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An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change

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... However, the focus for this author was centered on individual entrepreneurs and large corporations, a landmark that was only expanded after the work of Nelson and Winter (1982), who began to understand innovation as a systemic process, in which the market is in an intense movement of search and selection, and the key for companies is in the act of routineization, derived from the companies' adaptation to the market. The authors use arguments that allude to evolutionary biology applied to economics. ...
... Contributing to the approach, Maçaneiro (2012) highlights that ecoinnovation does not seek only the reduction of carbon emissions through new technologies, but a rupture of the prevailing paradigms, using new processes, forms and learning, replacing traditional practices. As can be seen, aspects of Nelson and Winter's (1982) approach were adapted, presenting the importance of evolutionary economics in this process. ...
... The new configuration, post-2004, has enabled new aspirations for the National Innovation System in the Energy Sector, for besides enabling the expansion of the production potential, it has consolidated the articulation of a complex network of actors between public and private agents, seeking joint action and in a strategic way, not only focusing on the expansion, but in developing a solid relationship and enriching the Brazilian energy matrix. From the discussion pointed out above, one can perceive here a strong process of adaptation of the agents in the face of market changes, as pointed out in the studies of Winter (1964), Nelson and Winter (1982), Vromen (1995Vromen ( , 2006 and Witt (2006). ...
Article
A emergência em torno de um ecossistema limpo e economicamente sustentável modificou o contexto das inovações, ganhando relevância, desde o início do século XXI, as discussões sobre ecoinovação. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a necessidade de um Sistema Nacional de Ecoinovação (SNECO) no Setor Eólico, embasado na concepção de sistemas nacionais de inovação. Parte do desenvolvimento teórico da economia heterodoxa, com enfoque neoschumpeteriano, o qual busca apresentar respostas para os problemas encontrados no mercado através da inovação. Metodologicamente, o estudo constitui-se de um levantamento documental, analisando pesquisas acadêmicas teóricas e aplicadas sobre ecoinovação em uma análise diante do Setor Eólico, com base em dados secundários. Os resultados demonstram que embora não se apresentem evidências de um SNECO brasileiro energético consolidado com forte interação nos subsistemas científico/tecnológico, produtivo e político, potencialidades são perceptíveis. Para tanto, tornam-se necessárias medidas políticas e operacionais, ampliando e reordenando a atuação estratégica governamental, seguidas de ações cooperativas entre as organizações presentes no sistema eólico brasileiro.
... Our results elaborate on how selective revealing through research publication could be another source of learning through the mechanism of the spill-in of spillover knowledge. We show the potential idiosyncratic advantages of reciprocating and when these advantages can be improved, thus linking the findings to the previous argument of the path-dependent evolutionary nature of technology development (Nelson and Winter, 1982). Moreover, this study suggests several managerial implications for firms that choose to selectively publish their research outcomes under uncertainty. ...
... These scholars argue that the central challenge of developing an emerging technology that requires the participation of various organizations is how to co-create a pool of knowledge, which corresponds to our KSP, and how to subsequently take advantage of the co-produced set of knowledge. Our focus is also rooted in the underlying nature of technological innovation, which is a cumulative and path-dependent process proceeded by knowledge spillovers among numerous actors (Nelson and Winter, 1982). Lastly, the operationalization draws on bibliographic evidence that shows frequent direct citation linkages between papers and patents in science-related technologies such as biotechnology and AI (Murray, 2002;Ahmadpoor and Jones, 2017). ...
... The findings of this study can be linked to the evolutionary perspective of technology development. Some scholars have argued that the indirect benefits of selective revealing can outweigh the cost of the focal firm (e.g., Alexy et al., 2013) because of the path-dependent and cumulative nature of knowledge (Nelson and Winter, 1982). Our empirical findings extend previous theoretical speculation by showing the specific conditions under which spillovers from the focal firm's publication can form a more idiosyncratic pool of knowledge to the focal firm, where the focal firm is more likely to take advantage. ...
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This study investigates the mechanism by which knowledge spilled over from a firm’s research publication consequently spills into the focal firm as a form of proprietary knowledge when it is engaged in an emerging science-related technology. We define the knowledge spillover pool (KSP) as an evolving group of papers citing a paper published by a firm. Focusing on the recent development of artificial intelligence, on which firms have published actively, we compare the KSP conditions related to the increase in patents created by the focal firm with those created by external actors. Using a Cox regression and subsequent contrast test, we find that both an increasing KSP and an increasing similarity between the idea published by the focal firm and KSP are positively related to the proprietary knowledge creation of both the focal firm and external actors, with such relations being significantly stronger for the focal firm than for external actors. On the contrary, an increasing proportion of industry papers in the KSP are positively associated with the proprietary knowledge creation not only by the focal firm but also by external actors to a similar degree. We contribute to the literature on selective revealing and to the firms’ publishing strategies.
... 17 "The term 'bound rationality' is used to designate rational choice that takes into account the cognitive limitations of decision-maker -limitations of both knowledge and computational capacity" (Simon, 1987: 266). 18 Conditions which are particularly frequent in oligopolistic market structures (Dosi et al., 1990;Freeman and Soete, 1997;Nelson and Winter, 1982;Tidd et al., 2005). cal knowledge) and a complete information processing ability. ...
... The noun capabilities were used to highlight the central role of organisational and administrative knowledge/skills to integrate/coordinate, construct, adapt and adequately reconfi gure the internal and external competencies of fi rms -organisational and functional resources and attributes -in response to a changing environment (Teece, 2007;Nelson and Winter, 1982;Tidd et al., 2005). ...
... Likewise, the dynamic capabilities are the subset of the capabilities that enable fi rms -in response to changing market conditions -to create new processes, products and new capabilities through the learning processes. On the edge, the dynamic capabilities can even provide the conditions for the creation of new economic and technological trajectories for the companies (Dosi et al., 1990;Freeman and Soete, 1997;Nelson and Winter, 1982;Tidd et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The objective of this article is to elaborate an economic and historical approach to the notion/concept of strategy. More specifically, it aims to propose a definition of strategy that helps to unravel this important topic from a paralysing tangle of schools, approaches and definitions. It was also sought to delimit more clearly its nature and what can (and what should not) be considered as strategy. For that, the research work adopts a historical perspective and, as starting point, the approach proposed by Simon (1993). Besides that, it was made an additional effort to specify better and enrich the Simon’s driveway with the contributions from some other pertinent authors - mainly from the Keynesian and Schumpeterian schools.
... Teknolojik gelişmenin gerisine düşen firmalar doğal eleme mekanizmasının gereği piyasanın dışına itilirler. Piyasadaki pozisyonlarını korumak ve/veya geliştirmek zorunda olan firmaların olduğu bir ortamda "yenilikçilik rekabeti ve rekabette yenilikçiliği yönlendirir" (Nelson & Winter, 1982akt. Soyak, 2011. ...
... İkinci özellik ise amaçlanan açıklamanın "hem sorunsalın içerisindeki değişkenlerin yeni ya da üretilmiş çeşitliliğinden (variation) oluşan rastlantısal öğeleri hem de mevcut çeşitliliğin düzenli olarak ayıklanmasını sağlayan mekanizmaları içermesi" (Gürel, 2016: 242) gerekir. Modellemeler için şunu da belirtmek gerekir ki, evrimci modele hem deneme-yanılma üzerine kurulu bir öğrenme-keşfetme süreci hem de ayıklama/seçim mekanizması içkindir (Nelson & Winter, 1982;Gürel, 2016). ...
... Taklit etme bireye ve/ya firmaya arama, öğrenme ve deneme maliyetlerinde tasarruf sağlaması açısından önemlidir. Taklit etmenin yanında "yayılma (diffusion)" ve seçim mekanizmaları ise firmaların bir kısmı tarafından benimsenmiş (seçilmiş) ve kullanımda olan belirli teknolojilere, ürünlere ve davranışlara uyum sağlama hızıyla ilgilidir (Nelson & Winter, 1982;Gürel, 2016: 249). Meltcafe ve Gibbons ise biyolojiye ait kavramlar olan seçilim (selection), uyarlama (adaptation) ve dönüşümün (mutation) ekonomideki kavram ikizlerinin rekabet, taklit ve yenilik olduğu görüşündedirler (Gökten, 2006: 38-39). ...
Article
In this study, the subject of technological development and the current Industry 4.0: Smart Production-Digital Economy (I4.0) period are analyzed within the scope of evolutionary economics approach. The purpose of the analysis is to show where I4.0, as a phenomenon in change, stands in the overall functioning of capitalism. In this direction, the study consists of two parts. In the first part, the approach of evolutionary economics to the phenomenon of technology is discussed in comparison with neo-classical and Marxist economics. Secondly, it is discussed whether it would be more appropriate to consider each transition between the four industrial periods from the Industrial Revolution to the present, as a revolution or an evolutionary process. According to the results obtained, when E4.0 is considered both as a technical phenomenon and in terms of its relationship with growth and capital accumulation, it has been revealed that it progresses in an evolutionary process, just like the previous industrial periods.
... This is the research field which most rightly goes under the name of evolutionary. Its roots can be traced back to Nelson (1968), later re-edited in Nelson and Winter (1982;ch.10). ...
... Many models (e.g. Nelson and Winter (1982), Gibbons and Metcalfe (1986), Metcalfe (1989)) simplify the analysis by assuming that no imitation takes place, so that diffusion is driven exclusively by selection. Firms with the better technologies quickly re-invest their extra-profits and increase their market shares; firms with worse technologies realizes losses and either contract (by dis-investment) or exit. ...
... Modelling situations where technological variety co-exist along with different imitative/innovative capabilities and different propensities to invest is anyway very difficult. As Nelson and Winter (1982) and Silverberg (1988) point out, it is often impossible to find analytical solutions, and therefore computer simulations remain the only way of portraying diffusion processes. ...
... Similarly to the evolutionist approach in biology, in Economics an evolutionary theory of the rm has been proposed (Nelson & Winter, 1982, 2002, the idea states that a rm change with external change and two ways may be presented (Nooteboom, 2009): an experiential or reactive, where rm is matched by means of a trial and error mechanism or thumb rule, and another consisting in establishing a deliberated and intentional process. And other wisdom divides the evolution into two classes: gradual and radical. ...
... is transformation is a necessary condition for surviving and developing. An example of this position is Nelson & Winter (1982) who considers capabilities as routines changing when the results are modied as consequence of an environmental transformation. In this sense, to confront emergent and salient circumstances in a short range is difficult. ...
Article
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This article aims to analyze the adaptability construct in its nature and development. First, it provides an analytic study about the adaptability literature integrating to a classification based on different areas of business. Likewise, these contributions are classified in two categories: general and specific and five subcategories: strategic, structural, human talent, production and marketing approaches. Next, a dynamic model is used for representing the flexible and rigid organizational behavior for confronting a changing environment. Then, a second model developing this construct is offered with three important moments: ex-ante, in-action and ex-post as conditions of adaptive organizational behavior. In the end, a reflection about consequences of these structures is added.
... Second, M&A disclosure negatively affects acquirers' shareholder wealth when non-high-tech firms acquire or merge with high-tech firms. This result supports the findings of Nelson and Winter [7], who show that investors rely heavily on acquirers' existing corporate routines rather than uncertain and new knowledge-based resources if the acquirers are non-high-tech firms. Third, M&A negatively affect the longterm performance of high-tech acquirers when high-tech firms engage in M&As with non-high-tech firms. ...
... Second, M&A between non-high-tech and high-tech firms negatively affect the acquirer's shareholder wealth in terms of the disclosure effect. This result supports the findings of Nelson and Winter [7], which hold that investors rely heavily on established corporate routines rather than uncertain and newly acquired knowledge-based resources when acquirers belong to the non-high-tech sector. Third, M&A between high-tech and non-high-tech firms have a negative effect on long-term performance, but acquirers that are high-tech and organizationally mature enjoy a positive effect on long-term performance. ...
Article
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We perform an event study on 2824 cases of domestic mergers and acquisitions (M&A) that were disclosed in the Korean domestic stock exchange and took effect between 2002 and 2015. We focus on Korean capital markets to define the factor variables affecting the disclosure effect of M&A in high-tech industries and the effect of disclosure on long-term performance. We find the following. First, the disclosure effect of M&A benefits acquirers’ shareholder wealth; this effect is more pronounced for high-tech firms than for non-high-tech firms. Second, M&A of high- and non-high-tech firms harm acquirers’ shareholder wealth via the disclosure effect. Finally, M&A between high- and non-high-tech firms negatively affect long-term firm performance. However, acquirers that are mature high-tech firms have a positive effect on long-term performance. This result affirms that organizationally mature firms adapt better to highly specialized technologies and knowledge that are not yet internalized as corporate routines owing to their learned capabilities and breadth of experience. This study provides a significant novel perspective on high-tech M&A by emphasizing the financial performance of firms involved in them.
... A partir de los años setenta comienzan a desarrollarse nuevos enfoques que se distancian de los planteos de la economía neoclásica en varias dimensiones: la relevancia de la diversidad (de preferencias, de estrategias y mecanismos de aprendizaje, entre otros); su concepción de los factores que conducen a las empresas a sobrevivir o no; la consideración de que éstas más que maximizar ganancias lo que hacen es orientarse a la búsqueda de ganancias; la atención al proceso de competencia y no sólo a sus resultados; y la atención al comportamiento en situación de desequilibrio, entre otras (Nelson y Winter, 1982). ...
... La perspectiva evolucionista considera como central la capacidad de aprendizaje y adaptación de los agentes, y su interacción a través de los diferentes mecanismos económicos de selección (Nelson y Winter, 1982). ...
Chapter
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El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunas aproximaciones desde la teoría económica sobre las barreras a la adopción de tecnologías en el sector agropecuario. Este marco conceptual pretende ser de utilidad para justificar políticas de desarrollo productivo, a través de diversas intervenciones del MGAP.
... First, organizational processes are routines that are characterized as being repetitive and therefore predictable (Winter and Nelson, 1982;Cohen et al., 1996) and path dependent (David, 1997). Furthermore, routines and processes are embedded in organizations as ongoing activities known as workflows (Thompson et al., 2017;Cohen and Bacdayan, 1994). ...
... Therefore, a third theoretical aspect of organizational processes helps in understanding how organizations may benefit from the properties of digital technologies. Organizational processes and routines are characterized as repetitive and therefore predictable (Winter and Nelson, 1982;Cohen et al., 1996) and path dependent (David, 1997). Processes and routines are embedded within organizations as workflows (Thompson et al., 2017;Cohen and Bacdayan, 1994), which refers to interdependent tasks. ...
Thesis
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Societies today have increasing economic, social, and environmental needs for their built environments. The performance of the built environment depends largely on urban development, with the role of digital technologies therein being a long-standing research topic. The extant literature, however, has focused less on the organizational capabilities, such as absorptive capacity, that are needed for new technology adoption and organizational change. The capabilities of real estate owners, who are key decision makers throughout the built environment life cycle, have also, surprisingly, been neglected. The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of digitalization and sustainability in the built environment. To this end, this thesis presents the results of an empirical study of the capabilities of real estate owners, technology suppliers and industry associations in the context of a business ecosystem within the Swedish real estate sector. The findings show that real estate actors have developed new organizational capabilities related to digitalization and within collaborations inside the business ecosystem overall. For example, real estate owners have invested in R&D labs and business development functions that are atypical within the sector. These new capabilities may contribute to digitalization and sustainability within the built-environment sector more broadly. Nevertheless, many structural issues characteristic of a fragmented sector remain. Additionally, this thesis contributes to ecosystem theory and its methodology and to the built environment research methodology. The literature on the use of social network analysis methods in ecosystem and built environment research is reviewed, with the conclusion that social network analysis methods have great research potential despite being rarely used. Furthermore, formal concept analysis of ecosystem concepts is conducted, and a methodological framework for understanding ecosystems as multilevel structures that consist of flows between ecosystem actors and emergent system-level properties is presented. The introduction of new theories and methods in the built environment literature is important, as digitalization and sustainability transcend traditional organizational and technological boundaries.
... In the case of industrial farming, one can think of grain silos, dedicated transport infrastructure, or meatpacking facilities as elements that, once in place, reduce per-unit costs. Learning economies refer to the development of skills, specialized knowledge, as well as cognitive routines that increase efficiency (Arrow, 1962;Nelson and Winter, 1982). In the Amazon, that translates as highly technified agricultural commodity production and the (cognitive) consolidation of "agribusiness as we know it" as a social fact (see Hoelle, 2015;Santos et al., 2019). ...
... How to cultivate soy (originally a temperate climate crop) in tropical soils; increased productivity from cattle-ranching; the "deforestation culture" that shapes cognitive preferences and environmental behaviors; the know-how for sourcing and trading cattle in a region with poor infrastructure. Arrow, 1962;Nelson and Winter, 1982;Hoelle, 2015;Santos et al., 2019. ...
Article
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Cropland and pasture expansion continues to erase natural ecosystems at a staggering speed globally, notably in the tropics. Conventional policy approaches, usually focused on a particular land-use change driver (e.g., specific commodities) or individual regulations (e.g., the Amazon Soy Moratorium), have consistently failed to achieve sufficient or sustained results. The swift reversal of Brazil’s earlier success in reducing Amazon deforestation – now again accelerated – offers perhaps the most sobering illustration of that. Therefore, this article draws from scholarship on sustainability transitions to propose a more comprehensive systems view of unsustainable land-use patterns. We examine persistent tropical deforestation as a case of “lock-in,” using a transitions lens, and explore its constitutive elements. As a case study, we analyze the situation of Land Reform settlements in the Brazilian Amazon, where as much as one-third of that biome’s deforestation takes place. While subject to some specific factors, those places are also enmeshed in a broader setting that is common across the Brazilian Amazon’s deforestation frontier (e.g., infrastructure conditions, market demands, and sociocultural norms). Drawing from document analysis of Brazilian policies and fieldwork in three Land Reform settlements in Pará State, we expose multiple forms of techno-economic, institutional, and socio-cognitive lock-in that together drive deforestation systemically in those settlements. These drivers form a strongly consolidated socio-technical regime around large-scale agriculture that includes material and immaterial factors (e.g., cultural ones), a regime that not only resists change but also – like a vortex – pulls others into it. Escaping deforestation lock-in may thus require outside forces to help local actors destabilize and eventually replace this unsustainable land-use regime. International zero-deforestation efforts offer a starting point, but a transition requires moving beyond piecemeal, incremental change or end-of-pipe approaches and toward concerted, strategic action that addresses multiple of those regime elements in a coordinated way to replace it as a system. We argue that understanding deforestation lock-in is vital for tackling its worrisome persistence and that sustainability transitions theory offers an illuminating, but still underutilized, framework to analyze and eventually overcome unsustainable land use.
... Their economy are not stable. It keeps phased changing, improving and then shifts in a new other states (Nelson and Winter 2002). ...
... It can be shown using the evolutionary paradigm of investment activity (Yuzvovich et al. 2016). These issues are also considered in the evolutionary economics (Nelson and Winter 2002), when economic processes are considered spontaneous, open and irreversible, generated by the interaction of external and internal factors and manifested in a change in the economic structure and agents operating in it (Avtonomov et al. 2002). ...
Chapter
The chapter focuses on an interdisciplinary understanding of the role of hunting for different actors: the state, hunting enterprises, local communities and indigenous peoples. It provides a short overview of studies of hunting and their specifics in Siberia, examines the history of the state management of hunting in Siberia. Based on example of Tofalaria, it illustrates how during the XX–XXI centuries the hunting industry experienced growth and decline as a result of increasing and decreasing amount of investments in hunting as an industry. Another example, mobility of Evenkis, is used to show the extraction of resources as a wide diversity of movements and human existence in continually changing environment. The wide variety of contexts and perspectives allows to conclude that hunting is far more than merely subsistence practice or an industry. The studies of hunting are instrumental for understanding of human–environment relations that are currently undergoing rapid change due to climate, infrastructure, technology and societal transformations.KeywordsHuntingInformal land useLocal and indigenous knowledgeResourcesInfrastructure
... In this way, the multiple evolving realms linked by coevolution become dynamically co-determined (Almudi and Fatas-Villafranca, 2021). Clearly, this notion builds upon the evolutionary economic paradigm focused on representing contemporary capitalist societies as evolving systems, in the general sense that these systems continuously change from within, through processes which involve the selection of heterogeneous (boundedlyrational) competing organizations and agents, the uneven replication of embodied traits (routines, habits), and the ongoing generation of novelties (Nelson and Winter, 1982;Silverberg and Soete, 1994;Gowdy, 1994;Metcalfe, 1998;Breslin, 2011;Winter, 2014;Witt, 2014;Dollimore and Hodgson 2014;Wilson and Kirman 2016;Dosi and Roventini, 2019). Assuming the variety of theoretical views co-existing under the heading evolutionary economics, we claim that the coevolution notion can play a key organizing role in this paradigm. ...
... The attentive reader can find references to appreciative interpretations of coevolution in evolutionary neo-Schumpeterian economics since its very beginning four decades ago. In the foundational texts (Dosi et al. 1988;Nelson and Winter, 1982) it is already present the idea that technological advance, as the key driver of economic change, coevolves with other social forces. ...
Chapter
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We define coevolution in innovative economic systems, as a key driver operating among interactive realms within an evolving complex system, in such a way that the respective innovation, replication and selection domain-specific mechanisms become mutually co-determined in a dynamic sense. We hereby develop the concept, and refer to formal implementations and empirical applications which analyze: the coevolution of technology, institutions and organizations in industrial dynamics; multisectoral coevolution and the coevolution of supply and demand in changing economies; the coevolution of market factors, technological traits, strategic options and institutional engines underlying growth and economic development; and evolutionary political economy issues from a coevolution perspective. The coevolution concept can unify methodologies (ABMs, networks and replicator dynamics) used in the analysis of innovation, and it can combine different evolutionary strands of innovation thinking (Schumpeterian economics; Institutional studies; Computational economics; Evolutionary games).
... The study of Nelson and Winter (1982) on the Toyota Production System found that success is based on routines and organisational processes. This indicates that human capital is ultimately replaceable and interchangeable as long as individuals receive the same extensive training. ...
... Knowledge, in particular, has proved to be the main resource behind concepts, ideas and strategies for the organizations' maintenance and development in the market through the capacity of quickly adapting to the changes that take place in their business environments (Nelson & Winter, 1982;Schumpeter, 1961). ...
Article
This research aimed at mapping the international production over the interface between entrepreneurial and innovative strategies and knowledge management in the ISI Web of Science database with a 20-year temporal cut by highlighting the theoretical and methodological aspects to be explored. It is a bibliometric study in which the data were collected from the Web of Science database and processed through the HistCiteTM bibliometric analysis and visualization software. Through the research it was possible to identify the distribution of publications by year, the journals with the most articles published on the subject, the main authors, the country of origin of the publications, the principal journals, the theoretical gaps on the interface between the themes researched and the main methodological approaches. As a managerial contribution, this research shows the comprehension that the entrepreneurial and innovative strategies and KM must be linked to the business strategies, whereas the business strategy design needs, above all, to take the shape of a learning process overtime, which can be enabled through the organizational Knowledge Management model. Through this research, it was also possible to identify emerging themes on the interface between entrepreneurial, innovative strategies and knowledge management.
... Es difícil explicar qué hace menos o más novedosas a las recombinaciones, ni qué recursos participan en cada caso. Por un lado, la literatura indica que los recursos recombinados son intangibles y tangibles (Nelson y Winter, 1982;Schumpeter, 1939). Por otro lado, considera al conocimiento como el principal, si no el único, recurso recombinable (Foss e Ishikawa, 2007;Kang et al., 2019). ...
Article
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En general, la literatura sobre innovación recombinante no especifica la novedad alcanzada al desarrollar productos: resulta de recombinaciones, siempre novedosas, de conocimiento existente. Esta visión limita los tipos de recombinaciones y recursos usados al innovar. No explicaría la diversidad de recursos y recombinaciones asociados con productos con grados particulares de novedad (alto, medio, bajo). Este trabajo investiga qué características intrínsecas o constitutivas de los recursos facilitarían recombinaciones menos o más novedosas, y por qué ocurriría esto. Metodológicamente, se usó la construcción de tipologías explicativas como herramienta teórica. Según la tipología de características intrínsecas construida, la literatura se basa en recursos existentes. Se asociarían con recombinaciones y productos poco novedosos. Para que hubiera alta novedad, se requerirían características intrínsecas que facilitaran recombinar recursos tangibles y conocimiento para formar recursos nuevos. Aunque, las características intrínsecas más frecuentes promoverían recombinaciones y productos de novedad media. La tipología ayudaría a las empresas a evaluar ex ante el potencial innovador de sus recursos, y así la novedad al recombinar y de producto que facilitarían. Contribuye con la literatura al proponer que los recursos son más que conocimiento existente y son intrínsecamente heterogéneos. Los recursos tangibles también serían esenciales para crear novedad. Al respecto, las recombinaciones no serían siempre novedosas. Habría relaciones específicas entre tipos de recursos, novedad de recombinaciones, y novedad de productos. Se presentan proposiciones teóricas y un modelo formal que sugieren la cuantificación y predictibilidad de estas relaciones.
... Essentially, under this stream of literature and in contrast to neoclassical propositions technological change is dependant on endogenous efforts of firms and institutions to acquire the knowledge and competences necessary to pursue the change. The differences in the levels of the technological development have to do with the complexities of technology acquisition and change, the tacit and cumulative nature of technology, and country or industry specific features of technology which are not ultimately universally applicable or transferable (Nelson and Winter, 1982;Lundwall, 1992;Nelson, 1989;Dosi et al., 1990;Patel and Pavitt, 1994). ...
Conference Paper
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Recent financial and economic crisis has raised the question about validity of capitalism. As financial markets collapsed and instances of corporate fraud proliferated, the largest market economies of the world - the USA and the EU - went into a deep recession. Demonstrated inability of the market mechanisms to lead economies out of recession has led observers to speak of the unprecedented, systemic character of the crisis. In contradistinction to previous crises, the methods used to halt and reverse the most recent recession have been all based on active state intervention. The scope and scale of this intervention has been unheard of since the Great Depression. The character of the recent state's activism in Europe and America alike defies comparison to less dramatic cyclical disturbances. The size of fiscal stimulus packages, the range of monetary instruments used, and the very character of the state intervention in business practices have all been exceptional. Parallel to that, the state-regulated economy of the People's Republic of China proved to be more resilient to the negative impact of the global crisis than a number of free market economies. Moreover, such large market economies as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, and Brazil benefitted from the historically stronger public regulatory policies and managed to weather the crisis better than their less regulated counterparts. The main lesson of the 2007-2009 crisis seems to be that market economies with a relatively large degree of state regulation or with regulation more effectively focused on key economic areas can manage both internal and external macroeconomic shocks better than laissez-faire economies. It is plausible that comparatively heavier regulated systems can be "taught" to withstand crises and operate more efficiently than comparatively under-regulated systems.
... With reduced uncertainty and prosperity, the norms and values of the related parties can become distorted to the point where they no longer relate well to the other party's needs. When such embeddedness practices, known as institutionalization (Nelson and Winter, 1982), occur in an organization, they may affect its relationships with other companies. Our study reveals that given the occurrence of uncertain economic and social events, relationship management activities focus on developing and establishing new and innovative ways of maintaining relational and business exchanges, as aptly argued by Morgan and Hunt (1994). ...
Article
Purpose In the African context, the threat of the disruption of traditional business value-creation processes, currently facilitated by the growing information technology (IT) ecosystem, came with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on interfirm relationships within the context of the digital ecosystem in Africa. Design/methodology/approach This study employs an explanatory–exploratory qualitative approach from an interpretivist stance to investigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on interfirm relationships. The authors conducted seven in-depth interviews with top management executives in a Nigerian technology company, together with the company's archival data that provided the pre, during and post pandemic (2018–2021) business-to-business (B2B) relationship structures, to determine how these relationships have been affected. Findings The results suggest that the pandemic had a minimal effect on partnership relationships in the B2B ecosystems of the case company but affected only non-partnership relationships. Research limitations/implications The authors' qualitative study is interpretive and the sample size is limited. Hence, there is a need for caution in generalizing the findings. The framework can be further validated across a wider population. Practical implications Partnerships can help organizations weather business crises. Consequently, organizations should maintain a healthy number of partnership relations to deal with periods in which challenges emerge in the business landscape. In other words, with tight contracts and a strategic focus on goals and objectives, partnership relations can help organizations weather business crises. Originality/value This study builds upon the burgeoning body of literature on digital ecosystems within the African context, which is a relevant contextual contribution.
... Bester and Guth applied evolutionary game theory to study the existence and evolutionary stability of human altruism in economic activities [46]. The evolution of market survival and market credit are both studied based on the theory [47,48]. ...
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With the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode playing an increasingly important role in the investment of infrastructure, promoting the diffusion of low-carbon technology innovation in PPP projects not only helps to reduce the carbon emissions of infrastructure, but also plays an important demonstration role in the low-carbon transformation of construction industry. In order to clarify the evolutionary mechanism of low-carbon technology innovation diffusion among stakeholders under the unique payment mechanism of PPP projects in China, the paper builds two different evolutionary game models respectively under government payment mechanism and consumer payment mechanism based on evolutionary game theory. The evolutionary relationship between the choice of behavior strategies and the change of influencing factors under different payment mechanisms are analyzed by numerical simulation. It is found that under government payment mechanism, the regulation cost of government to promote low-carbon technology innovation and the punishment of the superior regulatory authority for non-regulation behavior are the important factors affecting government's behavioral strategies. The low-carbon technology innovation cost of social capital and the intensity of government subsidy and punishment are the main factors affecting social capital's behavioral strategies; Under consumer payment mechanism, consumer becomes the ultimate payer of low-carbon products, and the income they get from purchasing low-carbon products and the subsidy provided by the government become the main factors determining consumer's behavioral strategies. Finally, from the perspective of government, social capital and consumer, countermeasures and management implications are put forward to effectively promote the diffusion of low-carbon technology innovation under different payment mechanism in PPP projects.
... At the end of the 19th century, Henry Ford installed the first assembly line exactly in 1913, which was defined as a group of workstations aligned in a serial manner. The work pieces visit stations successively either manually or by a transportation system, e.g. a conveyor belt (Boysen et al. 2007;Ahmadi & Abbadi 2020;Nelson & Winter 2004) defined the assembly line as an organizational unit, which one can view as a collection of self-sustaining routines. And according to Eisenstein, an assembly line has workers moving among stations, where each worker independently follows a simple rule that determines what to do next (Bartholdi & Eisenstein 1996). ...
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A company's ability to manage supply chain resilience is a valuable consideration, especially during pandemics such as COVID-19. For this reason, researchers are increasingly interested in supply chain resilience, particularly in the manufacturing industry, during emerging situations. This study provides insight into the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the automotive industry. This paper examines three years of data from an assembly line that produces 500 cars per day, analyzes the impact of the spread of the virus on the efficiency of the assembly line, and suggests improvements to strengthen the assembly line resilience.
... An organization may enhance the amount of valuable feedback it receives from its stakeholders. Organizational procedures would be improved by more individual engagement (Nelson & Winter, 1982). The Social Exchange Theory (Macneil, 1980), which links the growth of complex personal and corporate structures amongst organizations, proposes a link between relational capital and transaction. ...
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The present study determines the impacts of different types of green intellectual capital such as green human capital, green structural capital, and green relational capital on environmental sustainability in the Sultanate of Oman. It has become a crucial aspect to analyze the effect of green intellectual capital on ecological sustainability. A simple random sample technique is used to assemble data using a structured questionnaire from 205 respondents working at Raysut Cement Company and Salalah Methanol Company in Oman. The covariance-based equation in the structural modeling perspective is used to examine data. The study's results reveal that green structure-based capital is the only dimension of green Intellectual capital that significantly affects environmental sustainability. In contrast, green human capital and relation-based capital do not substantially affect ecological sustainability. Conclusively, this study also provides ecological strategies that can be useful to enrich organizations to accomplish sustainability.
... Scottish school of morality, whose representatives first proposed an individualistic concept of rational human behavior and drew attention to its fruitfulness to explain other social phenomena. A significant contribution to the development of the evolutionary theory of individual behavior was made by R. Nelson and S. Winter (4). Among the researches on the theory of consumer behavior, the work of Saeed (5) and Michael S. Miller attracts our attention (6). ...
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In this work, the author researching the process of consumer behavior formation, and considers the possibility of its correction using social engineering methods. The author considers consumer behavior as a separate mandatory element of the product quality monitoring system in the concept of smart consumption. Consumer behavior as a complex of actions and reactions of a public entity in the field of consumption has been considered, assumptions of the economic component of consumer behavior have been formulated, and recommendations for consideration of consumer behavior in the context of social relations have been given. The formation of consumer behavior from the point of view of psychology has been described and considered certain factors that influence the formation of a certain type of consumer behavior. The author has developed strategies for influencing consumer behavior based on social engineering methods. Two approaches to applying strategies to rational and irrational behavior are proposed. The developed strategies will encourage the consumer to participate in the information system of data collection to monitor product quality. The author conducted research, the purpose of which is to determine the target audience that will participate in the process of informing about the product quality monitoring system. As a result of the research, a focus group was formed, which took part in an experiment with the use of strategies to influence consumer behavior.
... Dual innovation refers to progressive innovation and radical innovation, which is divided into by the innovation degree. Progressive innovation has a small improvement and expansion of the existing dtechnology or products, and has the characteristics of imitation, progressiveness and accumulation (Nelson and Winter, 1982), so it is an innovation model with previous experience as the necessary resource reserve . Radical innovation has a radical on new technologies and new products, and has characteristics of creation, explore, variation and adventure (Jiang and Lin, 2020), so it is the "completely new" innovation model (Wang, 2014). ...
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Many scholars have benefited a lot from the social media environment. However, due to the privacy and environmental complexity of academic knowledge innovation under the new media environment, reasons for the successful innovation are still difficult to be figured out and copied, which results in potential losses in the promotion of its academic value. The results show that the progressive and radical academic knowledge innovation in the social media environment take fragmented knowledge accumulation and innovation incentive as the main route respectively, and the ways to realize innovation include encounter complementary type, creative accumulation type, content dependent type, leader following type, self-published type and functional excitation type. These research results greatly promote the development of knowledge innovation theory in social media environment, and is of great reference significance for academic individuals and social media platforms to make decisions.
... B. In der Innovationspolitik setzt sich, wie aus dieser Debatte ersichtlich wird, zunehmend die Erkenntnis durch, dass Nachhaltigkeitsziele nicht allein mit technischen Lösungen erreicht werden können, sondern eine grundlegendere Transformation der gesellschaftlichen Systeme erfordern. Ausgehend von evolutionstheoretischen Konzepten (Nelson & Winter, 1982;Rip & Kemp, 1998) haben in der Innovationspolitik unter dem Oberbegriff Sustainability Transitions (Köhler et al., 2019;Markard et al., 2012) mit Strategic Niche Management (Rip & Kemp, 1998;Weber et al., 1999), Transition Management (Loorbach & Rotmans, 2006;Rotmans et al., 2000Rotmans et al., , 2001 und Multi Level Perspective (Geels, 2002;Markard & Truffer, 2008) = a change in social relations, involving new ways of doing, organising, framing and/or knowing. (Haxeltine et al., 2016, 19) 2 Peer Innovation ...
... The present paper continues the work begun in (Kemp-Benedict 2019) by deepening the microeconomic foundation for the classical-evolutionary model. In contrast to Zamparelli, the model in this paper, like that of Duménil and Lévy, follows evolutionary economics by assuming that discovery has a stochastic element (Nelson and Winter 1982). However, unlike (Duménil and Lévy 1992;2010), the path from microeconomic behavior to macroeconomic outcomes is made explicit. ...
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Technological change is a central concern for evolutionary economics, which combines detailed empirical studies and conceptual frameworks with mathematical modeling, among them the NK model from evolutionary biology. Technological change is also a central concern for classical and Marxian economics, where it is studied under the rubric of “cost share-induced technological change.” Among the contributions from classical economists is a classical-evolutionary model first introduced by Duménil and Lévy. This paper strengthens the classical-evolutionary model’s microeconomic foundations by deriving it from an underlying NK model. The result is an aggregate model suitable for macroeconomic analysis that is grounded in evolutionary microeconomic theory. This explicit micro-to-macro link opens avenues for further research. The paper presents new results for the classical-evolutionary model, including a “generating function” method for creating candidate functional forms, and provides three illustrative applications.
... Because of the minimal disruptions that occurred, routine capabilities not only were employed but were also improved by the utilization of unaffected resources and operations. Nevertheless, the findings also show that routine capabilities have been applied in crises where this contradicts previous beliefs that routine capabilities are normally executed in relatively steady environments where firms are accustomed to threats (Nelson and Winter, 1982;Becker, 2004). In addition, routine-based firms are shown to belong to the manufacturing and design industries. ...
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Purpose-During disturbances and unprecedented events, firms are required to be resilient to confront crises, recover from losses, and even capitalize on new opportunities. The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to examine how different types of capabilities (routine, dynamic or ad hoc) steer an entrepreneurial firm into ecological, engineering and evolutionary resilience and (2) to identify strategic activities that are deployed by firms with different capabilities to achieve resilience. Design/methodology/approach-Data were gathered using structured qualitative interviews with 26 entrepreneurial resilient firms that managed to survive a multitude of coinciding crises. Findings-The findings show that each type of capability enhances the ability to achieve a specific resilience outcome: ad hoc capability for partial engineering resilience, routine capability for ecological resilience and dynamic capability for evolutionary resilience. Furthermore, ad hoc capabilities are shown to be favored when firms' losses are severe. In contrast, routine and dynamic capabilities are preferred when losses are mild. The most significant capability deployment activities related to building resilience are corporate strategic changes, global export strategy, cost reduction, stakeholder support, positive mindset, fund raising, network building, product development, efficiency improvement and restructuring. These activities are segregated based on capability and resilience types. Practical implications-Practitioners are encouraged to cast off limiting assumptions and beliefs that firms are conditioned to fail when faced with unprecedented crises. This study provides an integrative portfolio of capabilities and activities as a toolbox that can be used by different entrepreneurs and policy makers to achieve resilience and better performance. Originality/value-The paper undertakes a first of its kind empirical examination of the association between capabilities and resilience. The context is unique as it involves a multitude of coinciding crises including Covid-19 pandemic, city explosion, economic collapse, political instability and a severe banking crisis.
... As often noted in the innovation management literature, organizations develop "routines" for their activities, that gradually become standardized and well-established into the company policies, structures, and processes (Arrow, 1962;Nelson & Winter, 1982;Seebode et al., 2012). A well-rehearsed production, as the one of fast-moving consumer goods, with low involvement from customers and low margins for companies (on individual sales), may be less incentivized to allocate resources away from established technological and market trajectories (e.g., working with the same suppliers, resources, know-how) (Jurgilevich et al., 2016;Southerton et al., 2004). ...
... This is surprising as research has long highlighted the importance of radical innovation for performance and survival (Burgelman, 1983a). This, for example, incudes the seminal work of Schumpeter (1934) and related work in evolutionary economics (Nelson & Winter, 1982) that has argued that radical innovation-defined as revolutionary change and breakthrough in product, process, technologies, markets or business models -are key to economic development and progress. This contrasts with incremental innovation, which refers to innovation that seeks to improve existing systems or products to make them better, cheaper, or faster. ...
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Drawing on the attention‐based view we theorize about the differences in middle and senior managers’ choices to pursue innovation projects. We test our hypotheses in an experimental study examining the decision‐making processes of 180 senior and middle managers in selecting, or not, 2,880 innovation projects. We find that managers differ in how they select innovation projects in general and this difference becomes even more salient when such selections involve radical innovation. Specifically, when considering a radical innovation project, middle managers place more value on innovation characteristics required to complete the project, such as social capital and internal knowledge resources. In comparison, senior managers are concerned only with external knowledge resources, which can benefit radical innovation. Our study highlights the need to understand the role of middle managers, who frequently lead the implementation of innovation projects, and provides a theoretical underpinning for the differences in middle and senior managers’ decision‐making.
... The school of technological innovation divides innovation into three types: basic innovation, improved innovation and false innovation, and it believes that only basic innovation can make the region's long-term economic growth. Nelson (1982), a representative economist of the macro school of national innovation system theory, believes that given the uncertainty of scientific and technological development, the institutional arrangement for the innovation system in the national development strategy should be flexible. However, in reality, the national incentive mechanism for innovation is often limited to the existing traditional research results, only through some policies or structural adjustment to support innovation, the power source of innovation has not yet been explored to be fully flooded to make contributions to urban innovation. ...
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This paper uses spatial measurement method, by selecting panel data from a total of 106 cities in 11 provinces and municipalities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2006 to 2018, to conduct an empirical study on the impact mechanism of urban innovation ability on industrial pollution governance. The results show that there is a significant negative correlation between urban innovation ability and the degree of industrial pollution, and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt have a significant spatial connection. Specifically, this paper finds that urban innovation ability can have a positive impact on urban industrial pollution governance through industrial selection, production technology innovation, pollution discharge technology innovation, and environmental pollution treatment, which will help cities reduce industrial pollution; The industrial pollution governance level of individual cities is not only affected by the innovation ability of the city, but also by the innovation spillover of the surrounding cities. Area surrounded by cities with high urban innovation ability will benefit from the spillover of the surrounding cities. The industrial pollution governance level of individual cities is not only affected by the innovation ability of the city, but also by the innovation spillover of the surrounding cities. Areas surrounded by cities with high urban innovation ability will benefit from the spillover of the surrounding cities, thus improving the industrial pollution control and regional ecological environment. Based on this, this paper proposes relevant policy recommendations for urban industrial pollution governance from the perspective of improving urban innovation ability.
... Monitoring and measuring the rate of change in environmental, technical, and social conditions affected by crisis operations are critical steps in maintaining an effective balance in an escalating event. Used judiciously, indicators of change in specific conditions may inform corrective interventions before a crisis occurs; if ignored, the cumulative array of even minor changes across a complex system may signal potential disruption and transition to dysfunction (Solé, 2011;Argyris, 1993;Nelson & Winter, 1985). Access to technical support from advanced information and communications technologies offers an invaluable resource to managing the complexity of interacting subsystems of temperature, wind, land cover, energy, transportation, and community activity, but it is not fully integrated into crisis decision processes at the system-wide level. ...
Preprint
The transition from one level of operation to a next larger, more complex level while maintaining coherence as a system has stymied organizational theorists for decades. Drawing on concepts from systems theory, network analysis, and collaborative governance, we investigate transition in rapidly escalating, massively complex, urgent events to focus on intelligence networks in extreme hazards. We examine the transition process in rapidly escalating wildfires as a case study in dynamic adaptation among multiple organizations seeking to achieve the shared goal of protecting communities at risk. We use data from Incident Reports filed by CalFire field personnel to create a preliminary system dynamics model that simulates the interaction among key components active in the 2020 Santa Clara Unit (SCU) Lightning Complex Fire. We conclude that systematic integration of human, signal, imagery, and open-source forms of intelligence regarding emergence and escalation of hazards provides invaluable support to decision makers confronting extreme events.
... Porter's paradigm is often referred to as the theory of competitive advantage to distinguish it from Ricardian trade theory where relative factor prices drive competitiveness. It was influenced on the one hand by Schumpeterian theories of dynamic innovation (Adler, Florida, King, & Mellander, 2019;Foss, 1996;Nelson, 1993;Nelson & Winter, 1982;Schumpeter, 1976Schumpeter, , 1983 and was otherwise shaped by spatial theories of industrial clusters and districts coming out of economic geography (Becattini, 1991;Maskell & Malmberg, 1999;Piore & Sabel, 1984;Saxenian, 1994;Scott, 1988;Storper, 1997). Significantly, in these latter frameworks, the firm is understood as a means through which ongoing innovation can be harnessed and absorbed. ...
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Drawing on key concepts from management theory, corporate strategy, and economic geography, we argue that the time has come for “Locational Strategy.” Locational strategy is a framework for understanding how the locational decisions of organizations fit into broader corporate strategy. Locational strategy is particularly relevant given rise of knowledge and talent as key factors of productions and the fact that these inputs are so clustered in space. We lay out several principles to guide further work in this area, and briefly anticipate the role for locational strategy in the post‐pandemic economy. Such an approach is well suited to the study of the sprawling modern firm, the footloose geography of talent, and the hyper‐competitive field of regional economic policy. Management needs to consider locational strategy as a key element of broader corporate strategy. This is because location and firm location decisions are ever more central to firm strategy. We review key ideas from the academic literature that bear on how managers can get the best access to talent, knowledge, and customers. Access to talent and embeddedness in complex knowledge systems is a defining feature of Locational strategy over and above simple input cost concerns. Furthermore, firms need to consider the actions and reactions of jurisdictions as they decide how to locate and deploy resources across in places across the world. Management training typically does not feature the geographic considerations of location strategy. The authors have refined their approach while teaching students in their course on The City and Business in the MBA program at the University of Toronto's Rotman School.
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Os estudos sobre a geração e a difusão de conhecimento nas firmas vêm ganhando importância à medida que a inovação se tornou estratégica para a competividade das firmas. Duas vertentes teóricas, ligadas a diferentes campos de conhecimento, se destacam nesta discussão: a economia evolucionária e a geografia econômica evolucionária. Esta última, porém, é um campo emergente de pesquisa no Brasil. O objetivo deste artigo é, em primeiro lugar, discutir as complementaridades entre a economia evolucionária e a geografia econômica evolucionária, a partir de suas contribuições para os estudos sobre conhecimento. A partir desta discussão, será apresentada uma agenda de pesquisa para os estudos brasileiros sobre a geração e difusão de conhecimento nas firmas sob uma perspectiva evolucionária que leve em consideração os elementos do território.
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El objetivo es analizar la influencia del financiamiento público en la creación de patentes de los estados mexicanos durante 2009-2017. El patentamiento es uno de los resultados de la actividad innovadora que el gobierno puede estimular mediante el financiamiento de proyectos. La teoría schumpeteriana sugiere una relación positiva en la que las empresas grandes tienden a innovar más porque poseen mayores recursos para invertir en I+D, lo que permite economías de escala. La metodología de datos de conteo encuentra efectos positivos, diferenciados por tamaño de empresa, del financiamiento público y la educación sobre el patentamiento, los cuales muestran más consistencia en empresas grandes. Para fomentar la innovación, se recomienda diseñar programas públicos personalizados por tamaño de empresa junto a estrategias que busquen mejorar los logros educativos. Además de las restricciones metodológicas, los resultados dependen de la medición de la innovación desde patentes, lo que implica que la evidencia estimada podría ser mayor. Esta investigación contribuye al nexo financiamiento-innovación porque usa datos desagregados por tamaño de empresa y tipo de financiamiento. Se concluye que el financiamiento público impulsa la innovación.
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The article deals with theoretical and methodological issues of the influence of various research approaches to improving the techniques and methods of state regulation of intersectoral / interregional relations and proportions in the areas of primary development of the natural resource potential of the Far Eastern Arctic. Emphasis is placed on the role of infrastructural elements of natural and economic formations, the advanced formation of which acts as a kind of «core», a «framework» for the consistent development of regional complexes, their system formation, self-survival and ensuring economic sustainability at each stage of formation. Traditional and system-evolutionary approaches to regional research, issues of systemic balance of spatial development based on the infrastructure approach and the role of the backbone infrastructure in improving the efficiency of spatial formations are analyzed. An approach to the study of the Far Eastern Arctic territories and water areas in close connection with the «near-Arctic» regions of the North-East, which historically, naturally, together form the North-Eastern mesoregion as part of the Far Eastern macroregion, is put forward and substantiated
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The external environment of a social media company encompasses social, legal, and economic aspects that can significantly influence a firm’s strategy for monetization. For example, if a social media company breaches a user data protection law, it could incur a large fine or even be banned from offering social media service by user data protection organizations or legal institutions. A legitimate business model is of paramount importance for a social media company to achieve sustainable monetization. Business model design describes the pattern by which a company makes money. A business model includes three elements: content, structure, and governance.
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JEL Classification R14 N75 L60 It has been acknowledged that SC visibility is the driving force for the customers to fulfil their needs in today's world. In this research paper, the researchers aim to examine different factors impacting SC Visibility. Supply chain issues are bringing attention to a sector that has generated concern about healthy competition, worker welfare, and environmental damage for years. SC visibility factors need to be quantified because they provide clients with the data; they need to better estimate demand, ensuring they do not run out of anything during busy or lean periods. The study is based on an extensive literature review and responses from leading supply chain management consulting firms. To identify technology used in supply chain integration, one of the tools for SC visibility can cover all items and assets across extensive supply networks. Freight visibility is essential as shippers' interest in the safe and secure passage of products has proliferated. The population of this research is Employees who are working in the shipping industries and 3pl industries. The paper demonstrates the shipping line to find supply chain visibility. Interest in supply chain integration and analytic integration are primary factors because container logistics management provides direct support to vessel logistics. Their involvement in freight logistics remains unclear and uncertain.
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