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Fırat M. & Yıldız K. (2016) Silene konuralpii (Sect. Spergulifoliae, Caryophyllaceae), a new species from eastern Anatolia. Phytotaxa 288 (3): 214‒226

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  • Van Yuzuncu Yil University

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In the article indicated above [Phytotaxa 288 (3): 214–226; http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.288.3.2], the name of type had been written without authors name as (Silene konuralpii sp. nov.) as a typographical error. The correct name is “Silene konuralpii Fırat & K.Yıldız sp. nov.”. Please note the authors name on page 215 Silene konuralpii, sp. nov. (Figs. 2‒5) Should read Silene konuralpii Fırat & K.Yıldız sp. nov.
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Phytotaxa 288 (3): 214–226
http://www.mapress.com/j/pt/
Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
214 Accepted by Duilio Iamonico: 1 Dec. 2016; published: 16 Dec. 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.288.3.2
Silene konuralpii (Sect. Spergulifoliae, Caryophyllaceae), a new species from eastern
Anatolia
MEHMET FIRAT¹* & KEMAL YILDIZ²
1 Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Education, Department of Biology, 65080-Tuşba-Van Turkey. e-mail: kuyucak65@yahoo.com
2 Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, 45140-Muradiye-Manisa, Turkey.
*Author for correspondence
Abstract
A new perennial species, Silene konuralpii sp. nov. (Silene sect. Spergulifoliae) is described and illustrated from eastern
Anatolia. A momorphological comparison with the similar species S. stenobotrys, S. spergulifolia, and S. surculosa is given
as well as the ultrastructure of the leaf, seed and pollen grain. Original drawings and photographs, distribution map, notes on
ecology, and IUCN conservation status are also provided.
Key words: Silene, Sect. Spergulifoliae, Turkey
Introduction
Silene Linnaeus (1753: 416) (Caryophyllaceae Juss.) is one of the largest genera of flowering plants in the world,
consisting of about 700 species (see e.g., Melzheimer 1980, Morton 2005). The most of the species are distributed in
the Mediterranean area (see Greuter 1995). The flora of Turkey currently includes 172 Silene species (see e.g., Coode &
Cullen 1967, Davis et al. 1988, Tan & Vural 2000, Yıldız et al. 2010, Hamzaolu et al. 2011, Hamzaolu 2012, Budak
& Koç 2011, Yıldız 2012, Aydın et al. 2014, Aytaç et al. 2015, Güner & Duman 2016 and Fırat & Yıldız 2016).
Concerning the taxa belonging to Silene sect. Spergulifoliae Boissier (1867: 572), they are characterized by: leaves
narrow, simple, veined, steril shoots occurring in axil of leaves in some taxa; inflorescence in rasemes or panicles, less
capitate, mostly with dimorphic flowers (hermaphrodite and female), the female flowers being usually apparent when
the filament growth; calyx intense glandular-pubescent, decreased in the end fruit; petals usually deeply emarginate at
the apex, coronal scales present or reduced.
The classification of this group is very difficult, due to the occurrence of plants with flowers which are functionally
female (e.g., Coode & Cullen 1966, Yıldız & Minareci 2012). Such flowers have short, translucent stamens, and
calyces and anthophores shorter than those occurring in the hermaphrodite flowers. This remark applies with equal
force to material collected already (Coode & Cullen 1966, Yıldız & Minareci 2012).
The species belonging to the sect. Spergulifoliae are distributed in Anatolia and Thrace, reaching disjunctly from
south-east Europe and west coast of Black Sea, Syrian desert, north Iraq, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Caucasia to
Iran. The following 12 species, which belong to the sect. Spergulifoliae, occur in Turkey: S. stenobotrys Boissier &
Haussknecht (1867: 611), S. kemahensis Aytaç & Kandemir (2015: 37), S. muradica Schischkin (1920: 27), S. argentea
Ledebour (1842: 311), S. spergulifolia Marschall von Bieberstein (1819: 305), S. supina Marschall von Bieberstein
(1808: 338) subsp. pruinosa (Boissier) Chowdhuri (1957: 266), S. montbretiana Boissier (1843: 26), S. arguta Fenzl
(1842: 8), S. oreophila Boissier (1867: 617), S. bolanthoides Quezel, Contandriopoulos & Pamukçuolu (1970: 356),
S. cephalantha Boissier (1867: 613).
During the floristic surveys in the Heyrangol village (Elekirt/Arı) one of us (M. Firat) collected many Silene
specimens which cannot be identify with any of the Silene species currently known. After consulting relevant literature
and checking many herbaria, we came to the conclusion that the arround Heyrangol village specimens represented a
new species.
SILENE KONURALPII A NEW SPECIES FROM ANATOLIA Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press 215
FIGURE 1. Distribution map of Silene konuralpii (), S. stenobotrys (), S. spergulifolia (Ì) and S. surculosa () in Turkey.
Material and methods
The work is based on floristic surveys by M. Fırat in 2016 at the arround Heyrangol village (Elekirt-Arı/B9): the
specimen collected were stored in the herbarium VANF. Further specimens were examined from E, K, B, G, WU, AEF,
AIBU, ANK, EGE, HUB, ISTE, ISTF, ISTO, KON, MUFE, GAZI, and VANF (acronyms according to Thiers 2016+).
Relevant floras were also consulted (Hayek 1927, Chater & Walters 1964, Zohary 1966, Coode & Cullen 1967, Meikle
1977, Greuter 1997, Melzheimer 1988).
A morphological comparison was made considering the folowing related species: Silene stenobotrys, S. spergulifolia
and S. surculosa (Fig. 2–5).
Leaf, seed and pollen morphology were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Figs. 68). Seed
characters were identified according to Prentice (1978) and Stearn (1996). Pollen terminology followed Punt et al.
(2007).
Taxonomic treatment
Silene konuralpii, sp. nov. (Figs. 25)
Typ e:—TURKEY. B9 Arı: Elekirt district, Heyrangol village, humid slopes steppe, 2396 m, 39°4529 N, 42°2400 E, 15 June 2016,
Fırat 32740 (holotype VANF, isotypes ANK, E, herb. M. Fırat, herb. Manisa Celal Bayar University).
Diagnosis:—Perennial, steril shoots densely, 18–35 cm long, below sparsely pilose-pubescent, upper densely
tomentose, velutinous-pubescent. Leaves not fleshy, stem leaves 10–15 × 2.5–3.5 mm. Inflorescence dichasial, 3–27-
flowered, hermaphrodite. Bracts purple, ovate to cordate. Calyx 5.0–7.5 mm long, velutinous, sometimes pilose, villose
to whitish wolly pubescent, mostly burgundy-purple-colored, petals pinkish bordoms to purple-coloured, glabrous,
limbs 2-lobed, each lobe long 1/3–1/2 of the lenght of the limb, coronal scales and auricules absent, filaments and
FIRAT & YILDIZ
216 Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press
styles glabrous. Anthophore 1.0–1.5 mm long, glabrous. Capsule ovoid, 6.5–7.5 × 3–4 mm, exserted from the calyx.
Seed 1.21.9 × 0.91.1 mm.
FIGURE 2. Silene konuralpii (from the holotype, Fırat 32740). a: Habit, b: Inflorescensce, c: Flower upper view, d: Petal limps, e: Calyx,
f: Fruit (Capsule) (drawings by K. Yıldız).
SILENE KONURALPII A NEW SPECIES FROM ANATOLIA Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press 217
FIGURE 3. Silene konuralpii (from the holotype, Fırat 32740). a: Habit, b: Inflorescence (Young fruit, capsules).
FIRAT & YILDIZ
218 Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 4. Silene konuralpii (from the holotype, Fırat 32740), a: Habit, b: Habitat, c, d, f: Flower, e: Flower, e: Fruit (capsule).
Description (macro-morphology):Perennial, soft (not rigid), erect, flowering stem 18–35 cm long, below
sparsely pilose-pubescent, upper densely tomentose, velutinous-pubescent. Steril shoots densely, shoots elongate in
their axils, 8–14 cm long, very branched, bearing fascicles of narrow oblanceolate to linear leaves, each with blade
20–25 × 0.5–1.5 mm and setaceous leaves 515 mm long, not fleshy, acuminate apex, dichotomous branching repeat
2–3 times more after the upper half of the stem; all leaves sessile, slightly dark green, 2–5 times opposite stem
leaves, internodes 2.5–8.0 cm long. Stem leaves (10–15 × 2.5–3.5 mm), lanceolate, cordate, acuminate to obtuse
apex, velutinous to villose-pubescent, with margins serrate. Inflorescence complex, with 1–3-flowered panicles, each
panicle 3–27-flowered with, clusters 3–9-flowered, hermaphrodite, branching repeat 13 times; pedicels 0.5–1.0 mm
long, bracts purple (5–7 × 1.5–2.5 mm), ovate to cordate, acute to obtuse apex, with a main vein, simple hairy, with
scarious margins. Calyx 5.0–7.5 mm long, velutinous, sometimes pilose, villose to whitish wolly pubescent in young
flowers, these covers continue in the young fruit in some flowers; hairness reduced when the fruit starts ripening,
mostly burgundy-purple-colored, calyx teeth obtuse apex, margins hyaline and tufted. Petals 5, 7–8 mm long, glabrous,
exserted from calyx, pinkish, bordoms to purple-coloured, three main veins, petal limbs bipartite 1/3–1/2 into two
lobes, lobes about 2 mm long, coronal scales and auricules absent, claws 5–6 mm long. Stamens 9, filaments 7–9 mm
SILENE KONURALPII A NEW SPECIES FROM ANATOLIA Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press 219
long, creamy-brown, glabrous, style 3, 2.5–3.5 mm long, ovary about 3 mm long, glabrous. Anthophore 1.0–1.5 mm
long, glabrous. Capsule ovoid, 6.5–7.5 × 3–4 mm, exserted from the calyx. Seed reniform, brawn, 1.2–1.9 × 0.9–1.1
mm, hylar zone recessed, obtuse tuberculate, surface flat to concave, granulation course, back flat, suture outline
dentate to sinuous.
FIGURE 5. Silene konuralpii (from the holotype, Fırat 32740). a: Habit, b: Flower, c: Fruit (Capsule). S. stenobotrys (Fırat 32748, KY
053-5). d: Habit, e: Flower, f: Flower and Fruit in calyx. S. spergulifolia (Fırat 32741, KY 0136). g: Habit, h: Flower, i: Flower and Fruit
in calyx. Silene surculosa (from the holotype, Herbarium A.Huber Morath 11170). j: Habit, from the holotype Herbarium A.Huber Morath
11170, k: ANK, l: Flower, ANK.
Description (seed testa micro-morphology):As emphasized by numerous authors [e.g., Yıldız & Çırpıcı
(1998), Yıldız (2006), Perveen (2009), Brullo et al. (2012), (2014a), (2014b)] seed testa ornamentations play an
important role chiefly regarding the taxonomic characterization at specific and infra-generic levels for Silene. The
macro- and micromorphology of seed in Caryophyllaceae showed that they are useful in the species classification. On
the basis of th eSEM observations in S. konuralpii seeds have shown important differences if compared with the seeds
characteristics in S. stenobotrys and S. spergulifolia. Seeds of S. konuralpii are reniform, brown, 1.2–1.9 × 0.9–1.1 mm
FIRAT & YILDIZ
220 Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press
in size, surface concave, all plate suture outline (between testa cell) dentate to sinuous, granulation course, testa cells
of back obtuse tubercules, hylar zone recessed.
Description (pollen morphology):Pollen grains are sferoidal (2635 m in diameter), each with 25–33 pores,
pores 2.54.2 m in diameter. Distance between pores 3.75.6 m, ornamentation is microechinate-microperforate.
Eponymy:—The new species is named in honour of Leman Yasemin Konuralp, an amateur plant who firstly
observed and collected the new species.
Vernacular name:Silene konuralpii is called as “Giwîek” by the local people of the Heyrangol province, but
other Silene sp. is called “ Givigan” (Fırat 2013).
Phenolgy:—Flowering time MayJuly, fruiting time JulyAugust.
Distribution and habitat:—Silene konuralpii occurs on the Heyrangol village (Elekirt/Arı) only and it can be
considered as endemic to eastern Turkey where it grows on humid slopes steppe, at 23002500 m a.s.l. It represents a
Irano-Turanian mountain element.
Conservation status:—The distribution area of Silene konuralpii cover less than 20.000 km2. The species was
collected from one localities where about 5000 individuals occur. Some anthropogenic or grazing effects were observed
on the population. According to the IUCN (2014) criteria and category, we here assess S. konuralpii as “Vulnerable”
(VU) [criterion B1ab(i,ii,iii)].
Taxonomical notes (Table 1):—Silene konuralpii is morphologically similar to S. stenobotrys from which differs
in having cauline leaves lanceolate, cordate 2.5–3.5 mm width, (not linear, 0.5–1.0 mm width, as in S. stenobotrys),
pedicel very short, 0.5–1.0 mm long (vs.3–6 mm long), bracts purple, ovate to cordate (not purple, lanceolate), calyx
velutinous, sometimes pilose, villose to wolly (whitish) pubescent in young flowers to young fruit, 5.0–7.5 mm long,
mostly burgundy-purple-colored (not calyx densely glandular-pubescent and simple hairy, creamy to whitish colored,
6.0–11.5 mm long), petal 7–8 mm long, pinkish, bordoms to purple-coloured (not petal 1112 mm long, whitish),
filaments 7–9 mm long (not 14–15 mm), style 2.5–3.5 mm long, (not 10–11 mm long), antophore glabrous (not
pubescent), capsule 6.5–7.5 long (not 4.5–6.5 long) (Fig. 5, Table 1).
Silene spergulifolia is another similar species from the morpological point of view. S. konuralpii shows stem erect,
below sparsely pilose-pubescent, upper densely tomentose velutinous-pubescent (not stem ascending to erect, retrorsely
puberulent not as in S. spergulifolia), bracts purple (not purple), calyx 5.0–7.5 mm long, velutinous, sometimes pilose,
villose to wolly (whitish) pubescent in young flowers to young fruit, mostly burgundy-purple-colored (not 5–12 mm
in hermaphrodite flowers, 3–5 mm in functionally female flowers, puberulent, often glandular pubescent, creamy,
upper reddish), petal 7–8 mm long, glabrous, pinkish, bordoms to purple-coloured, petal limb bipartite 1/3–1/2 into
two lobes, lobes c. 2 mm long, coronal scales and auricules not present) (not petal 14–16 mm long, white to greenish
yellow, bipartite to 2/3-4/4 lobes 2–3 mm linear lobes, coronal scales present), filaments 7–9 mm long, glabrous (not
11–13 mm, pilose), style 2.5–3.5 mm long, (not 10–11 mm long), antophore 1.0–1.5 mm long, glabrous (not 2.5–5.0
mm long in hermaphrodite, pubescent, glabrous in female flowers), capsule 6.5–7.5 long (not 4–6 mm long) (Fig. 5).
Eventually, the third similar species is Silene surculosa from which S. konuralpii differs by its stem erect, below
sparsely pilose-pubescent, upper densely tomentose, velutinous-pubescent (not decumbent to ascending, 10–20 cm,
glabrous, as in S. surculosa), the leaves never fleshy (leaves are somewhat fleshy in S. surculosa), steril shoots bearing
fascicles of narrow oblanceolate to linear leaves and setaceous leaves, cauline leaves lanseolate to cordate (not basal
and cauline leaves spathulate), pedicel very short, 0.5–1.0 mm long (not pedicel 2–10 mm long), bracts 5–7 mm long
(not 2–4 mm long), calyx 5.0–7.5 mm long, velutinous, sometimes pilose, villose to wolly (whitish) pubescent in
young flowers to young fruit (not 9–10 mm long glandular pubescent), petal 7–8 mm long, coronal scales not present)
(not petal 12–13 mm long, coronal scales present), style 2.5–3.5 mm long, (not 2–3 mm long), antophore 1.0–1.5 mm
long (not 2–3 mm long), capsule 6.5–7.5 long (not 4–5 mm long) (Fig. 5, Table 1).
Diagnostic key:—A dichotomous key, which completes those of Silene sect. Spergulifoliae as in Flora of Turkey
(Davis et al. 1988) by the inclusion of Silene konuralpii, follows:
1 Stem glabrous, leaves fleshy ........................................................................................................................................... S. surculosa
- Stem pubescent, leaves not fleshy ......................................................................................................................................................2
2 Stem ascending to erect, petal limbs bipartite 2/34/4 into bipartite two lobes ..........................................................S. spergulifolia
- Stem erect, petal limbs bipartite 1/2–3/4 into bipartite two lobes ......................................................................................................3
3 Cauline leaves lanceolate to cordate 2.5–3.5 mm width, pedicel short, 0.51.0 mm long, calyx without glandular hairs, petal 78
mm long ..........................................................................................................................................................................S. konuralpii
- Cauline leaves linear, 0.51.0 mm width, pedicel 3–6 mm long, calyx densely glandular hairy, petal 1112 mm long .....................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................S. stenobotrys
SILENE KONURALPII A NEW SPECIES FROM ANATOLIA Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press 221
TABLE 1. Morphological comparison among Silene konuralpii, S. stenobotrys, S. Spergulifolia, and S. surculosa. All the measurements
are in mm, except for the tall (see row “Habit”) which was give in cm.
S. konuralpii S. stenobotrys S. spergulifolia S. surculosa
Habit stem erect, 18–35 long, below
sparsely pilose-pubescent, upper
densely tomentose, velutinous-
pubescent
stem erect, 30–50(–80)
long, shortly retrorsely
puberulent
Stem ascending to erect,
10–50 long, retrorsely
puberulent
Stem decumbent to
ascending, 10–20
long, glabrous
Basal leaves All leaves not fleshy,
steril shoots bearing fascicles
of narrow oblanceolate to linear
leaves, 20–25 × 0.5–1.5 and
setaceous leaves, 515 long,
not fleshy
All leaves not fleshy,
sterile shoots bearing
fascicles of linear-
setaceous leaves. Up to
20 × 0.5
Somewhat fleshy, 10–20
× 1–2 linear to spathulate-
linear.
Somewhat fleshy, 4–7
× 2–5 , spathulate,
papillose-ciliate along
the margins
Cauline leaves Cauline leaves 10–15 × 2.5–3.5
, lanceolate to cordate
1020 × 0.51.0 , linear 10–15 × 4–6 , linear to
oblong, sterile shoots
leaves 10–12 x 1–2 .
-
Inflorescence 1–3-flowered panicle, clusters
3–9 flowered
1–3-flowered
panicle, the lateral
cymules congested,
pseudoverticellate
a rather loose though
strict 1–3 (–7) flowered
panicle
3–7 flowered, panicle
Pedicel Pedicel 0.5–1.0 long 3–6 long Flowers sessile or pedicel
1–2 long.
2–10 long
Bracts Purple, 5–7 long, ovate to
cordate
4–8 long,
lanceolate
10–13 long, cramy to
greenish, lancelote
2–4 long, ovoid,
lanceolate
Calyx Calyx 5.5–7.5 long, velutinous,
sometimes pilose, villose
to wolly (whitish), mostly
burgundy-purple
6–10 (–11.5) long,
densely glandular-
pubescent and simple
hairy, cramy to reddish
5–12 in hermaphrodite
flowers, 35 in
functionally female
flowers, puberulent, often
glandular-pubescent.
Creamy, upper reddish
9–10 long, densely
glandular-pubescent,
reddish to purple
Petals Petals 7–8 long, pinkish,
bordoms to purple-coloured,
petal limbs bipartite to 1/3–1/2
two lobes, lobes c. 2 long,
coronal scales absent
11–12 long, white,
limbs bipartite to 1/2–
3/4 linear two lobes,
lobes 1.5–2.0 long,
coronal scales absent
14–16 long, white to
greenish yellow, bipartite
to 2/3–4/4 two, lobes,
lobes 2–3 long, coronal
scales present
12–13 long, white,
bipartite to two lobes,
coronal scales present
Filaments 7–9 long, glabrous 1415 long, pilose 910 long, glabrous 811 long, glabrous
Style 2.5–3.5 long 10–11 long 11–13 long 5–6 long
Anthophore Anthophore 1–1.5 long,
glabrous
1–3.5 long, pubescent 2.5–5.0 long, pubescent
in hermaphrodite flowers,
glabrous in female one
23 long, glabrous
Fruit,
Capsule
6.5–7.5 × 3–4 , exserted from
the calyx
4.5–6.5 × 3.0–3.5 ,
included in calyx
4–6 × 3–6 , rounded,
included in calyx
4–5 long, included in
calyx
Seed 1.2–1.8 × 0.9–1.1 1.1–1.3 × 0.7–0.9 1.0–1.3 × 0.9–1.0 0.8–1.0 × 0.4–0.6
Selected specimens examined: (Paratype)Silene konuralpii. TURKEY. B9 Arı: Elekirt district, Heyrangol
village, humid slopes steppe, 2396 m, 39°4529 N, 42°2400 E, 15 July 2016, Fırat 32755 (VANF, herb. M. Fırat,
herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ.).
Silene stenobotrys. TURKEY. B9 Van: Bahçesaray district, rock steppe, from Vari karpet to Liçan village, 2700 m,
FIRAT & YILDIZ
222 Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press
29 June 2016, Fırat 32748 (herb. M. Fırat), A8 Bayburt: Bayburt to Akale way, Kop pass, SW slopes, 2300–2400 m,
27 July 2005, Yıldız et Dadandı KY-535 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12126!); Erzurum: Tercan-Akale
way 13. km, 1616 m, 22 July 2011, Yıldız, Minareci et Kuh KY-362-2 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ.); Erzurum:
Akale-Bayburt, pefore Kop pass, 2183 m, 22 July 2011, Yıldız, Minareci, Kuh KY-3632 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar
Univ.); Erzurum: Oltu to Oltu 43 km, 2000 m, 10 June 1970, Karamanoğlu et al. s.n. (AEF-3124!); B6 K.Mara:
Pınarbaı-Göksun, near Doankonak village, rockies, 1570 m, 6 July 2005, Yıldız et Dadandı KY-0122 (herb. Manisa
Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12036!); Kayseri: Pınarbaı, Silvan mountain, radar way, 2110 m, 22 July 1999, Mine et
Özkan s.n. (AEF-21265!); Kayseri: Yalak, Binboa mountain, between Yalak-Körkuyu, 1750–2200 m, stone areas,
20 July 1992, Aytaç et Duman s.n. (GAZI-5370!); Malatya: Doanehir, Eskiköy, between Çobanderesi-htiyar cave,
Juniperus exalsa-Quercus forest residue, 1600–1800 m, 25 August 1971, Peşmen s.n. (HUB-3926!); Malatya: Akçada
way, 4 June 1968, Pamukçuoğlu s.n. (HUB-3925!); B7 Erzincan: Kemaliye (Ein), Kırkgöz, limy rackies, 1600 m, 10
July 1982, Tanker, Koyuncu et Soner s.n. (AEF-10447!); B9 Van: Van-Tatvan way, to Tatvan 40 km, rocky, SE slopes,
1750 m, 1 August 2005, K. Yıldız, M. Y. Dadandı KY-0692, (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12172!); B10
Van: H o ap, Güzeldere pass, slopes, 2475 m, 31 July 2005, Yıldız et Dadandı KY 0654 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar
Univ., MUFE-12156!); C6 K.Mara: Çalayancedit, Öküz mountain, ziyaretaaçlı hill, high mountian steppe, 1200–
1300 m, 6 July 1991, Aytaç et Duman s.n. (GAZI-4037!); K.Mara: Near Küçükyeil, 2100–2200 m, stony areas, 18
July 1987, Duman s.n. (GAZI-3578!); Adıyaman: Nemrut mountain, near Komegena ruins, roky areas, south slopes,
2030–2100 m, 3 August 2005, Yıldız, Dadandı et Fırat KY-0735 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12183!);
C8 Mardin: Between Mardin and Diyarbakır, near Sultanköy, 1050–1150 m, slightly Quercus areas, limy areas, 16
June 1985, Güner et Gündüz s.n. (HUB-3924!).
FIGURE 6. SEM micrographs of leaf lower surface morphology in Silene konuralpii [(Fırat 32740) (a, b) (from the holotype)], S.
stenobotrys [(KY 53-5, MUFE 12126) (c, d)], S. spergulifolia [(KY 346-3) (e, f)]. a, c, e: General surface appearance, b, d. f. Stoma cells.
Silene spergulifolia. TURKEY. B9 Arı: Elekirt district, Heyrangol village, humid steppe, 2396 m, 39°4529
N, 42°2400 E, 15 July 2016, Fırat 32741 (herb. M. Fırat). A3 Bolu: Kartalkaya-Yeniçaa 20. km near way, 1300
m, 10 July 1991, Yıldız s.n. (MUFE-3725!); Bolu: Gönük-Mudurnu way 22. km, bushes, 830 m, 2 July 1992, Yıldız
s.n. (MUFE-3729!); A5 Çorum: Çorum-Samsun way, valey, 850 m, slopes, 21 July 2004, Yıldız s.n. KY-375; Amasya:
Boazköy-Akda, stony, 1200 m, 07 July 1992, K. Yıldız s.n. (MUFE-3825!); A6 Tokat: Çamlıbel mountain, under
forest, meadows, 13001500 m., 18 May 1989, Yıldız s.n. (MUFE-1516!); Tokat: Yaylacık mountain, Topçam hill,
under bushes, 1300 m, 20 July 1990, Yıldız s.n. (MUFE-2464!); Erzurum: Erzurum-spir, Eastern Kabuktepe village,
steppe, stony slopes, 2300 m, 9 July 1977, Tatlı s.n. (KON-5698!); Erzurum: Tortum, near Aksu, 2200 m, 5 July 1975,
Çetik s.n. (KON-5435!); Erzurum: Pasinler-Horasan, near Köprülü village-Yukarıütlü village, steppe, 1650–1700
m, 28 June 2006, Koyuncu et Özhatay s.n. (AEF-24225!); Kars: Kars-Sarıkamı, to Sarıkamıa 5 km, stony slope,
2150 m, 10 July1975, Çetik s.n. (KON-5434!); Kars: Kaızman-Kars 26. km, Yalnızaaç village-Ortaköy, stony, 1770
m, 29 July 2005, Yıldız et Dadandı, KY-0614 (MUFE-12148!); B2 Kütahya: Kütahya-Eskiehir 8. km, slopes, 900
SILENE KONURALPII A NEW SPECIES FROM ANATOLIA Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press 223
m, 28 June 2007, Yıldız, KY-194 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12412!); Uak: Sivaslı-Evrenli, 950 m,
under P.nigra, 13 June 2006, Yıldız, KY-1233 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12285!); B3 Afyon: Uak-
Afyon, 30 km to Afyon, near Düzaaç village, slopes, 1100 m, 8 July 2006, Yıldız, KY-129, (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar
Univ., MUFE-12295!); B5 Kayseri: Talas, Ali mountain, North slopes, 1300–1500 m, 4 July 2005. Yıldız et Dadandı
KY-0073, (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12021!); Kayseri: Erciyes mountain, Tekir plateu, 2200 m, 5
July 2002, Vural s.n. (ERC!); Kayseri: Saraycıbeli pass, Eelik-Dereimli, 1748 m, 19 July 2011, Yıldız, Minareci et
Kuh KY-3453 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ.); Yozgat: Boyazlıyan, Yenifakılı, 900 m, 28 May 1983, Sümbül s.n.
(AIBU!); B6 K.mara: Göksun-K.Mara, Deirmendere village, enter valley, rocky, 1650–1700 m, 6 July 2005, Yıldız
et Dadandı, KY-0136 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12042!); Malatya, Doanehir, Dedeyazı village,
Çanaklı district, 1500 m, 18 June 1967, Peşmen s.n. (EGE-5849!); B7 Erzincan: Geabel-Kemaliye, near ways, 1090
m, steppe, 12 June 2006, M.U.A. s.n. (HUB!); B9 Bitlis: Nemrut mountain, 1900 m, 03 July 1954, Davis, Polunin s.n.
(ANK-23578!); B10 Van: Hoap, Güzeldere pass, slopes, 2475 m, 31 July 2005, Yıldız, Dadandı et Fırat KY-0653
(herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12155!); C2 Denizli: Babada, Evrentepe, 2100 m, steppe, 21 August 1997,
Oluk s.n. (EGE-34899!); C3 Isparta: Sütçüler-Aksu way, 10–15 km to Aksu, 1150 m, 11 July 2006, Yıldız et Çırpıcı
KY-1191 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ. MUFE-12273!); sparta: Yeniarbademli, Dedegül mountain, 2000-2250
m, 16 July 2006, Yıldız, Çırpıcı et Minareci KY-165-8, (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12367!); Antalya:
Cevizli, Kuyucak valley, forest, slopes, 1300-1600 m, 14 July 2006, Yıldız et Dadandı KY-1585 (herb. Manisa Celal
Bayar Univ., MUFE-12344!); C4 Konya: Takent-Bayayla, 1800 m, Belpınar pass, 12 June 2010, Yıldız,Minareci
et Kuh KY-2742 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ.); Karaman: Ermenek, Ermenek-Mut 18. km, Gökçeseki ruins,
slopes, 1320-1380 m, 12 July 2010, Yıldız, Minareci et Kuh KY-2764 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ.); C5 Mersin:
Arslanköy, Yedioluk district, slopes, stony, roky hills, 1500 m, 9 July 2005, K. Yıldız et Dadandı KY-0185 (herb.
Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12053!); Nide: Melendiz mountains, Koyunlu, , 1650 m, 17 July 1982, Eyce s.n.
(KON-106!); C6 Adana: Pozantı-Ulukıla 20. km, rocky, 8 July 2006, Yıldız et Dadandı KY-130, (herb. Manisa Celal
Bayar Univ., MUFE-12296!); K.Mara: 12 km SE K.Mara, 680 m, 15 July 1973, F. Holtz, P. Hanel, T. Kesercioğlu
s.n. (EGE 13549!); C7 Adıyaman: Nemrut mountain, near Komegena ruins, kayalık, south slopes, 2030–2100 m,
Yıldız, Dadandı et Fırat KY-0734 (herb. Manisa Celal Bayar Univ., MUFE-12182!).
FIGURE 7. SEM micrographs of seed morphology in Silene konuralpii (M. Fırat 32740) (a, b, c) (from the holotype), S. stenobotrys (KY
3622) (d, e, f), S. spergulifolia (KY 129, MUFE 12295) (g, h, ı). a, d, g: General appearance, b, e, h: Plates (testa cells), c, f, i: surface
granulation and suture outline.
FIRAT & YILDIZ
224 Phytotaxa 288 (3) © 2016 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 8. SEM micrographs of pollen morphology in Silene konuralpii [(M. Fırat 32740) (a, b) (from the holotype)], S. stenobotrys
[(KY 362-2) (c, d)], S. spergulifolia [(KY 129, MUFE 12295) (e, f)], a, c, e: General appearance, b, d, f: Pore and ornamentation.
Silene surculosa. TURKEY: (B7) Tunceli, Pülümür-Mutu, serpentinschutt 8 km ob Pülümür, 1760 m, 26 Juni
1951, Herbier D’. A.Huber-Morath, 11170!, Tunceli, above Pülümür, stony igneous mountainside, 1850 m, 8 June
1957, Davis & Hedge 29289 (holotype ANK!).
Aknowledgements
We are thanked Alper Demir and Nejla Demir for helped our floristic surver.
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