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DESIGN FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING: A CREATIVE APPROACH

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Example of a generation of a creative AM concept following the Creative-DFAM steps 1/ Features Discovery (Figure 3 stage 1) – The first task for R&D designers is to gather examples of AM products (i.e features already realized in AM) and other domains examples (i.e features not yet realized in AM). The examples can be represented by pictures, words or artifacts. The purpose of this stage is to have a great view of what has been done and what can still be created. The survey has to be regularly enriched to update the two taxonomies. Then, designers name the examples' features with keywords and 3D model these features in a simplified and editable manner. In the showed illustration (Figure 4 stage 1) a turbine blade is identified among others as a product already realized in AM. It is described by two keywords: ROTATIVE and INTERNAL CHANNEL. Two others domains examples COLORED INK and A STEEL BALL have been identified, among others, as not yet linked to AM. Their features are named LEAVE A TRACE and ROLL. As an output, designers form an extended portfolio of examples. 2/ Exploration (Figure 3 stage 2) – This stage consists in randomly and systematically associating an example of one wheel to an example of the other wheel. In other terms, designers conduct forced associations of AM examples with OD examples in order to generate ideas. At least one idea should be formulated for each association. For example (Figure 4 stage 2), blade's features are associated to colored ink and steel ball features to generate the idea of a blade that integrates a colored ink in its internal channel and a steel ball at the end of it in order to leave a trace when it's rolling. Similar to a cartridge the idea is called " the cartridge blade " . The idea is represented by modifying the input simple 3D model. The output of this stage is a case-base of various and numerous ideas that present potential opportunities for collaborative R&D. 3/ Ideas evaluation (Figure 3 stage 3) – A first idea evaluation is conducted by AM experts. The generated ideas are faced to AM processes in order to scale the ideas at a mature level i.e they are feasible with current AM processes or an emergent level i.e potentially feasible if AM processes improve. Some associations could be evaluated as impossible due to major technical limit or technical risk. The association would be then eliminated. The proof of the ideas feasibility is established by actually additively manufacture them as shown in Figure 4 stage 3. This stage leads to a reduced portfolio of ideas embodied in artifacts. 4/ Concept generation (Figure 3 stage 4) – The artifacts and their manipulation stimulates analogical reasoning to translate the previous ideas into concepts which show application scenarios. As shown in our example (Figure 4 stage 4), the scenario of a " cartridge blade " used to help operators in adjusting rotative blades has been formulated. The blades should leave a constant and uniform trace on the support if they are well adjusted. This stage is conducted by designers in a co-design approach with industrial stakeholders in order to enhance the formulation of concepts with a high client value. This stage output is a base of concepts sheets describing potential products to be developed for industrial sectors.
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INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE - DESIGN 2016
Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 16 - 19, 2016.
DESIGN FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING: A
CREATIVE APPROACH
A.-l. Rias, C. Bouchard, F. Segonds and S. Abed
Keywords: design for additive manufacturing, DFAM, creative design,
creativity, design method
1. Introduction
Our research object is focused on Design For Additive Manufacturing (DFAM) methods, from a creative
design point of view. It appears that some existing methods already integrate some creative approaches
but they guide to generate only partially creative concepts, while AM is recognized to have a great
potential in new designs. We thus propose a framework of a creative DFAM method in this paper.
AM allows to introduce complexity in products at four levels: in their shape, material distribution,
structure hierarchy and functionality [Rosen 2007], [Gibson et al. 2010]. To exploit this potential,
several Design for Additive Manufacturing (DFAM) methods have been developed, with various design
purposes. This paper aims first at presenting an overview of current DFAM methods, focusing on the
input data and the initial Intermediate Representation (IR) they allow to define [Bouchard et al. 2005].
We identified that these methods impact differently the product definition and we propose to categorize
them in 3 levels of changes, formal newness, functional reconfiguration and AM form & function
implementation. However, among these methods, a very few are oriented to the generation of creative
concepts i.e AM concepts whose features are new, realistic and useful [Bonnardel 2000]. In order to
support the generation of creative concepts in AM, this paper aims at proposing a 5 stages creative
approach to be integrated in early stages of DFAM methods. This approach intends to foster designers
to explore new design features, by taking into account both intra-domain and far-domain sources of
inspiration as input data.
2. Overview and limits of current DFAM methods
2.1 DFAM principles
As the specific orientation of Design For X (DFX) for the AM paradigm, DFAM groups methods that
are intented to manage the required knowledge about product, process and material as soon as the
beginning of the product lifecycle i.e the so-called early stages of the design process [Segonds et al.
2014]. Opportunistic DFAM methods guide designers to take into account AM specificities, such as the
geometrical and material distribution freedoms, from the beginning and during the design process. These
methods lead them to the creation of IRs [Hague et al. 2003], [Doubrovski et al. 2011]. Other methods,
called Restrictive consider AM limits and define criteria, such as manufacturability and cost, to evaluate
the IR regarding AM specificities [Alimardani et al. 2007], [Rafi et al. 2013]. They guide designers to
progress from an ideal IR to realistic ones by embodying variations due to the manufacturing constraints.
The 3rd category Dual DFAM groups methods combining the two previous approaches [Laverne et al.
2015]. These authors assert that Dual DFAM is more suitable for product innovation since it guides
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designers to exploit AM potential in a realistic way. Indeed, by conducting as soon as early stages both
IR creation and IR evaluation, these methods help avoiding late design changes which cause extra cost
and longer development time. However according to this author, Dual DFAM represents less than 30%
of existing DFAM methods. It highlights the need of more researches in this category of early stages of
Dual DFAM methods.
2.2 Dual DFAM methods: input data and impact on product’s definition
From the above categorization, we analyzed Dual DFAM methods by focusing on the required input
data and the initial IR they allow to define. Previously to the analysis, it is necessary to define some
terms related to the product. A product can be generally described by its features i.e its main functions
and forms, where function means what the product does and form how it is accomplished. Form means
any aspect of physical properties, shape, geometry, construction, material or dimensions [Ullman 2010].
Functions and forms are embodied during the design process in different IR i.e 2D or 3D graphical,
textual or artifacts that described the product to designers and stakeholders [Bouchard et al. 2005], [Pei
et al. 2011]. The output of the conceptual design stage is embodied in an IR called the initial IR. It
should be also pointed out that there may be several forms to achieve a single function [Ullman 2010].
Being more nuanced, some authors use the terms of inner and outer features [Rodrigue and Rivette
2010] or internal and external features [Maidin et al. 2011] to distinguish which forms and functions
define the product boundaries (outer) from those that are not situated at the interface with an
environment or with an other component in case of an assembly. Finally, function and behavior can be
differentiated. The function that the product will achieve is known as the design process starts with a
design brief, even if the form is still not defined. Function is then the desired output of the process, or
the theoretical what. The behavior can be known if the forms of the product are defined, it is the actual
output of the process, or the physical how [Ullman 2010].
Based on these definitions we identified that Dual DFAM methods, which exploit some AM
specificities, have different approaches to process from input data to the creation of an initial IR. We
propose to categorize them in 3 levels as we noticed, through the qualities of the generated initial IR, 3
levels of changes. We described them in the figure below: Level 1 Formal newness, Level 2
Functional reconfiguration, Level 3 – Form & Function implementation.
Level 1: Formal newness DFAM methods of this category are oriented to the redesign of existing
products. Designers start the process knowing most of the product’s data: they know what are its inner
and outer functions, how are its inner and outer forms and the product behavior. The purpose of these
methods is to redesign in order to make the product suitable and optimized for AM. As shown in Figure
1 (left), the used input data refers to the existing product forms, functions and assembly constraints.
Some methods propose to represent them as a CAD model [Rosen 2007], [Maheshwaraa et al. 2007]
and [Chu et al. 2008] or a 3D scan file [Tang et al. 2014]. This initial IR describes the physical formal
and functional boundaries of the product to be designed. Then, exploiting the opportunities brought by
AM to manufacture shape and hierarchy complexity, a parametric lattice structure is chosen among
different patterns inspired by nature, cellular, crystalline, orthogonal and others. The lattice is then
deployed into the CAD model. This stage results in a new inner form regarding the existing product.
Parametric optimization method is then applied on the resulting geometry according to the product
constraints. The behavior of the optimized form is simulated in order to evaluate how well this new
inner form performs the initial requirements.
In order to help designers to not limit themselves to their usual approach [Gerber and Barnard 2007],
other DFAM methods propose to first automatically generate a 3d model from the functions,
representing only component skin and skeleton [Vayre et al. 2012], [Ponche 2013]. When combined, the
resulting initial IR is an elementary shape i.e the theoretical formal and functional boundaries of the
product to be designed. According to Ullman’s definition, it can be named an elementary form. As AM
allows to manufacture any complex shapes, topological optimization methods are then used to generate
an optimized form, within the theoretical boundaries, that realizes the functions while satisfying the
constraints. This generated form is new regarding the existing product in both its inner and outer
definitions. The behavior of this new optimized form is simulated with the integration of a
manufacturing strategy, the process and post-process constraints and a manufacturing costs estimation
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to obtain a realistic form, which is guaranteed to be additively manufacturable. This form is finally
evaluated to check how well it performs the initial requirements. To sum up, in this category, AM
specificities are exploited with methods which consider as input data existing form and functions. The
firstly described methods conduct to define an initial IR which embodies the existing features in a
manner that the available design space, where changes can be made, is reduced to the inner form of the
product. The secondly described methods conduct to create an initial IR which also represents existing
features. But by considering it theoretical, the available design space allows changes in both inner and
outer form definition of the product.
Figure 1. Workflows of current DFAM methods, adapted from [Maheshwaraa et al. 2007],
[Rodrigue and Rivette 2010], [Maidin et al. 2011], [Ponche 2013], [Boyard et al. 2013]
Level 2: Functional reconfiguration - Methods of this category are dedicated to the re/design of
existing products that embody assemblies i.e the definition of the relation between multiple component,
since AM allows to produce several components in one build. The purpose of the method proposed by
[Rodrigue and Rivette 2010] is the consolidation i.e to reduce the number of components of existing
assemblies or of existing whole products [Munguia et al. 2007]. In order to define the initial IR of the
assemblies, all the existing features are first mapped in functional sets visually represented by a CAD
model (see Figure 1 – center). Two criteria are applied to identify which components of the assembly
can be eliminated or grouped with other ones: the need to be separated for maintenance and the need to
move relatively to the connected components. Once the candidates are eliminated this step results in a
reconfiguration of the existing assembly i.e changes in the relation between components while keeping
functions identical to the mapped assembly. The new configuration groups functional sets represented
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413
by a redesigned CAD model. This CAD model is considered as being the initial IR. Then, flow-force
diagrams are used to identify new technical specifications (example: minimize the amount of heat
transfer to the motor) to optimize the functions. A creative problem solving tool based on TRIZ
methodology is used to find the action levers (change material or modify geometry) [Savransky 2002].
The resulting product representation is finally optimized through finite elements analysis and materials
are selected.
Developing his DFAM method, [Boyard et al. 2013] (Figure 1 – center) proposed a similar approach.
This method is oriented both to the design of new assemblies or redesign of existing ones as the author
determines the input data only from customer needs, translated into specifications. The first step is
grouping functions to define functional sets. The resulting product’s representation is a 3D graph where
dots represent functions and segments connections between functions. The forms which embody each
set of functions are defined by case-base reasoning. Practically, each set of functions is compared to a
use-case database to identify similar sets. When similar sets exist, their CAD representation are extracted
and applied or adapted to the set to be designed, depending on the process, assembly, material and
manufacturing constraints. The 3D graph which embodies both the functions and their forms is the initial
IR of the assembly. According to the author, the 3D graph is made modular so it can be reconfigured
along to the discussions with the stakeholders. This may cause a new database search to define the forms
which achieve the functions and therefore involve modifications on the CAD model. When the
configuration of the assembly is considered defined, the whole design is evaluated according to
assemblability criteria to obtain the final product representation. We retain that in the described methods
product features are mapped in functional sets, which are therefore the initial IR. These approaches
allow to reconfigure the relations between the components of the assemblies while they consider as input
data existing functions, which are not specific to AM, and/or the ones asked by the customer. The
reconfiguration impacts the product definition at its formal level, indeed both the inner and outer forms
of the sets have to be redesigned as soon as the functions configuration is changed.
Level 3: AM Form & Function implementation Methods of this category are intended to the design
or redesign of products. The purpose of the methods developed by [Burton 2005] and in the following
[Maidin et al. 2011] (see Figure 1- right) is to globally emphasize the use of AM capabilites in product
design. From the design specifications, the product desired features are assessed regarding AM
specificities through a questionnaire [Burton 2005]. This stage intends first to evaluate if AM is
recommended regarding major specificities (production volume, desired surface finish, mechanical
property and accuracy). Secondly it intends to identify which are the most important features required
for the product. Based on the answers, a “concept profile is determined” among four [Maidin et al. 2011
p.183]. The concept profile selection opens to a cases base of existing features represented by pictures
of existing products made with AM and keywords describing their functions. Similarly to the method
proposed by [Boyard et al. 2013], the concept is defined by analogical reasoning. In this case, designers
are suggested to implement specific AM functions and forms which are relevant for their product to be
designed. The generated concept, which is the initial IR, is evaluated according to the initial
requirements and further detailed until the final design. Finally, in this category, the methods consider
as input data features that have already been already realized in AM. With these methods AM impacts
the product definition at both its formal and functional levels.
2.3. Limits of current DFAM methods regarding creative concepts generation
Through the presented 3 levels classification, we note that the ability to generate creative concepts with
DFAM methods depends on the main purpose of the employed method, on the nature of the input data
and on the integration of a creative approach.
As described in section 2.2, Dual DFAM methods follow 3 strategies which already integrate some
creative approaches and creativity tools, and thus generate some creative outputs. We compare the 3
strategies and the qualities of the generated concepts (represented by the initial IR) in a summary table
(see table 1 below). The main result of this comparison is that the existing Dual DFAM methods guide
designers to generate only partially creative concepts while fully creative concepts are suitable for a
more radical innovation than incremental innovation [Garcia and Calantone 2002].
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Table 1. Summary table comparing the DFAM strategies and their generated concepts qualities
of the 3 identified levels (X = No newness, O = Newness)
Generated concepts qualities Level 1: Formal
newness
Level 2: Functional
reconfiguration
Level 3: AM F &
F implementation
DFAM methods authors [Rosen 2007],
[Maheshwaraa et al.
2007],
[Chu et al. 2008],
[Vayre et al. 2012],
[Ponche 2013],
[Tang et al. 2014]
[Munguia et al.
2007],
[Rodrigue and
Rivette 2010],
[Boyard et al. 2013]
[Burton 2005],
[Maidin et al.
2011]
New
what
Functions (25%) X X O
Forms (25%) O O O
New to AM industry (25%) O X X
Conventional industry
(25%)
O X O
Level of newness allowed by the
methods (max. 100%)
75% 25% 75%
Realistic to AM capabilities O X O
Concepts qualities are defined according to criteria of [Garcia and Calantone 2002 p.113] who specifies
that newness should be evaluated from both the perspectives of what is new and who is it new to. Based
on the definition of [Bonnardel 2000], we define that, in our study, creative concepts are concepts whose
features are fully new i.e never realized in traditional industry nor AM industry, and are realistic and
useful. Methods of Level 1 (see left column on Table 1 above), based on optimization techniques, use
analogical reasoning from various examples of lightweight and resistant structures like bones, crystals
or cells development, to generate AM lattice structures. This bionic approach leads to new forms which
can be produced only by AM. However, these methods do not include a functional analysis. Indeed,
product’s functions are considered as fixed input data, they are not questioned regarding AM
capabilities. More oriented to the achievement of an initial form and its improvement for
manufacturability, these methods guide to the definition of concepts which can be realistic but only
partially new, i.e their forms are new regarding both existing AM and conventional industries (see left
column – Lines 3 and 4) while their functions are not new regarding these worlds (see left column
Line 1). On the contrary, the main concern of Level 2 methods (see center column on Table 1) is the
definition of functional assemblies, via focusing on the arrangement of the components. Case-based
reasoning is used to define component’s features, applied from a database of precedents i.e previously
designed artifacts showing existing technical solutions that are not specific to AM. The creative tool
TRIZ is used in downstream stages, when features are already defined, to target which of them can be
optimized. Finally, these methods do not ensure manufacturability. They thus guide to the generation of
concepts that may be useful but not new regarding conventional industry nor AM industry (see center
column – Lines 3 and 4) The realism of the generated concepts regarding AM feasibility is not evaluated
then considered uncertain. Similarly, in methods of Level 3, analogical reasoning from precedents is
used to define rather components or whole systems, and both at their functional and formal levels. In
this case, the considered precedents are specific to AM. These methods guide designers to the generation
of concepts which can be new regarding existing conventional products and realistic regarding AM
capabilities. However, by using only AM precedents they condition creative opportunities without
looking for new solutions. Moreover, restricting designers to some existing solutions seems to be a not
robust approach since current AM background is quite reduced, due to the relative newness of AM
processes compared to others industrial processes [Ponche 2013]. This background is also expected to
be expanded along to AM processes improvements [Wohlers 2013].
This overview of current Dual DFAM methods emphasized that the adopted creative approaches, do not
guide to the generation of creative concepts but restrain designers to partially new concepts (a maximum
of 75% of newness). We believe that to unlimit input data only to existing features could enhance the
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415
generation of creative concepts. We thus propose a creative model to be integrated in early stages of
DFAM methods, to support creative concepts generation in AM. The proposed framework is described
in the following section 4.
4. A creative approach for early stages of DFAM
4.1 Purpose
Creative designers use sources of inspiration as input data in order to stimulate ideas production. They
gather visual and textual information to get inspiration about features that could be, by analogical or
case-based reasoning, implemented in the product to be designed [Ansburg and Hill 2003],
[Goldschmidt and Smolkov 2006]. In the same way, they also use precedents. By being examples of
existing solutions, artifacts, graphical and textual information embody design knowledge which
activates the designer’s personal knowledge. Recently activated knowledge is used to generate ideas
[Pasman 2003]. According to [Bonnardel and Marmèche 2005] inspirational examples can be found
within the product domain (i.e intra-domain), in this case within mechanical design, AM processes and
AM products background. They also can be found far from these domains. DFAM methods of Levels 2
and 3 showed that inspiration from intra-domain leads to partially creative concepts while Level 1
methods inspired by far-domain sources (Nature in this case) also guide to partially creative concepts.
Therefore, we assume that our method must rely on associations between intra-domain examples and
far-domain examples. Thus, our method intends to foster designers’ creativity by crossing AM examples
with other domains examples. The goal of this forced association is to extend the design space to new
possible concepts. Based on this approach, we propose a framework called Creative-DFAM.
4.2 Framework of the proposed Creative-DFAM method
This 5 stages Creative-DFAM method is rooted in [Maidin et al. 2011]’s approach but with the
integration of other domains examples inspiration such as in the Level 1 methods. The forced and
systematic association of 2 different domains examples is inspired by the work of [Yoon and Park 2005]
on morphology analysis to forecast R&D opportunities. The method can be used by both engineers and
industrial designers who already have some knowledge about AM processes. It is intended to impulse
R&D collaborations between designers and industrial stakeholders interested in emphasizing the use of
AM in the industrial sector they work for. We specify that this framework is dedicated to AM design
projects only, not to projects where the choice between AM or conventional processes is not yet done.
The method starts when general design specifications are available. The framework of our Creative-
DFAM method is represented in Figure 3 below. To illustrate our method, we propose an example: the
generation of a creative AM concept of a turbine blade (Figure 4).
Figure 3. Framework of the proposed Creative-DFAM method
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DESIGN METHODS
Figure 4. Example of a generation of a creative AM concept following the Creative-DFAM steps
1/ Features Discovery (Figure 3 stage 1) The first task for R&D designers is to gather examples of
AM products (i.e features already realized in AM) and other domains examples (i.e features not yet
realized in AM). The examples can be represented by pictures, words or artifacts. The purpose of this
stage is to have a great view of what has been done and what can still be created. The survey has to be
regularly enriched to update the two taxonomies. Then, designers name the examples’ features with
keywords and 3D model these features in a simplified and editable manner. In the showed illustration
(Figure 4 stage 1) a turbine blade is identified among others as a product already realized in AM. It is
described by two keywords: ROTATIVE and INTERNAL CHANNEL. Two others domains examples
COLORED INK and A STEEL BALL have been identified, among others, as not yet linked to AM.
Their features are named LEAVE A TRACE and ROLL. As an output, designers form an extended
portfolio of examples.
2/ Exploration (Figure 3 stage 2) This stage consists in randomly and systematically associating an
example of one wheel to an example of the other wheel. In other terms, designers conduct forced
associations of AM examples with OD examples in order to generate ideas. At least one idea should be
formulated for each association. For example (Figure 4 stage 2), blade’s features are associated to
colored ink and steel ball features to generate the idea of a blade that integrates a colored ink in its
internal channel and a steel ball at the end of it in order to leave a trace when it’s rolling. Similar to a
cartridge the idea is called “the cartridge blade”. The idea is represented by modifying the input simple
3D model. The output of this stage is a case-base of various and numerous ideas that present potential
opportunities for collaborative R&D.
3/ Ideas evaluation (Figure 3 stage 3) A first idea evaluation is conducted by AM experts. The
generated ideas are faced to AM processes in order to scale the ideas at a mature level i.e they are
feasible with current AM processes or an emergent level i.e potentially feasible if AM processes
improve. Some associations could be evaluated as impossible due to major technical limit or technical
risk. The association would be then eliminated. The proof of the ideas feasibility is established by
actually additively manufacture them as shown in Figure 4 stage 3. This stage leads to a reduced
portfolio of ideas embodied in artifacts.
4/ Concept generation (Figure 3 stage 4)The artifacts and their manipulation stimulates analogical
reasoning to translate the previous ideas into concepts which show application scenarios. As shown in
our example (Figure 4 stage 4), the scenario of a “cartridge blade” used to help operators in adjusting
rotative blades has been formulated. The blades should leave a constant and uniform trace on the support
if they are well adjusted. This stage is conducted by designers in a co-design approach with industrial
stakeholders in order to enhance the formulation of concepts with a high client value. This stage output
is a base of concepts sheets describing potential products to be developed for industrial sectors.
DESIGN METHODS
417
5/ Concept evaluation (Figure 3 stage 5) – The purpose is to identify the concepts to be further detailed
and optimized in downstream DFAM stages. The required profiles for the evaluation are experts of AM
who have a good understanding of industrial sectors where AM is integrated, such as innovation
managers, senior designers and trade engineers for example. They are asked to say how much the
generated concepts are: 1/ Original (in the sense of new) regarding traditional products of the involved
industrial sector and regarding AM industry, 2/ Useful regarding the involved industrial sector (client
value), 3/ Realistic regarding AM capacities. For example, the “cartridge blade” is considered new since
it integrates new functions and forms, and since the associated features have not been already realized
in AM industry.
Table 2. Originality evaluation of the generated concept “Cartridge blade”
New what Functions (25%) O
Forms (25%) O
New to AM industry (25%) O
Conventional industry
(25%)
O
Level of newness of the concept 100%
5. Discussion
The proposed Creative-DFAM method is intended to increase the number of generated ideas. Indeed, as
shown in the example, one forced association suggests at least one idea. As the forced associations are
systematic, the method support designers in not neglecting some conceptual possibilities. Forced
associations also help designers to generate creative concepts without limiting themselves or
prematurely eliminating some ideas. In our example, the forced association suggests the inclusion of
colored ink in an AM product. As not yet been realized in AM, this concept raises several design
questions. But instead of eliminating the idea, designers are invited by the method to explore it. The
generated result is an original concept, as an AM part that includes colored ink as not yet been realized
in AM. Even if this method is here just illustrated with an example, it opens a prospect on the role of a
creative method and tool in AM product innovation.
6. Conclusion and future work
Although creative design is a well-known approach for product innovation, only a few DFAM methods
integrate one, and only partially, while AM is said to have an important product innovation potential.
The purpose of this article was first to understand how creative approaches are taken into account in
current DFAM methods. We propose a 3 levels classification of current Dual DFAM methods and a
comparison of the generated concepts’qualities. The classification highlights that the existing creative
approaches in Dual DFAM condition innovation’s opportunities to already known features without
supporting the search for new concepts. The cited methods don’t lead to creative concepts. We thus
proposed a framework called Creative-DFAM to support designers in early design stages, for the
exploration and generation of new concepts in AM. It guides designers through 5 steps in order to
generate creative concepts which exploit the unique AM capabilities. We illustrate the framework with
an example. This study is part of a doctoral thesis, it is expected to be further evaluated through field
experiments with industrial partners. As capabilities of AM are rapidly spreading and companies’ needs
to integrate and exploit them, this framework leads to the development of a creativity toolkit to support
the practice of innovation teams in industrial companies. The use of the toolkit in industrial companies
will allow to evaluate the relevance of the framework.
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Anne-lise Rias, PhD student
Arts et Métiers ParisTech and Poly-Shape, Industrial design
151 boulevard de l'Hopital, 75013 Paris, France
Email: anne-lise.rias@ensam.eu
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... Similarly, Laverne et al. [10] proposed a conceptual design framework for supporting AM-enabled product innovation. Surveying such DFAM contributions, Rias et al. [24] came up with the conclusion that concepts generated for AM were only partially original with "a maximum of 75% newness". They have then proposed a five-stage creative DFAM method fostering the generation of creative concepts exploiting the unique capabilities of AM; the proposed method is somewhat based on the AM design features database presented in Bin Maidin et al. [9]. ...
... The lack of an analysis of what impact AM could have on conceptual design. An issue somehow addressed by the aforementioned conceptual design methods [9][10][11][12]24]. 2. The lack of an explicit functional analysis (FA) method. 3. Too few decision-making decision support tools for easing PC. 4. The deficiency of functional reasoning approaches to generate AM-enabled features. ...
Article
Full-text available
The shape complexity capability of additive manufacturing (AM) is currently the main thrust of the design for AM (DFAM) research. In order to aid designers embracing that complexity-for-free characteristics of AM, many design approaches have been put forth. However, AM does not only benefit parts’ designs: its capability can be harnessed at assembly level to design performant and innovative products. Most of the few contributions on the topic are concerned with part consolidation of existing assemblies, but other advantages such as assembly-free mechanisms, multi-material components, or even component embedding can also improve product design complexity. This paper aims to put forth a thorough DFAM framework for new product development (made of multiple parts) and which consider all the assembly-related characteristics of AM. It considers what can be called AM-based architecture minimization, which includes, among others, part consolidation and assembly-free mechanisms as well. Within context of an ‘AM-factory’, in which the most appropriate machine(s) is/are selected for easing a whole assembly manufacturing before the detailed geometric definition is committed. For the sake of completeness, a methodology based on functional flows has also been investigated for the parts’ design. A gripper as case study has been introduced to illustrate the framework.
... trices est nourrie par l'apport d'informations. [230], [217] et [208] (à gauche), [214] et [215] (au centre), [213] (à droite) celles-ci requièrent comme données d'entrée, leur orientation et la qualité des objets intermédiaires créés [230]. Cette analyse est limitée aux phases initiales de ces méthodologies, pendant lesquelles la capacité créative est particulièrement sollicitée. ...
... trices est nourrie par l'apport d'informations. [230], [217] et [208] (à gauche), [214] et [215] (au centre), [213] (à droite) celles-ci requièrent comme données d'entrée, leur orientation et la qualité des objets intermédiaires créés [230]. Cette analyse est limitée aux phases initiales de ces méthodologies, pendant lesquelles la capacité créative est particulièrement sollicitée. ...
Thesis
Accompagner l’intégration de la fabrication additive dans les grands groupes donneurs d’ordres devient crucial pour les sous-traitants. L’enseignement actuel des procédés et des règles de conception, limité à une vision techno-centrée, ne suffit pas pour projeter ses futures applications dans diverses industries telles que l’aéronautique, l’énergie, le médical, etc... D’un côté, les travaux sur la fabrication additive et les observations de terrain indiquent que les connaissances sur ses procédés, les matériaux et leur mise en œuvre sont régulièrement enrichies. D’un autre côté, les travaux de recherche en créativité montrent qu’il est possible de stimuler la capacité créative des individus pour les guider dans la génération d’idées et de concepts créatifs. Cette thèse explore alors un rapprochement possible entre créativité et fabrication additive, dans la perspective de proposer une méthode de créativité et des outils d’applications spécifiques au paradigme additif. Cette liaison vise à mettre en évidence des moyens de stimuler la créativité, dans le contexte spécifique de la fabrication additive. Cette approche a permis de faire émerger le rôle prépondérant des objets intermédiaires qui articulent les interactions entre plusieurs dimensions de la capacité créative : les motivations, les émotions, l’exploration des connaissances, l’alternance individu/collectif et l’organisation spatiale. Elle a aussi fait émerger le besoin de redéfinir les rôles de ces objets intermédiaires au regard de la fabrication additive. En ce sens, deux dispositifs opérationnels de stimulation, basés sur la manipulation d’objets tangibles, ont été conçus puis testés dans des contextes industriels. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que l’exploration des connaissances matérialisées par ces dispositifs favorise la génération d’idées créatives qui peuvent ouvrir à de futures applications de la fabrication additive. Finalement, une méthode de Créativité par et pour la fabrication additive est proposée. Elle permet d’enrichir à la fois les pratiques méthodologiques des sciences de la conception et les pratiques opérationnelles sur deux terrains : celui de l’industrie de la fabrication additive et celui de l’innovation.
... Al-Samarraie and Hurmuzan reviewed 1677 papers based on the adoption of brainstorming in higher education and proposed the challenges and solutions of various disciplines (Al-Samarraie and Hurmuzan, 2018). Moreover, many researchers explored new technologies (e.g., additive manufacturing and virtual reality) that support students in the design process (Rias et al., 2016;Lindwall and Törlind, 2018;Richter et al., 2018;Barhoush et al., 2019;Ford and Minshall, 2019;Georgiev, 2019;Barhoush, Georgiev and Loudon, 2020;Hu, Nanjappan and Georgiev, 2021). For example, 3D printing has been applied in education, which could spark the educators' interests and engagement and enhance students' creativity (Ford and Minshall, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extant research indicates that Chinese higher education has overlooked creativity. However, based on indirect clues, we infer that the degree of emphasis on creativity and related courses in Chinese higher education has changed. Therefore, we conducted a survey using a questionnaire to compare the creativity-related courses and adopted creativity methods in higher education between China and developed countries. The results indicate that participation rates and assessments of creativity-related courses, adopted creativity methods, and evaluations differ between China and developed countries.
... For this reason, to enhance design creativity in AM, several approaches have been developed, which can be used in the early stages of the design process. For example, Rias et al. [31] proposed a creative approach of DFAM called creative-DFAM, which framework included five stages: features discovery, exploration, ideas evaluation, concept generation, and concept evaluation. The illustrated creative concept was based on a turbine blade design that considered new functions and forms of the part. ...
Article
The design for additive manufacturing (DFAM) processing was introduced to fully utilise the design freedom provided by additive manufacturing (AM). Consequently, appropriate design methodologies have become essential for this technology. Recently, many studies have identified the importance of DFAM method utilisation to produce AM parts, and TRIZ is a strategy used to formalise design methodologies. TRIZ is a problem-solving tool developed to assist designers to find innovative and creative solutions. However, the pathway for synergising TRIZ and DFAM is not clearly explained with respect to AM capabilities and complexities. This is mainly because most methods continue to involve use of the classical TRIZ principle, which was developed early in 1946, 40 years before AM technologies were introduced in the mid-1980s. Therefore, to tackle this issue, this study aims to enhance the 40 principles of classical TRIZ to accommodate AM design principles. A modified TRIZ-AM principle has been developed to define the pathway to AM solutions. TRIZ-AM cards are tools that assist designers to select inventive principles (IPs) in the early phases of product design and development. The case study illustrates that even inexperienced AM users can creatively design innovative AM parts.
... In relation to this, techniques such as 3D printing can, in some circumstances, reduce the costs and the time associated with prototyping activities (Vinodh et al., 2009). However, a range of studies have shown that designing with 3D printing can restrict the creative development of ideas (Greenhalgh, 2016;Prabhu et al., 2018;Rias et al., 2016), although this can be moderated through effective training (Prabhu et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing the range of methods available for researching design cognition provides new opportunities for studying the phenomena of interest. Here we propose an approach for observing design activities, using Virtual Reality (VR) design-build-test games with built-in physics simulation. To illustrate this, we report on two exploratory design workshops where two groups of participants worked to solve a technical design problem using such a platform. Participants were asked to sketch ideas to solve the problem, and then to design, test and iterate some of their developed design concepts in a VR game. Researchers were able to obtain continuous and multifaceted recordings of participants’ behavior during the various design activities. This included on-screen design activities, verbal utterances, physical gestures, digital models of design outputs, and records of the test outcomes. Our experiences with the workshops are discussed with respect to the opportunities that similar VR game platforms offer for design cognition research, both in general and specifically in terms of ideation, prototyping, problem reframing, intrinsic motivation and demonstrated vulnerability. VR game platforms not only offer a valuable addition to existing research options, but additionally offer a basis for developing training interventions in design education and practice.
... Il s'agit, dans un premier temps, de réduire l'inertie psychologique. Pour ce faire, les techniques de créativité [101,102], les catalogues de conception [103], le retour d'expérience, l'observation de la nature, etc. sont encouragés. ...
Thesis
Pendant de nombreuses années, les composants passifs hyperfréquences ont été utilisés dans des systèmes de communication notamment pour des chaînes d'alimentation d'antenne. Ce type d'équipement radiofréquence est déjà largement opérationnel dans différents domaines tels que les communications satellite, les radars, les observations spatiales etc. en raison de leurs avantages de faibles pertes ainsi que de leur capacité élevée de gestion d'énergie. Seulement, avec l'émergence de nouvelles technologies et une concurrence considérable sur le marché de la défense, les clients sont de plus en plus demandeurs de produits de moins en moins coûteux avec des délais d’obtention toujours plus courts, avec des exigences liées aux performances toutes aussi élevées.Ces dernières années, plusieurs institutions et industries se sont intéressées de plus en plus aux procédés de fabrication additive pour les composants à propagation guidée. Ne nécessitant pas de brut de matière ni d'outillage dédié, les technologies additives apportent de nouvelles perspectives de conception. En particulier, l'ajout de matière couche par couche autorise la fabrication de pièces monolithiques, qui permettraient d'alléger les équipements et de réaliser des économies de temps et de coûts. D'autre part, l'une des plus grandes promesses de la fabrication additive réside dans les degrés de liberté supplémentaires qu'elle offre en conception, permettant de concevoir des architectures complexes et innovantes aux performances accrues, qui seraient irréalisables par des techniques conventionnelles. A ce titre, la fabrication additive a été identifiée comme pouvant jouer un rôle crucial dans le développement de ce type de pièce.Cependant, comme tout procédé de fabrication, les procédés additifs possèdent leurs propres spécificités et contraintes liées aux phénomènes physiques mis en jeu au cours de la fabrication et dont il est nécessaire de tenir compte au cours de la phase de conception pour tirer pleinement profit des avantages qu'ils offrent. Ajoutées aux exigences hyperfréquences, le concepteur doit alors être en capacité d'identifier les liens qui existent entre les domaines de la conception, du procédé et électromagnétique pour garantir une pièce de qualité conforme au cahier des charges.L'objectif de ces travaux de thèse est double. Le premier consiste à identifier les spécificités du procédé de fusion laser sur lit de poudre qui influent majoritairement sur les performances électromagnétiques, de manière à y apporter une attention particulière en phase de conception. Le second porte sur l'élaboration d'une méthode qui intègre les contraintes et opportunités de la fabrication additive tout en répondant aux objectifs, globaux et locaux, issus du cahier des charges hyperfréquences de manière à fabriquer des composants opérationnels.
... While these results present the role of DfAM and AM expertise in encouraging creativity, it is unclear if this creativity is driven by the integration of DfAM, opportunistic or restrictive. (Rias et al., 2016) present a creative-DfAM framework to encourage the creative application of DfAM. In the framework, designers are encouraged to follow five steps: (1) obtaining inspiration from existing AM parts, (2) forced association exploration of similar solutions, (3) expert-guided idea evaluation, (4) concept generation based on this evaluation, and (5) evaluating these generated concepts. ...
Article
The capabilities of additive manufacturing (AM) enable designers to generate and build creative solutions beyond the limitations of traditional manufacturing. However, designers must also accommodate AM limitations to minimize build failures. Several researchers have proposed design tools and educational interventions for integrating design for AM (DfAM) in engineering design. However, there is a need to investigate the effect of DfAM training on industry professionals’ use of these techniques and its subsequent effects on the creativity of their designs. In this paper, we present a workshop-based study in which industry professionals were sequentially introduced to opportunistic and restrictive DfAM. Participants were also given a DfAM task, with short idea generation sessions conducted between each content lecture. The participants’ designs and their DfAM and creative self-efficacies were compared from before to after receiving DfAM training. The results show that DfAM training successfully increased participants’ restrictive DfAM self-efficacy; however, no changes were seen in their opportunistic DfAM or creative self-efficacies. Further, the results show an increase in the uniqueness and overall creativity of the participants’ designs, but no significant changes were seen in the initially high usefulness of the designs. These findings suggest that DfAM training presents an opportunity to encourage creative idea generation.
Chapter
The ever-increasing consolidation of industry 4.0 technologies and the imminent advent of the industry 5.0 paradigms makes it essential to use new methodologies for the generation and the transfer of knowledge in the manufacturing sector.Considering the state of the art regarding pedagogy and Additive Manufacturing (AM) and starting from the need to create a unique tool to make the most of the potential of additive technology, a case-study based on the method called “Double Diamond AM Knowledge Approach” (D2AMKA) is introduced with a deep discussion of the results obtained in the European project CAPT’N’SEE, managed by EIT manufacturing, which saw the collaboration of the Polytechnic of Turin, of the École Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers of Paris and of Add-Up. In extending the D2AMKA, arose the need to create an information system to carry out the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) for an AM process taking into account the differences with traditional processes. In order to satisfy this need will be shown how to apply to the case a previously created model to manage the information of a production process with a lean perspective.To summarize this paper presents a general methodology to (i) capture knowledge needs in a specific manufacturing area and about a specific manufacturing sector, (ii) develop an e-learning path in that manufacturing sector with the collaboration of partners of that manufacturing area, and (iii) organize a journey in the name of training, dissemination, sharing and brainstorming.KeywordsAdditive manufacturingKnowledgeLuxury industryIndustry 5.0
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TiZrTaNbHf refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) film with a thickness of 750 and 1500 nm was deposited on NiTi alloy by RF magnetron sputtering technique and compared with the thermally grown TiO2 film in terms of mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility. RHEA film with the amorphous and homogenous microstructure, outstanding mechanical properties, and enhanced adhesion strength displayed potential to be used as a protective film preventing Ni ion release from the NiTi implants, particularly in long-term applications. Furthermore, RHEA film exhibited an accelerated and promoted hydroxyapatite (HAp) forming ability suggesting excellent bioactivity as well as good bone-bonding ability than thermally grown TiO2 film. The presence of various oxides and sub-oxides played an indispensable role in the rapid nucleation and development of HAp upon RHEA coated specimens' surfaces. The obtained results revealed that RHEA film appears to be the viable alternative coating for TiO2 films on the NiTi biomaterials.
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Full-text available
Manufacturing industries have been practicing additive manufacturing (AM) processes which can generate complex shapes with high degree of accuracy, close dimensional tolerance, and better surface finish. These processes involve the use of technology to improve product design by reducing the number of parts and assemblies with the relevant technology to which design for additive manufacturing (DFAM) emerges. However, the liberation of design which DFAM provided such as function integration and structure simplification have not been deeply investigated. Therefore, to envisage the revamping of these design potentials provided by DFAM to improve precision of part design, arises with the questions of: how to develop a new part design model for fuse deposition modelling (FDM) process, and how to develop a design process model to integrate traditional design (TD) with DFAM. Subsequently, we proposed a four-layered design framework to solve the aforementioned-problems with a case study that shows the effectiveness of our approach.
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Additive manufacturing (AM) is emerging as an important manufacturing process and a key technology for enabling innovative product development. Design for additive manufacturing (DFAM) is nowadays a major challenge to exploit properly the potential of AM in product innovation and product manufacturing. However, in recent years, several DFAM methods have been developed with various design purposes. In this paper, we first present a state-of-the-art overview of the existing DFAM methods, then we introduce a classification of DFAM methods based on intermediate representations (IRs) and product's systemic level, and we make a comparison focused on the prospects for product innovation. Furthermore, we present an assembly based DFAM method using AM knowledge during the idea generation process in order to develop innovative architectures. A case study demonstrates the relevance of such approach. The main contribution of this paper is an early DFAM method consisting of four stages as follows: choice and development of (1) concepts, (2) working principles, (3) working structures, and (4) synthesis and conversion of the data in design features. This method will help designers to improve their design features, by taking into account the constraints of AM in the early stages.
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Les méthodologies de Design for Assembly et de Design for Manufacturing visent à rendre les produits plus faciles à fabriquer et à assembler en se basant sur les caractéristiques des procédés actuels de fabrication, toutefois ces caractéristiques ne s'appliquent plus lorsqu'on prend en compte les nouvelles capacités de la Fabrication Additive. Cet article décrit une méthodologie de conception pour la Fabrication Additive qui guide l'utilisateur vers l'optimisation d'un produit en utilisant les capacités de ces nouveaux procédés de fabrication. La méthodologie proposée est ensuite appliquée à un assemblage mécanique. Abstract - Design for Assembly and Design for Manufacturing methodologies aim to make products easier to manufacture and assemble by basing itself off the characteristics of actual manufacturing processes, however these characteristics aren't applicable when taking into account the new capabilities of Additive Manufacturing. This article describes a design methodology for Additive Manufacturing which guides the users towards the optimization of a product using the capabilities of these fabrication processes. The proposed methodology is then applied to a mechanical assembly.
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Product design activity is traditionally presented as a succession of four to six stages. In the early stages of design, during the search for concepts, multi-disciplinary teams are working together, sometimes on the fringe of the digital design chain. But it is during these stages, that most of the product development cost is committed. Therefore, collaboration should be emphasized, and PLM software should contribute to it strongly. This paper first defines the boundaries of the early stages of design. Then, we analyze designer collaboration in this stage and describe the knowledge necessary for efficient collaboration. Finally, we propose and test a concept for a tool to assist the early stages of design, to be integrated in a continuum with other existing digital design tools. A case study is presented in Verallia, specialized in the design and manufacturing of glassware.
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Full-text available
Additive manufacturing technologies can now be used to manufacture metallic parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes possible the fabrication of new shapes and geometrical features. Although the manufacturing feasibility of sample parts with these processes has been the subject of several studies, the breakthrough in manufacturing is yet to be followed by a breakthrough in designing process. In this paper, after reviewing the principle of additive manufacturing of metallic parts, the manufacturing capabilities and constraints of these processes will be examined. A designing methodology will then be suggested and illustrated with the redesign of an example part. (c) 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Professor D. Mourtzis and Professor G. Chryssolouris.
Book
Invention and innovation lie at the heart of problem solving in virtually every discipline, but they are not easy to come by. Divine inspiration aside, historically we have depended primarily on observation, brainstorming, and trial-and-error methods to develop the innovations that provide solutions. But these methods are neither efficient nor dependable enough for the high-quality, high-tech engineering solutions we need today. TRIZ is a unique and powerful, algorithmic approach to problem solving that demonstrated remarkable effectiveness in its native Russia, and whose popularity has now spread to organizations such as Ford, NASA, Motorola, Unisys, and Rockwell International. Until now, however, no comprehensive, comprehensible treatment, suitable for self-study or as a textbook, has been available in English. Engineering of Creativity provides a valuable opportunity to learn and apply the concepts and techniques of TRIZ to complex engineering problems. The author-a world-renowned TRIZ expert-covers every aspect of TRIZ, from the basic concepts to the latest research and developments. He provides step-by-step guidelines, case studies from a variety of engineering disciplines, and first-hand experience in using the methodology. Application of TRIZ can bring high-quality-even breakthrough-conceptual solutions and help remove technical obstacles. Mastering the contents of Engineering of Creativity will bring your career and your company a remarkable advantage: the ability to formulate the best possible solutions for technical systems problems and predict future developments.
Article
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies enable the fabrication of parts and devices that are geometrically complex, have graded material compositions, and can be customized. To take advantage of these capabilities, it is important to assist designers in exploring unexplored regions of design spaces. We present a Design for Additive Manufacturing (DFAM) method that encompasses conceptual design, process selection, later design stages, and design for manufacturing. The method is based on the process-structure-property-behavior model that is common in the materials design literature. A prototype CAD system is presented that embodies the method. Manufacturable ELements (MELs) are proposed as an intermediate representation for supporting the manufacturing related aspects of the method. Examples of cellular materials are used to illustrate the DFAM method.
Conference Paper
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has brought unprecedented freedom to the fabrication of functional parts with high complex, multi-material and gradient density structure. However, currently only traditional design methods are available for AM design process, which do not take full advantage of AM capabilities. Therefore, a new design method with the consideration of all aspects of AM advantages is urgently in need. A detailed literature review on traditional design methods is presented with focused attention on the potential of using these methods to design functional parts for additive manufacturing processes. Based on thorough understanding and comparison of current structure design methods, a new design approach that integrates topological and functional optimizations for AM products is presented. With this method, an essential link is established between topological optimization result and various functional parameters of complex structure. Parts can be designed in multi levels for multi functions simultaneously. This design method provides an important foundation for future research on designing AM products with improved multiple functions and optimized topology.
Chapter
Design for manufacture and assembly (DFM) has typically meant that designers should tailor their designs to eliminate manufacturing difficulties and minimize manufacturing, assembly, and logistics costs. However, the capabilities of additive manufacturing technologies provide an opportunity to rethink DFM to take advantage of the unique capabilities of these technologies. As we will cover in Chap. 14, several companies are now using AM technologies for production manufacturing. For example, Siemens, Phonak, Widex, and the other hearing aid manufacturers use selective laser sintering and stereolithography machines to produce hearing aid shells, Align Technology uses stereolithography to fabricate molds for producing clear dental braces (“aligners”), and Boeing and its suppliers use selective laser sintering to produce ducts and similar parts for F-18 fighter jets. For hearing aids and dental aligners, AM machines enable manufacturing of tens to hundreds of thousands of parts; where each part is uniquely customized based upon person-specific geometric data. In the case of aircraft components, AM technology enables low volume manufacturing, easy integration of design changes and, at least as importantly, piece part reductions to greatly simplify product assembly.