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Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical industry


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Medicinal plants are widely used in traditional medicine in both underdeveloped and developing countries in the word until now. Some secondary metabolites isolated from medicinal plants have been developed as modern drugs. New antimalarial artemisinin is an example of modern medicine that developed from Artemisia annua L, a plant used in China since 4,000 years ago. Indonesia is endowed with a rich natural resource. The biodiversity comprises thousands plant species. Therefore, Indonesian flora and fauna are a remarkable opportunity for the development of secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical industry. The Indonesian National Agency for Drug and Food Control, Republic of Indonesia (Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan, Republik Indonesia = BPOM RI) classifies traditional medicine into three classes, namely jamu (Indonesian indigenous traditional medicine), standardized herbal medicine and phytopharmaca based on its scientific evidences. The BPOM also determined 9 medicinal plants for focusing research for drug development. This paper discusses some secondary metabolites and their pharmacological activities of the following 9 selected Indonesian medicinal plants namely Piper retrofractum Vahl, Andrographis paniculata Ness, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Psidium guajava L, Syzigium polyanthi, Morinda citrifolia, Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma domestica collected from various publications. Furthermore, several modern drugs derived from medicinal plants are also discussed.
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J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
Corresponding author:
Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of
secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical
Eti Nurwening Sholikhah
Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah
Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Medicinal plants are widely used in traditional medicine in both underdeveloped and
developing countries in the word until now. Some secondary metabolites isolated from
medicinal plants have been developed as modern drugs. New antimalarial artemisinin is
an example of modern medicine that developed from Artemisia annua L, a plant used
in China since 4,000 years ago. Indonesia is endowed with a rich natural resource.
The biodiversity comprises thousands plant species. Therefore, Indonesian ora and
fauna are a remarkable opportunity for the development of secondary metabolites for
pharmaceutical industry. The Indonesian National Agency for Drug and Food Control,
Republic of Indonesia (Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan, Republik Indonesia = BPOM
RI) classies traditional medicine into three classes, namely jamu (Indonesian indigenous
traditional medicine), standardized herbal medicine and phytopharmaca based on its
scientic evidences. The BPOM also determined 9 medicinal plants for focusing research
for drug development. This paper discusses some secondary metabolites and their
pharmacological activities of the following 9 selected Indonesian medicinal plants namely
Piper retrofractum Vahl, Andrographis paniculata Ness, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Psidium
guajava L, Syzigium polyanthi, Morinda citrifolia, Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, Zingiber
ofcinale, and Curcuma domestica collected from various publications. Furthermore,
several modern drugs derived from medicinal plants are also discussed.
Tanaman obat telah digunakan secara luas dalam pengobatan tradisional baik di negara-
negara belum dan sedang berkembang di dunia hingga saat ini. Beberapa metabolit sekunder
dari tanaman obat telah dikembangkan menjadi obat modern. Antimalaria artemisinin
adalah salah satu contoh obat moderen yang dikembangkan dari tanaman Artemisia annua
L, suatu tanaman obat yang digunakan di Cina sejak 4000 tahun yang lalu. Indonesia
dianugerahi oleh kekayaan alam yang melimpah dengan ribuan keanekaragaman hayati
yang terdiri dari ribuan spesies tanaman. Oleh karena itu ora dan fauna Indonesia sangat
terbuka lebar untuk dikembangkan untuk kepentingan industri farmasi. Badan Pengawas
Obat dan Makanan, Republik Indonesia (BPOM RI) mengelompokkan obat tradisional
dalam tiga kelas yaitu jamu, obat herbal terstandar dan tofarmaka berdasarkan bukti
ilmiahnya. Ada 9 tanaman Indonesia yang telah ditetapkan oleh BPOM RI untuk menjadi
fokus penelitian dan pengembangannya menjadi obat. Makalah ini mengulas tentang
kandungan metabolit sekunder dan aktivitas farmakologi dari ke 9 tanaman obat tersebut
dari berbagai publikasi yaitu cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl), sambiloto (Andrographis
paniculata Ness), temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza), jambu biji (Psidium guajava L),
Sholikhah, Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary
metabolites for pharmaceutical industry
salam (Syzigium polyantha), mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia
Lamk), jahe (Zingiber ofcinale), dan kunyit (Curcuma domestica). Selain itu, beberapa
obat modern yang telah berhasil dikembangkan dai tanaman obat juga dibahas.
Keywords: medicinal plants - pharmacological activities - pharmaceutical industry
-secondary metabolite - traditional medicine
Recently, medicinal plants are widely
used in traditional health care in both
developing and developed countries. Various
traditional medicine (TM) from different
cultures in the word used medicinal plants as
the backbone for thier health care system. In
Indonesia, the use of TM has been embedded
on the national culture since centuries ago.
As a mega biodiversity country, Indonesia
is endowed with a rich natural resource
including TM materials as a national asset that
needs to be explored, researched, developed
and optimized for their utilization. Therefore,
the national asset has a value and comparative
advantage as a major base in the capital
utilization and development efforts to be
competitive commodity.1
Some attempts have been conducted
both at the global and regional level for the
harmonization of standards and quality of
TM. Therefore, the TM can be traded across
countries with the same standards and quality.
World Health Organization (WHO) has
issued some policies concerning traditional
medicine, such as WHO Traditional Medicine
Strategy 2002-2005,2 National Policy on
Traditional Medicine and Regulation of
Herbal Medicine,3 and Development of
Traditional Medicine in the South-East Asia
Region.4 These policies have been adopted by
WHO member countries including Indonesia
in the development their TM potencies.
As medicine, the use of TM must meet the
requirements of safety and effectivenes. The
TM must be implemented based on scientic
evidences to improve human health outcomes,
including physical, mental and social well-
being. Therefore UNESCO’s International
Bioethics Committee included the subject of
TM in its work program for 2010-2011.5
Plant secondary metabolites play an
important role in determining of biological
activities of medicinal plants used in TM.
Therefore, identication and isolation of
the secondary metabolites are important to
standardize and to increase quality of the
TM. Over 24,000 stuctures of secondary
metabolites have been isolated and evaluated
its biological activities. Some of them have
antinutritional and toxic effect on mammals.6
Moreover, some of plant secondary metabolites
are successfully developed as modern drugs.
At least 119 bioactive compounds from plant
secondary metabolites that were being used as
drugs. Some of these drugs are still obtained
commercially, for the most part, by extraction
from only about 90 species of medicinal
plants.7 With more than 250 000 species of
medicinal plants known to exist on this word,
common sense dictates that many more useful
drugs remain to be discovered from this
medicinal plants.
Some examples of modern drugs developed
from medicinal plants are new antimalarial
artemisinin from Artemisia annua L, a plant
used in China for many centuries,8 inotropic
digitalis glycosides from Digitalis purpurea,9
anticancer of vinca alkaloids (vincristine and
vinblastie, vindesine, and vinorelbine) from
J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
Catharanthus roseus10-12, antimuscarinic
belladonna alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine or
scopolamine) from Atropa belladonna,13 and
antirheumatic colchicine commonly produced
by plants like Colchicum autumnale and
Gloriosa superb.14
Indonesia has the biodiversity comprises
thousands plant species. Therefore,
Indonesian ora is a remarkable opportunity
for the development of secondary metabolites
for pharmaceutical industry. The BPOM
classies the TM into three classes, namely
traditional jamu , standardized herbal
medicine jamu and phytopharmaca jamu
based on its scientic evidences. Traditional
jamu is Indonesian indigenous traditional
medicine that its use just based on empirical
experiences. Whereas, standardized herbal
medicine jamu is dosage form of natural
medicine which has been proven for its safety
and pharmacological effect at preclinical
study, and the material has been standardized
and phytopharmaca jamu is dosage form of
natural medicine which has proven for its
safety and pharmacologycal effect preclinical
and clinical study, and its material and product
have been standardized.15
The BPOM also decided 9 plants to be
research focus for drug development. These
plants were investigated their biological
activities by Indonesian and foreign
researchers. Furthermore, the secondary
metabolites of these plants were isolated and
identied. However, their development both
as TM or modern drugs remains stagnant. This
paper discusses some secondary metabolites
and their pharmacological activities of the
9 selected Indonesian medicinal plants that
potentially developed as TM or modern drugs.
Several modern drugs derived from medicinal
plants are also discussed.
Indonesian medicinal plants as source of
secondary metabolites
1. Piper retrofractum Vahl (Cabe Jawa)
Piper retrofractum Vahl (Piperaceae) is
Indonesian indogenous plant. As a garden
medicinal plant, it grows well in secondary
forests lowland. The synonim of P. retrofractum
Vahl is P. longum. This plant is known locally
as cabe jawa, cabe jamu (in Java), cabe solak
(Madura) and cabia (Sulawesi). Piper longum
oils contain few secondary metabolites
monoterpene hydrocarbons, a moderate
content of sesquiterpenes and high content of
aliphatic hydrocarbons.16 Piperidine alkaloids
(FIGURE 1) from P. retrofractum Vahl.
protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity.17
FIGURE 1. Piperidine alkaloids isolated from P. retrofractum Vahl
Sholikhah, Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary
metabolites for pharmaceutical industry
2. Andrographis paniculata Ness
Andrographis paniculata Ness is very
well known in Indonesia as a medicinal plant
because of its bitter taste. It is known locally
as sambiloto. Andrographis paniculata
Ness is traditionally used to treat various
diseases such as high blood pressure, fever,
malaria, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders,
inammation, dysentery and cancer. The main
active compound is andrographolide (FIGURE
2). However it also contains avonoids such as
5,7,2’, 3’-tetrametoksiavanon, 5-hydroxy-7,
2’, 3’-trimetoksiavon,18 5-hydroxy-7’,
2’,6-trimetoksiavon and 14-deoxy-15,12-
Andrographolide has been proven to have a
variety of pharmacological activities such as
anti-inammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic,
and anticancer. Shi et al.19 reported that
andrographolide inhibits invasion and migration
of colorectal cancer cells by inhibiting the
activity of MMP-7 expression, whereas Lee et
al.20 proved andrographolide inhibits invasion
and migration of lung cancer cells (A-549)
by inhibiting P13K/Akt signaling pathways.
Some andrographolide derivatives have been
successfully synthesized and tested for their
anticancer activity by several researchers. Jada
et al.21 reported that benzylidene derivatives
of andrographolide inhibit growth of breast
and colon cancer cells in vitro by inducing
G(1) arrest and apoptosis.
FIGURE 2. Andrographolide isolated from A. panicu-
lata Ness
3. Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Temu Lawak)
Curcuma xanthorriza has been used
traditionally by Indonesian people to cure
acne, increased appetite, anti-cholesterol, anti-
inammatory, anemia, antioxidant, cancer
prevention, and antimicrobial. It is well known
as temu lawak. Curcuma xanthorriza has a
variety of pharmacological activities such as
analgesic, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic
and stimulants. Beside curcumin, some
other specic active compound found in C.
xanthorriza, i.e. xanthorrizol, ar-tumerone
and α-curcumin (FIGURE 3). Xanthorrizol as
the main compound in C. xanthorriza has been
proven as antioxidant and anti-inammatory.22
Activity and cytotoxic mechanism of
xanthorrizol in some cancer cells in vitro
have been reported by several investigators.
Ismail et al.23 reported xanthorrizol induce
apoptosis of HeLa cells via the up-regulation
of bax and p53. Xanthorrizol also showed
antiproliferative activity in breast cancer
cells MCF-7 via apoptosis induction through
modulation of bcl-2, p53 protein and PARP-
FIGURE 3. Some active compounds isolated from C.
Another study conducted by Handayani
et al.25 proved that xanthorrizol has
antiproliferative activity on hepatoma HepG2
cell by inducing apoptosis through p53, Bcl-
2 and caspase-dependent signaling pathway.
Xanthorrizol also reported to inhibit the
J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells
line by inhibiting the cell cycle in the G0/G1
phase and G2/M regulation through inhibition
of cyclin A, B1, and D1 and cyclin-dependent
kinase 1 (CDK1), CDK2 and CDK4. It also
has p21, p27 and cyclin-dependent kinase
inhibitors activity.26
4. Psidium guajava L (Jambu Biji)
Psidium guajava, commonly known as
guava or jambu biji in Indonesia is belonging
to family of Myrtaceae, native plant of tropical
America and has long spread to southeast Asia.
Guava is a fruit rich in bioactive compounds
that may be used in various way to offer to the
population the possibility of preventing certain
chronic disease at low cost because of its
antioxidant activity.27 Guava leaf extracts are
rich sources of natural antioxidants and could
be developed into functional food or drug
against diseases and for a variety of benecial
chemo-preventive effects.28 Guava extract
exerted a potent anti-nociceptive effect.29
Begum et al.30 reported that two triterpenoids,
28-oic acid (guavanoic acid) and 2a,3b-
28-oic acid (guavacoumaric acid) along with
FIGURE 4. Asiatic acid isolated from P. guajava
5. Syzigium polyanthi (Salam)
Syzigium polyanthi with its synonym
Eugenia polyantha or Indonesian bay leaf is
one of spice used in Indonesia. It is known as
salam in Java. It has antioxidant activity.31
Three phenolic pancreatic lipase inhibitors
(FIGURE 5) were isolated from E. polyanthi.
Although the activities of the isolated
compounds were mild, the abundant content
of hydroxychavicol in this spice makes it quite
attractive as a food additive for the treatment
and prevention of obesity.32
FIGURE 5. Three phenolic pancreatic lipase inhibitors isolated from E. polyanthi.
2a-hydroxyursolic acid, jacoumaric acid,
isoneriucoumaric acid, asiatic acid, ilelatifol
D, and b-sitosterol-3-O-b-d-glucopyranoside
have been isolated from P. guajava leaves. The
asiatic acid (FIGURE 4) showed spasmolytic
Sholikhah, Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary
metabolites for pharmaceutical industry
6. Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu)
Morinda citrifolia has been used in
traditional Polynesian medicine for over 2000
years. Its Indonesian name is mengkudu. It is
reported to have a broad range of therapeutic
effects, including antibacterial, antiviral,
antifungal, antitumor, antihelmint, analgesic,
hypotensive, anti-inammatory, and immune
enhancing effects.33 Morinda citrifolia is an
evergreen shrub whose ripe fruit has a strong
butyric acid smell and avor. The leaves and
especially the fruit are consumed in different
forms by various communities throughout the
world, the root is used as a dye.34 Morinda
citrifolia aquous extract as well as its biomarker
scopoletin (FIGURE 6) may be benecial as
a potential preventive and therapeutic agent
for gastro-esophageal inammatory diseases,
mainly through its antisecretory and prokinetic
activities including an inhibitory activity
on serotonin, free radicals, and cytokine-
mediated inammation.35,36 A known major
component (scopoletin) in M. citrifolia was
chosen as a marker and monitored in the
plasma and in different organs over time
by HPLC analysis.33 Other contents are
alizarin, aucubin, aracetin, asperulocidic
acid, citrifolinoside B, damnacanthal,
1,3-dihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone,
5,6-dihydroxylucidin, 2-methyl-4-
3-hydroxymorindone, 8-hydroxy-8-methoxy-
2-methyl-anthraquinone, lucidin, 2-methyl-
3,5,6-trihydroxyanthraquinone, morenone
FIGURE 6. Scopoletin isolated from M. citrifolia
7. Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk (Jati Belanda)
In traditional medicine, the bark of
G. ulmifolia Lamk, with local name jati
belanda, is used in the treatment of diarrhea,
hemorrhages, fever, inammatory diseases,
and as stimulant for uterine contractions.
Dried leaves are brewed into tea in some
countries and used for gastrointestinal
diseases and dysentery. The aerial parts of G.
ulmifolia Lamk have shown a gastroprotective
effect against the injurious effect of NSAIDs
(non-steroidal anti-inammatory drugs)
mainly by anti-inammatory and radical-
scavenging mechanisms.37 Fraction obtained
from G. ulmifolia Lamk bark produces
signicant antihypertensive effects. The
phenolic compounds such as oligomeric
procyanidins were detected in the PCF
MS analysis.38 The chemical structure of
polymeric proanthocyanidin and oligomeric
proanthocyanidin were shown in FIGURE 7.39
1, morenone 2, morindanidrine, morindine,
morindone, physcion, ruberythric acid,
rubiadin, rubiadin monomethyl ether,
soranjidiol, and ursolic acid.34
J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
FIGURE 7. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin and polymeric proanthocyanidin isolated from G. ulmifolia
8. Zingiberofcinale(Jahe)
Zingiber ofcinale or called jahe in Java, is
known as seasoning. Traditionally, it also used
as a carminative and stimulant, to increase
appetite, treat the digestive tract disorder such
as nausea and vomit, to treat common cold,
cough, diarrhea, malaria, fever and arthritis.
Some scientic research have proven that it
has some pharmacological activity such as
immunomodulator and antimicrobial,40 in vitro
antihelminth,41 antinausea and vomiting,42
antioxidant,43 and anticancer.44
Phytochemical studies of Z. ofcinale showed
that it contains some chemical compounds from
various groups such as paradol, dihydroparadol,
gingerol, acetyl gingerol derivatives, shogaol,
3-dihydroshogaol, gingerdiol, mono-and diacetyl
gingerdiol derivatives, 1-dehydrogingerdione,
diarylheptanoide and metal ether derivatives.45
The chemical structure of some active compound
of Z. ofcinale can be seen in FIGURE 8.
Among some active compounds, gingerol is
compound which is often used by researchers
as a marker for extract standardization.
FIGURE 8. Some active isolated from Z. ofcinale.
Sholikhah, Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary
metabolites for pharmaceutical industry
9. Curcuma domestica (Kunyit)
Curcuma domestica with its synonim
C. longa is one of the ginger family,
Zingiberaceae that widely distributed in
Asia.46,47 Curcuma domestica has been used
as seasoning, food coloring and traditional
medicine. In Indonesia it is well known as
jahe. As a traditional medicine, C. domestica
has been used to treat various diseases such as
diabetes, leprosy, gastrointestinal disorders,
tonic, laxative, rheumatic, antiseptic, hepatic
disorders, and cancer. Curcuma domestica
contains curcumin and its derivatives such as
bis-demetoxycurcumin, demetoxycurcumin.
It contains active compounds such as
curcumarol, α-, β-and ar-turmerone, and
zingiberene (FIGURE 9).
FIGURE 9. Some active compounds of Curcuma domestica
Curcumin and its derivatives have been
widely demonstrated to have great potential
to be developed as anticancer. From several
studies summarized by Aggrawal et al.48
showed that curcumin can inhibit the in
vitro proliferation of various cancer cells
such as T and B cell leukemia, colon cancer,
skin cancer, breast cancer BT20, SKBR3,
MCF7, T47D and ZR75-1. Various in vivo
studies in experimental animal also showed
that curcumin has chemopreventive and
chemotherapeutic activities in animal models
of cancer. Curcumin has been shown to
inhibit tumor initiation induced by benzo(a)
pirene and 7,12dimetilbenz (a) antrasen in
mice. Curcumin is reported to suppress mouse
skin tumor induced by forbol ester, suppress
carcinogenesis in skin cancer, stomach, colon,
liver and breast cancer in mice.49
Modern drugs developed from medicinal
1. Artemisinin
Artemisinin was isolated from Artemisia
annua L, a plant used in China for many
centuries. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene
lactone that bears a peroxide grouping
and, unlike most other antimalarials, lacks
J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring
system.8 Subsequent studies of the structure
activity relationship led to the discovery
of dihydroartemisinin, artemether and
artesunate. Artemisinin and these three
derivatives (FIGURE 10) are being used
around the world as effective new antimalarial
drugs against falciparum malaria, including
multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
At the present time new artemisinin analogues
or derivatives are being developed. In
addition, recent studies also indicate that
some artemisinin derivatives have other
biological activities including antiparasitic
and anticancer activities.50
FIGURE 10. Artemisinin and its derivatives
2. Digitalis glycosides
Digoxin and digitoxin (FIGURE 11)
known as cardiac glycosides is one example
of a modern drug glycoside isolated from
the plant digitalis (Digitalis purpurea).9,51
Digoxin and digitoxin are cardiac glycoside
with positive inotropic activity. They increase
force and velocity of myocardial systolic
contraction (positive inotropic action), slow
heart rate, decrease conduction velocity
through AV node, and decrease the degree of
activation of the sympathetic nervous system
and renin-angiotensin system.52
FIGURE 11. Digoxin and digitoxin
Sholikhah, Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary
metabolites for pharmaceutical industry
3. Vincristine and vinbalastine
Some anticancer used in cancer therapy
rstly isolated from medicinal plants. Vinca
alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastie) were
isolated from Catharanthus roseus.10-12
Vinblastine and vincristine (FIGURE 12)
are alkaloids which used for treatment of
leukemias, lymphomas, and testicular cancer.
A closely related derivative, vinorelbine, has
important activity against lung cancer and
breast cancer.52
FIGURE 12. Vinblastine (R=CH3) and vincristine
4. Atropine and hyoscine (scopolamine)
Atropine is major alkaloids of Atropa
belladonna. Further alkaloids in the leaves
are apoatropine, tropine, scopolamine,
aposcopolamine, 3-α-phenyl-acetoxytropane,
and tropinone.13 Atropine (FIGURE 13)
inhibits action of acetylcholine or other
cholinergic stimuli at postganglionic
cholinergic receptors, including smooth
muscles, secretory glands, and central nervous
system (CNS) sites. Hyoscine (scopolamine)
(FIGURE 13) competitively inhibits action
of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors.
Principal effects are on iris and ciliary body
(pupil dilations and blurred vision), secretory
glands (dry mouth), drowsiness, euphoria,
fatigue, decreased nausea, and vomiting.
Atropine and scopolamine differ quantitatively
in antimuscarinic actions, particularly in their
ability to affect the CNS. Atropine has almost
no detectable effect on the CNS at doses that
are used clinically. In contrast, scopolamine
has prominent central effects at low therapeutic
doses. Because atropine has limited CNS
effects, it is preferred to scopolamine for most
FIGURE 13. Atropine and hyoscine (scopolamine)
5. Colchicine
Colchicine is also known as methyl ether
of colchicines. It is secondary metabolite
commonly produced by plants like Colchicum
autumnale and Gloriosa superba, It is
originally used to treat rheumatic complaints,
especially gout.14 Colchicine is one of the
oldest available therapies for acute gout. It is
considered second-line therapy due to a narrow
therapeutic window and a high rate of side
J Med Sci, Volume 48, No. 4, 2016 October: 226-239
effects, particularly at higher doses. The exact
mechanism of action of colchicine in gout is
not completely known. However, it involves
in a reduction of lactic acid production by
leukocytes leads to a decrease in uric acid
deposition, and a reduction in phagocytosis,
with abatement of the inammatory response.52
FIGURE 14. Colchicine
Many secondary metabolites have been
isolated from Indonesian medicinal plants.
Some of them have potential biological activities
to further development for pharmaceutical
industry both as TM or modern drugs. To
develop the Indonesian medicinal plant as
national product that can be competitive in
multinational market, studies these plants
for its safety, efcacy and standardization are
necessary. Working collaboration between
botanists, phytochemists, pharmacologists,
organic chemists and others are important to
pursue goal targeted.
Author would like to thank Prof. Dr.
Mustofa from Department of Pharmacology
and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine,
Universitas Gadjah Mada for his suggestions
and corrections during preparing of this
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... In ethnobotany, plants are widely used as traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as fever, cough, and diarrhea [1][2][3]. These plants contain several natural compounds with diverse chemical structures and biological activities, particularly cytotoxic activity against various human cancer cells [4][5][6]. ...
... Cabraleahydroxylactone 3α-acetate (1) 153.38 ± 0.19 (20S)-20-hydroxydammar,24-en-3α-ol (2) 41.08 ± 0.23 (20S)-20-hydroxydammar,24-en-3-on (3) 21.55 ± 0.25 Methyl 20(S)-hydroxy-3,4 secodammar-4(28),24-diene-3-oic acid (4) 71.04 ± 0.19 3-epi ocotillol II (5) 195.07 ± 0.32 Cabraleone (6) 545.01 ± 0.22 Ocotillone (7) 303.68 ± 0.24 Cisplatin (positive control) 43.00 ± 0.10 Among all A. cucullata exocarp extracts, the n-hexane extract exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity, followed by the extracts of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. To identify the active compound in A. cucullata exocarp, triterpenoid compounds were isolated from n-hexane extract. ...
Full-text available
Aglaia cucullata is a mangrove plant with a tropical Asian distribution. It is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, skin diseases, and heart diseases. Several compounds isolated from A. cucullata have demonstrated cytotoxic activity against various human cancer cells. Cancer therapies such as surgery, chemo-, and radiotherapy have many side effects. However, the use of natural bioactive compounds such as triterpenoid in cancer treatment can be used as an alternative to reduce these side effects. Therefore, the discovery of bioactive compounds from plants is very important to improve aspects of discovery and development of sustainable new anticancer drug candidates. Here, we report the chemical structures of seven known dammarane-type triterpenoids (1–7) isolated from A. cucullata exocarp and evaluate their cytotoxicity against B16-F10 melanoma skin cancer cells. The isolated compounds included cabraleahydroxylactone 3α-acetate (1), (20S)-20-hydroxydammar,24-en-3α-ol (2), (20S)-20-hydroxydammar,24-en-3-on (3), methyl 20(S)-hydroxy-3,4-secodammar-4(28),24-diene-3-oic acid (4), 3-epi ocotillol II (5), cabraleone (6), and ocotillone (7). The n-hexane extract was found to be active against B16-F10 cells, exhibiting an IC50 value of 7.85 ± 0.22 µg/mL. Fractionation of this extract subsequently identified the compound (20S)-20-hydroxydammar 24-en-3-on (3) as an active substance with an IC50 value of 21.55 ± 0.25 µM, comparing favorably with the positive control cisplatin (12.90 µg/mL; 43.00 µM). These results provide further evidence of the genus Aglaia as a source of cytotoxic cancer drug leads. In addition, compound 3 has potential as a convincing therapeutic agent for further research in the context of sustainable drug development, especially the development of new safe cancer chemotherapeutic agents.
... Recently, the assessment of content of secondary metabolites in plant tissues has also attracted considerable research attention as an intriguing topic inspired by their incorporation in various pharmaceuticals [12], cosmetics [13], foods [14] and feed [15]. Among the diverse categories of natural products involved in a plethora of industrial applications, phenolic compounds comprise the most frequently exploited class of compounds since they display numerous health beneficial effects and are being used as active ingredients in antioxidant [16,17], anti-inflammatory [17,18] and anticancer [19] preparations. ...
... Plants 2023,12, 2807 ...
Full-text available
Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is one of the most cultivated feed crops with extensive agricultural diversity and numerous cultivars. This study concerns the first-time investigation of the dry plant biomass and grains of six vetch cultivars to define the detailed fingerprint of their phenolic and fatty acid content, along with their respective antioxidant potencies. The results revealed a substantial variation in the feed quality traits among the tested Vicia sativa varieties, highlighting the crucial role and influence the genotype plays in the achievement of high-quality livestock nutrition. Among the six varieties tested, Istros and M-6900 displayed a particularly intriguing phytochemical profile characterized by elevated phenolic content, significant antioxidant potency and remarkably high fatty acid indices. These findings are indicative of the great potential of these varieties to function as suitable candidates for incorporation into farm animal diets either in the form of dry biomass (hay) or as a grain feed additive.
... Kandungan metabolit sekunder dari tanaman obat Indonesia telah terbukti secara klinis dapat mengobati diare. Beberapa tanaman obat dikembangkan sebagai obat tradisional terstandar dan diproduksi oleh industri farmasi setelah lolos melalui uji klinis (Sholikhah, 2016 untuk mencegah hilangnya cairan dari tubuh, selain itu digunakan antimikroba dan antibiotika untuk membunuh bakteri dan mikroba patogen di usus (Thiagarajah et al., 2014). Tujuan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat ini adalah untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat terhadap penyakit diare sehingga meningkatkan awareness yang pada akhirnya dapat mengubah pola hidup bersih dan sehat, sanitasi dan higiene, serta bijak dalam swamedikasi dan menggunakan obat yang benar. ...
Kasus diare di Indonesia masih sangat besar, menurut data 10,2% penduduk mengalami diare. Kematian anak balita akibat diare di dunia masih sangat tinggi. Pemahaman masyarakat tentang keberbahayaan diare terutama pada balita masih sangat kurang, demikian pula pola hidup bersih dan sehat masih menjadi permasalahan bagi sebagian besar masyarakat Indonesia. Kegiatan ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat tentang diare, penyebab, keberbahayaannya, serta cara penanganannya menggunakan bahan alam maupun obat-obatan. Metode yang dilakukan adalah dengan penyuluhan secara online dalam bentuk webinar menggunakan media zoom. Peserta webinar ini adalah masyarakat umum tanpa batas usia, gender, dan wilayah geografis. Jumlah peserta yang mengikuti kegiatan penyuluhan sebanyak 48 orang dari berbagai wilayah di Indonesia dan sebagian besar dari usia remaja sampai dewasa. Hasil yang dicapai dalam kegiatan penyuluhan adalah terjadi peningkatan pengetahuan masyarakat terhadap diare dan cara penanganannya dengan bahan alam maupu obat-obatan. Evaluasi pengetahuan masyarakat didapatkan dengan melihat kenaikan nilai-rata-rata terhadap uji sebelum dan sesudah kegiatan.
... Produk natural dan herbal banyak digunakan untuk penelitian karena potensi terapeutik yang tinggi dan harga serta efek samping yang realtif lebih rendah dibandingkan obat sintetik (Sudjarwo et al. 2012). Indonesia sebagai negara dengan keanekaragaman hayati memiliki beragam tumbuhan obat yang perlu dikembangkan dan dioptimalkan pemanfaatannya (Sholikhah, 2016). Oleh karena itu, kajian pustaka ini diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran terkait beberapa tumbuhan yang dapat memproteksi kerusakan ginjal sehingga dapat mencegah ataupun menghambat progresi kerusakan ginjal. ...
Gagal ginjal adalah penyakit sistemik dan jalur terakhir dari penyakit ginjal. Terapi untuk gagal ginjal saat ini memakan biaya yang cukup besar. Studi literatur ini bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan tumbuhan Indonesia yang memiliki efek proteksi terhadap kerusakan ginjal sehingga dapat mencegah maupun menghambat progresi kerusakan ginjal. Tumbuhan Indonesia yang digunakan pada kondisi akut terdapat 11 tumbuhan, diantaranya akar manis, bawang putih, binahong, jinten hitam, kelor, ketumbar, mimba, pepermin, rosmery, salam koja, dan tomat, sedangkan yang digunakan pada kondisi kronis terdapat 6 tumbuhan, diantaranya cengkeh, daun gedi, kunyit, lada, meniran, dan srikaya. Tumbuhan Indonesia yang dapat digunakan pada kondisi akut dan kronis terdapat 6 tumbuhan, diantaranya anggur, delima, jahe, kelabet, kelembak, dan teh. Dari 23 tumbuhan yang diperoleh, terdapat 4 tumbuhan yang sesuai dengan penggunaan empiris untuk mengatasi penyakit ginjal, diantaranya meniran, akar manis, mimba, dan jinten hitam. Tumbuhan sebagai agen proteksi kerusakan ginjal yang potensial untuk kondisi kerusakan akut, diantaranya ekstrak etanol teh hijau, likopen, jus bawang putih, minyak biji delima, dan serbuk biji kelabet, sedangkan untuk kondisi kronis, diantaranya ekstrak air teh hijau, ekstrak metanol daun delima, atau ekstrak etanol rizoma jahe, kurkumin, minyak biji delima, dan serbuk biji kelabet.
... But in the last few decades, there has been a global tendency to return to nature or "back to nature". This trend is starting to be very strong in developed countries and has a big influence in developing countries such as Indonesia (3). One of the plants that can be used as traditional medicine is Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L). ...
Full-text available
Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas L) is a plant that has been used empirically as a fever reducer. Fever is one of the symptoms of the disease which is characterized by a significant increase in body temperature. The novelty of this study was due to the effectiveness of Jatropha Curca L. leaf extract as an antipyretic. The purpose of this study was to determine the dose of antipyretic effectiveness of Jatropha Curcas (Jatropha Curcas L) Leaf Extract in Male Mice (Mus Musculus). Extraction by maceration using 96% ethanol solvent. 15 male mice (Mus Musculus) were divided into 5 groups, namely negative control (Na-cmc 1%), positive control (Paracetamol), and the treatment group given Jatropha leaf extract with doses of 150, 200, 250 mg/kgBW. Peptone 10% 1 ml orally as a fever inducer. And observed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after treatment. The data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANNOVA followed by the LSD test to determine differences between groups. The results showed that the leaf extract of Jatropha Curcas (Jatropha Curcas L) had an antipyretic effect where the most effective dose was at a dose of 250 mg/kgBW because it has a very stable temperature reducing power and effectiveness is comparable to Paracetamol. The conclusion of this study is that Jatropha Curcas L extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg can be used as an antipyretic.
... Among the studies related to ethnobotany is the research of [2], [3] [4] and [5]; research on medicinal plants in Central Kalimantan was conducted by [6], [7] and [8], [9]. Several studies on treatment from a linguistic perspective were carried out by [10], [11] , [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], and [17]. ...
... Despite the progress in modern medicine, the use of MAPs has been an important part of the health ensuring of human societies for centuries. Currently, the active ingredients and phytochemical compounds of MAPs are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries [3][4][5] Therefore, these plants are still introduced as a source of new and valuable medicinal compounds. ...
Full-text available
Glabridin is a well-known active isoflavone found in the root of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) that possess a wide range of biological activity. Plant cells, hairy roots, and fungal endophytes cultures are the most important alternative methods for plant resources conservation and sustainable production of natural compounds, which has received much attention in recent decades. In the present study, an efficient culture condition was optimized for the biomass accumulation and glabridin production from fungal endophyte Aspergillus eucalypticola SBU-11AE isolated from licorice root. Type of culture medium, range of pH, and licorice root extract (as an elicitor) were tested. The results showed that the highest and lowest biomass production was observed on PCB medium (6.43 ± 0.32 g/l) and peptone malt (5.85 + 0.11 g/l), respectively. The medium culture PCB was produced the highest level of glabridin (7.26 ± 0.44 mg/l), while the lowest level (4.47 ± 0.02 mg/l) was obtained from the medium peptone malt. The highest biomass (8.51 ± 0.43 g/l) and glabridin (8.30 ± 0.51 mg/l) production were observed from the PCB medium adjusted with pH = 6, while the lowest value of both traits was obtained from the same medium with pH = 7. The highest production of total glabridin (10.85 ± 0.84 mg/l) was also obtained from the culture medium treated with 100 mg/l of the plant root extract. This information can be interestingly used for the commercialization of glabridin production for further industrial applications.
... Pemanfaatan tanaman obat sebagai agen terapeutik atau alternatif pengobatan di Indonesia sangat tinggi dan sudah digunakan sejak berabad lamanya (Sholikhah, 2016). Terlebih, Indonesia merupakan negara dengan luas hutan hujan tropis sekitar 143 juta hektar, maka sekitar 80% tanaman obat dunia hidup di Indonesia (Elfahmi et al., 2014). ...
The leaves and fruit of soursop or Annona muracita have been used extensively as medicinal plants by people in various ethnic groups in Indonesia. Soursop leaves and fruit are believed to prevent and treat diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Various scientific studies have proven the potential activity of soursop leaves and fruit to have antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiobesity, cytotoxic, anticancer, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, and hepatoprotective effects. Based on literature studies related to phytochemicals sourced from Scopus, Science direct, PubMed, ProQuest reports that at least 54 secondary metabolites have been isolated and identified. These compounds include a group of alkaloids, phenols, and acetogenins. This article presents a brief overview that seeks to compile all information regarding the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and bioactivity of soursop leaves and fruit.
Full-text available
Treatment done on burn wounds is intended to provide local therapy to heal as quickly as possible. The content of secondary metabolites in the tapak dara (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) flower can help the healing process of burns, namely alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Alkaloids act as antibacterial; saponins can trigger collagen formation; tannins as astringents that cause shrinkage of skin pores and stop minor bleeding in wounds; and flavonoids have anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to formulate an ointment of C. roseus flower ethanol extract and determine its physical characteristics such as organoleptic test, homogeneity, pH value, dispersion, and stability test of the preparation and examine the activity as a burn healer in white male rats. The research data were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA method, followed by the LSD test (least significant difference) to see how the ointment-containing extract reduced the diameter and percentage of the burn wounds. The results show that all ethanol extracts of C. roseus flower ointments met the requirements for its physical characteristic tests. It offers a good activity as a burn healer in white male rats. The most effective concentration is an ointment containing 15% of ethanol extract from C. roseus flower (F3 group), which shows a significant difference (p <0.05) from the blank and the other group formula in burn wound healing.
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Fruits and vegetables that are rich in polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, may be used to benefit human health by reducing the incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of guava, a fruit widely available in Brazil, possibly due to the presence of these polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to analyze the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of various guava extracts, assay their antioxidant activity and record the chromatographic profiles of these extracts, to determine a simple and low way of extracting these compounds efficiently from guava. The results confirmed the presence of polyphenols in guava, including flavonoids, and its antioxidant activity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the 70% ethanol (by volume) was the most effective solvent to extract these compounds from the fruit, among those tested.
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Essential oil compositions of the inflorescences and leaf of Piper longum Linn. were investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). P. longum oils were found to contain few monoterpene hydrocarbons, a moderate content of sesquiterpenes and high content of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The inflorescences oil rich in eugenol (33.11%), caryophyllene (9.29%), cinnamyl acetate (5.91%) and -pinene (4.74%), whereas leaf oil rich in trans-nerolidol (19.08%), caryophyllene (12.25%), 3-heptene, 7-phenyl-(3.71%), benzyl benzoate (3.68%), caryophyllene oxide (3.62%) and β-elemene (3.28%). The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.
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Methanol extracts of some commonly used plant materials of ethnoveterinary importance in Pakistan were screened for their in vitro anthelmintic activity. Results revealed that Zingiber officinale killed all the test worms (Haemonchus contortus) within two hours post exposure being 100% effective. Allium sativum and Cucurbita mexicana extracts were equally effective at 2 and 4 h post exposure; by 6 h post exposure, however, the earlier was 100% effective; whereas, C. mexicana could not kill all the worms and was 83.4% effective. Ficus religiosa was 100% effective by 4 h post exposure, and was as good as A. sativum and Z. officinale by 6 h post exposure. Majority of the worms exposed to control (normal saline) remained alive till 4 h post exposure, and thereafter, 50% of them died by 6 h post exposure. It was concluded that all the studied plants had some anthelmintic activity, therefore, in vivo trials may be conducted for further evidence for their use in animals on scientific basis.
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Free radicals or Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a class of highly reactive molecules derived from the metabolism of oxygen is believed to be involved in many health disorders. ROS including superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide molecules are often generated as by products of biological reactions or from exogenous factors. Antioxidant-based drugs and formulations for the prevention and treatment of complex diseases have attracted a great deal of research interest in natural antioxidants. It is necessary to screen medicinal plants for their antioxidant potential. Determination of phytochemical constituents like phenols, flavonoids, tannins, chlorophyll and carotenoids and various tests like reducing power, ferric reducing antioxidant power, linoleic acid assay, DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays for evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (Guava) leaves were carried out. It was found that the methanolic extracts showed greater amount of phytochemicals and higher antioxidant activity than aqueous extracts. Present results indicate that guava is a good candidate for development of new nutraceuticals for treatment of diseases like diabetes. However, in vivo studies to determine the antioxidant potential of the plant should be conducted before they can be recommended as nutritional substitutes.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and vomiting. Whether the herb is truly efficacious for this condition is, however, still a matter of debate. We have performed a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against the efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting. Six studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Three on postoperative nausea and vomiting were identified and two of these suggested that ginger was superior to placebo and equally effective as metoclopramide. The pooled absolute risk reduction for the incidence of postoperative nausea, however, indicated a non-significant difference between the ginger and placebo groups for ginger 1 g taken before operation (absolute risk reduction 0.052 (95% confidence interval -0.082 to 0.186)). One study was found for each of the following conditions: seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy-induced nausea. These studies collectively favoured ginger over placebo.
Objective: The main aim was to demonstrate the anti-nociceptive effects of Psidium guajava leaves extract. Methods: Ethanol extract of P. guajava leaves was administered intraperitoneally to mice 30 min before administration of acetic acid. The number of abdominal constriction was noted. Results: P. guajava leaves extract showed statistically significant decrease in abdominal constriction (writhing) when compared to controls. The percentage inhibition was 20.9, 53.9 and 97.3 for 2, 3 and 4 mg/kg extract respectively. These mice showed normal behavior and motor activity. The antinociceptive effect was statistically similar to equivalent doses of mefenamic acid. Morphine, an opioid analgesic revealed 29.0, 57.3 and 100.0 inhibition of abdominal constriction for 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg respectively. Interestingly, pretreatment with Naloxone did not significantly decrease the analgesic effect of P. guajava leaves extract. Conclusions: Results from this present study revealed P. guajava extract exerted a potent anti-nociceptive effect, which was similar potency to mefenamic acid and 10 times less potent to morphine. The antinociceptive effects were dose-dependent, without behavior changes and may not involve the opioid receptors.
A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic/ mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method with an electrospray ion source was used in this study to determine the concentration of two dimeric alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine, in nearisogenic lines of Catharanthus leaves. A linear gradient of 25 mM ammonium acetate in methanol (solution A) and the same concentration in water (solution B) served as the mobile phase. A C18 column was used to separate those two compounds from other components in the extracted plant samples. Mass spectra generated by the electrospray ionization source were dominated by protonated molecules with little or no fragmentation being observed under the experimental conditions applied. Since very little fragmentation occurred. the method exhibited enhanced sensitivity over other LC-MS techniques. Product-ion mass spectra of vincristine and vinblastine were produced in a single quadrupole mass spectrometer through collision-induced dissociation (CID) between the capillary exit and first skimmer of the electrospray source. CID spectra can be used to unequivocally differentiate between vincristine, vinblastine and other alkaloids.
The herb Artemisia annua has been used for many centuries in Chinese traditional medicine as a treatment for fever and malaria. In 1971, Chinese chemists isolated from the leafy portions of the plant the substance responsible for its reputed medicinal action. This compound, called qinghaosu (QHS, artemisinin), is a sesquiterpene lactone that bears a peroxide grouping and, unlike most other antimalarials, lacks a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring system. The compound has been used successfully in several thousand malaria patients in China, including those with both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Derivatives of QHS, such as dihydroqinghaosu, artemether, and the water-soluble sodium artesunate, appear to be more potent than QHS itself. Sodium artesunate acts rapidly in restoring to consciousness comatose patients with cerebral malaria. Thus QHS and its derivatives offer promise as a totally new class of antimalarials.