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A Review on Anticancer Property of Colostrum


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Colostrumis can be defined as 'the early milk which is secreted at the time of parturition', which works as an immune booster in post-natal health, and additionally is rich in antibodies. It provides passive immunity to the newborn, also called as " foremilk ". Bovine Colostrum (BC) contains high amount of proteins, immunoglobulin, lactoferrin and growth factors which are essential for specific functions. Many studies have suggested that colostrum components like antimicrobial factors, immunoglobulin and growth factor not only benefits physically active person but also used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders while antimicrobial factors provide passive immunity and protection against infections during the first few days of life. Lactoferrin, has been investigated as novel therapeutic and it also has anticarcinogenic properties against colon and other cancers. In this review main focus is on the beneficial effects of colostrum supplementation in the treatment of cancer.
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Research and Reviews Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
e-ISSN: 2319-9865
p-ISSN: 2322-0104
RRJMHS | Volume 5 | Issue 4 | September, 2016
A Review on Anticancer Property of Colostrum
Prashant Agarwal1, Ritika Gupta2*
1Panacea Biotech Limited, Ambala- Chandigarh Highway, Lalru 140501, Punjab
2Department of Biotechnology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology (MIET), Meerut
Review Article
Received: 16/08/2016
Revised: 24/08/2016
Accepted: 31/08/2016
* For correspondence:
Department of Biotechnology,
Meerut Institute of Engineering
and Technology (MIET), Meerut
Keywords: Parturition; Colostrum;
Colostrumis can be defined as ‘the early milk which is secreted at the time
of parturition’, which works as an immune booster in post-natal health, and
additionally is rich in antibodies. It provides passive immunity to the
newborn, also called as “foremilk”. Bovine Colostrum (BC) contains high
amount of proteins, immunoglobulin, lactoferrin and growth factors which
are essential for specific functions. Many studies have suggested that
colostrum components like antimicrobial factors, immunoglobulin and
growth factor not only benefits physically active person but also used in the
treatment of autoimmune disorders while antimicrobial factors provide
passive immunity and protection against infections during the first few days
of life. Lactoferrin, has been investigated as novel therapeutic and it also
has anticarcinogenic properties against colon and other cancers. In this
review main focus is on the beneficial effects of colostrum supplementation
in the treatment of cancer.
Colostrum is the “early” milk which is produced by female mammals and it is the first four days of milk post
parturition [1,2] in the case of bovine. This “early” milk nutrient profile and immunological composition is found to be
substantially different from ‘mature’ milk. Before lactogenesis and lactation, colostrogenesis, results in the
secretion of colostrum [3-5], this is supposed to be under endocrine and local control and regulation [6]. For a new
born, colostrum not only provides nutrition, but also provides protection against infection while immune system is
still developing. Many of the bioactive whey proteins, notably lactoferrin, immunoglobulins [7-13] and growth factors,
occur in colostrum in higher concentrations than in milk, thus they are important to the health of the newborn calf
[14-16]. Several weeks before parturition the immunoglobulins [17-29] are transported to mammary secretion from
maternal circulation selectively [30]. It contains macronutrients and micronutrients like proteins, oligosaccharides,
carbohydrate, fats, vitamins and minerals respectively. It is rich in natural antimicrobials, oligosaccharides, immune
regulation factors [31] and antioxidative factors. Bovine milk and colostrum are suggested to be the important
sources of natural bioactive components. Since past two decades, major advances have taken place with regard to
the technology, science and commercial applications of bioactive components present naturally in bovine milk and
Table 1: Immune Factors in Bovine Colostrum
Immune factors Bovine Colostrum (mg/ml)
Lactoferrin 100
IgA 3.9
IgG 47.6
IgG2 2.9
IgM 4.2
Source: [32]
Lactoferrin (LF) [33-36] is an iron-binding protein which is mainly found in milk, colostrum and cells of most of the
mammalian species. It is one of the types of glycoprotein. It confers many biological properties, such as
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antioxidative [37-43], antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory [44,45], anticancer [46-54], and also have immune regulatory
properties [55-58]. It enhances body’s immune system against microbial infections and eradicates free oxygen
radicals. LF was discovered in the early 1960s and since its biological properties have been the subject of scientific
research. It increases the senstivity of bacteria for certain antibiotics, such as penicillin [59-65], vancomycin and
cephalosporins. Over the last decade the anticarcinogenic activity of LF has been studied intensively and many
mechanisms like iron-chelationrelated antioxidative property and immunoregulatory and antiinflammatory
functions have been suggested. In in vitro experiments lactoferrin [66-69] has been shown to regulate both humoral
and cellular immune systems by-
1) activation of monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, and neutrophils;
2) stimulation of proliferation of lymphocytes;
3) stimulation of intestinal and peripheral antibody response;
4) induction of cytokine and nitric oxide production [57].
During the past two decades many animal and human studies have proved that orally administered LF exerts many
beneficial effects on the health of animals and humans. Several excellent articles have been compiled and
reviewed through these studies [56-58,70].
Animal studies with mice or rats have shown that orally administered LF and its related compounds can suppress
the overgrowth of certain intestinal bacteria, such as E. coli, Streptococcus and Clostridium strains, suppress the
translocation of intestinal bacteria and also, orally administered lactoferricin reduced the infection rate caused by
H. pylori, candidiasis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Tinea pedis and influenza virus. In addition animal studies have
shown beneficial effects of LF ingestion as it can inhibit carcinogen - induced tumors in the colon, esophagus, lung,
tongue, bladder, and liver.
A recent study [71] has showed that oral supplementation of lactoferrin to healthy infants for 12 months reduces
lower respiratory tract illnesses and higher hematocrits when compared to group which received regular infant
formula and that group was referred as control. Other human studies have shown that if LF is administered in
connection with triple therapy, it can increases the removal rate of H. pylori gastritis. LF is produced industrially by
many companies worldwide at a large scale and is expected to be use as an ingredient in functional foods and
pharmaceutical preparations in future [72]. Currently some of the commercial applications of LF are in infant
formulas marketed in Japan, South Korea, and China and yogurt products marketed in Taiwan and Japan and baby
foods. Synergistic effects of LF and bovine colostrum or probiotic bacteria can be seen by applying in different
dietary supplements. Owing to potential synergistic actions LF has also been used in combination with lysozyme
and lactoperoxidase and has been applied into many human oral health care products, such as mouth rinses,
toothpastes, chewing gums, and moisturizing gels.
The milk derived bioactive peptides include antithrombotic [73], antihypertensive [74], immunomodulating [75],
antioxidative [76], mineral carrying [77], antimicrobial [78], anticancer [76-86], and growth-promoting properties [81].
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer and 1.4 million females have being diagnosed with breast cancer
in 2010 [8 7,88] and this rate is increasing drastically. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) in colostrum has antitumor
properties. Animal studies and in vitro experiments have shown anticarcinogenic property of CLA in the mammary
glands of females, as it either inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway or the lipo-oxygenase pathway or it induces
the expression of apoptotic genes [89]. It reduces immunosuppressive substances like leukotrienes and
prostaglandins [90]. CLA also inhibits carcinogens by inducing apoptosis through mechanism which involves the
inhibition of eicosanoids synthesis. Studies have also shown that eicosanoids receptors control the release of
messengers which are important for differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis [91-97]. Other reports have
proved that proteins and peptides present in milk are cancer preventive agents [98 -101]. For example, lactoferrin
helps to prevent the growth of cancer cells or it shrinks the cancer cells. It is also known for its inhibitory action on
cancer cells proliferation as well as for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities against them [99,101-103].
Lactoferrin prevents many cancers like colon, bladder, tongue, esophagus, lung cancer and thus it can be said that
it boosts the immunity.
Colostrum has become the Ancient Food for Modern Times due to its nutritional composition and hence can be
considered as a nutraceutical. Bovine colostrum is more effective than human colostrum and can be given alone as
a treatment to reduce the length and severity of established infections or it can be used in conjunction with
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traditional treatments such as antibiotics. It can be said that colostrum supplements can treat autoimmune
disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. There are still no reports regarding the side effects or drug interactions
associated with supplementation with high quality colostrum, thus making it an exceptionally safe and useful
nutraceutical product to be used in wide range of applications.Still the mechanisms of LF action are not fully
understood, there is some proof representing its ability to interact with some receptors, as well as it can modulate
genetic expression of several molecules that are necessary to the cell cycle and apoptosis [104-114] machinery.
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... In general, the number of bio-active components in colostrum decreases after 6/12 h from birth. In addition to its immunological importance, the colostrum has also been reported to possess anti-inflammatory [77], anticancer [78], antimicrobial [79], and nutraceutical [80] properties. ...
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Simple Summary Buffalo breeding has high economic, cultural, and historic importance around the world. In Italy, most of the farms are located in the Campania region with 58.4% of herds and 66.6% of animals mainly milked for the production of “Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese”. The neonatal period is very critical for buffalo calves and is often characterized by a high mortality rate, therefore, it is fundamental to ensure optimal passive immunity within the first few days of life. For these reasons, the intake and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins are critical to attain passive protection against infectious diseases. As a consequence, the management and administration of colostrum are also critical since its characteristics need to be preserved to guarantee its efficacy. Abstract In this review, the composition, characteristics, and management of dairy buffalo calves were examined and compared with bovines. The neonatal period is critical for buffalo calves and is characterized by a high mortality rate (more than 40%). The early intake of high-quality colostrum (IgG > 50 mg/mL) is the one way to improve the immune system of calves (serum IgG > 10 mg/mL after 12 h), thus increasing their chances of survival. Mainly in intensive farms, the availability of high-quality colostrum is necessary; thus, good quality colostrum is often stored to provide newborn calves which cannot be fed by their mothers. Also, the manipulation of the immunological status of animals through vaccination has been depicted since the quality of colostrum tended to be influenced by vaccination against pathogens. Buffalo breeding is constantly expanding in Italy, mainly thanks to the Mozzarella cheese production that represents the excellence of the “Made in Italy” and is exported worldwide. Indeed, high calf mortality rates directly affect the profitability of the business. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to examine specific research on buffalo colostrum that, compared with other species, are scarce. Improving the knowledge of buffalo colostrum, in terms of characteristics and management, is critical to guarantee buffalo newborns’ health in order to reduce their mortality rate. Importantly, considering the knowledge on cattle valid also for buffalo is a widespread, and often erroneous, habit in several fields, including colostrum feeding. Therefore, the two species were compared in this review.
... times higher in colostrum than in milk. The CLA is the best-known ruminant trans fats found in dairy fat and is widely recognized as an anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and weight-reducing substance (Rodriguez-Alcala et al. 2013;Agarwal and Gupta 2016;Whigham et al. 2007). ...
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This study aims to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition and compare FA-based nutritional indices/ratios of colostrum and milk obtained on the 30th, 60th, and 90th day of lactation from 27 Murrah and 18 “Murrah × Carabao” crossbred buffaloes. The major saturated FA (SFA) in colostrum and milk is palmitic acid (C16:0), comprising 32–33% by weight of total FAs. Other important SFAs – myristic acid (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) – were lower (P < 0.05) in colostrum than in milk. Oleic acid (C18:1-n9c), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), is the second most abundant FA in colostrum (28.5%) and milk (18.0–18.8%). Arachidonic acid (C20:4-n6, AA) is the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in colostrum (0.92%) and milk (0.42–0.45%). Conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2-c9t11, CLA) was higher in colostrum (0.64%) than in milk (0.14–0.16%). Colostrum and milk had a very low PUFA/SFA ratio (0.02–0.06: 1). The linoleic acid (C18:2-n6, LA) to α-linolenic acid (C18:3-n3, ALA) ratio was higher in colostrum (3.21: 1) than in milk (0.62–1.55: 1). The omega-6 (LA and AA) to omega-3 [ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6-n3, DHA)] or n-6/n-3 ratio was more balanced for milk (1.76-2.34: 1) than colostrum (3.37: 1). Colostrum had lower atherogenicity (2.53 vs. 4.50–4.66), lower thrombogenicity (2.68 vs. 4.48–4.59), and higher health-promoting index (0.39 vs. 0.21–0.22) than milk. The hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) ratio was higher for colostrum (0.64: 1) than milk (0.34–0.36: 1). Except for AA, the FA composition of colostrum and milk were not significantly different between Murrah and “Murrah × Carabao” crosses (P > 0.05). © 2022, Department of Science and Technology. All rights reserved.
... Colostrum or first milk is secreted by all female mammals, including women, during the first four days after parturition and is provided to their neonates during the initial 24-48 hours after birth (Bagwe et al., 2015;Agarwal and Gupta, 2016;Hyrslova et al., 2016;Jolly and Mascaro, 2016;Buttar et al., 2017). Colostrum is thick, sticky, yellowish liquid which not only provides nutrition and immunity but also gives protection against microbial infections. ...
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The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders (GID) and cancers is escalating all over the world. Limited consumption of colostrum by newborns not only weakens the immune system but also predisposes infants to microbial infections. Colostrum is nature's perfect food, sometimes referred to as the 'elixir of life'. Breast-fed infants have a lower incidence of GI tract infections than infants fed formula or cow's milk. As per WHO statistics, cancer is the most prevalent disease globally and causes 9.6 million deaths worldwide. The current strategies for treating cancer include chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. However, chemotherapy and radiation exposure are usually associated with serious long-term side effects and deterioration in the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Furthermore, the hospitalization and medication costs for treating cancers are exorbitant and impose high economic burden on healthcare systems. People are desperately looking for cost-effective and affordable alternative therapies for treating GID and cancers. Therefore, there is an urgent need for clinically evaluating the anticancer compounds isolated from plants and animals. Such therapies would not only be economical and have fewer side effects, but also help to improve the QOL of cancer patients. Recently, bovine colostrum (BC) has caught the attention of many investigators to explore its anticancer potential in humans. BC impregnated dressings are highly effective in treating chronic wounds and diabetic foot ulcer. BC is rich in lactoferrin, a glycoprotein with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial properties. Intravaginal application of BC tablets is effective in causing the regression of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The underlying mechanisms of BC at cellular, genetic, and molecular levels remain to be ascertained. Oral BC supplement is well-tolerated, but some people may experience problems such as flatulence and nausea. Well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials are needed to access the therapeutic potential, long-term safety, and optimal doses of BC products. This review is aimed to highlight the anticancer potential of BC and its
... There are globular proteins, such as lactoferrin (0.75 mg/mL), that has shown iron-binding, anticancer and immunomodulatory capacities both in vitro and in vivo (Zhang et al., 2014). Preventive effects of carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis by bovine lactoferrin and its derived peptide lactoferricin have been shown in rats and mice (Tsuda et al., 2006;Agarwal and Gupta, 2016). It has also been observed that proteins, such as α-lactalbumin (13.82 mg/mL), are able to form complexes with fatty acids with anticancer activity (Rodríguez-Carrio et al., 2014;Athira et al., 2015). ...
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Bovine colostrum possesses biological compounds involved in the development of the new‐born. Among them, the proteins have drawn attention as a source of bioactive peptides. This study shows the in vitro cytotoxic and immunostimulatory potential of two colostrum whey protein (CWP) hydrolysates obtained by in vitro digestion with pepsin and pancreatin. MTT cell viability, apoptosis induction, polymorphonuclear proliferation and phagocytic activity assays were performed. Treatment with the hydrolysates induced a significant decrease in the viability of MDA‐MB‐231 cell lines due to apoptosis and also a significant increase in the proliferation of blood mononuclear cells. It could also be observed that for the RM‐1 and PC‐3 prostate cancer cell lines and for the two times of exposure (24 and 48 h), the hydrolysate H1 is significantly more cytotoxic than CWP. These results showed the potential of bovine CWP and its hydrolysates for the treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer.
... Moreover, it is considered as a highly nutritious secretion due to the presence of high concentrations of minerals and vitamins (McGrath et al., 2016). Colostrum has also been reported to have anti-inflammatory (Støy et al., 2014), anticancer (Agarwal & Gupta, 2016), antimicrobial (Ayar, Sıçramaz, & Çetin, 2016), and nutraceutical (Ahmadi, Velciov, Scurtu, Ahmadi, & Olariu, 2011) properties. Many traditional (Kharwas, Khees, Kalvdans, posu, Soyi Posu, yoghurt) and commercial (Whey protein powder, tablets, and lozenges) products of colostrum have been reported so far (Kumar & Uprit, 2014). ...
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The present study focused on monitoring the physico‐chemical parameters, microbiological quality, minerals and antioxidant potential of colostrum samples collected from buffaloes (n = 20) until 10th milking (twice‐daily milking) after partum. Solids not fat (SNF), fat (%), protein (%) and ash (%) decreased with time while pH gradually increased. There was a significant (p<0.05) effect regarding milking after partum on all the investigated minerals i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and Zn. Regarding trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), the maximum value (107.05 mg/100 g trolox equivalent (TE)) was observed in buffalo colostrum in the first milking of postpartum period. Similarly, the maximum value (39.66 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)) of total phenolics (TP) was also observed in colostrum of 1st milking after partum. As indicated, it may be concluded that buffalo colostrum collected during the first two days after parturition might be a rich source of nutrients and antioxidant agents.
... Over the past few years, immense developments have been made for cancer potential alternative treatments. There are many downfalls associated with standard therapies for cancer and to overcome them, there is a need to switch to natural and alternative therapies [2,3]. Recent study has reported the protective activities of Lf against tumorigenesis and metastatic cancers. ...
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a mammalian cationic iron-binding glycoprotein, present in many mammalian excretions and supporting newborn growth to food and pharmaceutical applications. It possesses antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral and antiparasitic activity thus, making it an important part of the host defense system. This review focusses on recent therapeutic advances of the natural bioactive protein Lf and its use as a potential treatment agent. Nanoparticles have been tremendously used for several clinical applications preferably as drug delivery system to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Effective conjugation of functionalized agents can improve the binding affinity of nanoparticles to specific areas of the body. Therefore, this property can ensure the protection of bioactive molecules from degradation and enabled prolonged sustainability without severe side-effects. In this study, significant advancements in Lf nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena have also been reviewed.
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Nowadays, the search for food products that promote consumers’ health has gained interest, and dairy by-products, due to their biological quality, could have a prominent position among products with health benefits. However, little is known about their activity on cancer cells. This study aimed to provide evidence about the effect of ovine colostrum and milk whey on K562 cells, a model of the human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line. The exposure of K562 cells to a single administration of sheep by-products at different concentrations for three days and three treatments for three days was carried out. Using a flow cytometric approach, we found that CD235a expression remained stable in the cells exposed to ovine whey (milk and colostrum) at concentrations ranging from 1 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL, after three days from one or three administrations, respectively. A significant reduction in fluorescent cells was observed in the populations exposed to 1 mg/mL of both milk and colostrum at the same time points. In these conditions, the size and granularity of the leukemic cells also changed, with a substantial reduction in the number of actively dividing cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. This phenomenon was highlighted by the Annexin V/PI cytofluorimetric test, which is able to provide quantitative results regarding the population of cells in early or late apoptosis or necrotic cells after exposure to a single dose or three doses of colostrum or sheep whey for three days, respectively. This report showed that both colostrum and milk whey were able to modify the phenotypic profile and cell cycle of the K562 cell line, inducing apoptosis at the highest concentration.
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Objective Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs can change serum thyroid hormone concentrations by binding to serum proteins. If misunderstood, this situation can give way to inappropriate diagnoses and faulty treatment planning for thyroid diseases in clinical practice. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of ketoprofen, lornoxicam, and etofenamate, which are frequently used in clinical practice, on thyroid function tests. Methodology The study covered 28 rabbits divided into 4 groups. Groups were administered intramuscular injections daily for 10 days. Thyroid hormones concentrations were tested in the blood samples end of day 10. Results An increase in free thyroxin level in the lornoxicam group was recorded on day 7 in comparison to other groups (p=0.015). There was a statistical decrease regarding thyroid stimulant hormone concentration after day 5 in all three groups (Day 5 p=0.000, day 7 p=0.003, day 10 p=0.00). Conclusion We believe that previous history of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug use should be taken into consideration within the scope of patients’ anamneses because non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug use can change the results of thyroid function tests and this change may lead to misevaluations and mistreatment not only for patients with thyroid diseases but also for normal patients.
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Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a dietary polyphenolic phytochemical that has demonstrated health benefits such as cardioprotection, the prevention of neurodegeneration and chemoprevention. Resveratrol has shown great potential in the prevention and treatment of carcinomas and clinical trials support resveratrol as anticancer compound in colorectal carcinoma. Colorectal cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths for both men and women in industrialized countries. Because of this widespread prevalence, identifying major risk factors and initiating colorectal screening procedures provide the distinct advantage for recognizing early disease and addressing treatable forms of CRC. Epidemiological studies of fruit and vegetable consumption in relationship to developing CRC have led to the notion that safe and inexpensive chemopreventive agents might be a valuable tool in diminishing the morbidity and mortality of CRC. While clinical trials and in vivo data show positive effects of resveratrol in CRC, the mechanism of action is relatively unclear. In this review, we will evaluate the current literature on the actions of resveratrol in CRC and provide a more mechanistic view of resveratrol in relationship with CRC.
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Serine/threonine protein kinases (STPK) regulate various functions in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are listed as prime targets for the cure of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Genetic deletion of pknE helped to unravel its role in nitric oxide stress, an important antimicrobial agent produced by host cells. pknE is well characterized for its functions in host as well as in M. tuberculosis physiology. The current review summarizes the multiple roles of pknE in human pathogenesis. pknE remains the only STPK that has the standalone function of apoptosis suppression and probable role in HIV co-infection.
Human milk contains a wide variety of proteins that contribute to its unique qualities. Many of these proteins are digested and provide a well-balanced source of amino acids to rapidly growing infants. Some proteins, such as bile salt–stimulated lipase, amylase, β-casein, lactoferrin, haptocorrin, and α1-antitrypsin, assist in the digestion and utilization of micronutrients and macronutrients from the milk. Several proteins with antimicrobial activity, such as immunoglobulins, κ-casein, lysozyme, lactoferrin, haptocorrin, α-lactalbumin, and lactoperoxidase, are relatively resistant against proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract and may, in intact or partially digested form, contribute to the defense of breastfed infants against pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Prebiotic activity, such as the promotion of the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, may also be provided by human milk proteins. This type of activity can limit the growth of several pathogens by decreasing intestinal pH. Some proteins and peptides have immunomodulatory activities (eg, cytokines and lactoferrin), whereas others (eg, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and lactoferrin) are likely to be involved in the development of the intestinal mucosa and other organs of newborns. In combination, breast-milk proteins assist in providing adequate nutrition to breastfed infants while simultaneously aiding in the defense against infection and facilitating optimal development of important physiologic functions in newborns.
Background and objectives: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterised by inflammation of the nasal mucosa associated with IgE mediated immune response to specific allergens. Studies have shown that the most commonly implicated aeroallergens in AR are house dust mites. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) are the three most common mite species in Malaysia. Previous studies have reported the presence of high IgE and non-IgE antibodies in both serum and saliva samples of AR patients, but the correlation between them is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the levels and correlation of mite specific IgE and IgA against D. farinae and B. tropicalis in serum and salivary samples of AR patients and nonallergic rhinitis matched controls. Methods: A total of 205 adults were studied, they included 103 with AR and 102 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Among the 103 AR patients, 20 had concomitant asthma. Indirect ELISA was used to measure the levels of serum and salivary IgE and IgA respectively. Results: Correlation between the serum and salivary antibody levels was analysed using Spearman correlation test, while the differences between groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis test. Serum IgE and IgA levels against D. farinae and B. tropicalis were higher in AR patients. Salivary IgA against D. farinae and salivary IgE against B. tropicalis were significantly higher in AR patients. Serum and salivary IgE levels were positively correlated with serum and salivary IgA levels in AR subjects against both mite species. There was no significant difference in antibodies levels between asthmatic AR and non-asthmatic AR to both mite species in serum and saliva samples. Antibodies levels were not correlated with severity of signs and symptoms in AR patients. Conclusion: The presence of high IgA level in saliva might be a potential investigation tool to test for allergic rhinitis when blood sampling is not an option.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) serum levels have been related to various pathological conditions in both humans and animals. The involvement of HA in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections has been suggested. The aim was to evaluate serum levels and ilea tissue presence of HA in healthy bovines and in clinical paratuberculosis (PTB) cases. HA serum concentrations in bovines were found to be in the range of 130 to 617 ng/mL with a median value of 418 ng/mL. Significantly increased HA levels were detected in 1 month-old calves. Increased levels of HA were found at peripartum as compared to healthy control animals, with pre-parturition values significantly higher than post-parturition (p=0.02). Cows with clinical PTB showed higher serum levels and diminished ileal detection of HA than healthy animals. In serum, physiological variations in HA serum levels related to age and parturition were found in bovines. In addition, clinical PTB also affected the presence of HA in serum and ileum. These results might contribute to elucidate the clinical significance of HA evaluation in cattle and its involvement in PTB infection.
Viral genes may act as oncogenes and interact with intracellular proteins, which are related to oncogenesis and tumor growth. Autocrining CXCL12 in growing tumor tissue plays critical roles in modulating cell proliferation and survival through its receptor CXCR4 and CXCR7. Recently, a number of research reports indicated that CXCR7 displays high expression in many kinds of tumor tissues and cell lines and that high -expressed CXCR7 may be involved in cell survival and migration. To date, CXCR7’s biological function and signaling in cancer pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we first found there are higher expression of CXCR7 in both lymphocyte nodes and EBV positive lymphoma cell line IB4. The results further suggested that high-expressed CXCR7 plays a role in CXCL12 mediated anti-apoptosis and inhibition of CXCR7 through CXCR7 inhibitor CCX771 significantly attenuated the function of CXCL12 on anti-apoptosis. Furthermore, we observed that CXCR7 inhibitor directly reduced protection of endogenous CXCL12 from apoptosis in EBV positive lymphoma cell line. Finally, the results revealed that CXCL12 activated CXCR7 trafficking to membrane and interaction of CXCR7 and β-arrestin-2 during anti-apoptosis process. The study suggested that the high expressed CXCR7 may have effect on anti-apoptosis and inhibitor of CXCR7 may become potential target for cancer therapy.