Induction of naphthoquinone and flavonoid production in Dionaea muscipula and Drosera capensis

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... Therefore, we can obtain a big amount of homogenous plant material under well defined in vitro conditions. In vitro cultivated plants of this species produce wide range of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoid compounds (glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin), anthocyanins, tannins (derivates of ellagic acid and its glycosides) and naphthoquinones (plumbagin is the major naphthoquinone followed by minor ones such as chloroplumbagin and 8,8 0 -biplumbagin) (Miyoishi et al. 1984;Kreher et al. 1990;Hook 2001;Babula et al. 2006a, c;Krolicka et al. 2006). Synthesis of different secondary metabolites depends on cultivation media composition, most of all, on the content of macro-and microelements. ...
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Fertilization by phosphorus and also nitrogen fertilizers are the main source of cadmium soil contamination. Cadmium is relatively easily taken up by plants and then consequently enters their food chain. We investigated whether the cultivation medium with or without sulphates supplement affects the synthesis of protective low molecular mass thiols such as cysteine, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and phytochelatins (PC2) in Dionaea muscipula treated with cadmium(II) ions at 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000μM for 6weeks. The plants cultivated in the presence of sulphates showed higher cadmium tolerance due to faster growth and lesser number of necrosis hallmarks. Further, we utilized liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for determination of the thiols in plant tissues. In the case of the plants cultivated on media supplemented with sulphates for 6weeks the average PC2 level was 2,830ng/g of fresh weight (FW). However, the plants cultivated on media without the presence of sulphates on average contained 1,160ng PC2/g FW. Results obtained showed the positive effect of sulphur supplementation in cadmium detoxification processes in plants. In addition to thiol content, we also determined level of majority secondary metabolite of Venus flytrap, naphthoquinone plumbagin. Generally, the presence of sulphates in the media enhanced the protective mechanism and did not affect directly the synthesis of secondary metabolite plumbagin.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Drosophyllum lusitanicum leaf extract against various yeasts and bacteria species, including both standard and clinically isolated strains. The extract exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all the tested yeast strains with inhibition zones ranging 23.67-42.23 mm and with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging 31-63 microg L(-1). All the Gram-positive bacteria studied were inhibited by the extract, showing inhibition zones ranging 17.67-43.00 mm and MIC values comprising between 15.6 and 250 microg L(-1). In contrast, the growth of the tested Gram-negative bacteria was not significantly affected by the extract. Among the microorganisms tested, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 was the most sensitive, presenting the lowest MIC value (15.6 microg L(-1)), while Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was the most tolerant (250 microg L(-1)). The extract of D. lusitanicum was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the major constituent found was plumbagin.
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