Article

Effect of Vermicompost on Growth, Essential Oil, and Health of Thymus Vulgaris

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Abstract

In this study, the effect of various vermicompost substitutions (0, 25, 50, and 75%) was investigated on germination, growth and development, photosynthetic parameters, the essential oil content, and disease resistance of Thymus vulgaris. Results showed that 25% vermicompost substitution promoted the best seedling emergence indices, whereas maximum length, fresh and dry weight of aerial parts and root, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic efficiency, and the highest essential oil content were observed in 50% vermicompost substitution. Vermicompost was an effective biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans. Suppression of pathogens by vermicompost was enhanced progressively with increasing rates of substitution of vermicompost, and the highest suppression obtained in 75% vermicompost substitution. The disease protection correlated to development of activities of defense-related enzymes including β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, and total phenolics content. These results suggest the potential of vermicompost in promoting of plant yield as well as inducing systemic resistance in Thymus vulgaris.

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... Regarding the suppression of fungal diseases, they include the effect of vermicompost on reduced sporulation, reduced growth of pathogenic fungi and, generally, reduced infection [59]. Amooaghaie et al. [60] also reported that vermicompost is an effective biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans. ...
... According to most of the known literature, different types of vermicompost induce higher germination rate, plant growth and yield in many plant species such as tomato [27], lettuce [43], cucumber [61], petunia [8], pine trees [62], thyme [60], begonia, sugarcane and mint [31]. However, according to some data, one cannot generalize and speak exclusively about the positive effects of vermicompost [60,63]. ...
... According to most of the known literature, different types of vermicompost induce higher germination rate, plant growth and yield in many plant species such as tomato [27], lettuce [43], cucumber [61], petunia [8], pine trees [62], thyme [60], begonia, sugarcane and mint [31]. However, according to some data, one cannot generalize and speak exclusively about the positive effects of vermicompost [60,63]. Amoogaghaie and Golmohammadi [60] investigated the effect of various cow manure vermicompost (25, 50, and 75%) on the germination, growth and development of thyme. ...
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Industrialization and urbanization have led to an increased accumulation of waste materials that are transformed into a nutrient-rich and high-quality product called vermicompost by the vermicomposting process. Vermicomposting is an ecofriendly and economically favorable biotechnological process that involves the interaction of earthworms and microorganisms. Due to the importance of this process and its great potential in dealing with the consequences of waste accumulation, this review aims to provide key insights as well as highlight knowledge gaps. It is emphasized that there is a great challenge in understanding and clarifying the mechanisms involved in the vermicomposting process. The optimization of the factors affecting the possible application of vermicompost is crucial for obtaining the final product. Information on the composition of bacterial communities, amount of vermicompost, effect on heavy metal content, plant pathogens, diseases and organic waste selection is here recognized as currently the most important issues to be addressed. By answering these knowledge gaps, it is possible to enable wider utilization of vermicompost products.
... Similarly, vermicompost was shown to accelerate the germination of beetroot, bean, and pea seeds [74], as well as tomato and marigold crops [34,57,72]. Results also suggest that leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid content, and the efficiency of plant photosynthesis also improved [75]. Some reports show that the concentration of essential oils in the leaves of mint plants (Thymus vulgaris) also increased with the use of vermicompost, as did total concentrations of carbohydrates, fiber, and vitamin C in cabbage heads [76]. ...
... The digested organic waste in the form of earthworm casts contains antifungal compounds such as phenolic substances, which contribute to plants' defense mechanisms and help combat the spread of disease and attacks from pests [75]. The synthesized hormones strengthen the plants and create a barrier for pathogen multiplication [75,85,86]. ...
... The digested organic waste in the form of earthworm casts contains antifungal compounds such as phenolic substances, which contribute to plants' defense mechanisms and help combat the spread of disease and attacks from pests [75]. The synthesized hormones strengthen the plants and create a barrier for pathogen multiplication [75,85,86]. Protection of plant system against diseases is also possible because of the availability of oxidative enzymes in the earthworm casts. ...
Article
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Incorporation of vermin culture in the composting system produces "vermicompost", an enriched biofertilizer known to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil. It is applied in granular form and/or in liquid solution (vermiwash), and in both open fields and greenhouses. Vermicompost has been shown to contain plant growth hormones, which stimulate seed germination and improve crop yield, the 'marketability' of products, plant physiology, and their ability to fight against disease. In recent years, South Pacific island countries (SPICs) have placed an increasing emphasis on the importance of organic agricultural practices as a means of achieving more sustainable and environmentally friendly farming practices. However, vermiculture is not practiced in South Pacific island countries (SPICs) largely due to the lack of awareness of this type of application. We consider the inclusion of vermiculture in this region as a potential means of achieving sustainable organic agricultural practices. This study represents a systematic review in which we collect relevant information on vermicomposting and analyze the applicability of this practice in the SPICs based on these nations' physical, socioeconomic, and climatic conditions. The tropical climate of the SPICs means that they meet the combined requirements of a large available biomass for composting and the availability of earthworms. Perionyx excavatus and Pontoscolex corethrurus have been identified as potential native earthworm species for vermicomposting under the conditions of the SPICs. Eisenia fetida, a well-known earthworm species, is also effectively adapted to this region and reported to be an efficient species for commercial vermicomposting. However, as a new input into the local production system, there may be unforeseen barriers in the initial stages, as with other advanced technologies, and the introduction of vermiculture as a practice requires a steady effort and adaptive research to achieve success. Further experimental research is required to analyze the productivity and profitability of using the identified native earthworm species for vermiculture using locally available biomass in the SPICs.
... Extensive cultivation programs and high application rates of chemical fertilizers have significant adverse effects on environmental and ecosystem health (Shooshtari et al., 2020;Ahmadi and Souri, 2020;Hatamian et al., 2020;Bakhtiarizade and Souri, 2019). As the case of organic fertilizer uses for sweet basil, agronomic traits and essential oil productivity and its composition have been reported (Rezaei-Chiyaneh et al., 2021;Esmaielpour et al., 2017;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi, 2017). ...
... Vermicompost, as an organic fertilizer, presents substantial properties, viz. high water holding capacity, sequestration of organic and inorganic contaminants, hormone-like activities (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi, 2017;Naiji and Souri, 2018). It contains high amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in comparison to the conventional fertilizers (Parastesh et al., 2019). ...
... Accordingly, in the essential oil composition of basil leaves; estragole (methyl chavicol), eucalyptol, trans-anethole, trans-caryophyllene, à-humulene, germacrene d and trans-à-bisabolene have been identified as the main components. The relevant former studies noted that vermicompost and fertilizing with nitrogen and phosphorus might trigger secondary metabolite production, which might be associated with the nutrients available or enhanced photosynthetic activity (Shahram, 2011;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi, 2017). Considering the compound identified in the current study, the major compounds such as estragole and eucalyptol decreased with the water stress and vermicompost treatments and the other minor compounds increased with the vermicompost and water stress. ...
Article
Water stress is of the prominent abiotic stress factors retarding the plant growth and related attributes. Organic fertilizers are recently employed for reducing the potential adverse effects of water stress. For that reason, the present study was designed to reveal the impacts of vermicompost on water stress in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). In this regard, sweet basil was grown in peat medium supplemented with different vermicompost (VC) ratio (VC/Peat: 2.5; 5%; 10 and 20 v/v) and subsequently exposed to water stress during flowering stage. Along with the study, an array of parameters including morphological and agronomic traits, phenolic compounds, essential oil compounds and mineral uptake were investigated in sweet basil leaves. Accordingly, water stress negatively affected plant height, plant dry weight, root dry weight and leaf width. However, vermicompost applications at 10% and 20% concentration significantly improved the plant dry weight, root dry weight, leaf dry weight under water stress. Also, the effects of vermicompost applications were concentration-dependent. Of the identified essential oil compounds, major compounds (estragole and eucalyptol) decreased with the water stress and vermicompost treatments, whilst minor compounds increased with the vermicompost and water stress. Out of the major phenolic compounds available, caffeic acid content increased with water stress and vermicompost. Water stress decreased rosmarinic acid content whereas vermicompost and vermicompost-water stress interaction significantly increased the content. Considering nutrient uptake, the higher nutrient levels were observed with vermicompost-amended groups.
... Several attempts have been made to increase the yield potential of root crops, but farmers are concerned with the use of inorganic fertilizers which results in decrease fertility of soil, soil health, contents of organic matter and decreases the microbial activity of soil (Chen et al., 2014). Vermicompost is regarded ecologically sound biofertilizer and also cost-effective and eco-friendly (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial micro-organisms like N-fixing, P-solubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms (Singh et al., 2008; ORIGINAL ARTICLE | Volume 03 Issue 01| Page 19-31 Archana and Anubha 2011;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). ...
... Vermicompost is regarded ecologically sound biofertilizer and also cost-effective and eco-friendly (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial micro-organisms like N-fixing, P-solubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms (Singh et al., 2008; ORIGINAL ARTICLE | Volume 03 Issue 01| Page 19-31 Archana and Anubha 2011;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). It enhances soil fertility as it increases soil porosity, aeration, moisture holding capacity, available plant nutrients, acts as a complex fertilizer granules and accelerates nitrogen mineralization (Prabhaet al., 2007;Azarmiet al., 2008;Agric 2009;Martin and Brathwaite 2012). ...
... Several attempts have been made to increase the yield potential of root crops, but farmers are concerned with the use of inorganic fertilizers which results in decrease fertility of soil, soil health, contents of organic matter and decreases the microbial activity of soil (Chen et al., 2014). Vermicompost is regarded ecologically sound biofertilizer and also cost-effective and eco-friendly (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial micro-organisms like N-fixing, P-solubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms (Singh et al., 2008; ORIGINAL ARTICLE | Volume 03 Issue 01| Page 19-31 Archana and Anubha 2011;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). ...
... Vermicompost is regarded ecologically sound biofertilizer and also cost-effective and eco-friendly (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial micro-organisms like N-fixing, P-solubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms (Singh et al., 2008; ORIGINAL ARTICLE | Volume 03 Issue 01| Page 19-31 Archana and Anubha 2011;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). It enhances soil fertility as it increases soil porosity, aeration, moisture holding capacity, available plant nutrients, acts as a complex fertilizer granules and accelerates nitrogen mineralization (Prabhaet al., 2007;Azarmiet al., 2008;Agric 2009;Martin and Brathwaite 2012). ...
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Vermicompost and organic mulching is an environment friendly component used as a bio fertilizer in agricultural sector. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost and organic mulching on growth yield and profitability of carrot (Daucuscarota L.). Vermicompost was processed from waste and it was applied to field plots in the three different concentrations viz., 2t/ha (V1), 4 t/ha (V2) and 6 t/ha (V3) with control (V0), and four levels of mulching viz., control (M0), rice straw (M1), water hyacinth (M2), and sawdust (M3), respectively. Plant height, number of leaves, leaves fresh weight, root length, leaves dry matter content, root fresh weight, root dry matter content and root diameter, significantly differed among the vermicompost doses and mulching at different levels. Among the different level of vermicomposts, the highest marketable yield and gross yield (27.68 t/ha) of the root (26.35 t/ha) were recorded from V2 while the lowest (18.71 t/ha) and (20.18 t/ha) from control (V0). The highest marketable yield (27.89 t/ha) and the gross yield (29.48 t/ha) of root observed from M2 while the lowest (15.81 t/ha) and (17.12 t/ha) from control (M0) under mulching treatment. Similarly, the highest marketable yield (33.24 t/ha) and gross yield (34.45 t/ha) of root were marked from V2M2 and the lowest (17.46 t/ha) and (18.65 t/ha), respectively from V0M0 under combined treatment. The highest (3.64) benefit-cost ratio was recorded from V2M2 while the lowest (1.68) from V3M0 and it was indicated that vermicompost @ 4 t/ha with water hyacinth mulching was found suitable for carrot cultivation.
... Also, VC has many outstanding biological properties, they are rich in bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and cellulose-degrading bacteria (Anastasi et al. 2004). Recently, it has been used in sustainable agriculture, to increase growth, flowering and yields of various crops such as tomatoes and peppers (Arancon et al. 2008), garden thyme (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017), spinach (Najafi-Ghiri and Rahimi 2016) and marigold (Atiyeh et al. 2000;Bachman and Metzger 2008;Sangwan, Garg and Kaushik 2010;Paul and Bhattacharya 2012). ...
... In this case, better water balance in plants grown in the substrate containing MC and VC leads to increased cell turgor pressure together with higher assimilation resulting in higher growth (Hudson 1994;Haynes and Naidu 1998). In line with the present research, many reports showed that application of compost and organic material dramatically increased growth (Atiyeh et al. 2000;Bachman and Metzger 2008;Sangwan, Garg, and Kaushik 2010;Paul and Bhattacharya 2012;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Amendment of OM in the substrate, results in improved soil structure, soil productivity, increased bacterial activity and improvement of water retention capacity of soil and, therefore, crop yield (Albiach et al. 2000). ...
Article
This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of irrigation regime and potting media on morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of pot marigold. The experiment was arranged factorially based on a completely randomized design. The first factor was irrigation regime in three levels of 80, 60 and 40% available water content and the second factor was potting media in five levels of 20% vermicompost, 30% vermicompost, 20% manure compost , 30% manure compost and control (sand and soil in equal proportions). Morpho-physiological traits (plant height, stem diameter, number of flowering stem, root diameter, root length, root dry weight, aerial dry weight, total dry weight, relative water content, ionic stability and water use efficiency) and biochemical traits (malondialdehyde content, catalase and peroxidase activity, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents) were measured. Morpho-physiological parameters, chlorophyll and carotenoid decreased under water deficit, while increased with application of vermicompost and manure compost. Also, lipid peroxidation, catalase and peroxidase activity enhanced under water deficit, while decreased with application of vermicompost and manure compost. In other words, the application of vermicom-post and manure compost in potting media reduced the harmful effects of water deficit. Total dry mass and water use efficiency were about 3-fold higher in plants grown in 30% vermicompost or 30% manure compost substrate compared to those in control plants. The results suggest that the application of 30% manure compost could be recommended as suitable potting media due to reducing the negative effects of water shortages, helping to nourish the plant, cheapness and accessibility compared with 30% vermicompost.
... Vermicompost is the product of the composting process using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials. is regarded ecologically sound biofertilizer and also cost-effective and eco-friendly [11]. Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial microorganisms like N-fixing, P-solubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms [12,11]. ...
... is regarded ecologically sound biofertilizer and also cost-effective and eco-friendly [11]. Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial microorganisms like N-fixing, P-solubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms [12,11]. It has been studied that the vermicompost effects on the plant growth, yield and quality of crops considerably. ...
Article
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An experiment on effect of organic manure & mulching on the growth and yield of carrot was conducted at the farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during the period from November 2017 to February 2018. The research consisted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications under a factorial arrangement (of two factors), with Four levels of organic manure, as the factor A and four mulches such as factor B. Organic manure and mulching influenced significantly (p=0.05) all the studied variables. In case of organic manure the maximum plant height (44.55 cm) root length (14.73 cm), root diameter (4.11 cm), root weight (124.50 g), root yield (24.90 t/ha) and marketable root yield (23.85 ton/ha) were recorded from O2 (Vermicompost) treatment. In case of mulches, maximum plant height (44.81 cm), root length (15.20 cm), root diameter (3.91 cm), root weight (117.85 g), root yield (23.57 t/ha) and marketable root yield (21.95 t/ha) found in M2 (Black polythene) treatment. And the combined effect of the highest root yield (29.06 t/ha) was obtained from O2M2 (Vermicompost + black polythene) and lowest (13.20 t/ha) from O0M0 (control). So, it can be concluded that 10 ton/ha vermicompost with black polythene mulch was the best for carrot cultivation. The highest gross return (Tk. 563200), net return (Tk. 446355) and BCR (4.82) were obtained from the treatment combination from O2M2 where the lowest gross return (Tk. 207800), net return (Tk.112755) were obtained from O0M0 and lowest BCR (1.67) from O1M0.
... In addition, the higher essential oil productivity in peppermint under integrative application of fertilizer could be explained by the increase of the aerial parts dry weight and number of branches. Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi (2017) noted that the higher supply of micro (Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) and macronutrients (N and P) after application of organic fertilizer increased significantly the essential oil productivity in Thymus vulgaris L. Based on the correlation and principal components analysis, there was a positive correlation between the dry matter yield and essential oil content and yield. Therefore, the higher essential oil yield under integrative application of chemical fertilizer and nano chelated fertilizer was related to the higher dry matter yield and essential oil content of peppermint (Amani Machiani et al., 2019). ...
... It seems that any factor inducing the uptake of these nutrients will ultimately enhance the percentage of these components in essential oils. Thus, a better uptake of nutrients, particularly N, P and microelements (Fe, Mn, Zn) by integrative application of chemical fertilizer and nano fertilizer, improves the quality of peppermint essential oil (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi, 2017). In addition, the lowest content of menthol (as the most important constituent of peppermint essential oil) at both harvests was observed after application of chemical fertilizer. ...
Article
The excessive use of chemical fertilizers in conventional agricultural systems decreased the nutrient use efficiency and caused serious environmental problems such as waterway pollution, mineral depletion, soil acidification and other issues. In order to achieve the desirable essential oil productivity and reduction consumption of chemical inputs in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), a 2-year field experiment was carried out using a split-plot approach based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with 7 treatments and three replications at two harvesting times. The main factor was given by different fertilizer treatments including no fertilizer (control), chemical fertilizer, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus, 50 % chemical fertilizer + arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus, nano chelated fertilizer, 50 % chemical fertilizer + nano chelated fertilizer, nano chelated fertilizer + arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus, and the sub-factor included two harvesting times (first harvest and second harvest). The results demonstrated that the highest and lowest growth parameters including plant height, number of lateral branches per plant and leaf greenness (SPAD index) were achieved with integrative application of 50 % chemical fertilizer + nano chelated fertilizer (in the first harvest) and control conditions (in the second harvest), respectively. Also, the maximum concentration of N, P, K and Fe was reached in the first harvest with application of 50 % chemical fertilizer + nano chelated fertilizer. Furthermore, the highest peppermint dry matter yield (354.8 g/m²), essential oil content (2.7 %) and essential oil yield (6.6 g/m²) was achieved at the first harvest with application of 50 % chemical fertilizer + nano chelated fertilizer. GC–MS analysis of peppermint essential oil showed that the major components at first harvest were menthol (31.82–37.87 %), menthone (23.85–30.90 %), 1,8-cineole (6.39–6.82 %), δ-terpineol (3.61–4.11 %) and neo-menthol (2.67–3.33 %), whereas at second harvest menthol (44–47.31 %), p-menth-l-en-9-ol (11.66–14.96 %), menthofuran (3.44–5.14 %), menthone (3.82–10.62 %), 1,8-cineole (5.51–5.99 %) and neo-menthol (5.03–5.90 %). Notably, menthol reached the highest amount with application of 50 % chemical fertilizer + nano chelated fertilizer. Overall, an integrative application of chemical fertilizers with nano fertilizers can be suggested to farmers as an alternative and environmentally friendly strategy to improve the quali-quantitative characteristics of peppermint essential oil.
... Vermicompost is regarded ecologically sound bio-fertilizer and also costeffective and eco-friendly [14]. Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial micro-organisms like N-fixing, Psolubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms [14,15,16]. ...
... Vermicompost is regarded ecologically sound bio-fertilizer and also costeffective and eco-friendly [14]. Vermicompost is a potential source of readily available nutrients, growth enhancing substances and a number of beneficial micro-organisms like N-fixing, Psolubilizing and cellulose decomposing organisms [14,15,16]. It enhances soil fertility as it increases soil porosity, aeration, moisture holding capacity, available plant nutrients, acts as a complex fertilizer granule and accelerates nitrogen mineralization [17]. ...
Article
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An experiment was conducted at Horticultural Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kalyan, Purulia, West Bengal, India located at Jahajpur during Rabi season of 2019. The main objective was to determine the effectiveness of vermicompost and biochar on growth and yield of carrot. The experimental design applied was randomized block design (RBD) with three replicates for each treatment. The eight treatments comprised of T1- (Control), T2- (100% NPK), T3- (100% Biochar), T4- (50% Biochar + 50% NPK), T5- (75% Biochar + 25% NPK), T6- (100% Vermicompost), T7- (50% Vermicompost + 50% NPK), T8- (75% Vermicompost + 25% NPK). The growth parameters i.e. plant height, number of leaves, root length, root diameter and yield parameter fresh weight of root were analyzed during growth period and final harvesting in carrots for each treatment using standard methods. The results showed that vermicompost and biochar had a positive effect on all the parameters. T7- 50% Vermicompost + 50% NPK recorded highest yield of 27.67 t/ ha, while the lowest yield (12.24 t/ ha) was recorded in T1- (Control) from the carrots which did not receive any nutrients. However, yield recorded in T4- 50% Biochar + 50% NPK was at par with T8- 75% Vermicompost + 25% NPK. On the basis of the results of this study, 50% Vermicompost + 50% NPK is therefore recommended because it improves the growth parameters resulting to higher yield in carrots.
... Hussain et al. (2017) 3. Cow manure Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) 90 days The study showed that 25% of vermicompost promoted the best seedling emergence indices, whereas 50% of vermicompost promoted maximum length, photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, the fresh and dry weight of aerial parts and root and the highest essential oil content. Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi (2017) 4. Cow manure Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) 30 days Vermicompost significantly decreased the numbers of nematodeinduced galls on susceptible (Sus) and resistant (Res) cultivar roots of tomato plants. Vermicompost also significantly increased root defense metabolite concentrations, defense related gene expression, and improved soil properties. ...
Article
Vermicompost is the final product of the vermicomposting process involving the collective action of earthworms and microbes. During this process, the waste is converted into useful manure by reducing the harmful effects of waste. Toxicity of industrial wastes is evaluated by plant bioassays viz. Allium cepa and Vicia faba test. These bioassays are sensitive and cost-effective for the monitoring of environmental contamination. The valorization potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify heavy metals in industrial wastes is because of their strong metabolic system and involvement of earthworm gut microbes and chloragocyte cells. Most of the studies reported that the vermicompost produced from organic wastes contains higher amounts of humic substances, which plays a major role in growth of plants. The present article discusses the detoxification of industrial wastes by earthworms and the role of final vermicompost in plant growth and development.
... Researchers who conducted an experiment on soybean reported that the accurate amount and appropriate type of nanoparticles can increase the biochemical composition of a plant, including linoleic acid and fatty acid constitution that can be affected by environmental conditions as well (Drostkar et al. 2016;Roche et al. 2006). The combined use of chemical and nano-fertilizers to peppermint increased the biochemical properties of the plant such as essential oils and menthol, but the excessive use of chemical fertilizers reduced them (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017;Yousefzadeh et al. 2013). The effect of iron nano-oxide on a large number of plants has revealed that this element has a positive effect on the quantitative and qualitative yield, such as the grain yield, biomass, and the biochemical properties of plants, including chlorophyll content, assimilate synthesis, light absorption, and nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism (Feng et al. 2013;Rui et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Dragon's head is a multifunctional plant with diverse applications so that all its parts, including its leaves and seeds, have nutritional value. For the sake of appropriate agricultural management to enhance plant quality and quantity, the effects of sowing season and chemical-nano-fertilizer sources were explored on plant oil content and fatty acid compositions in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments included two sowing seasons (spring and winter) and six fertilizer treatments (control, NPK soil , NPK nano , chelated-Fe nano , NPK nano + chelated-Fe nano , NPK soil + NPK nano + chelated-Fe nano). The studied traits included grain yield, oil percentage and yield, unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids), and saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic acids). The results showed that the interactive effects of sowing season (winter) and NPK nano + chelated-Fe nano were significant on the grain yield. Moreover, the simple effects of winter sowing and NPK soil , NPK nano , chelated-Fe nano treatments showed the highest oil percentage and yield among which NPK soil + NPK nano + chelated-Fe nano and NPK nano + chelated-Fe nano had similar effects, so regarding these traits, it is recommended to exclude NPK soil from the fertilizer combination. However, the treatment of NPK soil + NPK nano + chelated-Fe nano performed well in enhancing unsaturated fatty acids as an advantage of this fertilizer combination. In general, the combined use of the growing season and nano-fertilizer is recommended to increase the quantity and quality of plants, which is consistent with the goals of sustainable agriculture as well.
... [72] Presence of phenolic substances such as gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. [143] Cow manure Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) ...
Article
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Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are utilized to convert biodegradable organic waste into humus-like vermicast. Past work, mainly on vermicomposting of animal droppings, has shown that vermicompost is an excellent organic fertilizer and is also imbibed with pest-repellent properties. However, there is no clarity whether vermicomposts of organic wastes other than animal droppings are as plant-friendly as the manure-based vermicomposts are believed to be. It is also not clear as to whether the action of a vermicompost as a fertilizer depends on the species of plants being fertilized by it. This raises questions whether vermicomposts are beneficial (or harmful) at all levels of application or if there is a duality in their action which is a function of their rate of application. The present work is an attempt to seek answers to these questions. To that end, all hitherto published reports on the action of vermicomposts of different substrates on different species of plants have been assessed. The study reveals that, in general, vermicomposts of all animal/plant based organic wastes are highly potent fertilizers. They also possess some ability to repel plant pests. The factors that shape these properties have been assessed and the knowledge gaps that need to be bridged have been identified.
... β-1,3-Glucanase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and total phenolic content are some of the defense-related enzymes that were correlated to the development of plant disease protection activities. These results advocate the potential of vermicompost in increasing plant yield along with inducing self-defense in Thymus vulgaris (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). ...
Chapter
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In nature, plants are exposed to many anomalies that cause severe metabolic disturbances and very often an installation of the disease. These anomalies are either climatic (low or high temperatures) or anthropogenic (heavy metals and pesticides) and are called abiotic stresses. In contrast, biotic stress involves a second living being known as a pathogen (fungus, bacterium, mycoplasma, virus, and viroid) or others (mites, insects, mollusks, nematodes, and herbivores). Plants attacked by a pathogen develop complex defense strategies (hypersensitive reaction and acquired systemic resistance) and often effective to cope with the anomaly. The suppressive effects on biotic stress agents, often observed during the use of organic amendments, open up horizons of new perceptions. Some of the living organisms that live in the organic amendments are also known to inhibit soilborne disease and phytopathogenic nematodes. However, it is only gradually that we begin to understand under what conditions they can be developed and following what approach they can be efficient. Different control approaches propose control of biotic stress by the suppressive effect of organic amendments from plant and animal sources such as compost. Nevertheless, not all the organic amendments have the same ability to effectively inhibit biotic stress agents. The variability observed between the effects of different organic amendments is undoubtedly the biggest obstacle to their use on a large scale. In general, the suppressive ability of organic amendments to plant diseases has been linked to their chemical composition, the bioavailability of their nutrients, and their microbial consortium due to both supply of microorganisms and nutritional stimulation of those in the soil.
... Application of vermicompost has been found to enhance tomato defense capacity against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and suppress the relative abundance of pathogenic fungi (Xiao et al. 2016;Zhao et al. 2017). However, most previous studies attributed these positive effects to the improvement of soil physicochemical properties (Atiyeh et al. 2001), the input of plant hormones (Ravindran et al. 2016), and the increase in defenserelated enzymes (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017) following the application of vermicompost. However, the effect of vermicompost on the soil microbial groups that are associated with pathogen inhibition has rarely been studied. ...
Article
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Background and aims Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) has severely decreased global tomato production. Organic amendments are widely applied to suppress Fol all over the world. However, the ways in which different amendments alter soil bulk microflora and thereby induce the suppression of Fol remain unclear. Methods In this study, the effects of three organic amendments on the suppression of Fol in soil and the underlying mechanisms of those effects were studied. The organic amendments included in this study are rice straw, chicken manure compost, and vermicompost. High-throughput HiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR were used to determine the effect of the soil microbiota on the abundance of Fol. Results The abundance of Fol increased significantly with the duration of tomato cultivation. Vermicompost was the most effective organic fertilizer to suppress Fol in long-term continuous tomato cropping soil. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between the relative abundance of bacterial groups (including the genera Nocardioides, Ilumatobacter and Gaiella) and Fol inhibition. Soil chemical properties (pH, NH4⁺-N, soil organic matter and dissolved organic carbon) were positively associated with the genera Nocardioides, Ilumatobacter and Gaiella. Compared with chemical fertilizer and rice straw, vermicompost addition significantly increased soil pH, NH4⁺-N, soil organic matter and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in the soil with 20 years of tomato cultivation. Most importantly, the genera Nocardioides, Ilumatobacter and Gaiella were enriched in vermicompost, which may contribute to the propagation of these bacteria in the soil when vermicompost is added. Conclusions This study provides a mechanistic framework that permits the exploration of specific functions at lower taxonomic levels. This may represent a novel approach in the management of crop pathogens via promotion of beneficial organisms.
... Application of vermicompost has been found to enhance tomato defense capacity against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and suppress the relative abundance of pathogenic fungi (Xiao et al. 2016;Zhao et al. 2017). However, most previous studies attributed these positive effects to the improvement of soil physicochemical properties (Atiyeh et al. 2001), the input of plant hormones (Ravindran et al. 2016), and the increase in defenserelated enzymes (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017) following the application of vermicompost. However, the effect of vermicompost on the soil microbial groups that are associated with pathogen inhibition has rarely been studied. ...
Preprint
Background and aims Fusarium wilt caused by Fusar-ium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) has severely decreased global tomato production. Organic amendments are widely applied to suppress Fol all over the world. However, the ways in which different amendments alter soil bulk microflora and thereby induce the suppression of Fol remain unclear. Methods In this study, the effects of three organic amendments on the suppression of Fol in soil and the underlying mechanisms of those effects were studied. The organic amendments included in this study are rice straw, chicken manure compost, and vermicompost. High-throughput HiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR were used to determine the effect of the soil mi-crobiota on the abundance of Fol.
... In line with our first hypothesis, the nutrient availability could enhance the EO synthesis in MAPs by increasing the plant growth characteristics and also the EO glands' cell size (Boveiri Dehsheikh et al. 2020). Therefore, the higher EO content after application of vermicompost was attributed to the gradual release of nutrients during crop growth and to the nutrient uptake, particularly N and P (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Moreover, the enhanced EO content in basil intercropping can be related to the availability of atmospheric N 2 by legumes and higher use of environmental resources such as nutrients, light and water due to superior chemical, special and temporal complementarity in basil/ common bean intercropping pattern compared with the pure culture. ...
Article
Only a few studies have hitherto investigated the effects of the application of organic fertilizers in intercropping systems on the plant essential oil (EO) productivity. Hence, this work has aimed to study the effect of different intercropping patterns on EO quality and quantity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under vermicompost application. In the present study, the cropping patterns consisted of 1B:1CB, 2B:2CB, 3B:2CB, and 4B:2CB (basil: common bean) as well as the pure culture of both crops and fertilizer treatments including usage or non-usage of vermicompost. The maximum seed yield of common bean (2786 kg ha−1) and dry matter yield of basil in the first (261.5 g m−2) and second harvests (214.7 g m−2) were recorded in the pure cultures fertilized with vermicompost. In addition, the nutrient uptake rate of macronutrients and micronutrients in both plants after application of vermicompost improved in intercropping patterns. In both harvests, the maximum EO content of basil (0.84% in the first harvest and 0.69% in the second harvest) was observed at the cropping ratio of 3B:2CB fertilized with vermicompost. Chemical analysis, achieved by GC–MS, evidenced 1,8-cineole, linalool, methyl chavicol, α-trans-bergamotene, methyl eugenol, and epi-α-cadinol as the main basil EO constituents in both harvests. The highest increment level for most ofEO constituents, nutrient uptake, and land equivalent ratio (1.52) were obtained in the intercropping pattern of 3B:2CB fertilized with vermicompost. In general, the intercropping pattern of 3B:2CB after use of vermicompost can improve the EO productivity and quality of basil. This intercropping pattern was accompanied by the increment of nutrient uptake. Therefore, this treatment can be introduced as a valid and sustainable strategy to replace chemical fertilizer and plant monoculture.
... In line with our first hypothesis, the nutrient availability could enhance the EO synthesis in MAPs by increasing the plant growth characteristics and also the EO glands' cell size (Boveiri Dehsheikh et al. 2020). Therefore, the higher EO content after application of vermicompost was attributed to the gradual release of nutrients during crop growth and to the nutrient uptake, particularly N and P (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017). Moreover, the enhanced EO content in basil intercropping can be related to the availability of atmospheric N 2 by legumes and higher use of environmental resources such as nutrients, light and water due to superior chemical, special and temporal complementarity in basil/ common bean intercropping pattern compared with the pure culture. ...
Article
Only a few studies have hitherto investigated the effects of the application of organic fertilizers in intercropping systems on the plant essential oil (EO) productivity. Hence, this work has aimed to study the effect of different intercropping patterns on EO quality and quantity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under vermicompost application. In the present study, the cropping patterns consisted of 1B:1CB, 2B:2CB, 3B:2CB, and 4B:2CB (basil: common bean) as well as the pure culture of both crops and fertilizer treatments including usage or non-usage of vermicompost. The maximum seed yield of common bean (2786 kg ha−1) and dry matter yield of basil in the first (261.5 g m−2) and second harvests (214.7 g m−2) were recorded in the pure cultures fertilized with vermicompost. In addition, the nutrient uptake rate of macronutrients and micronutrients in both plants after application of vermicompost improved in intercropping patterns. In both harvests, the maximum EO content of basil (0.84% in the first harvest and 0.69% in the second harvest) was observed at the cropping ratio of 3B:2CB fertilized with vermicompost. Chemical analysis, achieved by GC–MS, evidenced 1,8-cineole, linalool, methyl chavicol, α-trans-bergamotene, methyl eugenol, and epi-α-cadinol as the main basil EO constituents in both harvests. The highest increment level for most ofEO constituents, nutrient uptake, and land equivalent ratio (1.52) were obtained in the intercropping pattern of 3B:2CB fertilized with vermicompost. In general, the intercropping pattern of 3B:2CB after use of vermicompost can improve the EO productivity and quality of basil. This intercropping pattern was accompanied by the increment of nutrient uptake. Therefore, this treatment can be introduced as a valid and sustainable strategy to replace chemical fertilizer and plant monoculture.
... Vermicompost is considered a long-term source of both micro-and macro-nutrients which are assimilated by crops very easily Atiyeh et al. 2000a). In addition to these, there is also presence of nitrogen fixing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (Yatoo et al. 2020), substances like gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, vitamins, humic acids, and defensive enzymes (Ravindran et al. 2016;Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi 2017) in vermicast which encourage the overall growth, development, and productivity of crops (Fig. 2) (Atiyeh et al. 2002a;Olle 2016;Adiloğlu et al. 2018). Furthermore, for the fertility improvement, nutrient pool enhancement, and water conservation in soil, vermicompost application has been observed to be an efficient way (Makode 2015). ...
Article
The intensive use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural field has globally destroyed soil fertility, killed beneficial microorganisms, and also decreased natural resistance in crops, thereby making them more vulnerable to diseases besides affecting human health and the environment. To overcome these problems, it is very important to shift our attention towards eco-friendly alternatives like vermicompost and vermicompost tea which not only can increase crop growth and yield, suppress diseases and pests sustainably but can also protect human health and the environment. Vermicompost with its rich nutrient content, plant growth promoters like auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and beneficial microbes not only improves the growth and yield of crops but also increases the diversity and activity of antagonistic microbes and nematodes, which helps to suppress pests and diseases caused by soil-borne phytopathogens. Vermicompost tea also has a tremendous potential to protect plants from diseases and its application to plants can coat leaf surfaces and reduce available sites for pathogen infection or increases microbial diversity that can kill harmful pathogens. Here, we review recent scientific achievements towards the management of crop diseases and pests by these organic amendments and the major points are the following: (1) production of vermicompost and vermicompost tea, (2) management of crop pests and diseases by vermicompost and vermicompost tea, and (3) the possible mechanisms and some important factors involved in the suppression of diseases and pests. Finally, we conclude that by using these eco-friendly organic amendments as a replacement to inorganic pesticides and fungicides, diseases and pests can be managed successfully without affecting human health and the environment and chemical-free food can be provided to humankind in the future.
... Bioremediation with manure vermicomposting showed high levels of carotenoids as compared with control (Ayyobi and Peyvast 2014). Besides, Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi (2017) reported the same results for the vermicomposting bioremediation on thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) plants. ...
Chapter
Over the past years, knowledge concerning bioremediation of heavy metals via fungi and bacteria has been extensively developed. Globally, there has been a notable improvement in the level of several toxic metals in different environments as well as soils due to industrial usage (anthropogenic activities) and causing a severe affair to plants and human health as well. Plants growing in such a contaminated environment show a decrease in plant growth, development, and yield; thereby, there is a high-priority to cope with the toxicity of heavy metals. Several heavy metals have been examined to give rise to oxidative injury in crops by the generation of freely available toxic O2 radicals. In the arrangement to tackle with the toxicity of heavy metals or to keep alive the level of some vital metals inside the range of physiological processes, the plant has evolved a wide range of multiplex mechanisms for metal tolerance. Plant and microorganisms possess various mechanisms for the bioremediation of contaminated environments, including soils. Different microorganisms have been favorably employed to decrease the toxic effects of heavy metals. Nevertheless, the critical action is to sectionalize and accumulate heavy metals in plant tissues; and antioxidant defense system plus enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, APX, GR, POD, GSTs, GPx, MDHAR, and DHAR) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (ASA, GSH, carotenoids, and tocopherols) have been declared. Additionally, chelation has emerged as prospect mechanisms, which widely control the metal resistance in crops via retaining the low level of freely available metal ions in the cytoplasm. Chelation of metals can be carried out by thiol compounds (GSH, PCs, and MTs), and non-thiol compounds (organic acids, amino acids, and their derivatives). Together, GSH plays a vital role in the bioremediation process as a chelating agent, due to its high kinship of metals, and it acts as a forerunner for PCs. Under metal stress, ROS and antioxidant defense systems generate signaling, where GSH can affect the cellular pathways associated with the acclimation and repair process to tackle with oxidative damage caused by metal stress. In this chapter, we have reviewed the recent advancement in the decisive role of antioxidant defense systems in the bioremediation system along with chelation of metals in plants.
... Vermicompost addition alone has been shown to improve plant growth and quality [30]. For instance, Asian rice yield was increased with manure vermicompost [31]. ...
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Vermicomposting is used to treat and recycle organic waste to be utilized in agriculture. This project aimed to improve the product of vermicomposting by adding biochar and microalgal biomass to the process. Experiment to vermicompost (60 days) mixed organic waste was carried out preparing 16 different treatments. The best treatment appeared to be the earthworm Eisenia fetida, 6% biochar, and the biomass of the microalgae Navicula sp. amended to the process. The product was mature vermicompost with pH 7, cation exchange capacity 70 cmolc kg−1, and the C:N ratio 9.5. All products were used as seedbeds and tested for the plant growth promotion of the vegetables Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, and Solanum melongena. The best vermicomposting product increased plant growth, reduced the disease incidence of the leaves, and improved the disease resistance of the seeds the plants produced. Plant vigor index was highest in the best treatment varying between 4600 and 5000 depending on the plant species. For comparison, the lowest values were under 1000. Disease resistance was low for the best treatment (5%–15%) compared to the high values over 60%. The seeds ripened in the experimental plants had acquired resistance against the experimentally inoculated phytopathogen Pythium sp., known to commonly destroy seeds. In the best treatment, more than 90% of the seeds germinated while in all other treatments less than 56% germinated. In conclusion, the vermicomposting using the earthworm Eisenia fetida, 6% biochar, and the biomass of the microalgae Navicula sp. produced seedbed substate that improved the growth of vegetables and suppressed phytopathogens. The seedbed can be used in sustainable agriculture to reduce the use of fertilizers and chemicals.
... Moreover, increasing EO productivity in MB intercropping could be related to direct or indirect transition of N fixed by legume species, enhancing plant access to nutrients, especially N, and increasing the EO content (Amani Machiani et al., 2018a). The gradual release of micro-and macronutrients through the integrative application of NPK+BF enhanced nutrient availability in MB and increased EO content in MB by improving plant growth conditions (Amooaghaie & Golmohammadi, 2017). Similarly, Rezaei-Chiyaneh, reported that sweet basil intercropped with common bean had higher EO percentages in the first (27%) and second (32%) harvests than sole cropping; when fertilized with vermicompost, EO productivity in the first and second harvests increased by 14% and 18%, respectively, relative to sole cropping, due to the gradual release of nutrients and increased nutrient availability for plants. ...
Article
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Intercropping Moldavian balm with mung bean is an ecological approach for improving resource productivity. A field experiment was conducted over two growing seasons (2018 and 2019) to determine the effect of fertilizer application on yield and essential oil (EO) productivity of Moldavian balm intercropped with mung bean. The experiment had a two-factor randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The first factor comprised of five cropping patterns: Moldavian balm sole crop (MBs), mung bean sole crop (MGs), one row each of Moldavian balm + mung bean (1MB:1MG), two rows each of Moldavian balm span style="font-family:'Times New Roman'">+ mung bean (2MB:2MG), and three rows of Moldavian balm + two rows of mung bean (3MB:2MG). The second factor comprised four fertilizer sources: no fertilizer application (C, control), 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK), 50% chemical fertilizer + 100% bacterial fertilizer (NPK+BF), and 100% bacterial fertilizer + 100% mycorrhizal fungi (BF+MF). The sole crop fertilized with NPK+BF produced the highest seed yields for MG (1,189 kg ha–1) and MB (7,027 kg ha–1), while 3MB:2MG fertilized with NPK+BF had the highest nutrient contents. Moldavian balm produced the highest EO content and yield in 2MB:2MG fertilized with NPK+BF. The EO of MB mainly comprised geranyl acetate (30–39%), geranial (20–31%), neral (18–24%), and geraniol (3–8%). In addition, the 3MB:2MG intercropping treatment fertilized with NPK+BF had the highest land equivalent ratio (LER = 1.35). We recommend an intercropping ratio of 2MB:2MG fertilized with NPK+BF is recommended as an alternative and eco-friendly strategy for farmers to improve EO quantity and quality.
... Accumulation of phenolic compounds in plants decreases the palatability of the plant, thus altering the pest (specially arthropods) feeding response and reduction in the number of pests (Mohamadi et al., 2017). Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi (2017) reported the presence of gallic acid and chlorogenic acid in Thyme, believed to suppress Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans. The presence of antimicrobial compounds such as humic acid and certain flavonoids has been reported in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba to control Xanthomonas campestris, Bemisia tabaci and Alternaria sp. ...
Article
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Vermicompost is being used as a component of organic farming, making it imperative to study the role and impact of vermicompost on the growth of diferent plants species. The response of each plant species is unique at varied doses and application modes of vermicompost. Under normal non-stress conditions, many studies have been conducted to know the impact of various application doses and combinations with vermicompost. Compilation of studies in the foresaid arena is very tedious due to diverse experimental designs and plant species used. The main aim of this study is know the mechanisms of the impact of vermicompost on plant growth and other agronomic parameters with or without any environmental stress. An efort has also been made to demonstrate the role of ver�micompost as bio-modulator on agronomics parameters under stress and non-stress condi�tions. The literature search was done from various databases using various keywords and appropriate studies were screened out and relevant ones were used. Studies that establish the role of vermicompost to alleviate the negative impact of stress on the plants have also been compiled. To understand the underlying mechanisms of vermicompost production, its interaction with soil and plants and after vermicompost application to plants has also been correlated. These interrelated mechanisms are otherwise scattered in the literature. The present study reveals the interaction and interplay of earthworm’s gut microbes, soil microbes, and plants’ growth regulators, humic acid and enzymatic actions in soil. It has been brought to light that vermicompost has the potential to positively impact most of the plant species and can be a dependable organic alternative to fertilizers.
... Fertilization, especially N, P and micro elements (Fe, Mn, Zn), has a positive effect on the quality of peppermint essential oil. (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi, 2017). The application of chemical fertilizer, especially N and P, could enhance the plant growth characteristics and yield by improving the photosynthetic rate (Iqbal et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) plant was grown in this study using different mineral fertilizers combinations. Effects of fertilizer treatments on green and drug herb yields, herb essential nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu), essential oil yield, essential oil components (menthol, menthone, 1,8 cineole and menthofuran) and non-essential elements (heavy metal) (Pb, Ni, Co, Cr and Cd) were determined in two successive years (2011-2012). The highest green and drug herb yields were obtained from mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) treatments (24,980 kg ha–1 and 3070 kg ha–1) in the first year and from 15:15:15 treatments (16,950 kg ha–1 and 3080 kg ha–1) in the second year. Nutrient elements nitrogen 2.70% in MAP application, phosphorus 0.55% in mono potassium phosphate (MKP) application, potassium 3.12% in MAP application, calcium 1.47% in di ammonium phosphate (DAP) application, magnesium 0.36% in 15:15:15 application, iron 106 mg kg–1 in 15:15:15 application, copper 11.83 mg kg–1 in MAP application, zinc 35 mg kg–1 in MKP application and manganese 89 mg kg–1 in MAP application the highest value were respectively obtained from treatments. Concentrations of non-essential elements (Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) in herb were found to be below toxic values. In both years, the highest essential oil yields were obtained from MAP treatments (4.10% in the first year and 2.90% in the second year). The essential oil components of peppermint were menthol, menthone, 1,8 cineole and menthofuran and menthol was the major component in both years. Highlights- Nitrogen fertilizer applications increased herb yield.- In terms of plant nutrients, mono ammonium phosphate and 15:15:15 fertilizers were more effective than other fertilizer applications.- Heavy metal concentrations of peppermint herb were determined below the limit values.- The main compound in peppermint essential oils was menthol in both years.
... It has been used to counteract the adverse effects of salinity in many crop plants (Sajid andAftab 2009 andBybordi 2012).Vermicompost-amended soils have better physical anf chemical properties such as aeration,porosity pH, organic matter and nutrientscontent enhancedconsiderably and led to improved crop growth andyield (Lim et al., 2015 andZhu et al., 2017).There is also presence of nitrogen fixing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (Yatoo et al., 2020), substances like gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins and vitamins (Ravindran et al., 2016&Amooaghaie andGolmohammadi 2017) in worm-compost which encourage theoverall productivity of crops. ...
Article
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The experiment was designed to investigate the effect of vermicompost rates (0, 6, 8 and 10 ton fed-1) and ascorbic acid levels (0, 100 and 200 ppm) on growth, yield and nutritional status of tomato plants (Lycopersicum esculentum L. cv Kasel rock) grown in saline soil of Tamia District, El-Fayoum Governorate at two seasons 2018 and 2019. The results indicated that the addition of vermicompost supplemented by spraying with concentrations of ascorbic acid has a significant and clear effect on the growth characteristics and quality and quantity of the tomato plants grown in saline soil at two seasons 2018 and 2019. The highest values of the various components of the tomato plants growth and yield were obtained by adding the high rate of vermicompost (10 ton fed-1) and spraying the high concentration of ascorbic acid (200 ppm). Increasing the addition of vermicompost followed by spraying with ascorbic acid increased the content of the nutrients that benefit tomato plants (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium), while the sodium content of the leaves decreased.
Article
In order to improve growth and yield of medicinal and aromatic plants, the application of natural substances has been increased in recent years. In this study, the effects of different fertilizers under the foliar spray of l-phenylalanine on growth and physiological characteristics and essential oil content of hyssop [Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. Angustifolius (Bieb.)], as one important medicinal and aromatic plants, at field condition in southwestern Iran were investigated in a 2-year study (2016 and 2017). Experimental treatments were including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, chemical (N.P.K), manure, and vermicompost fertilizers with the control in the main plots and as well as three levels of the foliar application of l-phenylalanine in sub plots. Results indicated that the application of organic/biological fertilizers along with l-phenylalanine spraying have beneficial and effective role in improving the growth characteristics, shoot performance, photosynthetic pigments, and active substances of hyssop. Hence, l-phenylalanine spraying effects on improving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis and the application of manure and vermicompost can be a promising strategy in achieving organic production of medicinal plants such as hyssop.
Article
The effects of intercropping system combined with organic fertilizer application on the yield quality of medicinal plants and the involved mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In order to evaluate the effects of different fertilizers (vermicompost, chemical fertilizers) on the essential oil (EO) productivity of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) (D) in sole cropping and intercropping with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (CB), a 3‐year field experiment was carried out using a factorial based on RCBD design. We found that the highest common bean seed yield and dry matter productivity of dragonhead were obtained from sole cropping fertilized with vermicompost. Regarding the major dragonhead EO constituents, the highest content of geranyl acetate (42.2%), geranial (23.4%) and geraniol (17.81%) were recorded using the cropping ratio of 2D:1CB following the use of vermicompost. Soil micro‐biochemical parameters (basic microbial respiration, substrate induced respiration, microbial biomass carbon, alkaline and acid phosphatase and urease) in intercropping systems were found to be higher than those of the corresponding sole croppings. The highest soil microbial activity was observed in the intercropping ratios of 2D:1CB and 1D: 2CB following the use of vermicompost. Furthermore, the highest land equivalent ratios (LER=1.28) was achieved in the intercropping ratio 2D:1CB after vermicompost application. Thus, this combination of stimulated soil microbial activity and functionality, which in turn accelerated nutrient mobilization and availability, enhanced plant performance. Therefore, we can conclude that intercropping dragonhead with common bean at the ratio of 2D:1CB coupled with vermicompost application can be introduced as an alternative and sustainable strategy to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Organic and bioorganic fertilizers were increasingly used for agricultural soil. However, little is known on what kind of organic fertilizer application strategies can promote grape production well and how appropriate fertilization strategies improve soil properties and shift microbial community. This study investigated the improvement in soil physicochemical properties as well as their relations with microbial community structure and grape quality under different fertilization strategies. Our results found that (bio)organic fertilizer (CF1, CF2, and BF) especially combined application of organic and bioorganic fertilization (CBF) had smaller effects on electrical conductivity (EC) and pH, while it improved soil nutrients including N, P, K, and organic matter (OM) well, thereby promoting the grape quality comparing to the group without any fertilizer (CK) and with chemical fertilizer (NPK). Especially, the concentrations of Cr, Hg, Zn, and Cu were reduced by 13.63%, 12.50%, 12.52%, and 11.75% in CBF, respectively. Additionally, CF1, CF2, and BF, especially CBF, optimized the communities’ composition and increased the abundance of some plant probiotics such as Solirubrobacter and Lysobacter. Nevertheless, excessive application of organic fertilizer derived from livestock manure could cause the accumulation of heavy metals such as Zn and Cu in soil and leaves, which could further influence the grape quality. Additionally, the structure of microbial communities was also changed possibly because some bacterial genera showed distinct adaptability to the stress of heavy metals or the utilization capacity of N, P, K, and OM. Our results demonstrated that combined application of organic and bioorganic fertilization showed a great influence on soil physicochemical properties, whose positive changes could further optimize microbial communities and facilitate the promotion of grape quality.
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Fusarium oxysporum is one of pathogens causing the damping-off disease of Plantago psyllium in Iran. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Bacillus subtilis and vermicompost singly and in combination on control of Fusarium–induced damping-off in psyllium. The results showed that vermicompost or B. subtilis, significantly increased the growth of psyllium seedlings and both were effective biocontrol agents against F. oxysporum. Among treatments at least damping-off incidence was recorded in combination of 50% vermicompost and B. subtilis. Results for the first time exhibited that vermicompost as well as B. subtilis induced systemic resistance through nitric oxide (NO) signaling and their combined application further than their individual treatments induced development of plant defense related enzymes including β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) and also more effectively reduced lipid peroxidation in psyllium leaves. These findings suggested potential of B. subtilis in promoting plant growth as well as inducing systemic resistance in the host plants, was enhanced by vermicompost application.
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Volatile oil from the flower petals of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is one of the most valuable and important raw materials in the perfumery, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the impacts of vermicompost, animal manures, and chemical fertilizer on the flower yield, quantity, and chemical compositions as well as the quality index of the volatile oils from the R. damascena flower petals were assessed during three experimental years (2016–2018). Results indicated that the influences of the organic manures and chemical fertilizer during three experimental years were significant on the volatile oil content and yield and the percentages of some major constituents of the volatile oil. The maximum value of the fresh flower petals weight was obtained from the vermicompost, horse dung manure, and N-P-K fertilizer in the third experimental year. In addition, chemical fertilizer treatment followed by the vermicompost and horse dung manure had the highest essential oil content in the second and third experimental years. The vermicompost, horse dung manure, and N-P-K fertilizer improved the volatile oil yield by 102.6%, 99.9%, and 107.9%, respectively in the third experimental year (2018) with control (non-amendment) in the first experimental year (2016). Furthermore, the main compounds of the R. damascena volatile oils analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS were β-citronellol, geraniol, nonadecane, heneicosane, 1-nonadecane, E-citral (geranial), Z-citral (neral), and α-pinene, which the experimental treatments had significant impacts on their percentages. The highest concentration of monoterpene alcohols (such as β-citronellol and geraniol), as an important quality index, which contributes mainly to the perfumery value of rose oil, were obtained from the vermicompost and animal manures in the third experimental year (64.35%, 65.47%, and 61.53%; vermicompost, horse dung manure, and cow dung manure, respectively). Moreover, the best treatment for β-citronellol/geraniol (C/G) ratio, as a typical characteristic of rose oil, was the cow dung manure in the third experimental year by 1.3. On the other hand, the highest values of hydrocarbons such as heneicosane, n-nonadecane, 1-nonadecene, and docosane were obtained from control and N-P-K fertilizer in the first and second experimental years. In conclusion, to improve the quantity and quality of the damask rose volatile oil and also aromatic plant, applying organic sources such as vermicompost and animal manures are recommended in the semiarid climate.
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Endophytic bacterial strains were evaluated for their efficacy against the damping off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton. Among hundred and three endophytic bacterial strains isolated, two strains ( Bacillus sp. strains EPCO102 and EPCO16) significantly increased plant growth and inhibited the mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani in vitro conditions. The efficacy of talc-based bioformulation of endophytic bacterial strains, EPCO102, EPCO16 and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf1 amended with and without chitin in inducing systemic resistance was tested against damping off disease under greenhouse conditions. The application of the bioformulation through seed, soil and foliar spray significantly reduced disease incidence under greenhouse conditions. The amendment of chitin in the formulation further reduced the disease incidence. EPCO102, EPCO16 and Pf1 strain along with chitin treatment was recorded 46.7, 53.3 and 40.0% damping-off incidence compared to control 83.3%. Treatment with the endophytic bacterial bioformulation increased the levels of the defence-related enzymes chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and phenol in cotton plants which had been challenged with R. solani . In addition to plant growth and antibiosis, endophytic bacterial strains enhanced the resistance in plants through the induction of defense enzymes in cotton plants.
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Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) produce humic substances that can influence plant growth by mechanisms that are not yet clear. In this work, we investigated the effects of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cattle manure earthworm compost on the earliest stages of lateral root development and on the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. These HAs enhance the root growth of maize (Zea mays) seedlings in conjunction with a marked proliferation of sites of lateral root emergence. They also stimulate the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, apparently associated with an ability to promote expression of this enzyme. In addition, structural analysis reveals the presence of exchangeable auxin groups in the macrostructure of the earthworm compost HA. These results may shed light on the hormonal activity that has been postulated for these humic substances.
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Chapter
As the previous chapter testifies, there is a considerable literature to show that under certain conditions, humic substances can influence plant growth. These influences can be conveniently considered as being direct or indirect. An example of the latter would be the complexation by humic substances of a nutrient cation in the growth medium resulting in an enhanced uptake of the nutrient into the plant31,34,53,87,88,152. In contrast, direct effects on plant growth are the result of the humic substances directly interfering with metabolic processes such as respiration or nucleic acid and protein synthesis36,37,42,72,161.
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Environmental factors affect the genotype and determine growth and active substances in medicinal plants. Nutrients are one of the most important environmental factors. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of garden thyme. N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O were applied together in a 1:1:1 ratio with six levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/kg soil of pot) in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fertilizer treatments showed significant differences. The maximum shoot height (38.37 cm) was achieved on 50 mg. The highest green herb weight (42.78 g/plant) and drug herb weight (11.92 g/plant) were observed in 100 mg which were not significantly different when compared to 75 mg. Essential oil percentage was maximum (0.73%) in 100 mg which was not significantly different when compared to 50 and 75 mg. The highest essential oil content (86.98 mg/plant) was shown in 100 mg. Total phenolic content was maximum (22.52 mg GAE/g dw) in 50 mg.
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While earthworms are known to improve plant growth by improving the structure of the soil, recent work has suggested that earthworms also produced humic substances endowed with hormone-like activity. Suspensions of Daucus carota (carrot) cells were treated with auxin derivatives (2,4-D=2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, IAA=indole-3-acetic acid and NAA=1-naphthylacetic acid) and a humic substance of low molecular weight (HEf), obtained from the faeces of the earthworms Nicodrilus caliginosus and Allolobophora rosea, which have auxin-like activity. HEf, at a concentration of 200 μg C l−l, caused an increase in carrot cell growth, determined by packed cell volumes, similar to that of 2,4-D, and morphological changes induced by HEf were similar to those induced by IAA. Humic matter and the tested auxin derivatives stimulated carrot cell glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and malic dehydrogenase (MDH) to various extents. When carrot cells were treated with HEf or IAA, GDH and MDH isoenzymes separated by isoelectrofocusing showed similar polymorphism. The addition of HEf or auxin derivatives to carrot cells caused an increase in free amino acids belonging to the oxaloacetate and α-ketoglutarate pathways. Our results showed that HEf affects nitrate metabolism, has auxin-like activity, was strongly acidic and had elevated peptide, carbohydrate and aliphatic C contents. Our work has confirmed that the effective materials in the HEf were highly acidic and of low molecular weight. We conclude that, in addition to the already well established modes of action, earthworms are important in humogenesis because their faeces contained humic substances that can influence plant growth via physiological effects.
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Four Pseudomonad strains were used with or without vermicompost amendment to see their performance on potato plant growth and yield along with suppression of common scab of potato. Two locations in the Varanasi district of India were selected as they had been under potato cultivation for the past one decade and the scab pathogen was well established. Among the various treatments, the Pseudomonad strain R1 when applied with vermicompost gave the best plant growth and yield along with maximum reduction in scab incidence and scab index. The strain R1 was later identified as Pseudomonas mosselii. The treatment also showed maximum activities of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POX) and the first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in a pot experiment till 72 h after pathogen challenge and then declined thereafter. Interestingly the activities of both POX and PAL were higher in the potato tuber peels, the active site of pathogen interaction, than in the potato leaves. The results revealed the potential of P. mosselii strain R1 in promoting plant growth as well as inducing antimicrobial mechanisms systemically in the host plants facilitated by the organic amendment in the form of vermicompost.Graphical abstractResearch highlights► Pseudomonas mosselii reduced common scab incidence and index in potato. ► P. mosselii increased peroxidase and PAL activities in tuber peel. ► Performance of P. mosselii enhanced by vermicompost. ► P. mosselii and vermicompost in combination increased tuber yield.
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This study compiles the impact of vermiwash on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemistry of Cyamopsis tertagonoloba and Trigonella foenum-graecum under lab conditions. A total of four experimental solutions, i.e. 100% vermiwash, 50% vermiwash, 5% urea solution and distilled water, were used in this study. The maximum germination was in 50% vermiwash, while plant growth parameters (root length, shoot length, shoot/root ratio and leaves/plant) showed the optimum results in 100% vermiwash trial. The highest level of chlorophyll in fresh leaves was in 100% vermiwash treatment. The seedlings with 100% vermiwash foliar spray showed the maximum level of total protein, total soluble sugars and starch (p < 0.05) in their tissues. Thus, results clearly suggested that vermiwash may be an ecologically safe and cost-effective alternative of synthetic plant growth promoters for sustainable farming practices.
Article
Changes in the content of C, N, P, and S in the soil biomass and in phosphatase, urease, protease, deaminase, and arylsulphatase activity, induced by amendment with municipal solid-waste compost, were determined in a clay loam soil during 1 year of incubation at 25 and 35C.In the unenriched soil (control) decreasing trends in biomass C, biomass N, and biomass S were observed at both temperatures. In the enriched soil, these values increased, reaching a maximum after 1 month. Biomass P, probably due to a slower process of P immobilization, showed different trends. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, and deaminase activity remained constant after reaching maximum values (3–5 months). Arylsulphatase, urease, and protease activity tended to return to baseline after reaching a maximum (2–3 months).Atrazine, though applied at a dose that was 10 times higher than the recommended field rate, did not modify the chemical and biochemical properties of either the control or the enriched soil.Significant positive and negative correlations between changes in biomass values and changes in enzyme activity were found. The negative correlations are attributed to the delay in the enzymatic response compared with the changes in microbial biomass.
Article
Understanding the effects of alternative farming on soil quality parameters, such as microbial communities, size, activity and soil nutrient content, is of central importance to concepts of sustainability. Combining organic amendments with chemical fertilizer is a promising approach to develop more sustainable fertilization strategies. We investigated the impacts of quantity, type and application time of organic amendments on temporal dynamics of paddy soil microbial biomass, activity, carbon fractions and nutrient status under a long-term field experiment in a rice–rice cropping system. We established treatments with seven fertilization practices characterized by different quantities and application times of green manure (GM), farmyard manure (FYM) and rice straw (RS) in combination with low amount of chemical fertilizers. We further established one treatment with only recommended amount of chemical fertilizer and an unfertilized control. At all sampling times, organic amendments with low amount of chemical fertilizer enhanced microbial biomass, activity and nutrient availability more than recommended amount of chemical fertilization only and an unfertilized control, with higher quantities of FYM resulting in stronger effects than all other organic amendments. The strongest increase of microbial biomass, activity, carbon and nutrient availability was generally found in the treatment with the most diverse resources and highest amount of organic amendments. Principle component analysis indicated that most soil variables measured were correlated to total soil organic C. Regression analysis indicated that the integrated paddy soil properties were closely related to yearly C input and rice yield. Strong temporal dynamics were demonstrated for all soil variables, indicating that we need multiple time sampling strategies to explore the overall influences of fertilization practices on paddy soil. Our results indicate that the development of effective fertilization practices, especially by manipulating the quantity and type of organic amendments, may improve long-term sustainability of paddy soil ecosystems.
Article
Vermicompost was produced from a green waste compost feedstock and assessed for its potential use in a high value horticultural market. Replicated plant growth trials were undertaken with lettuce using pure worm cast (vermicompost), green waste-derived compost and mixtures of the two, i.e. 50/50 (v/v) and 20/80 (v/v) of worm casts and green waste feedstock. Results showed that plant biomass production was optimal with a 20/80 (v/v) compost blend, whilst pure worm cast and green waste compost yielded poor growth. Leaf chlorophyll content indicated that pure worm cast inhibited plant growth and depressed N content, whereas plant grown with the other treatments contained similar amounts of chlorophyll. In general, the vermicomposting process did not result in an increased availability of nutrients or potentially toxic elements, the only exception being Zn.
Article
Oxidation of guaiacol by peroxidases in the presence of H2O2 is the basis for a widely used colorimetric assay. However, the nature of the assay product, which has an absorption maximum around 470 nm, had not been determined. In the present study, we combined HPLC with a rapid scanning uv-visible detector and observed a single product with a spectrum identical to the assay product from the reaction catalyzed by lactoperoxidase. Analysis of the reaction product using on-line HPLC with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization detection (LC-APCI/MS) yielded a mass spectrum consistent with 3,3 '-dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylquinone. A minor reaction product was observed with mass spectrum consistent with 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl. The presence of a catechol impurity in guaiacol was previously shown to yield an additional product from peroxidase-mediated oxidation based on its visible absorption (Taurog et al., 1992 Anal. Biochem. 205, 271-277). When such an incubation mixture was analyzed using LC-APCI/MS, a product with mass spectrum consistent with 3-methoxy-2',3',4-trihydroxybiphenyl was observed. Identification of such a heterodimeric product supports the previously proposed mechanism for catechol interference in the guaiacol assay as well as the radical nature of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of phenols.
Article
The influence of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield of crop, as well as on the production and composition of the essential oil and some other chemical characteristics of thyme, was investigated. Different levels of fertilizers (N = 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg x ha(-)(1)) were applied. It was found that fertilizers increase thyme crop, but differences in the yield of essential oil were not remarkable. However, the use of certain amounts of nitrogen fertilizers resulted in higher yields of essential oil obtainable from the cultivation area unit (dm(3) ha(-)(1)). Totally, 61 constituents were identified in thyme essential oil by capillary GC and GC-MS. Thymol was the dominating compound in the all analyzed oils (44.4-58.1%), followed by p-cymene (9.1-18.5%), gamma-terpinene (6.9-18.9%), and carvacrol (2.4-4.2%). Differences in the percentage of these and other compounds in thyme herb cultivated under different fertilization doses were not significant; very slight changes in the percentage composition were detected after drying. Some variations in the amount of individual constituents expressed in arbitrary units per kilogram of herb (which is almost equivalent to mg x kg(-)(1)) were observed. The highest amounts of sugars and sucrose, in particular, were determined in the second year of thyme cultivation. Differences in the content of dry soluble substances were not meaningful, and there was no effect of nitrogen fertilizers on this chemical characteristic. Some effect of fertilization on the content of vitamin C and carotenes was observed in the first year of thyme cultivation. It was determined that nitrogen fertilizers influence the amount of nitrates, which was highest in the second-year-first-harvest.
Suppression of the plant diseases Pythium (dimping-off), Rhizoctonia (root rot) and Verticillium (wilt) by vermicopost. Proceeding of an International Conference.The BCPC Conference: Pests and disease
  • H Chaoui
  • C A Edwards
  • A Brickner
  • S S Lee
  • N Q Arancon
Effect of vermicompost and fertility levels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile
  • J Liuc
  • B Pank
Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth and yield of Amaranthus species
  • B Uma
  • M Malathi
Vermiculture can promote sustainable agriculture and completely replace chemical agriculture: Some experimental evidences by studies on potted and formed cereal and vegetable crops
  • J Agric
Evaluation of antioxidant activity, total phenols and phenolic compounds in thyme
  • Hamdy Roby
  • M A Sarhan
  • K A H Selim