ArticlePDF Available

The Impact of Self-efficacy on International Student Entrepreneur Intention

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Entrepreneur self-efficacy is the level to which people perception of their capacities to successfully perform the various roles and tasks of entrepreneurship (Chen et al., 1998; De Noble et al., 1999; French, 2009). The research sampled students from two universities in Cyprus. The data was collected through a questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science software was used for data analysis. It was discovered that, in exception of motive toward business success and status in the society, emerging small and medium size enterprise do not have motive for economic growth, though the significant relationship between status in the society and self-efficacy were discussed. Conclusively, there exist a negative relationship between self-efficacy and desire for status among entrepreneurs.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Review of Management and
Marketing
ISSN: 2146-4405
available at http: www.econjournals.com
International Review of Management and Marketing, 2017, 7(1), 169-174.
International Review of Management and Marketing | Vol 7 • Issue 1 • 2017 169
The Impact of Self-efcacy on International Student
Entrepreneur Intention
Oladapo Rasul1, Festus Victor Bekun2*, Seyi Saint Akadiri3
1Department of Business Administration, Cyprus International University, North Cyprus, 2Department of Economics, Eastern
Mediterranean University, North Cyprus, 3Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus.
*Email: bekunfestusvictor@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Entrepreneur self-efcacy is the level to which people perception of their capacities to successfully perform the various roles and tasks of entrepreneurship
(Chen et al., 1998; De Noble et al., 1999; French, 2009). The research sampled students from two universities in Cyprus. The data was collected
through a questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science software was used for data analysis. It was discovered that, in exception of motive
toward business success and status in the society, emerging small and medium size enterprise do not have motive for economic growth, though the
signicant relationship between status in the society and self-efcacy were discussed. Conclusively, there exist a negative relationship between self-
efcacy and desire for status among entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Entrepreneur, Self-efcacy, Start-up
JEL Classications: M1, M13, P31
1. INTRODUCTION
A relationship exists between social cognitive theory and self-
efcacy of (Bandura, 1977; 1986; 1995) which emphasize one
of the vacant needs of business owner to nd opportunities for
self-fulllment through their business ventures.
This same relationship further explained by Hisrich et al. (2008)
that intentions to act when taking action is perceived to be feasible
and desirably has much to entrepreneur self-efcacy. According
to Bandura et al. (2014) common relationship is the intentions
that inuence behavior leading to desired outcome. Recently, the
subject “entrepreneur” has been given a meaningful and practical
outcome through empirical and theoretical research (Nick et al.,
2011, Towobola and Raimi, 2011) that when there is a recognition
in different specializations and a realization of a need, that can
be exchanged between people, the nature of entrepreneurial is
born. Studies by Altinay et al. (2012) re-iterate that corporate and
independent entrepreneurial operate on primary levels and have
new perspectives of venturing in the market place regardless of
their products or services. They can operate as a lifestyle rms,
functional company and high potential ventures levels. With these
in mind, further research is necessary to explore intentions and
possibilities of the 21st century entrepreneur.
However, intention to act and take actions are perceived to
be feasible and desirable motivational factors influencing
entrepreneurial outcomes (Hisrich et al., 2008). Intension such
as desire to gain status, to be success and ability to inuence
economic growth which Geri (2013) elaborated has a positive
relation between risk taking tendencies and entrepreneurial
motives. For example, the desire to gain status, success and
attain economic benefits. Therefore, risk taking tendencies
are results of high-self efcacy (Hisrich, 2008). In addition to
existing research, it is necessary to explore these opportunities
and unearth all possibilities that entrepreneurship can offer in the
21st century ventures. This study has received less or no signicant
acknowledgement across the Mediterranean i.e., (Cyprus),
analyzing the entrepreneurial benet to a substantiated level will
be of use to business owner perceptions, strength, magnitude and
in generality of how small and medium size enterprise (SME’s) can
thrive through self-efcacy because inconsistencies exist as to how
Rasul, et al.: The Impact of Self-efcacy on International Student Entrepreneur Intention
International Review of Management and Marketing | Vol 7 • Issue 1 • 2017
170
researchers go about capturing the perspective of entrepreneurial
activities in Cyprus.
This with an economic system where emerging start-ups, corporate,
and independent enterprise has been on the increase in recent
years, and entrepreneur research has been more on (Lee, 1996;
McElwee and Al-Riyami, 2003) the measure of business success
among female business owners is based on the society and family.
It is hard to measure determining dimensions within personal,
economic and other motives to be successful “self-efcacy” after
the 1974 global trading embargo. Evidence star-up entrepreneur
intension is void in recent studies, inconclusive statistics about the
current state of entrepreneur is contradictory and recent research
has been limited within the study of gender, economic sector on
government advantage (McElwee and Al-Riyami, 2003; Huggins
and Williams, 2011). Therefore, further test and in regards to what
output and change entrepreneurial motives has contributed towards
personal and economic growth need to be tested.
2. ENTREPRENEUR CONCEPT
The concept of entrepreneur and the theoretical discovery is
vast accepted idea amongst theorists, with additional views to
methods of early research and scholars spreading from market,
business and services to providing the peculiarities shaping an
entrepreneur start-up, motives, individual and economic success.
Who is an entrepreneur? An entrepreneur is a person who manages
or have a capacity to “undertake” which is an agent of (1828)
French word. According to Iyigun and Owen (1998) entrepreneurs
provide the economy with new ways of doing things through
ideas and products. This commencing introduction expatiate the
entrepreneurial capacity as a composition that economic strength
rest upon. The sufx “ship” which means to create something of
value, to invest derived from the old Gothic verb Schaeppen, as
noted by Drucker (2007) who denes entrepreneur as a shift in
resources from areas of low productivity yield to areas of higher
productivity yield in relation to product or services of resources.
In regards to these rigorous realization, the efcacy of these
practical success had been less when compared to the problem
it needs to solve, thorough research is still required on
entrepreneurship has it is still very young in growth of solving
enterprise, start-ups and signicant economic contributions.
Entrepreneurs indicates factors that determinant activities and
among these exhaustive lists, few factors such as discussed by
Llussá (2009) that in terms of opportunity and needs, entrepreneur
activity ratio are lower for males than females in over 46 countries
but for Croatia and Thailand it is not the same but almost in equal
part. Powell and Rodet (2012) emphasize that culture which is
a subset of cultural legitimacy have a higher rate in the long
term productivity of entrepreneur success and the importance
on a country as also in the case of Cyprus. In experimentation
and observation Powell and and Rodet (2012) argues that social
approval of entrepreneurs will impact the prevalence of productive
entrepreneurship. In this context culture is a strong indicator and
inuencer of positive societal status for entrepreneur’s motives
and will be associated with higher rates of motivating effects.
2.1. Structure
Start-up owners are faced with the responsibilities of different
attributes which shapes business allowing their envisioned
personal values and motives. Such attributes distinguish
different business and organization from one another. It is also
imperative to know that different businesses have it unique
niche, pattern and structures depending on the dimensions
either as life-style rms, foundational company or high potential
ventures aims to grow. This level of growth, communication
and dimensions of power sharing and bureaucracy affect the
structure and much more an organization (Hall and Tolbert,
2009; Miles et al., 2006; Miles et al., 1978; Keat, et al., 2011;
Lunnenburg 2011; Lisaniler, 2006). Mintzberg (1993; 2009) but
forward for consideration the extent of a business organization’s
structural strategy. In order to suggest structural perspective for
new ventures and start up entrepreneurs, it is therefore necessary
to look into these ve structures, in order to see the potential of
structures that can be adopted by start-ups, in order to grow the
Table 1: Pearson correlations
Pearson correlation
matrix
Self-efcacy Desire
for
status
Success
intentions
Economic
benets
Self-efcacy
Pearson correlation 1 0.207 0.308** 0.583**
Signicant (two-tailed) 0.082 0.009 0.000
N 72 72 72 72
Desire for status
Pearson correlation 0.207 1 0.532** 0.402**
Signicant (two-tailed) 0.082 0.000 0.000
N 72 72 72 72
Success intentions
Pearson correlation 0.308** 0.532** 1 0.421**
Signicant (two-tailed) 0.009 0.000 0.000
N 72 72 72 72
Economic benets
Pearson correlation 0.583** 0.402** 0.421** 1
Signicant (two-tailed) 0.000 0.000 0.000
N 72 72 72 72
**Correlation is signicant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed)
Table 2: Regressionb
Model Sum of
squares
Df Mean square FSignicant
1
Regression 1.472 1 1.472 3.118 0.082a
Residual 33.043 70 0.472
Total 34.515 71
aPredictors: (Constant), self-efcacy, ***Signicant at the 0.10 level, bDependent
variable: Desire for status
Table 3: ANOVA for success intentions and self-efcacyb
Model Sum of
squares
Df Mean square FSignicant
1
Regression 2.744 1 2.744 7.329 0.009a
Residual 26.207 70 0.374
Total 28.951 71
aPredictors: (Constant), self-efcacy, **Signicant at the 0.01 level, bDependent
variable: Success intentions
Rasul, et al.: The Impact of Self-efcacy on International Student Entrepreneur Intention
International Review of Management and Marketing | Vol 7 • Issue 1 • 2017 171
organization or business. The below Tables 1-5 illustrate level
of enterprise sizes as explained by (2008).
2.2. Entrepreneur Motive
It has been asserted that a sense of purpose, distinguished failed
and successful SME’s. This sense of purpose inuence motive by
controlling internal or external factors for entrepreneur thinking
and learning (Geri, 2013). Motives or intension are carried into
independent or corporate plan for feasible and desirable decision
making process. Hisrich et al. (2012) further refers to this as the
rapid ability to act and mobilize under uncertain conditions. Thus,
the desire to gain success, status and provide economic benets
are one of the reason why corporates or independent entrepreneurs
would continue to develop the capacity to take control and
inuence the internal or external factors conclusively leading to
creative intended intensions and motives.
2.3. Expectation
Subconscious expected consequences on an individual’s practical
behaviors, expectation come through consequences of actions even
before people engage in them, which in turn inuence outcome of
business. These can rise from experiences. It focuses on the degree of
importance one place on the outcome of an action and it is subjected
to different perspective based on the person involve. This concept
of expectation was also further introduced by Hisrich et al. (2008)
that the stronger the level of efforts to engage in a behavior and
the action exert to perform, the stronger inuence is evident in
the outcome (performance). Though they contextualize intention
toward performance result. Therefore, the engagement of intentions,
expectation leads to desirable and feasible outcome. Environmental
factors such as nance, market penetration, business size (i.e., small
and medium), and performance can inuence a person’s behavior
and anticipate outcome of their actions. The social cognitive theory
of Bandura differentiates ve levels of constructs with expectation
and self-efficacy. Expectation or expected outcomes must be
recognized as the crucial mechanism of change and forces that
govern the economic. Such forces in the situation if (i.e. Cyprus)
will inherently trigger expectation of entrepreneurs thereby acting
as a source of change in level of expectation and level of success
(Bandura, 1986, 2007; Williams and Grégoire, 2010).
Self-efcacy is perceived as a “beliefs in one’s capabilities to
mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of action
needed to meet given situational demands” (Wood and Bandura,
1989. p. 408) and validation of new self-efcacy scale Liñán and
Chen (2001). Though every human has a degree of self-efcacy,
while SME’s are not excluded from the list, entrepreneur self-efcacy
is an important aspect of social science and relevant for the purpose
of this research paper. The degree of business owner’s abilities to
successfully perform tasks and roles involved in entrepreneurship
(Chen et al., 1998; De Noble et al., 1999; Hisrich et al., 2008).
The level to which people perception of their capacities to
successfully perform the various roles and tasks of entrepreneurship
(Dadad, 2012; Chen et al., 1998; De Noble et al., 1999; Foleide,
2011). Research ndings asserts that self-efcacy is positively
associated with creation of a new independent organizations
Kearney et al. (2008) and Ivansevich et al., (2005) identied
three dimensions of processes that may inuence entrepreneur’s
intentions and self-efcacy which are: Magnitude which is level
of task difculty, strength; the believe regarding the magnitude is
strong or weak and generality; how generalized across different
situation and belief. These dimensions are formed by personal
interpretation of information from forces or sources that are
determinant to the person endeavor.
For instance, a prospective business owner, or SME’s condence
and ability to succeed in their venture is formed through past,
present success rate of entrepreneurial engagements, gender,
economic disadvantages, family background demography,
personality traits, inefcient government bureaucracy, access
to nancing, business policy, labor workforce, tax rates, foreign
currency regulations, ination, innovation capacity as discussed
under the caption entrepreneur in Cyprus today which are the
most inuential source of interpretations, or experience mastery
that results into actions. By observation of other SME’s or factors,
vicarious experience is formed which also create and develop
self-efcacy beliefs as a result of social persuasions received
from others. Somatic and emotional states such as anxiety, stress,
arousal, and mood states.
The concept was further introduced by Hisrich et al. (2008) that
the stronger the level of efforts exert to engage in a behavior and
action the better the outcome (performance). Though, Hisrich
contextualization, intention toward performance result and
expectation are all action that leads to desirable and feasible
outcome. High-self-efcacy: Consistency in large scales of recent
research found that individual whom have performed on higher
levels of motivations and performance tend to a high level of self-
efcacy (Ivancevich et al., 2005).
Weak self-efcacy: Consistency of failure on all attempt to perform
a task based on one’s motives or intensions, it will conversely lead
to opposing experience which is failure compared to a person who
have performed and achieved intended results leading to more
motivation and increasing performance (Ivancevich et al., 2005).
Multi-dimensionality of self-efcacy: According to Liñán and
Chen (2001). Self-efcacy relates to “one’s estimate of one’s
Table 4: ANOVA for economic benets and self-efcacyb
Model Sum of
squares
Df Mean square FSignicant
1
Regression 13.610 1 13.610 36.027 0.000a
Residual 26.444 70 0.378
Total 40.055 71
aPredictors: (Constant), self-efcacy, ** signicant at the 0.01 level, bDependent
variable: Economic benets
Table 5: Hypothesis result summary
S. No. Hypothesis Results
H1 Self-efcacy has a negative impact on SME’s
desire to gain status
Accept
H2 Self-efcacy has positive impact on SME’s
success intentions
Accept
H3 Self-efcacy has a positive impact on SME’s
economic benet
Reject
SME’s: Small and medium size enterprise
Rasul, et al.: The Impact of Self-efcacy on International Student Entrepreneur Intention
International Review of Management and Marketing | Vol 7 • Issue 1 • 2017
172
overall ability to perform successfully in a wide variety of
achievement situations, the condent level that can be perform
on effectively across different tasks and situations”. Self-esteem
which is inclusive in these dimensionality relates to “the overall
effective evaluation of one’s own worth, value, or importance,
or how one feels about oneself as a person (i.e., entrepreneurs).”
Unidimensional of Self-efficacy: Ability to comprehend
environmental nature and concept of entrepreneur effect on
self-efcacy for start-up, corporate and independent with the
purpose of establishing an individual focus on how motives can
be used as a scale of measure for prospective start up and their
success aspirations. The level to which people perception of
their capacity to successfully perform the various task and roles
of entrepreneurship (Chen et al., 1998; De noble et al., 1999;
Foleide, 2011).
According to Chen et al. (2001) the new general self-efcacy
is found to be highly reliable and unidimensional. This
unidimensional method is consistency for measuring a test and
for research purpose that will be used in this paper. Chen further
suggested that there is high relationship and consistency of internal
or intrinsic correlation for the new general self-efcacy scale,
hence to support our usage of the NGSCE scale for measuring
intrinsic motivation for entrepreneur self-efcacy. Chen concluded
that the NGSCE scale consistency yielded appreciably higher
content validity, this validity evidence makes it more appealing to
measure for use in organization and research. NGSE scale gives
more gain to behavioral researcher that transcend one specic
situation as demonstrated his validation (Chen et al., 2001. p. 62).
3. SME IN CYPRUS
A country policy and value about SME explains the capacity of
economic growth. The situations in the essence of exibility of
entrepreneurial activities in that one characteristics of diaspora
of Turkish Cypriots is that they are successful entrepreneurs
(Basu and Altinay, 2002). The vast majority of entrepreneurs in
North-Cyprus had experience before setting up their enterprise by
working in the family businesses as they grew up.
Families’ cultural debut, such as the way they are known in their
society or their status would later have a massive effect on one’s
professional view of life (Khodadad, 2012). 2% of them “SME’s”
may decide to stay and open a business in North Cyprus. Ethnicity
and cultural background go hand in hand, students from other
countries has a very low perception percentage of staying in
North Cyprus and starting a business, but some may have great
tendency in starting an innovative business inside his/her own
country back home.
Khodadad (2012) explains that the “Need for achievement”
is shaped with whether the respondent is forward looking.
The entrepreneur attitude of student may be high before they
venture into diverse businesses, however this shows the overall
entrepreneurial tendency is lower than the expected average level
outcome. A society on the verge of economic productivity and
prosperity with the aim of production and productivity is such
like the Cyprus Turkish Chamber of Commerce in its efforts to
foster entrepreneurship among its citizens, initiated a training
program “Applied Entrepreneurship” for high school students
which they hope will be a catalyst for SME toward economic
growth. It is essential to articulate this vein of thought as reiterated
by the Euro Statistics (2015) that SMEs and entrepreneurship a
process and key to ensuring economic growth, innovation, job
creation, and social integration. This integration is a key to growth-
generating potentials for foreigner in any globalized economy
of the 21st century. It is to these premise that this research hope
to uncover is potential the foreign student intentions towards
contribute to the entrepreneur potentials and strength an economy
like North-Cyprus.
4. RESEARCH METHOD
This study includes final year undergraduates, masters, and
doctorate students across various disciplines from Cyprus
International University and Near East University. Out of 100
questionnaires distributed 72 was returned and 27 was unlled
and damaged. The total number of students that participated in this
survey is 72, which consist of 38 male (52.8%), 34 female (47.2%).
49 undergraduate at (68.1%), 21 masters (29.2%), and 2 doctorate
students (2.8%) across various disciplines. Respondents age
from 18 to 25 years which composed of 49 (68.1%) and
23 respondents are between 26 and 35 years (68.1%) which totaled
72 questionnaires distributed. From 14 countries, Turkmenistan
3 (4.2%), Egypt 1 (4.2%, Russia 1 (1.4%), Nigeria 42 (1.4%),
Kazakhstan 5 (6.9%), England 2 (2.8%), Georgia 1 (1.4%),
Azerbaijan 2 (2.8%), Kenya 2 (2.8%), Zimbabwe 4 (5.6%),
Cameroon 5 (6.9%), Tajikistan 2 (2.8%), and Zambia 2 (2.8%).
4.1. Hypothesis
H1: Self-efcacy has a negative impact on SME’s desire to gain
status.
H2: Self-efcacy has positive impact on SME’s success intentions.
H3: Self efcacy has a positive impact on SME’s economic benet.
4.2. Instrument
In measuring the level of self-efcacy, this study used a NGSE
questionnaire which is a modification from the instrument
developed by De Noble et al. (1999) and Chen et al. (2001).
The instrument consisted of 8 items of the new general self-
efcacy scale, which covers dimension overall ability to perform
successfully in a wide variety of achievement situations, or
to how condent one is that she or he can perform effectively
across different tasks and situations,” and self-esteem relates to
"the overall affective evaluation of one’s own worth, value, or
importance." Participants were asked to respond to the items using
a ve point Likert type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly
agree) based on the degree of their agreement with the statements.
4.3. Reliability
The reliability test showed that this scale was reliable to measure
the entrepreneurial self-efcacy (Cronbach alpha = 0.906). Also
Rasul, et al.: The Impact of Self-efcacy on International Student Entrepreneur Intention
International Review of Management and Marketing | Vol 7 • Issue 1 • 2017 173
factor analysis of entrepreneur tendencies (motives) of desire to
gain status, success motives, desire for economic benets. The
reliability test shows that this scale was reliable to measure motives
with (Cronbach alpha = 0.707).
In Tables 1 and 2, the correlation and regression results between
self-efcacy and desire for status explains P = 0.082 (P > 0.10)
and it is an indicative that, an increase in self-efcacy of emerging
business owners impose a higher condence in their business
environment status and their perspective about themselves in
regards to achievement through business success engagements.
With this imperative result in Table 1, we accept the first
hypothesis.
For a valid hypothesis testing, an alpha (signicant) level of 0.05
was used for all analyses. The test for homogeneity of variance
was not signicant (F [1, 70] =1.71, P > 0.01) indicating that this
assumption underlying the application of ANOVA in Table 2 was
met. The one-way ANOVA of standardized test score in Table 3
revealed a statistical signicant main effect (F [1, 70] = 7.32,
P < 0.01) indicating that self-efcacy and success intentions
correlated at signicant level at P = 0.009 (P < 0.01). Thus we
accept the hypothesis.
However, in Table 4, based on the ANOVA result, we discovered
a statistical weak signicant correlation between self-efcacy and
economic benet because P = 0.000 (P < 0.01). Therefore, we
concluded that there is no strong correlation between self-efcacy
and economic benets, and that a weak relationship exist between
the variables. That is, changes in self-efcacy is not correlated
with changes in economic benets. Table 5 present the summary
of the hypothesis results for better understanding of the research
objectives.
5. CONCLUSION
Based on the responses of the respondents from the analysis,
interpretation and questionnaires collated, and the factor analysis,
correlation, and reliability tests. The research result revealed
a negative relationship between desire to gain status and self-
efcacy. This implies that status in the business environment
is not a function of self-efcacy and business growth, as this
relationship does not have a positive effect for enterprise growth
and sustainability.
It should also be noted that societal status does not equal business
growth. Our second hypothesis indicates that though success
intentions are underlying motive for emerging SME’s while this
statement is true the effect indicate that the believe in one’s self as
an emerging entrepreneur and the intension to have a successful
enterprise does will not only increase enterprise capacity of
grown but also instrumental to a condence in decision making
process toward future intentions. While economic benet is far
more of a government concern and not individual business owners
concern, our result theoretically indicates that other than status and
personal business success intentions, start-ups either as corporate
or independent entrepreneur motives is not for economic growth,
though the corporate resulting factor of entrepreneur activities is
an important tool towards economic empowers and growth. As in
the study of (Hisrich et al., 2008. p. 14) which states that “the role
of entrepreneur in economic development involves initiating and
constituting change and is far more beyond increasing per-capital
income” this indicates that when SME’s personal interests is being
fullled, there is a resulting factor on economic standard of which
entrepreneur are ignorant about. It is recommended that for future
studies it would be more achieving for practical studies to be added
to this process in order to reveal the effects of self-efcacy on the
entrepreneurial motives.
Therefore, future evaluation should be conducted within the frame-
work aside from entrepreneur motives, collaborative training
intuitive should be part of registering business in Cyprus in order to
emphasize the importance of considering economic benet as part
of the existing business life. Policies should also be established to
underscore the co-interdependence of economic growth on SME’s
success, and retaining prospective international student intension
for venturing into service of business sector in North-Cyprus
which will in long run be benecial towards economic growth.
Furthermore, the economic benets and intention of business
venture motives, could be a factor for start-up entrepreneur’s
research in North-Cyprus in the future.
REFERENCES
Altinay, L., Madanoglu, M., Daniele, R., Lashley, C. (2012), The inuence
of family tradition and psychological traits on entrepreneurial
intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2),
489-499.
Bandura, A. (1977), Self-efcacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral
change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1986), Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social
Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Bandura, A. (1995), Social learning. In: Manstead, A.S.R., Hewstone, M.,
editors. Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Oxford:
Blackwell. p600-606.
Bandura, A. (2007), Much ado over a faulty conception of perceived
self-efcacy grounded in faulty experimentation. Journal of Social
and Clinical Psychology, 26(6), 641-658.
Bandura, A., Drnovšek, M., Hisrich, R.D. (2014), Entrepreneurs’
creativity and rm innovation: The moderating role of entrepreneurial
self-efcacy. Small Business Economics, 43(1), 101-117.
Basu, A., Altinay, E. (2002), The interaction between culture and
entrepreneurship in London's immigrant businesses. International
Small Business Journal, 20(4), 371-393.
Chen, C.C., Greene, P.G., Crick, A. (1998), Does entrepreneurial self-
efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of
Business Venturing, 13(4), 295-316.
Dadad, F.M. (2012), Entrepreneurial Attitude of Students after
Graduation (Case of North Cyprus) (Doctoral Dissertation, Eastern
Mediterranean University, (EMU). Available from: http://www.i-rep.
emKhou.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11129/357/Khodadad.
pdf?sequence=1.
De Noble, A., Jung, D., Ehrlich, S. (1999), Initiating new ventures: The
role of entrepreneurial self-efcacy. In: Babson Research Conference,
Babson College, Boston, MA.
Drucker, P.F. (2007), Management Challenges for the 21st Century.
London: Routledge.
Euro Statistics. (2015), European Commission Growth Entrepreneurship
and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Business-
Rasul, et al.: The Impact of Self-efcacy on International Student Entrepreneur Intention
International Review of Management and Marketing | Vol 7 • Issue 1 • 2017
174
Friendly Environment SME Performance. Available from: http://
www.ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/
performance-review_en Edu/Entrep/Fer/Papers99/I/I_C/Ic.Html.
Føleide, S. (2011), Mot ein meir reflektert barnevernsdebatt?: Ei
innhaldsanalyse av barnevernsframstillingar i VG og Dagbladet.
French, S. (2009), Critiquing the language of strategic management.
Journal of Management Development, 28(1), 6-17.
Geri, S. (2013), Relationship between entrepreneurial skills and
tendencies: A research on physical education students. International
Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(5), 179-189.
Hall, R.H., Tolbert, P.S. (2009), Organizations: Structures, Processes, and
Outcomes. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hisrich, R.H., Peters, M.P., Sheperd, D.A. (2008), Entrepreneurship. 7th ed.
New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
Hisrich, R.D., Arthur, S.J., Cabrera, Á. (2012), The importance of
education in the entrepreneurial process: A world view. Journal of
Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(3), 500-514.
Huggins, R., Williams, N. (2011), Entrepreneurship and regional
competitiveness: The role and progression of policy. Entrepreneurship
and Regional Development, 23(9-10), 907-932.
Ivancevich, J.M., Konopaske, R., Matteson, M.T. (2005), Organizational
Behavior and Management. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/
Irwin.
Iyigun, M.F., Owen, A.L. (1998), Risk, entrepreneurship, and human-
capital accumulation. The American Economic Review, 88(2),
454-457.
Kearney, C., Hisrich, R., Roche, F. (2008), A conceptual model of public
sector corporate entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship
and Management Journal, 4(3), 295-313.
Keat, O.Y., Selvarajah, C., Meyer, D. (2011), Inclination towards
entrepreneurship among university students: An empirical study of
Malaysian university students. International Journal of Business and
Social Science, 2(4), 234-241.
Khodadad, F.M. (2012), Entrepreneurial Attitude of Students After
Graduation (Case of North Cyprus) (Doctoral Dissertation, Eastern
Mediterranean University, (EMU).
Lee, J. (1996), The motivation of women entrepreneurs in Singapore.
Women in Management Review, 11(2), 18-29.
Liñán, F., Chen, Y.W. (2001), Development and cross-cultural application
of a specic instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593-617.
Lisaniler, F.G. (2006), Gender equality in North Cyprus (Turkish Republic
of Northern Cyprus). Quaderns de la Mediterrània Cuadernos del
Mediterráneo, 7, 133-140.
Llussá, F. (2009), Perceptions and characteristics as determinants of
entrepreneurship: How different are women? In: NOVA School of
Business and Economics Lisbon Working Paper.
Lunenburg, F.C. (2011), Organizational culture-performance relationships:
Views of excellence and theory Z. National Forum of Educational
Administration and Supervision Journal, 29(4), 1-10.
McElwee, G., Al-Riyami, R. (2003), Women entrepreneurs in Oman:
Some barriers to success. Career Development International, 8(7),
339-346.
Mintzberg, H. (2009), Managing. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler
Publishers.
Miles, R.E., Miles, G., Snow, C.C. (2006), Collaborative entrepreneurship:
A business model for continuous innovation. Organizational
Dynamics, 35(1), 1-11.
Miles, R.E., Snow, C.C., Meyer, A.D., Coleman, H.J. (1978),
Organizational strategy, structure, and process. Academy of
Management Review, 3(3), 546-562.
Mintzberg, H. (1993), Structure in Fives: Designing Effective
Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Nick, D., Read, S., Sarasvathy, S.D., Wiltbank, R. (2011), On the
entrepreneurial genesis of new markets: Effectual transformations
versus causal search and selection. Journal of Evolutionary
Economics, 21(2), 231-253.
Powell, B., Rodet, C.S. (2012), Praise and profits: Cultural and
institutional determinants of entrepreneurship. Journal of Private
Enterprise, 27(2), 19-42.
Towobola, W.L., Raimi, L. (2011), Open distance learning (ODL):
A catalyst for educational and entrepreneurship development in
Nigeria. Continental Journal of Education Research, 4(3), 1-11.
Verzat, C., Bachelet, R. (2006), Developing an entrepreneurial spirit
among engineering college students: what are the educational factors?
International Entrepreneurship Education. Ch. 11. Cheltenham, UK:
Edward Elgar. p191-253.
Williams, D., Grégoire, D.A. (2010), Entrepreneurs’ decisions to
internationalize early: Evidence from verbal protocols (Interactive
Paper). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 30(16), 1-8.
Wood, R., Bandura, A. (1989), Social cognitive theory of organizational
management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361-384.
... Transportation, communication, and information technologies have taken globalization and intercultural diversity to the next level; thus the next generation faces abundant and exciting international business opportunities (Rasul et al., 2017). With increased cross-border interactions, as well as increased diversity within a country's political borders, comes a plethora of new challenges and learning opportunities; furthermore, entrepreneurs may wish to replace rigid and culturally insensitive ways of doing business with flexible and cross-culturally affirmative ways. ...
... Higher CQ has been associated with a stronger interest and performance in cross-cultural careers (Rasul et al., 2017). Those with higher motivational and behavioral CQs are reported to cope better with uncertain situations (Zimmerman and Paulsen, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the psychological mechanism by which parents’ socioeconomic status, including income and social class, influences the international entrepreneurship intentions of young adults. Two datasets, self-reported (survey) and objective, were collected from 372 undergraduate students across 19 universities in China. Parents’ income and social class had a positive effect on international entrepreneurship intentions. Sense of power and motivational cultural intelligence (CQ) played mediating roles in this relationship, and work experience moderated this relationship. The mediation tests revealed that sense of power and motivational CQ comprise a serial mediation process, in that order. The effect of motivational CQ on international entrepreneurship intentions was strengthened by young adults’ work experience. We identified the underlying mechanism and moderator of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and international entrepreneurship intentions.
... In this context, young adults face abundant and exciting international business opportunities. 31 With increased cross-border interactions, as well as increased diversity within a country's political borders, comes a plethora of new challenges and learning opportunities. Furthermore, entrepreneurs are increasingly interested in replacing rigid and culturally insensitive ways of doing business with flexible and cross-culturally affirmative ways. ...
... 36 A higher CQ has been associated with a stronger interest and performance in cross-cultural careers. 31 Furthermore, those with higher motivational and behavioral CQ are better able to cope with uncertain situations. 37 The motivational dimension assesses the ability to function effectively in a cross-cultural environment, whereby a high motivational CQ indicates strong interest, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and confidence in dealing with cross-cultural encounters. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Undeniably, international entrepreneurship is important to a nation's development. The government has engaged in various activities to support international entrepreneurship in China. However, the results were less embracing, particularly among students. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence students' intentions toward international entrepreneurship is vital in the effort to develop entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study examined whether social power and international entrepreneurship intention are related based on social capital theory, as well as the possible influence of cultural intelligence and socioeconomic status on this relationship. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted to test the hypotheses. Data were collected through paper-based questionnaires from 372 undergraduate students at 19 universities in China. The partial least squares structural equation modeling technique was used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses using the SmartPLS software. Results: Social power has a positive effect on international entrepreneurship intentions, and motivational cultural intelligence plays a mediating role in this relationship. In addition, behavioral cultural intelligence played a mediating role in this relationship but not in the hypothesized direction. The effect of social power on international entrepreneurship intentions via motivational cultural intelligence is strengthened by socioeconomic status. However, socioeconomic status failed to moderate the mediating effects of social power on international entrepreneurship intentions, as transmitted through behavioral cultural intelligence. Conclusion: This study contributes to the scarce empirical literature on students' international entrepreneurship intention in China by testing the relationship between social power and international entrepreneurship intention via cultural intelligence. In addition, these findings demonstrate that future research should focus on improving students' perceptions of international entrepreneurship as an important career choice.
... Moreover, Entrepreneurial attitude will still be influenced by the business strategy that each entrepreneur wants to develop for his business [81,82]. On the other hand, the desire to be an entrepreneur will depend on business skills [83,84], a wish to grow the business [85,86], and the importance that entrepreneurs attach to business success [34,87]. As such, they were added to the motivational factors of the entrepreneurial intention of Linan, Urbano and Guerrero [37], with the following determinants: Business Strategy, Business Growth, Business Success, and Business Skills, resulting in the structural model presented in Figure 1. ...
... The valuation of Business Success factors such as effective competition in world markets, achieving a high level of income, doing work that is appreciated, being socially recognized, helping to solve the surrounding problems, keeping the business alive, and maintaining a path of positive growth has a positive impact (β = 0.1086) on the desire to be an entrepreneur, confirming Hypothesis 4. This significance confirms the studies developed by Mitchelmore and Rowley [85], Rasul, Bekun and Akadiri [86], Kummerow, Wilson, Ramayah and Hazlina Ahmad [87], Boyd and Vozikis [34], Anastasia [77], and Fillis and Rentschler [78]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic entrepreneurship is becoming increasingly important to the field of research as well as to policy makers due to its ability to contribute to the economic, technological, and social development of regions and countries. This research aims to evaluate the determinants that influence the interest of Portuguese higher education students (HEI’s) to become entrepreneurs. The methodology used is quantitative and uses structural model equations. The results obtained demonstrate that the student’s perception of business skills, business growth skills, strategy, and successful business are key factors that students take into account in their entrepreneurial orientation. The research contributes to this theory by adding new knowledge to the literature on the perception of the HEI’s students to become entrepreneurs, specifically the students of Portuguese universities. In practical terms, the contributions offered within this research are based on suggestions for the third mission of universities, explicitly knowledge transfer to the community, business groups, and policy makers, as well as the creation of the essentials within university boundaries to promote entrepreneurship amongst its students. The research is original and innovative, as no research on this field with all the aggregated elements under study has been previously performed in Portugal. Furthermore, the obtained results can translate into ideas that potentially create jobs.
... Someone who has high self-efficacy will have high psychological resilience, so they are very efficient in solving problems and able to apply effective strategies, finding partners learn, not easily desperate and even overcome the failures encountered [23,24]. The lower the students' selfefficacy then they are convinced that they will not be able to perform the task even before the task is given [25]. ...
... According to students with high self-efficacy have good learning outcomes compared to students with low self-efficacy [22]. The lower the selfefficacy they will not be able to perform the given task [25]. ...
... Production-based learning can be an effective model for producing gains in academic achievement to increase employability skill (Ergul & Kargin, 2014). An employability skill are set for skills, knowledge and attributes that likely make individual to increase, maintain and excel in employment, gain new employment, move between roles within the same institution and to get promotion (Rasul, Bekun & Akadiri 2017). ...
Article
School-based production unit is a part a school practice area where material and human inputs could be combined for the creation of goods or provision of services. It is one of the important categories of work-based learning among cooperative work, field trips, internship and youth apprenticeship. Production-based learning model is a set of procedures that need to be adopted by the instructor to facilitate students to learn actively, interactively and in a participatory way, so as to produce either goods or services needed by society. This model can facilitate students in preparing to enter the world of work and gain competence as well as the entrepreneurial spirit. School-based production unit promotes work-based learning, increases the relevance of the curriculum, promote academic achievement and employability skill. It enhances entrepreneur sprit of learners, helps in income boost, increases the cooperation/collaboration ability with society and market likewise improves learning motivation, creativity and attitudes. Management of seed capital, human resources, modalities of operation and benefit sharing among stakeholders from income of products or services are major issues of production units. These issues should address before the planning of production.
... Such entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors can be promoted and supported through education and training, family, and wider society. These can include high levels of self-efficacy (Rasul et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2011), tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty, and a propensity to take risks (Bönte and Piegeler, 2012). Oman and other Arab countries classify as having a high level of uncertainty aversion culture (Hofstede, 2001) that are typically characterized by risk and uncertainty aversion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Previous research has found that family characteristics, including family income, entrepreneurship/business experience and family size, can influence offspring’s entrepreneurial potential and perception of the barriers to entrepreneurship. This paper aims to extend this proposition to women in Oman to determine whether family income, entrepreneurship/business experience and family size influence women’s perception of barriers to entrepreneurship Design/methodology/approach This study is based on primary data that was collected through a structured questionnaire from 123 female respondents at an Omani private university. The data was analysed using PCA, correlation and regression analysis to determine the influence of the family characteristic on the perception of barriers to entrepreneurship. Findings The findings concluded that the three family characteristics being tested were not able to predict a change in the perception of barriers to entrepreneurship. This contradicts previous research conducted in Western contexts and highlights the potential weakness in family support for female entrepreneurship in Oman. Originality/value These results challenge some of the extant findings in the literature, thus enriching the current perspectives on female entrepreneurship and the impact of Omani family characteristics, in terms of income, economic background and family size, on the perception of barriers that hinder entrepreneurship among female students
... : Specifically, this factor is studied by [5], [6] to perform the entrepreneurial activities. ...
... To answer these questions, this research was conducted with the aim of analyzing the factors that influence the student self-efficacy to start entrepreneurship. Previous research is more often that self-efficacy as an independent variable [10][11][12][13]. In this study, self-efficacy is the dependent variable. ...
... Currently, in the literature there are two different theoretical approaches which attempt to clarify why some individuals are more inclined toward an entrepreneurial career when compared to others: the first analyzes personality traits (Zhao and Seibert, 2006;Rauch and Frese, 2007;Leutner et al., 2014;DeNisi, 2015), the second focuses on environmental and behavioral factors (Peterson, 1980;Aldrich, 1990;Baum et al., 2001). Specifically, researchers study the importance of some individual traits as factors predetermining to perform entrepreneurial activities such as high levels of self-efficacy (Krueger et al., 2000;Zhao et al., 2005;Lee et al., 2011;Rasul et al., 2017), risk propensity (Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Tumasjan and Braun, 2012;Yurtkoru et al., 2014), tolerance to ambiguity, and uncertainty (Hmieleski and Corbett, 2006;Schwartz and Whistler, 2009;Arrighetti et al., 2012), metacognitive abilities and individual abilities (Kor et al., 2007;Dickson et al., 2008;Liñán et al., 2011), locus of control (Battistelli, 2001;Gordini, 2013), as well as creativity (Hamidi et al., 2008;Smith et al., 2016;Biraglia and Kadile, 2017); the environmental and behavioral focuses refers to the Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986), according to which, individuals learn certain skills from other people, which act as models. Specifically, the term "role model" emphasizes the individual's tendency to identify with other people occupying important social and the consequent cognitive interdependence of skills and behavior patterns (Gibson, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, research on the family role and entrepreneurship has increased noticeably, consolidating itself as a valid and current subject of study. This paper presents a systematic analysis of academic research, applying bibliometric indicators, and cluster analysis, which define the state of research about the relationship between family role and entrepreneurship. For this purpose, using three well-accepted databases among the research community: Scopus, Web of Science, Business Source, a total of 92 articles were selected and analyzed, published between 1989 and 2019 (until March). A cluster analysis shows five main areas of literature development: (1) cultural dimension and geneder issue; (2) family business and succession; (3) parental role models and entrepreneurial intentions; (4) entrepreneurship and self-employment; (5) family support and women entrepreneurs. Findings also show how this is a relatively recent field of study, with a multidisciplinary character.
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurship has been viewed as a critical contributor and an economic engine in a country for creating new jobs and it is crucial for graduates to alter their mindset to become self-employed. Thus, it is necessary to synthesize the factors that impact the entrepreneurial intentions (EI) of students at tertiary level. The aim of this research is twofold; first to identify the factors which have been most studied in the literature and second, to determine which factors are less explored to measure the EI of students. This research adopts the systematic review approach to identify various studies conducted between 2005 to June 2022. The paper further adopted citation analysis and identified the 36 most impactful studies in this area of research. Next, the thematic analysis was conducted and seven main themes (factors) (cognitive, personality, environmental, social, educational, contextual and demographic) of EI determinants were identified. The analysis of the papers clearly demonstrated that the TPB model and cognitive factors dominate this area of research. Furthermore, over half of the studies are conducted in Asia, hence it is important to explore other regions such as Africa, America and Europe and other comparative studies between various regions. The study offers avenues for future research and practical implications of the study for the practitioners.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the interaction between culture and immigrant entrepreneurship with reference to London's ethnic minorities. It compares the cultural attributes of different ethnic groups and how these affect their entrepreneurial behaviour. The article reports and analyses the results of 163 interviews with entrepreneurs from six different immigrant communities in London: Indian, East African Asian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Turkish Cypriot and Turkish. The findings indicate diversity in business entry motives, patterns of start-up finance and family involvement in business among the different ethnic groups. These may be explained by differences in several cultural attributes including family tradition, migration motives, religion, family links, business experience and educational attainment. The evidence suggests that the interaction between culture and entrepreneurship is stronger in the case of some ethnic groups than others.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Article
Reports an empirical study, conducted within the context of Singapore, which examines the motives that stimulate women into becoming business owners. Aims to uncover the characteristics of a typical woman entrepreneur in Singapore; the motivational needs of women entrepreneurs; and the factors influencing the motivational needs of women entrepreneurs. Uses the Need Theory as a theoretical framework to study the motivation of women entrepreneurs. Hypothesizes that business ownership is a manifestation of four needs - achievement; affiliation; autonomy; and dominance. Concludes that women entrepreneurs are motivated by a high need for achievement, a slightly high need for dominance and moderate needs for affiliation and autonomy. Finds women entrepreneurs demonstrate a higher need for achievement and dominance than women employees but significant difference in the needs for affiliation and autonomy.
Article
We use data from the World Values Survey, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and the Economic Freedom of the World Annual Report to empirically examine the impact that economic freedom and societal approval of entrepreneurs have on rates of early stage entrepreneurship. We find that both social approval and economic freedom, specifically freedom from big government, is associated with increased rates of entrepreneurship in a cross section of 21 countries.
Article
Open distance learning (ODL) is conceptualised in the education literature, as a flexible learning method aimed at delivering teaching, on both individual and group basis, to students who are not physically present in a specific geographical location and who could not fit into the traditional educational setting involving attending classroom sessions. ODL became expedient in Nigeria on account of inadequacy of vacancies in the universities for teeming youth population thirsty for tertiary education. The methodology adopted in this paper is the narrative-textual case study (NTCS), a social science research method that relies on, and sources the needed information and data on intranet, internet, World Wide Web, online databases, e-libraries et cetera for problem-identification and problem-solving. The paper emphasises that open distance learning has offered Nigerians abundant opportunities for formal education at the tertiary level, considering the number of courses that have been mounted as ODL programmes by National Open Universities of Nigeria and few other universities. The paper establishes that ODL can instill in students impressive entrepreneurial traits like self-reliance, self-motivation, self-management and independence considering the experiences of America and Japan. When learning becomes entrepreneurial it would help solve the rising unemployment rate in Nigeria caused by inappropriate traditional education system. The paper therefore concludes that policy-makers should improve the financial and technological capacities of federal universities and National Open University that offer ODL courses in order for them to provide quality education, skills and vocational training for students running such programmes in the country. INTRODUCTION Open distance learning (ODL) is an inevitable phenomenon in the education landscape of developed and developing countries because the sources of educational information and identified learners are physically and geographically separated by environmental commitments, time and distance, or combinations of all these constraints. The concept of open distance education emerged therefore to provide solace to busy learners, who do not fit into the traditional university system. ODL affords the students the rare opportunity and flexibility to work on their assignments at their own pace, as long as such academic assignments and continuous assessments are submitted on or before the deadlines. Open distance learning does not have stereotype lecture periods; as students can log into the portals, when and where they please. This flexible learning method makes use of online tools and infrastructure to help students learn across long distances without stress. Some of these tools include written material via post, cable television, satellite, phone conferencing, or perhaps two-way video conferencing. Most feedback and conversations happen asynchronously, in which case all the students and teachers do not have to be online at the same time. Towobola (2010) notes that open distance learning programme is a common feature in United Kingdom. Few prominent universities in the world like et cetera run distance learning programmes from Bachelor degree to Doctorate and some even have study centres in Nigeria. It should be noted that the University of Ibadan itself was once an off-shore centre of the University of London; this was done then to give opportunity to many Nigerians to further their studies without necessarily traveling abroad. It is worthy of note that the Universities of Jos, Calabar,
Article
Organizational culture is the set of shared beliefs, values, and norms that influence the way members think, feel, and behave. Culture is created by means of terminal and instrumental values, heroes, rites and rituals, and communication networks. The primary methods of maintaining organizational culture is through the socialization process by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviors, and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles in the organization. Sometimes an organization determines that its culture needs to be changed. The change cycle includes the following components: external enabling conditions, internal permitting conditions, precipitating pressures, triggering events, cultural visioning, culture change strategy, culture change action plans, implementation of interventions, and reformulation of culture. ________________________________________________________________________ How important is it for a leader to understand an organization's culture in order to bring about improved results? Every organization has a culture that can have a significant influence on the attitudes and behaviors of organization members. The competencies and values of employees and leaders play a key role in determining the effectiveness and success of an organization. In this article, I examine the concept of organizational culture and how cultures are created, maintained, and changed. I begin with a brief overview of what organizational culture is followed by four distinct culture phenotypes.
Article
There are several studies in entrepreneurship investigating determinants of innovation outcomes in SMEs. Although entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial creativity is often seen as a prerequisite, previous research indicates it is not an exclusive determinant of innovation. We use theoretical logics of social cognitive theory and innovation theory to develop a conceptual model of entrepreneur’s creativity, self-efficacy, and innovation outcomes. The model is then tested on a large sample of small and medium firms from two distinct economies: the United States and Slovenia. Empirical findings partially support the proposed moderation effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, but with the same variations between countries. The implications of these results in relation to entrepreneurship theory and practice are discussed.
Article
Early internationalization is critical for a firm’s growth, maturation, and profit. Yet early internationalization is also risky due to the dual liabilities of newness and foreignness. However, academic findings about early internationalization rest on an important yet untested assumption: that the factors that explain new venture internationalization after the fact influence the entrepreneurs’ decisions before the outcomes are known. To address these limitations, we develop a model of the cognitive processes that drive entrepreneurs’ early internationalization decisions. We draw from decision-making theory to propose that when entrepreneurs consider whether and when to internationalize their ventures, they make comparisons between potential international opportunities. Contemporary research on similarity judgment highlights three cognitive outputs of the comparison processes: commonalities, alignable differences, and nonalignable differences.
Article
This paper investigates the influence of family tradition and psychological traits on the entrepreneurial intention of university hospitality students in the UK. The empirical study was predicated on the need to consider both socio-demographic variables and especially family background and personality traits. The research also tested the suggestion that risk taking propensity may act as a potential mediator. The findings of the study suggest that family entrepreneurial background and innovation influence the intention to start a new business; that there is positive relationship between tolerance of ambiguity and risk taking propensity; and a negative relationship between locus of control and risk taking propensity. The paper emphasizes the importance of taking a more holistic approach when researching the factors that influence entrepreneurial intention.