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Abstract

Organic farming is one of the fastest growing sectors of world agriculture. Although it represents only 1% of world agricultural area, organic is one of the most recognized food labels and most people in developed countries consume some amount of organic food today. There is a wide range of interpretations of what organic means by different actors in the sector. Here we examine eight different organic regulations from across the world to understand how they have codified the large diversity of ideas inherent in organic agriculture. Our analysis shows that organic practices and regulations do not differ substantially between countries – across the board organic regulations define organic mainly in terms of 'natural' vs. 'artificial' substances that are allowed (or not) as inputs. This interpretation of organic as “chemical-free” farming, largely void of broader environmental principles, does not fully incorporate the original ideas of organic theoreticians who conceived it as a holistic farming system aimed primarily at improving soil health, thereby leading to improved animal, human, and societal health. This narrow focus of organic regulations can be explained by the interest of organic consumers who predominantly buy organic because they believe it is healthier and more nutritious due to the absence of harmful substances. Organic regulations need to place more emphasis on environmental best practices in order to ensure that organic agriculture can contribute to sustainability objectives.

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... According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the word 'organic' refers to any food produced using accepted farming techniques that conserve biodiversity, did not harm natural resources, and applied only accepted substances [12]. Thus, organic food is made devoid of using conservative pesticides [13]. "In terms of food that comes from living animals -meat, eggs, and dairy products, the animal must not be fed antibiotics or growth hormones" [13]. ...
... Thus, organic food is made devoid of using conservative pesticides [13]. "In terms of food that comes from living animals -meat, eggs, and dairy products, the animal must not be fed antibiotics or growth hormones" [13]. Any food that is term organic in nature must be environmentally safe [14], produced using a technique that does not require modern artificial inputs including chemical fertilizers, pesticides and include organisms that are genetically modified [12] not processed with irradiation, not processed using chemical food additives or/ and industrial solvents [14]. ...
... Prior literature has contributed to developing an understanding of organic and healthy food consumption. These studies underpinned several antecedents of such as health consciousness [21] brand trust [95] and environmental concerns [51] that predict the purchasing intention towards organic food [13] nutrients food [14]. However, interestingly most of these studies only researched whether the social factors [23,40] or individual psychological traits [25,44], or branding factors [71] in determining healthy food consumption. ...
Article
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Abstract Background: the context and purpose of the study Unhealthy food consumption has raised an alarming situation of obesity among Asian nations and posing serious threats to human health. Recent studies have acknowledged that organic food consumption has been contrariwise associated with obesity. The consumption of healthy food has received research attention in social marketing and several antecedents and consequences have been identified. However, to date, there is a void in literature that how social, individual, and marketing elements together tradeoff in predicting a healthy lifestyle. Thus, the current investigation unfolds the antecedents of healthy foods’ adoption in Asia by integrating the brand signaling and theory of planned behavior. Methods The data of 241 respondents were collected from selected social media Facebook communities through a survey using assessed 42 questions. For this purpose, participants’ Facebook accounts were selected from the online healthy communities such as ‘Diet Suku Suku Separuh’ (469,000 followers), ‘Hiking, and Camping around Malaysia’ (351,200 followers), and ‘Healthy Malaysia’ (332 followers). The enumerator also engaged with the online community by liking posts and following health accounts. Results The data was analyzed using PLS (SEM) approach, the outcomes of hypotheses revealed interesting information that health consciousness not significantly predicts the purchase intention of healthy food. All antecedents were significant contributors to the prediction of foods’ purchase intentions in this study. However, the findings indicated that no positive relationship exists between brand image identifications and brand credibility identifications, and healthy foods’ purchase intentions identifications. The findings also indicated that no positive relationship exists between health consciousness identifications and healthy foods’ purchase intentions identifications. Conclusions: (summary and potential implications) Owing to the perilous increase in obesity among the general public in Asia. This study reinforced the factor that can help in the adoption of a healthy lifestyle. The study validated that a healthy lifestyle is reliant on the consumers’ health consciousness, environmental concern, and innovativeness through motivating the consumers’ healthy foods’ purchase intentions. Surprisingly, the results highlighted that respondents have not identified brand image and credibility as an antecedent of purchase intention. Given that organic food brands are somewhat new in Asian markets and therefore, brands must endure crisis marketing practices to improve their brand recognition. Therefore, policymakers must facilitate the food promotional activities that are critical to enhancing the perceived benefits of organic food to combat issues like obesity. This paper offers a foundation for future empirical investigations in Asia and various stakeholders on how to promote a healthy lifestyle in Asia. Specifically, the results will help policymakers to offer positive policies and procedures for the improvement of a healthy lifestyle through the understanding of the antecedents and consequences of health-conscious consumers’ healthy foods’ purchase intentions.
... A lack of waste collection and processing technologies and infrastructure are major barriers to recycling and recovery (see Chapters 6 and 7). These issues, however, are often underpinned by a lack of public support, laws and regulations, and unfavourable cost-benefit analyses (Drechsel et al., 2010;Withers et al., 2015;Seufert et al., 2017;Metson et al., 2018;Öberg and Mason-Renton, 2018). ...
... For example, in Canada and the EU, cities that invested in centralised infrastructure for separated organic waste collection and economic disincentives for landfilling have diverted high amounts of organic waste from landfills, thereby recycling P to agricultural production (Treadwell et al. 2018). On the other hand, regulations can inhibit the recycling of P, for example banning human excreta from organic production (Seufert et al., 2017) or banning the reuse of animal bones at the EU level. Government agencies can also incentivise individual behaviours. ...
Technical Report
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Supporting low levels of animal product (meat, dairy, and eggs) consumption and food waste can significantly reduce the impacts of unsustainable phosphorus use. In addition, consuming products grown with good on-farm nutrient management practices, including phosphorus recycling can further reduce impacts. These changes can contribute to achieving multiple United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals related to improving human and environmental health.
... Considering that organic treatment is poorly defined and context dependent (Seufert et al., 2017), we further divided selected studies according to different management practices, climatic zones and locations. Management practices include different intensification levels according to the fertilisation and pesticide application following Beckmann et al. (2019). ...
... We followed Peel et al. (2007)'s guidelines and divided our studies into different climatic zones based on their locations. As organic treatment might depend on national regulations (Seufert et al., 2017), we divided all studies by nation, categoising European Union countries as EU. It needs to be noted that due to the lack of sufficient studies, meaningful comparisons might not be possible for all categories. ...
Article
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Organic farming supports higher biodiversity than conventional farming, but at the cost of lower yields. We conducted a meta‐analysis quantifying the trade‐off between biodiversity and yield, comparing conventional and organic farming. We developed a compatibility index to assess whether biodiversity gains from organic farming exceed yield losses, and a substitution index to assess whether organic farming would increase biodiversity in an area if maintaining total production under organic farming would require cultivating more land at the expense of nature. Overall, organic farming had 23% gain in biodiversity with a similar cost of yield decline. Biodiversity gain is negatively correlated to yield loss for microbes and plants, but no correlation was found for other taxa. The biodiversity and yield trade‐off varies under different contexts of organic farming. The overall compatibility index value was close to zero, with negative values for cereal crops, positive for non‐cereal crops, and varies across taxa. Our results indicate that, on average, the proportion of biodiversity gain is similar to the proportion of yield loss for paired field studies. For some taxa in non‐cereal crops, switching to organic farming can lead to a biodiversity gain without yield loss. We calculated the overall value of substitution index and further discussed the application of this index to evaluate when the biodiversity of less intensified farming system is advantageous.
... Organic farming was originally promoted as a holistic farming system aimed at improving soil health, and environmental and social aspects of agricultural production (Seufert et al., 2017). In recent decades, its conventionalisation has led to the intensification and specialisation of organic production (Buck et al., 1997;Darnhofer et al., 2010), and several studies have questioned the environmental benefits and agronomic viability of organic farming (Seufert et al., 2017;Trewavas, 2001Trewavas, , 2004Tuomisto et al., 2012). ...
... Organic farming was originally promoted as a holistic farming system aimed at improving soil health, and environmental and social aspects of agricultural production (Seufert et al., 2017). In recent decades, its conventionalisation has led to the intensification and specialisation of organic production (Buck et al., 1997;Darnhofer et al., 2010), and several studies have questioned the environmental benefits and agronomic viability of organic farming (Seufert et al., 2017;Trewavas, 2001Trewavas, , 2004Tuomisto et al., 2012). ...
Article
Although organic farming was originally promoted as an alternative farming system to address agronomic, environmental and ecological issues, its conventionalisation has led to an intensification and specialisation of production. In the light of this, several studies have questioned the environmental benefits of organic farming as well as its agronomic viability. Thus, there is a need to improve organic vegetable systems to reduce their environmental impact without affecting their productivity. To tackle this challenge, European farmers and researchers have recently started to focus on agroecological service crops (ASCs). However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the agronomic, environmental and ecological aspects of ASC management under different European pedo‐climatic conditions. We evaluated effects of the ASC management strategies—no‐till roller crimping (NT‐RC) and green manuring (T‐GM) on cropping system performance using agronomic, environmental and ecological indicators—to exemplify the need for multidimensional analysis to understand management implications for addressing environmental and agronomic challenges. We combined the results from 11 organic vegetable field trials conducted in seven European countries over a period of 2 years to test for general trends. Our results provide solid evidence that NT‐RC management across different pedo‐climatic conditions in Europe enhances the activity density of ground and rove beetles and improves both the potential energy recycling within the system and weed control. However, in NT‐RC plots, lower cash crop yield and quality, energetic efficiency of production and activity density of spiders were observed compared to T‐GM. Synthesis and applications. Multidimensional analyses using agronomic, environmental and ecological indicators are required to understand the implications of agricultural management in agroecosystem functioning. Introducing agroecological service crops combined with the use of no‐till roller crimping is a promising strategy for improving agronomic performance (e.g. fewer weeds) and reducing environmental (e.g. increasing the potentially recyclable energy) and ecological (e.g. enhancing the activity density of beneficial taxa such as ground and rove beetles) impacts. However, our study also indicates a need for agronomic and environmental improvements while promoting a wider acceptance of this strategy. Multidimensional analyses using agronomic, environmental and ecological indicators are required to understand the implications of agricultural management in agroecosystem functioning. Introducing agroecological service crops combined with the use of no‐till roller crimping is a promising strategy for improving agronomic performance (e.g. fewer weeds) and reducing environmental (e.g. increasing the potentially recyclable energy) and ecological (e.g. enhancing the activity density of beneficial taxa such as ground and rove beetles) impacts. However, our study also indicates a need for agronomic and environmental improvements while promoting a wider acceptance of this strategy.
... Low financial return/Cost benefit/Maintenance of cash flow Profit from products from sustainable agriculture does not provide the expected return for producers. [4,7,10,19,21,[24][25][26]34,37,46,50,51] Financial incentive Financial incentives from public and private entities. [37] Lack of capital to invest in sustainable agriculture/Financial viability Training the workforce and suitable materials to implement sustainable agriculture may have high initial costs. ...
... [11,19,21,23,[37][38][39]42,49] Financial motivation is what motivates the adoption of sustainable practices [32]. Authors such as Guthman [39], Seufert et al. [50], Branca et al. [26], and Knutson et al. [19] argue that the costs of implementing, producing, and selling products from sustainable agriculture are high. Hence, the capital returned is low, discouraging producers from adopting these practices. ...
Article
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The world’s population grows yearly, so increasing food production is necessary, to meet consumer demands. This production must be clean; thus, sustainable agriculture seems to represent a solution. However, social, economic, and environmental barriers impede the adoption of this practice. Therefore, this research identified these barriers, according to the sustainability triple-bottom line through a literature review, and analyzed which barriers are more influential and vulnerable to influences, using the Fuzzy DEMATEL method, as well as by considering the opinions of 30 mixed crop producers. As a result, eleven barriers were identified; and “technical knowledge and qualified workforce” was the most influential on not adopting sustainable agriculture. A multi-criteria model was provided and could be replicated in further research. Thus, sustainable practices are provided, to minimize the barriers’ negative impacts and assist producers; highlighting investment and policies for training farmers to have the technical knowledge to practice sustainable agriculture. Theoretical implications were reviewed, such as an analysis of the barriers found in the literature and the lack of studies reporting on the difficulty of producers in adopting sustainable agriculture, as well as the practical implications of providing assistance and transferring knowledge, to eliminate these barriers, so that sustainable practices can be efficiently implemented.
... Among these, yield and yield stability are the most widely discussed themes. Synthetized reviews of studies comparing the yields of conventional and organic farming suggest an average of 8% to 25% lower yields in organic systems [32][33][34]. However, under adverse circumstances such as severe droughts, organic management has been shown to produce higher yields than can be explained by the higher water-holding capacity of organically farmed soils [35]. ...
... Both organic farming and organic markets are two of the most regulated sectors in farming and in retail sales. Organic regulations strictly codify principles and practices, directing farmers on what rules to follow when producing organically [32]. In most countries, organic products can only be sold under legally-defined labelling schemes that inform consumers [40]. ...
Article
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Sustainable agricultural solutions have emerged as feasible options for mitigating the negative environmental impacts created by agricultural production or adapting to inevitable climate change. Organic food production has become one of the most popular sustainable solutions among these. There is also a clear scientific consensus that transformative changes in agricultural systems and practice are needed as a response to the effects of climate change. A great variety of factors that influence the transition to organic farming have been found and identified over time. To understand the dynamics that lead farmers to move to organic farming, it is necessary to examine the relationship between these factors. In this study, we investigated the impacts of certain factors on the possibility of Hungarian farmers’ conversion to organic production in the context of climate change adaptation. This dynamic was studied using descriptive and exploratory techniques on a cross-sectional sample. While the study supported certain well-established facts, it also yielded some surprising findings. One of our findings is that the transition to organic farming does not seem to be motivated by the perception of bad weather events, which is somewhat surprising. This outcome contradicts the frequently claimed idea that organic farming may be a successful adaptation strategy.
... In an effort to measure the extent of variance in organic requirements, Seufert et al. (2017) employ a scoring approach to assess how organic principles vary with organic regulations between countries. These authors found that while organic practices and regulations do not differ substantially between countries, there are important differences in allowed substances and prohibited inputs. ...
... Lohr (1998) proposes that lack of equivalence of organic standards across countries was one of the main sources which impede international market access of organic agri-food products. Seufert et al. (2017) employ a scoring approach to assess how organic principles vary with organic regulations in countries, and they find that substances that are allowed (or not) as inputs play a vital role. Pekdemir (2018) describes the development of regional organic standards established in the EU, Africa, Central America, the Pacific and Asia, and concludes that inter-regional equivalence and multilateral agreements contribute to the reduction of regulatory complexity in organic regulation systems. ...
Article
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International markets are an important destination and source of U.S. organic agri-food products. This paper offers new insights concerning the current status and trends of U.S. organic imports and exports U.S. policies relevant to the international trade of U.S. organic agri-food products are described, characterizing specific products and partners. In addition, the impact of organic equivalency agreements (OEAs), which the U.S. has signed with Canada, the EU, Japan, South Korea and Switzerland, are examined to determine the extent to which they facilitate trade. Using highly disaggregated international trade data (HS-10) from the U.S. International Trade Commission and Statistics Canada, this analysis finds that fresh agricultural products dominate both U.S. exports and imports. Between 2017 and 2019, apples grapes, strawberries and spinach were the predominant fresh exports, while tomato sauces, vinegar and roasted coffee are the most exported processed food products. A significant majority of these exports are destined for Canada and Mexico. The most imported organic agri-food products include unroasted coffee, bananas, olive oil and soybeans. There is much more diversity in the country of origin of these imports with Mexico, Peru, Brazil, Spain and Argentina among the major organic food suppliers to the U.S. OEAs allow for mutual recognition of national organic standards between countries. This analysis finds that, while, in aggregate, OEAs were not found to impact U.S. organic imports or exports, results evaluating individual agreements do suggest that they can be effective trade policy instruments. In particular, the U.S.–Canada and the U.S.–Switzerland OEAs were found to be effective in facilitating U.S. exports. Taken together these findings offer important insights into current trade patterns, and U.S. international market and organic policy opportunities.
... Environmental concerns are also a significant determinant of consumers' purchase intentions in the case of green personal care products [69]. Most consumers in wealthy countries perceive organic agriculture to be superior with respect to animal welfare, climate protection, and the environment as a whole [70]. However, occasional organic consumers place significantly less importance on environmental protection and animal welfare compared to regular organic food consumers [71]. ...
Article
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Globally, organic food production and consumption have significantly increased in the last two decades, driven largely by perceived positive impacts on consumer health, the environment, and sustainable development. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing consumers’ attitudes towards organic food in the context of a transition/emerging economy. The study is based on a structured consumer survey targeting 300 urban consumers in Kosovo. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) by Partial Least Squares was used to analyze factors influencing consumers’ attitudes towards organic food products, measured with four items (health concerns, labeling of origin, certification, environmental concerns). The results indicate that the health concerns, certification, and environmental concerns significantly influence consumers’ attitudes towards organic food products. The findings of this study are important for both producers and authorities responsible for ensuring the provision of healthy and reliable certified organic food products as well as environmentally friendly production systems that contribute to sustainable development.
... Tydliga och säkra regelverk behövs för att lantbrukare ska börja använda produkterna. Idag tillåts inte gödselprodukter med ursprung i avlopp på åkermark avsedd för ekologisk odling (Magid et al. 2020, Seufert et al. 2017. Det är viktigt att de lantbrukare som använder kretsloppsprodukter inte påverkas negativt på grund av regelverk, såsom att annan odling exempelvis inte tillåts på den mark där dessa produkter använts. ...
Research
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Recirculating nutrients from human excreta back on to productive agricultural land will require a redesign of markets and, infrastructure, as well as policies and regulation. A diverse set of actors across the food chain, from grocery store shoppers and farmers, to sewage treatment plants, technology developers, and regulators need to have similar priorities and a concrete set of actions are needed in order to be able to work together towards these changes. The ongoing global transition to a circular economy will require a revolution in how we manage human excreta. We need much more recycling in sanitation systems to reduce the release of nutrients into water and to ensure food security based on secure access to finite plant nutrients. Still progress towards sustainable management is slow. This is true in Sweden, as it is in many other countries, despite the presence of many innovators and some encouraging legislation (e.g., nutrient recovery targets). The Swedish Nutrient Platform (SNP), in collaboration with the End-of-Wastewater project, conducted a literature review, stakeholder surveys, interviews, and hosted a multi-stakeholder digital workshop (40 participants) as a step towards prioritizing actions to meet a common vision for nutrient recycling in Sweden by 2030. Preliminary scoping activities indicated that in Sweden, as is the case in many places, there is disconnect between actors working in waste sectors and those working in farming, food, and agriculture, but that there is a desire to bridge this gap. One reason for this desire is that actors managing recycled nutrients want to produce products that match farmer needs. We summarized core factors and characteristics such products should have (Table 2) and used this list as a basis to prioritize characteristics with participating stakeholders. Workshop participants, which included both farmers and waste managers, also identified activities they saw as necessary to increase the use of these desirable recycled nutrient products by 2030. Safety came out as a top priority when it comes to characteristics of products derived from human waste. Farmers, as its own subgroup emphasized the importance of knowing the nutrient content of products (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) as a prerequisite for using it as a fertilizer, but thought safety was important, ranking it second. Participants confirmed that all of the product characteristic categories we had identified (Table 2) were indeed relevant, supporting our synthetic literature review. Although there was convergence about the importance of safety for many actors, it will be essential to engage with more farmers, and the food sector in general, to further direct certification and labeling on prioritized characteristics of products that match needs. Participants named necessary actions in four focus areas: • Regulations and policy • Research to support decision making (implementation, benefits, costs, and risks) • Infrastructure adaptation • Knowledge sharing and collaboration Although specific action ideas within each focus area were named, identifying who should be responsible for those actions was harder for people to answer. Bridging the gap in perspectives among types of actors is still needed and SNP can have a role in facilitating that process; There remains a need to determine specific intermediary actions with clear roles and responsibilities. It will be necessary to assign actors to specific roles. Some of these actions may focus on: • Clear and supportive regulation at regional, national and EU levels, • Certification systems for fertilizer products containing recycled nutrients from wastewater streams, • Better knowledge sharing around risk mitigation and benefits of reuse, • Sensitization of the general public, as well as actors who build sanitation infrastructure, and process and sell food, in and beyond Sweden.
... Mexico), while other countries prohibit the use of untreated human excrements but allow the use of treated sewage sludge (e.g. India, Australia) (Seufert et al., 2017). Similarly, the most widely adopted standard for quality assurance of horticultural crops, GLOBALG.A.P i , withholds certification for Good Agricultural Practices (G.A.P.) if farmers producing fruits and vegetables apply biosolids to their soils, even if safety protocols are followed to reduce human and animal health risk (Moya et al., 2019a). ...
Technical Report
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Recycling phosphorus-rich organic wastes and manures is critical for phosphorus sustainability and a transition to a more circular economy for phosphorus. Beyond agronomic benefits, the win-wins are numerous, with benefits to society, environment, economy, and business growth. However, to significantly increase phosphorus recycling, education, awareness-raising, investment in technology and infrastructure, and policy support are urgently needed.
... Depending on the type of cultivation, these processes can widely differ. For example, conventional farming uses fertilization with phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers, whereas in organic farming, green manuring with nitrogen-fixing plants such as leguminosae can be applied [48][49][50]. ...
Article
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The product material footprint (PMF) represents a central instrument to assess the potential environmental impacts of products and services based on their life-cycle-wide material use. Within the life cycle impact assessment framework, the indicators raw material input (RMI) and total material requirement (TMR) have been used for its calculation, but so far, only abiotic materials have been considered. This research analyses the requirements and indicators for the assessment of the biotic part of the PMF. The central question is whether the indicators RMI biotic and TMR biotic are suitable for this purpose or if they need to be adapted. For comparison, the indicator cumulative raw material demand (CRD) is applied. The indicator concepts of RMI, TMR, and CRD are compared by defining the system boundaries for determining the biotic parts of the footprint. To test the applicability, the production of wheat bread is assessed as a case study. The characterization factors of wheat grains are determined and each of the three indicators is implemented in the software openLCA for use with the ecoinvent database. The results show that RMI biotic and TMR biotic are suitable indicators for the quantification and assessment of the biotic part of the PMF. While CRD abiotic provides the same information as RMI abiotic, both indicators differ regarding the biotic part. The CRD per definition does not consider biotic inputs from agriculture and forestry and thus conveys insufficient information on the used and unused biomass extraction for the product LCA. The ratio of RMI biotic to the net annual increment and TMR biotic to the net primary production could be used for absolute sustainability assessment.
... Conventional farming systems derived from the green revolution are characterized by large-scale commodity production and improved seeds, synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and high-tech machinery and equipment, predominate in agriculture (Nicholls and Altieri 1997;Ameen and Raza 2018;Vilpoux et al. 2021). In recent decades, organic farming has been adopted as a more sustainable option, characterized by the use of natural inputs, integrated management techniques that eliminate the need for pesticides, family labor, small-scale production, and norms and regulation (Pugliese 2001;Rigby and Cáceres 2001;Seufert et al. 2017). In 2019, the area cultivated with organic agriculture worldwide grew 657% compared to 1999, reaching 72.3 million hectares. ...
Article
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Land is a limited resource and essential to the provision of livelihoods. The per capita availability of cropland is constantly being reduced while the pressure for food and other raw materials increases. Therefore, agricultural land use must pursue cropping systems with higher levels of return per hectare. Since monetary return is one of the primary criteria for farmers’ decision-making but other returns exist, the present study compares the financial returns per hectare on farms using organic farming system (OFS) and conventional farming system (CFS), discussing returns beyond the financial ones (social, economic, environmental). The financial flows of two farms were monitored for 4 (OFS) and 5 (CFS) years, and financial return indicators were calculated. In addition, other social, economic, and environmental returns were discussed based on the primary data and literature. The main results show that OFS has higher costs, revenues, and profits per hectare than CFS. Although both systems had positive financial returns, the average net profit of OFS (R$49,217 ha⁻¹) was 21 times higher than that of CFS (R$2,329 ha⁻¹). In addition, the OFS profitability index was 64% higher than CFS. OFS also presented better returns for the number of direct jobs, income distribution, food for healthy diets, value-added to GDP, risks, crop (bio)diversity, and land footprint, among others. In general, we concluded that OFS provided higher financial, social, economic, and environmental returns per unit of land despite only 0.5% of the Brazilian agricultural area is used for organic production. Highlights 1. Organic and conventional systems present positive financial returns per hectare. 2. Costs, revenues, and profit are 9, 13, and 22 times higher in organic systems, respectively. 3. Organic system profitability was 64% higher than conventional. 4. Organic system is beneficial for other social, economic, and environmental returns. 5. Both systems are important, but policies should optimize the returns of organic-like systems.
... Farms in organic conversion are financially supported, because they cannot command the premium price from products during the conversion period. However, there exist extra costs for changing the farming system, including capital investments in land, machinery, and housing, as well as extra certification costs (Seufert et al., 2017), lower yields and income, which often results from organic methods (Meemken, et al., 2018;Jouzi et al., 2017;Veysset et al., 2013). For both organic and conventional farms, we identify their value chains and the link between them, i.e. organic conversion and organic leakage. ...
Conference Paper
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Incentives are in place in many countries worldwide to stimulate conversions from conventional to organic production due to the environmental and health benefits of organic farming. However, there is some discussion in relation to the loss (or leakage) of organic animals to conventional value chains. Based on a Bioeconomy Input Output model, a case study analysis of the Irish beef sector in 2015 reveals that 17 percent of the organic cattle aged under one year old leave the organic value chain, leaking to the conventional market, as a result of imbalances in the development of the beef value chain. The economic cost of this organic leakage is 5.66 million euros. Leakage also has environmental impacts due to change of life cycle methane and nitrogen emission based on longer finishing time in organic farms and chemical fertilizer applied in conventional farms. Therefore, the organic leakage results in a reduction of 82 tons of methane emission and 52 additional tons of nitrogen emission, which leads to 11484 tons of net global warming potentials for 100-year time horizon. The study contributes to the discussion on organic conversion and provides valuable insights for stakeholders, especially policy makers, for the design of future organic schemes.
... In most countries, organic is the well-accepted and legally defined label that lets consumers learn about how their food is produced at some level (Seufert et al., 2017). However, it is a farm-to-fork system; hence, there is a clear need to understand consumer perception regarding organic processed food Kahl et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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The motive behind the paper is two-fold. First, map out the multiple parallel mediation effects and examine the relationship between knowledge sharing and sustainable performance. Second, the paper describes how the observed heterogeneity influences the relationship between knowledge sharing, sensing capability, agility, and sustainable performance. The paper proposed two methods. The paper leveraging the dimension reduction method, PLS-PM, generates the bootstrap sub-samples to consolidate the multiple parallel mediation effects. And second, we framed the segmentation tree and highlighted the influence of social-demographic variables— firm size, education levels, and occupancy level on knowledge sharing and sustainable performance using the unique PATHMOX-PLS technique. The findings show that sensing capability and agility significantly mediate the relationship between knowledge sharing and sustainable performance. At the same time, the manager’s and employee’s firm size, education, and occupancy levels have signaled different interpretations of the relationship between dynamic capability drivers and sustainable performance. The paper posits the practical applications as results of underpinned findings that could be scalable to other firms in Tanzania as well as globally. Keywords: Knowledge Sharing, Sustainable Performance, Heterogeneity, Managers and Employees, PLS-PM, Pathmox tree.
... Les rendements très faibles comparés au coton conventionnel ont été évoqués par Aune-Jens (2012), Connor (2013), Ponisio et al. (2014). La consommation excessive de la main d'oeuvre a été mentionnée par Beuchelt & Zeller (2011), le manque de soutien étatique a été évoqué par Cranfield et al. (2010), et l'insuffisance des appuis et formations techniques a été mise en exergue par Seufert et al. (2017). Aussi, dans le contexte de l'agriculture biologique au Bénin, Assogba (2014) a mentionné le faible rendement du coton biologique en comparaison au coton conventionnel, la pénibilité de la préparation des biopesticides, l'interdiction de la pratique de doublon, l'efficacité réduite des biopesticides comparativement aux pesticides chimiques de synthèse, l'inexistence d'un prix d'achat de cotongraine garanti au producteur du fait de l'arrimage de ce dernier au prix du conventionnel comme étant les contraintes prioritaires à l'adoption de la production du coton biologique. ...
... If this is the case, why can GM crops such as Golden rice not qualify to be "organic" when grown using established organic practices? Even if the current legislative system does not allow that (Seufert et al. 2017), GM farmers should adopt organic practices voluntarily and contribute to environmental sustainability! ...
Chapter
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Environment-friendly sustainable food production for a growing human population has become challenging. Synthetic fertilizer-driven, intensive agriculture has resulted in substantial environmental damage. Neither this conventional chemical-based agriculture nor organic farming is sustainable in the long run. Thus out-of-the-box thinking is required to tackle these challenges. The chapter discusses why we should start to grow GM crops organically and provide a “new” choice to consumers of “organically-grown GM crops.” Many arguments have taken place on “organic vs conventional” and “acceptance vs non-acceptance” of GM crops. Therefore, the debate needs to go beyond this binary and towards “voluntary extension” of organic agricultural farming practices into “high-tech biotech crops”. The purpose is to combine “improved-genetics” with “soil-healthy agronomy” for harnessing the full potential benefits of both in a complementary way.
... The green gram is a leguminous crop, valued for its seed and it is economically important due to its nutritional value that has the potential to improve food security. Organic agriculture is a way of farming sustainably and has Global data on organic production and markets are therefore of high relevance for policy makers and contribute to understanding the importance of organic farming in the different countries [2] . The Jeewamirtha also comes under the low-cost organic fertilizer formulation which is responsible for soil enrichment with indigenous microorganisms, necessary for better soil mineralization and helps to improve plant growth [3] . ...
Article
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Foliar application is method of providing supplementary dosages of minor and major nutrient, plant hormones, and other beneficial elements to plant. Fruit tonic, Jeewamirtha and Maxicrop™ are organic liquid fertilizers. A polybag experiment was conducted at the Crop Farm, UCIARS, Hambanthota in Sri Lanka to identify the Effects of Different Foliar Applications and Soil Applied Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Vigna radiata L. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments and six replicates. The treatments were F1M1, F1M2, F1M3, F2M1, F2M2, and F2M3 tested their performance on the growth and yield of Vigna radiata L. The crop performance was recorded from two weeks after planting (WAP) to eight WAP. Among the treatments, both treatments which F1M1 (Maxicrop™ foliar application with soil applied DOA fertilizer) and F1M2 (Maxicrop™ foliar application with soil applied Jeewamirtha) significantly increased growth and yield of Vigna radiata L. The interaction effect between foliar application and soil applied fertilizer also significantly increased plant height, mean number of leaves, number of branches per plant, fresh weight of shoot, fresh weight of root, number of flowers and number of pods per plant, number of root nodules, number of seeds and 100 seeds weight and total yield per plant in comparison to other treatments. In the overall performance, application of Maxicrop™ produce higher result compared to the foliar application of fruit tonic. This might be due to presence of macro and micronutrients as well as growth promoting substances like IAA, GA and Cytokine in Jeewamirtha and maxi crop. From the findings it could be concluded that, application of soil applied Jeewamirtha with Maxicrop™ could be recommended for green gram cultivation as an environmentally friendly practice to improve growth and yield.
... In our assessment, however, potential advantages of organic agriculture, such as improved biodiversity, favorable impacts of reduced pesticide use, and favorable impacts on soil health (43,44), could not be captured. Furthermore, some organic regulations also include specific social standards (45). In our assessment of social risks with the SHI, differences in production standards were not accounted for, and thus potential improvement of social risks of organic production was not captured. ...
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Background To improve the sustainability performance of food systems, consumption- as well as production-side changes are needed. Objective To this end, we assessed multiple sustainability impacts of six consumer strategies for Switzerland. Design Two strategies encompassed dietary changes: following a pescetarian diet and adhering to the national dietary guidelines. Two strategies employed alternative farming systems: increasing the share of organic production and, in addition, applying the circularity principle of avoiding feed-food competition by limiting livestock feed to low-opportunity-cost biomass. A fifth strategy reduced food waste. The sixth strategy increased the share of domestic produce. For all strategies, we assessed greenhouse gas emissions, land use, nitrogen surplus, social risks, diet quality, and diet costs. Results The strategies revealed trade-offs between impact categories, unless combined in a synergistic way. While dietary changes towards more plant-based diets reduced environmental impacts (up-to 51%) and increased diet quality (up-to 57%), they increased social risks due to increased sourcing from contexts with potentially bad labour conditions (up-to 19%). Further, when the share of organic produce was increased, land use and dietary costs were increased (up-to 33% and 42%, respectively). The effect on land use could however be reversed when circularity principles were introduced in addition to the organic production standard, resulting in reductions for all environmental indicators (up-to 75%). Reducing food waste and increasing the share of domestic produce led to better sustainability performance as well, but at lower orders of magnitude. Conclusions Combining all proposed strategies could lead to substantial favorable changes on all impact categories assessed, but would require a thorough transformation of the current food system. Yet, also the sum of individual consumers each following only one of the strategies proposed makes up an important contribution towards improving the sustainability performance of the Swiss food system.
... According to IFOAM [2], by the end of 2017, at a global level, organic agriculture was practiced in 181 countries, over a total of approximately 69.8 million hectares (1.4% of agricultural land), and the size of the organic market reached USD 97 billion. In general, organic production systems adhere to specific requirements [3] such as a reduced use of chemicals (inclusive of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics, growth hormones) whilst also adhering to ethical practices (e.g., animal welfare) and social responsibility (e.g., workers' rights and ethical trade). In comparison to conventionally produced food, organic food is expected to be more nutritional and safer to consume [4]. ...
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Organic products are often portrayed as a healthy alternative—grown in a sustainable way, often locally and subject to external certification scrutiny. However, recent high-profile cases of contaminated organic food have raised questions about the risks associated with organic produce: is organic produce becoming less safe and more risky? The context for this investigation is in the realm of food product recalls. Based on 2010–2017 panel data from the US on food product recalls (with 2721 observations), this paper compares the volume of recalls (adjusted for the growth of sales) between conventional and organic food. This paper further addresses two food-related risks: design risk (a risk that is present in the development of food; such as the use of unapproved ingredients or the omission of some ingredients on the food label) and process risk (a risk within the supply chain, such as the contamination of food products with salmonella or E. coli). Further comparison is drawn based on food product type (here the paper distinguishes between processed and unprocessed food). The paper demonstrates that organic products are becoming less safe and that organic products are recalled at a higher rate. In comparison to conventional produce, organic produce is more prone to process risk and far less to design risk. Similar conclusions are reached even when the organic produce is analysed from a product type perspective.
... Most consumers believe organic food to be safer and healthier than conventionally produced food, particularly in industrialized countries [2]. Additionally, wealthy consumers frequently believe that organic farming is better for the environment, climate change mitigation, and animal welfare [3]. Organic farming, especially in Europe, has such a favourable public perception that it is frequently promoted as the model for sustainable agriculture [4]. ...
... This meant that farmers and other businesses would eventually be able to go through a government-sanctioned certification process to prove that their crops were grown and harvested organically. Much has been written by scholars about the various organic advocates whose work informed this and subsequent legislation (see, e.g., Merrigan, 1993;Gershuny, 2017;Seufert et al., 2017, Mosier, 2017Farnworth and Hutchings, 2009). Much more has been written about the philosophical, ecological and political debates that surround organic agriculture, including within this journal. ...
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This article offers a window onto the experience of three researchers who influenced the direction of organic agriculture research from the 1980s through today. Kathleen Delate, Catherine Greene and Deborah Stinner have all contributed important work in the field, from organizing and executing research projects to analyzing the collecting hard data that provided insight into the numerous environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture. Their stories share many similar biographical markers, from the importance of food and nature in childhood memories to trailblazing projects in the early 2000s.
... Therefore, inoculation of beneficial microorganisms during seedling production can be a strategy to introduce traits that may improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses after transplanting [5][6][7][8]. Furthermore, this approach might allow decreasing the use of external inputs as well as be an option for organic production [9][10][11]. ...
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This study evaluated the potential of Aspergillus niger as an inoculant for growth promotion of vegetable seedlings. Seven vegetable species were evaluated in independent experiments carried out in 22 + 1 factorial schemes, with two doses of conidia (102 and 106 per plant) applied in two inoculation methods (seed treatment and in-furrow granular application), plus an uninoculated control. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. Growth parameters evaluated were shoot length, stem diameter, root volume, total root length, shoot and root fresh mass, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass. Regardless of the dose and inoculation method, seedlings inoculated with A. niger showed higher growth than uninoculated ones for all crops. The highest relative increase promoted by the fungus was observed for aboveground parts, increasing the production of shoot fresh mass of lettuce (61%), kale (40%), scarlet eggplant (101%), watermelon (38%), melon (16%), pepper (92%), and tomato (42%). Aspergillus niger inoculation also increased seedling root growth of lettuce, pepper, scarlet eggplant, watermelon, and tomato. This research shows that A. niger boosts the growth of all analyzed vegetables, appearing as a promising bio-input for vegetable seedling production.
... However, due to pesticide residues in food, in the environment, and because of threats to biodiversity, the use of synthetic chemical pesticides is increasingly criticized, and there are demands to reduce their application (Pogacean and Gavrilescu, 2009;Jacquet et al., 2022). Organic farming represents a cultivation system that does not require synthetic chemical pesticides (Seufert et al., 2017), but the higher land use, lower product quality and reduced food supply compared to conventional farming limit its general application (Niggli et al., 2008). The development of an improved and sustainable farming system suitable to supply the growing world population with sufficient high-quality food is therefore one of the greatest challenges of this century (Giller et al., 2021;Zimmermann et al., 2021). ...
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Nitrogen (N) fertilization is indispensable for high yields in agriculture due to its central role in plant growth and fitness. Different N forms affect plant defense against foliar pathogens and may alter soil-plant-microbe interactions. To date, however, the complex relationships between N forms and host defense are poorly understood. For this purpose, nitrate, ammonium, and cyanamide were compared in greenhouse pot trials with the aim to suppress two important fungal wheat pathogens Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and Gaeumannomyces graminis f. sp. tritici (Ggt). Wheat inoculated with the foliar pathogen Bgt was comparatively up to 80% less infested when fertilized with nitrate or cyanamide than with ammonium. Likewise, soil inoculation with the fungal pathogen Ggt revealed a 38% higher percentage of take-all infected roots in ammonium-fertilized plants. The bacterial rhizosphere microbiome was little affected by the N form, whereas the fungal community composition and structure were shaped by the different N fertilization, as revealed from metabarcoding data. Importantly, we observed a higher abundance of fungal pathogenic taxa in the ammonium-fertilized treatment compared to the other N treatments. Taken together, our findings demonstrated the critical role of fertilized N forms for host-pathogen interactions and wheat rhizosphere microbiome assemblage, which are relevant for plant fitness and performance.
Thesis
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ABSTRACT Demand for healthy food consumption is a basic right for a person. For covering this demand, several alternative farming systems, especially organic farming, are developed. Relations of organic farming with local culture and space are research gap. For filling research gap this thesis is conducted in Aydın and Van Provinces (Turkey). A mixed method including survey and in-depth interview technics which are applied on stakeholders in organic farming sector are carried out. Research mainly focuses on explanation of relations between organic farming and culture, space and development (CSD) dynamics. CSD Model is developed to understand this relation in holistic perspective. The model is put forwarded as basic argument for having a clear understand about organic farming. The findings clarify that there is a link between organic farming and local culture in research areas. This link is shown through farming practices and transmission of local farming knowledge. Also organic farming spaces are conceptualised under six subjects. Organic farming contributes to rural development via farming incentives, contrary to production sell. Organic farming sector in Turkey have not able to access desired trend yet. Basic reason for it is that knowledge and consciousness level of farmers and consumers are not enough. Also there are a issue of trust against to organic food. However; it is possible to overcome these mistakes in organic farming sector, thanks to suitable political strategies. Keywords: Organic Farming, Culture, Space, Sustainable Rural Development, Organic Farming Policy, Farming Resilience, CSD Model. ÖZET Sağlıklı gıda tüketim talebi bir bireyin en doğal hakkıdır. Bu talebin karşılanması amacıyla başta organik tarım olmak üzere alternatif yetiştiricilik sistemleri geliştirilmiştir. Organik tarımın yerel kültür ve mekan ile ilişkisi literatürde üzerinde durulmayan konulardır. Bu araştırma, literatürdeki bu boşluğu doldurmak amacıyla Aydın ve Van illerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada organik tarım sektöründe faaliyet yürüten paydaşlara yönelik anket ve derinlemesine görüşmeleri içeren karma yöntem uygulanmıştır. Araştırma organik tarım ile kültür, mekan ve kalkınma (KMK) dinamikleri arasındaki ilişkinin açıklanması üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Bu ilişkinin bütüncül perspektiften açıklanmasında KMK Modeli geliştirilmiştir. KMK Modeli organik tarımın anlaşılmasında temel bir argüman olarak ileri sürülmektedir. Elde edilen bulgular ortaya koymaktadır ki organik tarım ile her iki yörenin kültürü arasında bir bağlantı vardır. Bu bağlantı tarımsal pratiklerde ve bilgi aktarımında ortaya çıkmakta ve tarımsal dirençle ilişkilidir. Ayrıca organik tarım mekanları altı başlık altında kavramsallaştırılmıştır. Organik tarım kırsal kalkınmaya ürün satışından ziyade devlet teşvikleri aracılığıyla katkı sunmaktadır. Türkiye’de organik tarım sektörü henüz istenilen gelişimi yakalayamamıştır. Bunun temel nedeni üretici ve tüketicinin organik tarım konusundaki bilgi ve bilinç düzeyinin yetersizliği ile organik ürüne ilişkin güven sorunudur. Ancak belirlenecek doğru politik stratejilerle sektördeki yanlışlıkların düzeltilmesi şimdilik mümkün görünmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Organik Tarım, Kültür, Mekan, Sürdürülebilir Kırsal Kalkınma, Organik Tarım Politikası, Tarımsal Direnç, KMK Modeli
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Depuis la fin des années 2000, l’agriculture biologique a connu un essor considérable en France, avec un doublement de la production comme de la consommation tous les cinq ans. La thèse, au croisement de la sociologie rurale et de la sociologie économique, contribue au débat académique sur la conventionnalisation de l’agriculture biologique en mobilisant les outils de la sociologie des agencements marchands. Elle s’appuie sur des enquêtes qualitatives menées auprès des acteurs des circuits longs de légumes biologiques, principalement en région Hauts-de-France et Centre-Val-de-Loire. Des observations et des entretiens ont été menés auprès de producteurs de légumes, d’opérateurs économiques de mise en marché (une coopérative et un négociant) et d’organismes de développement agricole agissant à une échelle régionale ou nationale. L’auteur relate tout d’abord comment le changement d’échelle de l’agriculture biologique est devenu un objet de préoccupations pour les professionnels en prise avec ces bouleversements. En changeant d’échelle, l’agriculture biologique se transforme, ses filières incluent de nouveaux acteurs, des craintes apparaissent et font du maintien de l’altérité de l’agriculture biologique un enjeu. Il montre ensuite comment ces acteurs cherchent à maîtriser le développement des circuits longs de l’agriculture biologique et à favoriser l’établissement de relations marchandes durables, équitables et solidaires. Il détaille pour cela le travail marchand que recouvre ce que les professionnels du secteur nomment la structuration de filières. Il montre que ce processus implique la mise en œuvre d’un travail d’éducation des acteurs aux spécificités de l’agriculture biologique, la prise en compte des contraintes respectives des différents maillons des filières, ainsi que de l’instauration de dispositifs d’engagement dans la durée et d’arbitrages collectifs entre ces maillons.
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Organic farming is characterized by the prohibition of the use of chemical synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, feed additives and genetically modified organisms and by the application of sustainable agricultural technologies based on ecological principles and natural rules. Organic products are believed to be more nutritious and safer foods compared to the conventional alternatives by consumers, with the consequent increase of demand and price of these foodstuffs. However, in academic circles there is much debate on these issues, since there is not a clear scientific evidence of the difference on the environmental impact and on the nutritional quality, safety and health effects between conventional and organic foods. Therefore, this work aims to describe and update the most relevant data on organic foods, by describing the impact of this practice on environment, producers, consumers and society, as well as by comparing the physicochemical, nutritional and phytochemical quality of conventional and organic plant foods.
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İnsan nüfusu diğer canlılara oranla sürekli artış gösterirken, insan kaynaklı kirleticiler ve bunların yan etkileri canlıları çevreleyen ekolojik dengeyi bozmakta ve buna bağlı olarak da günümüze kadar ulaşan bir çok bitki ve hayvan türü her geçen gün azalmakta, bazı türler ise yok olmaktadır. Aşırı kirlenme ve çevresel sorunlar dünyanın geleceğini tehdit eden ciddi bir sorun olmasının yanısıra her geçen gün canlıların yaşam alanlarını daraltmakta ve yaşanılası daha zor bir hale dönüştürmektedir. Dünya nüfusunun hızla artması diğer ihtiyaçlar yanında insanların da gıda ihtiyacını artırmaktadır. Tarımsal üretim alanlarının sınırlı olması nedeniyle artan gıda ihtiyacının karşılanması amacıyla birim alandan veya yetiştiriciliği yapılan hayvanlardan en yüksek düzeyde verim alınmaya çalışılmaktadır. Özellikle 1960’lı yıllarda başlatılan ve adına kısaca “Yeşil Devrim” denilen tarım üretim teknikleri ile verimde %100’e varan artışlar sağlanmıştır. Üretimdeki bu patlama yüzyılın en önemli biyoteknolojik başarılarından biri kabul edilmektedir. Ancak, geleneksel üretim teknikleri ekosistemin hızlı bir şekilde bozulmasına ve yok olmasına zemin hazırlaması nedeniyle sürdürülemeyecek bir gelişmenin de eşiğine gelinmiştir. Bunun sonucunda, hava ve su çeşitli organik yada inorganik kimyasallarla kirlenmiş ve üretilen gıdaların tüketilmesi insanlarda ciddi sağlık sorunlarına neden olmaya başlamıştır. Uzun yıllar insanların ilgisini çekmeyen ve bilim dünyasında genellikle geri planda kalan, geleceğini güvence altına almaya çalışan aktiviteler bilimi olarak tanımlanabilen ekoloji ve Agroekoloji, 20. yüzyılın sonlarına doğru nüfus patlaması, besin kıtlığı ve çevre kirliliği gibi sorunların etkisi ile günümüzün popüler bilim dalları arasında yer almayı başarmıştır. Günümüzde insanlık adına sağlıklı gıda üretimi ile ilgili çok yönlü zorluklarla karşı karşıya kalınmaktadir. Doğa ile uyumlu yaşamamıza olanak verecek üretim ve tüketim sistemlerine doğru bir geçişe acil ihtiyaç vardır. Agroekoloji, güvenilir ve besleyici gıdaların doğa-dostu yöntemlerle üretilip herkese ulaşabildiği bir gıda sistemine geçiş için uygulanabilir yollar sunan bir yaklaşım ve bir toplumsal harekettir. Agroekoloji, gıda sistemlerinin ekolojik açıdan duyarlı, ekonomik açıdan uygulanabilir ve sosyal açıdan adil olacak şekilde dengelenmesini amaçlar. Sosyal adaleti teşvik eder, kültürel kimlikleri besler ve kırsal yaşamı güçlendirir. Doğayla dost bu yeni üretim modeli kısaca “Organik Tarım” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Organik tarım, doğadaki dengeyi koruyan, toprak verimliliğinde katkı ve devamlılığı sağlayan, hastalık ve zararlıları kontrol altına alarak doğadaki canlıların sürekliliğini sağlayan, doğal kaynakların ve enerjinin optimum kullanımını sağlayan bir üretim sistemidir.
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The main objective of the study was to compare young consumer purchasing behaviour towards organic food in Poland (PL) and the United Kingdom (UK), countries with different levels of organic market maturity. The study was conducted by means of an online survey questionnaire during the COVID-19 pandemic between December 2020 and February 2021. The sample consisted of 862 PL and 161 UK consumers. 31% of PL respondents and 58.4% of UK respondents indicated they purchase organic products. Descriptive statistics, the Mann–Whitney U test and the two proportion Z test were used for statistical analyses. The results indicate that young consumers pay particular attention to the freshness and quality of consumed products. Concern for their own health and that of their loved ones, as well as the desire to eat better-quality products were the main motivations for the respondents to purchase organic products. Organic vegetables and fruits, eggs, dairy products, and meat and meat products, were among the most frequently purchased products in the studied cohorts. Experts (e.g., a dietitian, physician) were declared to be the first source of information concerning food products for young consumers. Next, family members were indicated. Social media content (PL respondents) and information from websites managed by institutions (UK respondents) were mentioned as the third source. UK consumers preferred short supply chains. The present study can be used by government bodies and companies to select the most effective communication channels for education and advertising and to develop effective commercial strategies aimed at young consumers.
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Organic farming is an agricultural system which incorporates a high level of biological diversity and environmental uses that conserve naturally resources and have strong levels of animal welfare. It is also an integration of agricultural system to sustainable development, increased the fertility of the soil and biodiversity. During the unusual release, it inhibits chemical pesticides, antibiotics, chemical fertilizers, genetic material and the hormones enhancing growth. This farming program primarily aims to cultivate the field and grow crops in such a way that keeps the soil healthy through natural waste and other biological and beneficial organisms. It looks at the impact of the way and long time taking agricultural intervention on the agricultural ecosystem. It is designed for the production of food, while at the same time creating a natural balance in order to prevent the soil, the fertility and pest control. This review paper is based on organic fertilizer and the nutrient content of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Animal manure, compost and bio manure are used in making organic manure which forms the alternative service for mineral fertilizers. The nutrient supply from organic fertilizers such as manure, compost may not be necessary to the plant needs at any stage of growth but often needed in the crop growing period. With the availability of food, fruit, vegetables and plants are similar in organic and non-organic fertilizers in the long-term results of the testing. Similarly the availability of nutrients like phosphorus, potassium and many trace elements are lower than the soil solution, as they are more concentrated in complex soils as insoluble forms. Foliar fertilizer is therefore often used to provide the nutrients needed by plants for adequate filtration, to develop the nutritional levels of plants and to increase the yield and quality of crop.
Article
CONTEXT Regardless 30 years of similar regulations and a common internal market, the diffusion of organic farming strongly differs amongst European member states. While the share of organic farmland in 2018 in Denmark and Austria was respectively 9.8% and 24.7%, in the Netherlands it was only 2.3%. OBJECTIVE The aim of this paper was to analyze what factors may determine the very different diffusion of organic dairy farming in the Netherlands, compared to Denmark and Austria. METHODS We applied the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework to the case of organic dairy farming in the Netherlands, for which a literature review and interviews with key actors within the dairy value chain were carried out. To identify potential leverage points for upscaling also interviews with key actors from Denmark and Austria were held. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Various barriers in the fulfilment of the seven TIS functions of Dutch organic dairy farming could be identified. With regard to the system function market formation a diversification in certified dairy products are signaled as important factors for upscaling. The function entrepreneurial activities will benefit from an reinforcement of governmental subsidies, since farmers who convert to organic run financial risks. Regarding the function guidance of the search, more consistent and systemic governmental support is needed, since the conversion to organic encompass a regime shift rather that supporting newcomers entering the sector. SIGNIFICANCE By studying the blocking mechanisms that hinder diffusion of organic dairy, the paper provides several leverage points that may also be applicable to the arrested diffusion of organic farming in other countries as well as the larger sustainability transition in European agriculture.
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İnsan nüfusu diğer canlılara oranla sürekli artış gösterirken, insan kaynaklı kirleticiler ve bunların yan etkileri canlıları çevreleyen ekolojik dengeyi bozmakta ve buna bağlı olarak da günümüze kadar ulaşan bir çok bitki ve hayvan türü her geçen gün azalmakta, bazı türler ise yok olmaktadır. Aşırı kirlenme ve çevresel sorunlar dünyanın geleceğini tehdit eden ciddi bir sorun olmasının yanısıra her geçen gün canlıların yaşam alanlarını daraltmakta ve yaşanılası daha zor bir hale dönüştürmektedir. Dünya nüfusunun hızla artması diğer ihtiyaçlar yanında insanların da gıda ihtiyacını artırmaktadır. Tarımsal üretim alanlarının sınırlı olması nedeniyle artan gıda ihtiyacının karşılanması amacıyla birim alandan veya yetiştiriciliği yapılan hayvanlardan en yüksek düzeyde verim alınmaya çalışılmaktadır. Özellikle 1960’lı yıllarda başlatılan ve adına kısaca “Yeşil Devrim” denilen tarım üretim teknikleri ile verimde %100’e varan artışlar sağlanmıştır. Üretimdeki bu patlama yüzyılın en önemli biyoteknolojik başarılarından biri kabul edilmektedir. Ancak, geleneksel üretim teknikleri ekosistemin hızlı bir şekilde bozulmasına ve yok olmasına zemin hazırlaması nedeniyle sürdürülemeyecek bir gelişmenin de eşiğine gelinmiştir. Bunun sonucunda, hava ve su çeşitli organik yada inorganik kimyasallarla kirlenmiş ve üretilen gıdaların tüketilmesi insanlarda ciddi sağlık sorunlarına neden olmaya başlamıştır. Uzun yıllar insanların ilgisini çekmeyen ve bilim dünyasında genellikle geri planda kalan, geleceğini güvence altına almaya çalışan aktiviteler bilimi olarak tanımlanabilen ekoloji ve Agroekoloji, 20. yüzyılın sonlarına doğru nüfus patlaması, besin kıtlığı ve çevre kirliliği gibi sorunların etkisi ile günümüzün popüler bilim dalları arasında yer almayı başarmıştır. Günümüzde insanlık adına sağlıklı gıda üretimi ile ilgili çok yönlü zorluklarla karşı karşıya kalınmaktadir. Doğa ile uyumlu yaşamamıza olanak verecek üretim ve tüketim sistemlerine doğru bir geçişe acil ihtiyaç vardır. Agroekoloji, güvenilir ve besleyici gıdaların doğa-dostu yöntemlerle üretilip herkese ulaşabildiği bir gıda sistemine geçiş için uygulanabilir yollar sunan bir yaklaşım ve bir toplumsal harekettir. Agroekoloji, gıda sistemlerinin ekolojik açıdan duyarlı, ekonomik açıdan uygulanabilir ve sosyal açıdan adil olacak şekilde dengelenmesini amaçlar. Sosyal adaleti teşvik eder, kültürel kimlikleri besler ve kırsal yaşamı güçlendirir. Doğayla dost bu yeni üretim modeli kısaca “Organik Tarım” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Organik tarım, doğadaki dengeyi koruyan, toprak verimliliğinde katkı ve devamlılığı sağlayan, hastalık ve zararlıları kontrol altına alarak doğadaki canlıların sürekliliğini sağlayan, doğal kaynakların ve enerjinin optimum kullanımını sağlayan bir üretim sistemidir.
This article examines the role of a brand as a marketing tool for improving the sales of organic products. The study observes the features of the organic brand, namely consumer awareness, trust and brand communications, which influence the purchasing behaviour of consumers. Research shows the relevance of brand development for smallhold farmers’ association in the Ukrainian organic market. Preliminary data on brand-forming factors influencing consumer behaviour were collected by a survey of Ukrainian consumers. The results of the survey revealed a low level of awareness about organic products: 68 per cent of respondents were not familiar with its characteristics. The study presents the conceptual basis of the business model of brand association, and the conditions of its implementation by smallhold farmers who collectively sell an organic product. The authors argue that the implementation of this business model will improve smallhold farmers’ position in the Ukrainian organic market by building dynamic and systematic interactions with consumers.
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A group of beneficial bacteria provides an ecofriendly and economically sound approach to low-input farming systems and for better plant productivity. The present study was conducted during 2018-19 at MGM’s Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Aurangabad, Maharashtra to develop consortium of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) bacteria on growth of various crops like Cotton, Maize, Jowar, Cow Pea, Moth Bean, Chili, and Tomato. For development of consortium, seven bacterial strains were taken for nitrogen fixation, solubilization of phosphorus and potassium. Out of seven, three bacterial strains were selected on the basis of positive compatibility test. All these three bacteria were used as A. chroococcum for nitrogen fixation, B. megaterium for phosphorous solubilization and F. aurantia for potassium solubilization. Bacterial consortium was formulated by inoculating three compatible bacterial strains by using emulsifier, dispersant, cell protectant, moisturizer and humectants. Consortium 4 was showed highest population count of A. chroococcum (12 × 1010 CFU/ ml), B. megaterium (10 × 1010 CFU/ ml) and F. aurantia (6 × 1010 CFU/ml) after one month over other consortium. Selected consortia 4 were treated with crops at two different concentrations as 50% and 100% respectively to study the seed germination percentage. Seed treated with consortium 4 showed significant enhancement in seed germination of all crops over control. Instead of giving single NPK bio-formulation, consortium of NPK bacteria is best way to avail NPK nutrients to plant for growth and development.
Article
CONTEXT Assessing the multifunctionality of agroecosystems is crucial to design more sustainable farming systems. While it is known that organic farming benefits biodiversity and ecosystem services, how organic farming affects their multifunctionality, including agronomical, ecological as well as economic dimensions, remains poorly explored. OBJECTIVE In this study, we investigated how individual indicators regrouped into agroecosystem goods of vineyards respond to farming systems and landscape composition. We also explored how ecosystem services resulting from agroecosystem goods respond to farming systems and landscape composition. In addition, we evaluated trade-offs and synergies between agroecosystem goods as well as between ecosystem services for each farming systems. METHOD We quantified 14 indicators corresponding to five agroecosystem goods (biodiversity conservation, soil organic matter decomposition, pest control, wine production, margin) in 20 pairs of organic and conventional vineyards. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Our study reveals that organic farming did not improve agroecosystem multifunctionality compared to conventional farming but led to lower trade-offs between agroecosystem goods. We found that organic systems increase supporting and regulating services but had lower provisioning service compared to conventional systems. Indeed, organic vineyards had multiple beneficial effects including higher pest control, lower production costs but produced less wine. Our results indicate a strong trade-off between pest control and wine production in both systems. In addition, conventional systems supported a negative trade-off between biodiversity conservation and wine production which was not the case of organic systems. SIGNIFICANCE Our study provides key information to further design farming systems that combine ecological, economical and agronomical performances. Further investigations are now needed to identify which combined management options maximize multiple performance of agroecosystems independently of certifications and across scales.
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Currently, the quality and safety of agricultural products and the enhancement of the agroecological environment are widely discussed. In response to solving the problem of insufficient exploitation of the market potential regarding sustainable agricultural products, this study uses rice on e-commerce platforms as an empirical case and constructs a hedonic price model aiming to explore the impact of the sustainable label on the price premium of agricultural products. The results show that: (1) There is a significant price premium for rice with sustainable labeling over ordinary rice, which is about 47.55%. In addition, within the types of sustainable labels, the price premium for rice with an organic food label is higher than that of rice with a green food label. (2) Except for the sustainable label, factors affecting the price premium of rice products include e-commerce platforms, rice varieties, package types, and whether it is imported. The price premium indicates the actual recognition and preference of consumers for agricultural products with the sustainable label. Departments of agricultural and food management departments should cooperate to improve the agricultural certification system (i.e., the sustainable label), further unblock a positive market mechanism of “green label—high quality—good price”, and facilitate the green transformation of China’s agricultural production from the consumer side.
Article
Agriculture was, by default, organic throughout the world before the technique of manufacturing synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer was discovered in 1903. However, availability of agro-chemicals became very common after the Second World War and the agriculture started becoming more and more chemical based. Synthetic fertilizers were introduced in India during 1965-66 and their use grew rapidly along with the high yielding varieties during the green revolution period and Indian farming, by and large, became chemical based. However, by the end of the twentieth century the ill-effects of such chemical-based farming were very well understood by the common Indian people and demand for organically produced food started growing. Different methods and procedures of growing organic food got popularity among the growers, however, a sense of confusion on package of practices on organic/natural farming kept on growing simultaneously. This review article was designed to make various concepts related to organic/natural farming crystal clear for the readers. Principals of organic farming, crop cultivation strategies in organic/natural farming, challenges in organic/ natural farming and possibilities and suggestions in organic/natural farming have been elaborately articulated in this review.
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Increasing concerns regarding the status of the environment and food quality contribute to an increasing demand for agricultural products produced by organic agriculture (OA). About 1.6% of the global agricultural land area is currently managed by OA practices. In the twentieth century, pioneers such as Rudolf Steiner, Sir Albert Howard, Lady Eve Balfour, Jerome Irving Rodale and Masanobu Fukuoka developed OA systems in reaction to perceived failures of conventional or nonorganic agriculture. Early types of OA included bio-dynamic, natural, biological, ecological and organic-biological agriculture. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) provides a definition of modern OA. However, there is no single interpretation of what OA practices and principles entail, and OA production systems continue to evolve. Among common OA practices are fertilization with organic instead of mineral fertilizers, use of natural-derived instead of synthetic plant protection products, and mechanical instead of chemical crop system management. Importantly, OA is the only farming system whose management practices are codified by law in most countries. However, OA is faced with several challenges such as the 19–25% lower crop yield compared to that under conventional or nonorganic practices, the lack of animal and green manure produced on OA farms to satisfy the demand at other OA farms, and lack of plant and animal varieties specifically adapted to OA soil and land-use management practices. Increased efforts are, thus, needed to improve the contribution of OA systems to environmental health as consumer demand for OA products continues to rise globally.
Article
We conduct a choice experiment to explore Chinese consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for milk with multi-nation organic labels. We also consider the interaction between these labels and the novel Protected Eco-Origin Product (PEOP) certification as well as different brands. Two types of multi-nation organic certification are examined: ‘double certification’ (i.e., carrying both the Chinese and EU organic labels) and ‘triple certification’ (i.e., carrying Chinese, EU, and U.S. organic labels). Compared to the Chinese organic label alone, consumers increase their WTP for double and triple organic certification, but the marginal WTP decreases for an additional organic label suggesting a negative accumulation effect. Meanwhile, organic and PEOP labels are substitutes, with the substitution effect stronger for higher number of organic labels. Welfare changes with various combinations between multiple organic and PEOP labels, as well as consumer preference heterogeneity across labels are analyzed, providing implications on producer decision-making, policymaking, and consumer benefit analysis with respect to organic and ecolabel certification in general.
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Research background: Economic growth is unsustainable. However, a circular economy has the potential to lead to sustainable development, while decoupling economic growth from the negative consequences of resource depletion and environmental degradation. The EU's strategy of climate neutralization in 2050 developed, inter alia, into a European Green Deal action plan aiming at the efficient use of resources by moving to a cleaner, circular economy. More sustainable EU food system is a cornerstone of the European Green Deal. The European Commission's goal is 25% of agricultural land to be used for organic production in 2030. The question is if it is possible to reach the objective with the use of current incentives. What else may be done to encourage European farmers to convert to organic farming? Purpose of the article: The aim of this research is to review the development of organic agriculture in Europe and the EU and to identify incentives for farmers to convert to organic farming. Methods: First of all, the methodological approach is to iteratively review the existing literature to frame the problem. Secondly, the data on organic agriculture in Europe is to be analyzed to answer the research questions. The analysis is based on international statistics, mainly collected by FiBL, IFOAM, EC Agri-food data portal and Eurostat..Fitting the trend functions to the actual data has been made in three scenarios (pessimistic, realistic and optimistic). These trend functions were used for the long-term forecasts of the share of organic farmland in the EU. Findings & value added: The long-run forecast might be treated as a goal, which can motivate to act more intensively to achieve the objective. The existing measures, including organic farming payments, are not sufficient to meet the goal of massive increase in the acreage under organic production. It is necessary to develop new incentives e.g. Green Public Procurement, innovative and effective media campaigns, development of a dynamic network of actors within the organic food supply chain with the use of blockchain technology.
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Industrial farming contributes significantly to feeding and clothing the world’s population of nearly eight billion people. While the use of mechanized, chemical and scaled-up farming practices have enabled increased food and fiber production, the practices associated with industrial agriculture also have the potential to adversely impact soils, environment and climate. Organic agriculture began as a movement to counter industrial farming, and organic certification has played a significant role in expanding organic agriculture worldwide. Regenerative agriculture is a fast-developing industry that also offers an alternative to industrial farming. It has been dubbed as going ‘beyond organic’ to take a more holistic view of agricultural production and practices. Based on 15 key-informant interviews with experts in the Australian organic and regenerative agricultural industries, this case study presents insight into the challenges that the organic industry has faced in its relationship with certification, thus offering a guide to the regenerative agricultural industry in developing its own approaches to labeling or certification.
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Organic agriculture outperforms conventional agriculture across several sustainability metrics due, in part, to more widespread use of agroecological practices. However, increased entry of large-scale farms into the organic sector has prompted concerns about ‘conventionalization’ through input substitution, agroecosystem simplification and other changes. We examined this shift in organic agriculture by estimating the use of agroecological practices across farm size and comparing indicators of conventionalization. Results from our national survey of 542 organic fruit and vegetable farmers show that fewer agroecological practices were used on large farms, which also exhibited the greatest degree of conventionalization. Intercropping, insectary plantings and border plantings were at least 1.4 times more likely to be used on small (0.4–39 cropland ha) compared with large (≥405 cropland ha) farms, whereas reduced tillage was less likely and riparian buffers were more likely on small compared with medium (40–404 cropland ha) farms. Because decisions about management practices can drive environmental sustainability outcomes, policy should support small and medium farms that already use agroecological practices while encouraging increased use of agroecological practices on larger farms.
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Despite the organic movement’s early connections to labour advocacy and commitment to the principle of “Fairness”, the evolution of the organic sector has generated questions about the strength of its links to food justice in certified organic farming. Scholar-activists have, in particular, highlighted the problematic nature of labour relations on many organic farms. This article reports on a growing relationship between an organic farming association (the Certified Organic Associations of British Columbia) and a migrant workers justice collective (Fuerza Migrante) with aspirations of alliance building. Drawing from qualitative interviews and participant observation, we examine the extent to which efforts by the organic community towards fairness in labour relations may signal an opening whereby the organic movement may take up the more radical struggle for rights, status and justice for racialized migrant workers. We draw on theoretical work on post-capitalist relations and emancipatory social transformations to provide scaffolding to our assessment, and illuminate the importance of complementary efforts. While the primary demands raised by migrant workers and their allies (e.g. structural changes to temporary foreign worker programs) are not yet mirrored by the organic community’s advocacy, this paper documents preliminary efforts towards centering of migrant worker struggles for justice that may open up spaces for social emancipation for workers in organic farming systems. We also provide recommendations for how the organic community could act in solidarity with migrants and advance migrant justice priorities. En sus inicios, el movimiento orgánico estaba fuertemente vinculado con la defensa de los derechos de los trabajadores y comprometido con el principio de “justicia”. Con el paso del tiempo, la evolución del sector orgánico ha generado cuestionamientos sobre la fuerza de estos vínculos y su relación con la justicia alimentaria en la agricultura orgánica certificada. Académicos-activistas, en particular, han destacado la intrínseca problemática de muchas granjas orgánicas. El presente artículo reporta la creciente relación y aspiración de construir alianzas entre una asociación de agricultura orgánica (Organic BC) y un colectivo de justicia para trabajadores migrantes (Fuerza Migrante). Examinamos hasta qué punto los esfuerzos por parte de la comunidad orgánica hacia la justicia en relaciones laborales puede representar una oportunidad para el movimiento orgánico de asumir una postura más radical por los derechos, estatus y la justicia de los trabajadores migrantes racializados. El análisis se basa en el trabajo teórico sobre relaciones post-capitalistas y las transformaciones sociales emancipatorias que iluminan la importancia de los esfuerzos complementarios. Si bien las principales demandas planteadas por los trabajadores migrantes y sus aliados (por ejemplo, cambios estructurales en los programas de trabajadores extranjeros temporales) aún no se reflejan en la lucha de la comunidad orgánica, vemos esfuerzos preliminares enfocados en la lucha de los trabajadores migrantes por la justicia, los cuales pueden abrir espacios para la emancipación social en sistemas de agricultura orgánica. Concluimos con recomendaciones sobre cómo la comunidad orgánica en Canadá podría actuar en solidaridad con los migrantes y promover prioridades de justicia para migrantes.
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O Brasil tem acompanhado o crescimento mundial da produção e demanda por alimentos orgânicos. Esses sistemas de produção podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento sustentável ao integrar práticas ambiental, econômica e socialmente sustentáveis. A agroecologia, um dos sistemas agrícolas mais sustentáveis do mundo, pode contribuir com essa questão. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar, sob a perspectiva econômica, social e ambiental, se as práticas de produtores de orgânicos da Rede Ecovida de Agroecologia estão alinhadas com o desenvolvimento sustentável. Para isso, foram entrevistados produtores rurais de dois grupos do Núcleo Regional da Serra Gaúcha, de Caxias do Sul, sul do Brasil. Esses agricultores também foram acompanhados nas feiras realizadas para a comercialização do excedente de sua produção. Verificou-se, além das práticas sustentáveis, que esses produtores, suas famílias e os demais integrantes dos grupos têm na agroecologia uma filosofia de vida.
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Organic agriculture is regularly professed as more sustainable than traditional or conventional farming. In conventional farming systems, we faced severe problems with sustainability, and organic agriculture is noticed as a more environmental-friendly method as it favors recycling nutrients, renewable resources, and uses of environment’s individual systems for the management of diseases and pests, protects soils, sustains ecosystems, and also reduces pollution. In the same instance, organic farming endorses the use of natural food, animal welfare, avoidance of waste, and product diversity. In terms of climate change and environmental effects, organic farming causes less pollution than traditional farming. Organic farming presently accounts for 1% of agricultural land worldwide, which yielding is lower on average. Due to good knowledge requirements and yield gaps, observation might further increase the larger number of farmers to switch to organic practices. Upscaling of organic agriculture may cause additional loss to natural habitats and demand output cost increases, making foodstuff less prohibitive for poor customers in developing countries. Natural farming is not the model for food security and sustainable agriculture, but smart amalgamation or combination of conventional methods and organic would contribute to an increase in sustainable production in global agriculture. Sustainability in relation to organic farming is a sector that grows rapidly in several countries.
Article
CONTEXT Until May 2021, the policy regime of the Government of Sri Lanka was to import and provide chemical fertilizer at subsidized rates to small-holder farmers. On May 6, 2021, the government imposed a ban on import of chemical fertilizers and subsidy was directed to organic fertilizers. Due to heavy protests by the farming community, the import ban was lifted in November 2021. By that time, fertilizer prices in the world market had sharply escalated making chemical fertilizers quite an expensive source of nutrients. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to assess the implications of different fertilizer policy scenarios on land use, profitability, shadow prices of resources, and environmental damages in paddy, maize and vegetable- based cropping systems in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. METHOD A bio-economic model was developed and simulated for five policy scenarios for the Mahakanumulla tank village in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka demonstrating (i) conventional agriculture, (ii) enhanced availability of organic fertilizers, (iii) removal of subsidy on chemical fertilizers, (iv) premium prices for chemical fertilizer free produce, and (v) a composite shock accommodating (ii), (iii) and (iv) above. The above simulations were run “with” and “without” water constraints to depict tank village systems and similar systems under major irrigation schemes respectively under varying limits of chemical fertilizers. Paddy, maize and vegetable, cultivated using two technologies, i.e., intensive use of chemical fertilizers and intensive use of organic fertilizers, were taken as decision variables. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The results of the analysis showed that under the conventional agriculture scenario, paddy and maize cultivation was the preferred choice for profit maximizing farmers in the tank village. When chemical fertilizers were restricted, farmers abandoned paddy and maize cultivation. Chemical fertilizers were available in sufficient quantities, even without a subsidy, profits reduce only by 13.56%. Maximum returns from crop cultivation were reaped when chemical and organic fertilizers were available in sufficient quantities and a premium price for products cultivated with organic fertilizers is secured. The cost of restricting chemical fertilizer application is severe in agricultural systems where water is abundant. SIGNIFICANCE A policy environment that secures markets for chemical fertilizer free food products is needed to make cropping systems more financially and environmentally sustainable. Stringent restrictions on quantity limits on chemical fertilizers use can affect profitability of cropping systems with no significant gains in environmental quality.
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Unsustainable phosphorus use is at the heart of many societal challenges. Unsustainable phosphorus use affects food and water security, freshwater biodiversity and human health. Increasing demand for food to support a growing global population continues to drive increases in phosphorus inputs to the food–system, as well as losses from land-based sources to freshwater and coastal ecosystems. These losses cause ecological degradation through the proliferation of harmful algal blooms in fresh waters, contributing to alarmingly high rates of biodiversity decline, economic losses associated with clean-up, and large-scale human health risks from contaminated drinking water supplies. The pace of species extinction, climate change and the growing number of extreme weather events, combined with population growth and the economic impact of COVID-19, have further strengthened the need to invest in phosphorus sustainability. If the world is to meet climate change, biodiversity, and food security targets, and avoid building costs of predicted phosphorus impacts, positive action on phosphorus management is essential. The present report calls for the establishment of an intergovernmental coordination mechanism to catalyse integrated action on phosphorus sustainability. This should be supported by an international framework to consolidate the collective knowledge, quantify of the economic and societal benefits of improvements in phosphorus management and establish targets for time-bound improvements. The report identifies a clear opportunity to raise awareness on the need for sustainable phosphorus management through the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) and calls for a UNEA resolution on sustainable phosphorus management or equivalent global commitment to act.
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The Southern Great Plains (SGP) region of the U.S. is widely known for its dryland dual‐purpose winter wheat cropping systems—integrated systems that provide both livestock grazing and grain production. Few of these systems are organic, however, and no relevant research had been conducted on this topic. A large‐scale (41‐ha) systems study was conducted for three years (2018 to 2021) to compare a transitional organic dual‐purpose wheat system to a conventional one, with system management components customized to the eco‐region. Organic wheat yield was 20% lower than conventional in the first season of organic transition, but there was no yield difference by the third year. The improvement in the organic system may be attributed to N fixation by a legume‐based cash crop in the previous winter season, exogenous nutrients from application of composted manure, and appropriate wheat cultivar selection. Due to limited moisture, relying on annual establishment of summer cover crops to fix N and deliver other ecosystem services in the organic system was not feasible in most years. Grain protein concentration (GPC) of the transitional organic wheat ranged from 91 to 103 g kg‐1, below the 120 g kg‐1 threshold for a food market organic price premium. More intensive N management, including in‐season application of a more available form of N that is organic‐approved could be an effective strategy to increase GPC. This proof‐of‐concept study shows that organic dual‐purpose wheat systems can be a viable enterprise in the SGP, though additional research is needed to address challenges identified herein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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This article examines quantitatively the determinants of purchase decisions based on corporate social responsibility (CSR), adopting a hierarchical conceptual model of decision making where the key factors are personal concern, information availability and financial considerations. We use best–worst methods to assess consumer priorities (personal concern) for CSR activities in milk production; and elicit consumer interpretation of four labels (organic, Validus, Colorado Proud and rBST free) in terms of CSR and other outcomes (information availability). We then elicit willingness to pay (WTP) for the labels (financial considerations), and estimate regression models to determine how predictive each label perceptual profile is of WTP for milk. Animal welfare and sustainable agricultural practices are the most important activities, and milk labels do convey CSR-related messages. With the exception of the pair animal welfare-Validus, the link between CSR messages and WTP is tenuous. The discussion emphasizes the central role of each label's perceptual profile in triggering product differentiation among consumers.
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Significance Some recognize organic agriculture as being important for future global food security, whereas others project it to become irrelevant. Although organic agriculture is rapidly growing, it currently occupies only 1% of global cropland. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Accordingly, we analyzed the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture from 40 y of studies covering 55 crops grown on five continents. We found that, in spite of lower yields, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable than conventional agriculture and has room to expand globally. Moreover, with its environmental benefits, organic agriculture can contribute a larger share in sustainably feeding the world.
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Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses based on 343 peer-reviewed publications that indicate statistically significant and meaningful differences in composition between organic and non-organic crops/crop-based foods. Most importantly, the concentrations of a range of antioxidants such as polyphenolics were found to be substantially higher in organic crops/crop-based foods, with those of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins being an estimated 19 (95 % CI 5, 33) %, 69 (95 % CI 13, 125) %, 28 (95 % CI 12, 44) %, 26 (95 % CI 3, 48) %, 50 (95 % CI 28, 72) % and 51 (95 % CI 17, 86) % higher, respectively. Many of these compounds have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers, in dietary intervention and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the frequency of occurrence of pesticide residues was found to be four times higher in conventional crops, which also contained significantly higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd. Significant differences were also detected for some other (e.g. minerals and vitamins) compounds. There is evidence that higher antioxidant concentrations and lower Cd concentrations are linked to specific agronomic practices (e.g. non-use of mineral N and P fertilisers, respectively) prescribed in organic farming systems. In conclusion, organic crops, on average, have higher concentrations of antioxidants, lower concentrations of Cd and a lower incidence of pesticide residues than the non-organic comparators across regions and production seasons.
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This paper describes the agroecological principles necessary to guide the conversion of high‐input conventional systems to a low‐input management based on crop diversification and livestook integration schemes which break the monoculture nature of conventional systems. The new crop‐crop and crop‐animal combinations result in a series of synergisms and complementarities among farming system components which lead to optimal recycling of organic matter and nutrients, and to balanced pest‐natural enemy populations. Thus, agroecological design goes beyond “input‐substitution” by establishing systems capable of sponsoring their own soil fertility, crop protection and yield constancy. These new agroecosystems provide a sustainable level of productivity with minimal need for external (conventional or organic) resources. Biological structuring sponsors the functioning of the system.
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Assessing inter-rater reliability, whereby data are independently coded and the codings compared for agreements, is a recognised process in quantitative research. However, its applicability to qualitative research is less clear: should researchers be expected to identify the same codes or themes in a transcript or should they be expected to produce different accounts? Some qualitative researchers argue that assessing inter-rater reliability is an important method for ensuring rigour, others that it is unimportant; and yet it has never been formally examined in an empirical qualitative study. Accordingly, to explore the degree of inter-rater reliability that might be expected, six researchers were asked to identify themes in the same focus group transcript. The results showed close agreement on the basic themes but each analyst `packaged' the themes differently.
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A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Agriculturalists are the principal managers of global useable lands and will shape, perhaps irreversibly, the surface of the Earth in the coming decades. New incentives and policies for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be crucial if we are to meet the demands of improving yields without compromising environmental integrity or public health.
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The paper presents partial results from an Italian study on consumer perception and knowledge of organic food and related behaviour. Uses the means-end chain model to link attributes of products to the needs of consumers. In order to provide insights into consumer motivation in purchasing organic products, 60 respondents were interviewed using ``hard’’ laddering approach to the measurement of means-end chains. The results (ladders) of these semiqualitative interviews are coded, aggregated and presented in a set of hierarchical structured value maps. Even if organic products are perceived as difficult to find and expensive, most consumers judge them positively. All consumers associate organic products with health at different levels of abstraction and want good, tasty and nourishing products, because pleasure and wellbeing are their most important values. Results show that differences exist between groups of consumers with respect to their frequency of use (experience) of organic products and level of information (expertise). Reports and discusses results on consumer cognitive structures at different level of experience.
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Growing interest in organic agriculture has prompted numerous studies that compare various aspects of organic and conventionally produced foods. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of empirical studies comparing organic products and conventionally grown alternatives. The emphasis is on key organic consumer demand and marketing issues, including: (1) the implications of an economic definition of organically grown food for consumer demand; (2) attributes that shoppers consider most when comparing organic with conventionally grown products; (3) level and characteristics of consumer knowledge and awareness about organic food; (4) assessment methods and characteristics of organic consumer attitudes and preferences; (5) size of price premium and characteristics of consumers’ willingness-to-pay for organic products; and (6) profile of organic consumers. Overall, although there is some knowledge and awareness about organic products, consumers are not consistent in their interpretation of what is organic. Secondly, while consumers typically understand the broad issues about organic foods, many tend not to understand the complexities and niceties of organic farming practices and organic food quality attributes. Uncertainty regarding the true attributes of organic, and skepticism about organic labels, part of which stems from reported cases of (inadvertent) mislabeling, and product misrepresentation, and partly because of nonuniform organic standards and certification procedures, may hold some consumers back from purchasing organic. Thirdly, concern for human health and safety, which is a key factor that influences consumer preference for organic food, is consistent with observed deterioration in human health over time and, therefore, motivates consumers to buy organic food as insurance and/or investment in health. Fourthly, the proportion of consumers who are willing to pay a price premium for organic food decreases with premium level. On the other hand, premiums tend to increase with (combinations of) preferred attributes. In addition, demand tends to depend more on the price differential with respect to conventionally grown products, than on actual price. In contrast to sensitivity of demand to changes in price, income elasticity of demand for organic foods is generally small. Finally, it is important for policy analysts and researchers to note that organic fresh fruits and vegetables currently dominate the organic consumer's food basket. Furthermore, it is not clear whether frequent buyers consider particular organic products (e.g., organic meat) as normal goods, or if consumers consider such products as luxury goods.
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Conventional agriculture systems of production often lead to environmental degradation, economic problems and even social conflict. The efficacy of agriculture systems conducive to the economic, environmental and social sustainability of farming operations has been demonstrated, yet the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is not widespread. This qualitative study is based on a web-based survey instrument designed to elicit the barriers to adoption of sustainable agriculture practices (SAP) perceived by a positional and network sample of 269 change agents working with farmers in the US South. The analysis examines the general proposition that reluctance to change to SAP is an overused rationale of change agents that tends to mask real barriers that we endeavor to elicit in the survey. It was found that despite having support from technical assistance providers, farmers are rarely adopting SAP. Change agents often are not well prepared to attend to farmers' needs regarding SAP, particularly the needs of specific farming situations. Thus, farmers often struggle to obtain accurate information about the benefits of SAP. Government support programs often fail to encourage adoption due to lack of funding, inappropriate design and ineffective targeting of incentives. Reluctance to change is frequently mentioned by change agents, but more as a way of blaming farmers for nonadoption than explaining the often tangible reasons for their behaviors. Social barriers, land tenure, infrastructure and incompatibility are other significant impediments to adoption. Strategies such as improved management of the existing information, careful design of economic support programs and extension efforts addressed to change agents themselves could help overcome some of the barriers identified by change agents.
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The organic farming concept developed in the period prior to 1940 and was pioneered by Sir Albert Howard (1873–1947). Howard, born and educated in England, directed agricultural research centers in India (1905–1931) before permanently returning to England. His years of agricultural research experiences and observations gradually evolved into a philosophy and concept of organic farming that he espoused in several books. Howard's thinking on soil fertility and the need to effectively recycle waste materials, including sewage sludge, onto farmland was reinforced by F.H. King's book, Farmers of Forty Centuries. Howard developed a system of composting that became widely adopted. Howard's concept of soil fertility centered on building soil humus with an emphasis on how soil life was connected to the health of crops, livestock, and mankind. Howard argued that crop and animal health was a birthright and that the correct method of dealing with a pathogen was not to destroy the pathogen but to see what could be learned from it or to ‘make use of it for tuning up agricultural practice’. The system of agriculture advocated by Howard was coined ‘organic’ by Walter Northbourne to refer to a system ‘having a complex but necessary interrelationship of parts, similar to that in living things’. Lady Eve Balfour compared organic and non-organic farming and helped to popularize organic farming with the publication of The Living Soil. Jerome Rodale, a publisher and an early convert to organic farming, was instrumental in the diffusion and popularization of organic concepts in the US. Both Howard and Rodale saw organic and non-organic agriculture as a conflict between two different visions of what agriculture should become as they engaged in a war of words with the agricultural establishment. A productive dialogue failed to occur between the organic community and traditional agricultural scientists for several decades. Organic agriculture gained significant recognition and attention in 1980, marked by the USDA publication Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming. The passage of the Federal Organic Foods Production Act in 1990 began the era of accommodation for organic farming in the USA, followed by another milestone with official labeling as USDA Certified Organic in 2002. Organic agriculture will likely continue to evolve in response to ongoing social, environmental, and philosophical concerns of the organic movement.
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