if there is any immunostimulatory response of F. benghalensis, immunized fish were fed with supplementary artificial feed containing 5% F. benghalensis dried root powder. There was no marked difference in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in control and treated fish, suggesting that the supplementary feed had no adverse effect on liver or kidney. Serum lysozyme, tissue super oxide dismutase (SOD), percentage phagocytosis, phagocytotic index, nitric oxide (NO), total serum protein and immunoglobulin increased significantly in the treated fish compared to control fish. Serum immunoglobulin levels were estimated by development of a sandwich ELISA, and levels were found to increase with successive immunizations of BSA.
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The ability to control an immune response for the benefit and production efficiency of animals is the objective of immunomodulation in food-producing animals; substances that exert this control are called immunomodulators. A Spanish product (Inmunicín MAYMO®), based on food plant phytosterols, is being commercialized as complementary feed. The main component of this product is Beta-sitosterol (BSS). BSS and its glycoside (BSSG) have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplasic, anti-pyretic and immune-modulating activity demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The objective of the present study was to characterize the effect of BSS on the pig immune system using in vitro cell cultures first and to elucidate whether BSS possesses any in vivo activity in fattener pigs after vaccination with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified life vaccine (MLV). Firstly, our in vitro results showed that BSS increased viable peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) numbers and it activated swine dendritic cells (DCs) in culture. Secondly, pigs treated with phytosterols prior to vaccination with PRRSV-MLV vaccine exhibited some changes in immunological parameters at different times post-vaccination, such as the proliferation ability of PBMC after phytohemaglutinin stimulation and increased apolipoprotein A1 plasma concentration which may contribute to enhance PRRSV vaccine response. In conclusion, the data in this report show that BSS can be considered an immunomodulator in pigs.
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against pathogen invasion and disease formation. The use of immunostimulants in fish culture can prevent the diseases through augmentation of both specific and non-specific immunity. Objective: A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of different dietary doses of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr. Serr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract for the immune response and the disease resistance of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio Linn. (Cyprinidae) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila Chester (Aeromonadaceae). Materials and Methodology: Hematological, specific immune response, non-specific immune response and enzyme assay studies were performed on fish and were scrutinized after 50 days of feeding trial. Results: Fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1.5 × 104 cells/mL through intraperitoneal injection, and the hematological changes, the immune response, the enzyme activity and the disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio against the pathogen were also studied for 20 days at 5-day intervals. Discussion: The results obtained from the study demonstrated that the fish fed with leaf extract of Aegle marmelos incorporated into feed significantly enhanced the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, phagocytic activity, nitroblue tetrazolium chloride assay, lysozyme, pathogen clearance and enzyme activity compared with the control group. The survivability was higher in the fish which consumed leaf extract-incorporated feed, and the fish group fed with 5 g diet showed highest percentage survival of the fish. Conclusion: These results indicate that Aegle marmelos stimulates the immunity and makes the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio more resistant to Aeromonas hydrophila.
Article
The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of immunomodulators or biological response modifiers (BRM) for this purpose. These compounds are agents that modify the host's response to pathogens leading to beneficial effects on disease outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng (GS) extract on the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of monocytes/macrophages present in bovine mammary tissues at drying off. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of GS (3mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. The analyses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by immunohistochemistry revealed that the production of this proinflammatory cytokine significantly increased (P<0.05) in the inoculated mammary glands of cows following BRM inoculation, whereas the interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and IL-6 staining area was not affected by BRM treatment. The number of monocytes/macrophages detected with CD14 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.05) in BRM-treated quarters than in placebo and uninoculated control quarters. These results indicated an immunomodulator potential of the BRM used. The beneficial effect of the extract could be used as alternative therapy in the control of mastitis at drying off, either alone or in conjunction with dry cow antibiotic therapy.
Article
The development and duration of immune protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infections with garlic as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied. Rainbow trout fingerlings of 14 g average weight were fed with 0 g (=Control), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days. Physiological factors, biochemical, immunological, haematological parameters and electrolyte indices were evaluated after a further 14, 21 and 28 days before challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fourteen days after the cessation of feeding with garlic, mortality rates of 12% (relative percent survival [RPS] = 86%) and 16% (RPS = 80%) were recorded in groups which received 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed, respectively, compared to 84% mortalities in the controls. The corresponding RPS 21 days after ending the feeding regime was 75% and 68, respectively. One week later, the RPS had dropped to 55% and 46% in the groups fed with 0.5 g and 1.0 g garlic 100 g(-1) of feed, respectively.
Article
In this study, non-specific immune effects of tetra (Cotinus coggyria) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary intake were investigated. Fish were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing 0.5% and 1.0% tetra for 3 weeks. After this period, fish were switched back to the basal diet for additional 6 weeks. Extracellular and intracellular respiratory burst activities, phagocytosis in blood leukocytes, lysozyme activities, and total plasma protein levels were evaluated at the end of the tetra feeding period and every 3 weeks during the basal diet period. Extracellular and intracellular respiratory burst activities, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and total protein level parameters of the groups containing 0.5% and 1.0% tetra were higher than the control group at the end of the 3rd, 6th and 9th weeks, respectively (P < 0.05). The highest values of the non-specific immune parameters were observed in the group fed with 1.0% tetra. Tetra groups did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05) in terms of specific growth rate and average weight of the fish.
Article
The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg⁻¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp.
Article
Respiratory burst, lysozyme and phagocytic activities, and immunoglobulin levels in response to the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila were examined in tilapia (Oreochromis mossanbicus, 10.65 +/- 2.5 g) injected individually with hot-water extract of Toona sinensis at 4 or 8 microg g(-1). Tilapia receiving the hot-water extract of T. sinensis at either dose had significantly increased respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity towards A. hydrophila by 1 and 2 days post injection. No significant differences in total immunoglobulin levels were observed among the tilapia that received the two different doses of hot-water extract of T. sinensis at 4 and 8 microg g(-1). In another experiment, a Tilapia that had been injected with hot-water extract of T. sinensis was challenged with A. hydrophila at 5 x 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu) fish(-1). The survival of tilapia that received the hot-water extract of T. sinensis at 8 microg g(-1) was significantly higher than fish that received phosphate buffered saline and the control fish after 2 days, and at the termination of the experiment (7 days after the challenge). It was concluded that the hot-water extract of T. sinensis at 8 microg g(-1) or less had increased the immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection in tilapia.