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Abstract

Livestock contribute to food security by supplying essential macro- and micro-nutrients, providing manure and draught power, and generating income. But they also consume food edible by humans and graze on pastures that could be used for crop production. Livestock, especially ruminants, are often seen as poor converters of feed into food products. This paper analyses global livestock feed rations and feed conversion ratios, with specific insight on the diversity in production systems and feed materials. Results estimate that livestock consume 6 billion tonnes of feed (dry matter) annually – including one third of global cereal production – of which 86% is made of materials that are currently not eaten by humans. In addition, soybean cakes, which production can be considered as main driver or land-use, represent 4% of the global livestock feed intake. Producing 1 kg of boneless meat requires an average of 2.8 kg human-edible feed in ruminant systems and 3.2 kg in monogastric systems. While livestock is estimated to use 2.5 billion ha of land, modest improvements in feed use efficiency can reduce further expansion.
... The proper feeding regime is critical and should be given due consideration while comparing various meat production systems' efficiency or environmental impact. For instance, a 10% increase in feed conversion efficiency could lead to 43% higher profit as compared to 18% profit is the same degree of increase in daily weight gain; making FCR a better indicator for efficiency than average daily weight gain (Mottet et al. 2017) and residual feed intake (RFI). RFI is a heritable trait independent of body size, sex, and age, involving a comparison of metabolic body weight and average daily gain, the lower/negative more efficient and vice-versa (Elolimy et al. 2019). ...
... Ruminants are mainly reared on mixed/grazing/roughages systems and only put on intensive feeding before 3-4 months of slaughter, whereas poultry and pig are reared on a concentrate-rich diet resulting in about 80% higher feed consumption (Mottet et al. 2017;Terry et al. 2021). Ruminants consume high amount of dry matter (133 kg) and lower concentrate (2.8 kg) for produce 1 kg beef as compared to 30 kg dry matter and 3.2 kg concentrate consumed by monogastric for producing the same quantity of meat (Mottet et al. 2017). ...
... Ruminants are mainly reared on mixed/grazing/roughages systems and only put on intensive feeding before 3-4 months of slaughter, whereas poultry and pig are reared on a concentrate-rich diet resulting in about 80% higher feed consumption (Mottet et al. 2017;Terry et al. 2021). Ruminants consume high amount of dry matter (133 kg) and lower concentrate (2.8 kg) for produce 1 kg beef as compared to 30 kg dry matter and 3.2 kg concentrate consumed by monogastric for producing the same quantity of meat (Mottet et al. 2017). Pigs' and poultry' feed conversion efficiency had reached as low as 1.5, whereas ruminants had an FCR value of about 5 (Berry and Crowley 2013). ...
Article
Treating livestock as senseless production machines has led to rampant depletion of natural resources, enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, gross animal welfare violations, and other ethical issues. it has essentially instigated constant scrutiny of conventional meat production by various experts and scientists. Sustainably in the meat sector is a big challenge which requires a multifaced and holistic approach. Novel tools like digitalization of the farming system and livestock market, precision livestock farming, application of remote sensing and artificial intelligence to manage production and environmental impact/GHG emission, can help in attaining sustainability in this sector. Further, improving nutrient use efficiency and recycling in feed and animal production through integration with agroecology and industrial ecology, improving individual animal and herd health by ensuring proper biosecurity measures and selective breeding, and welfare by mitigating animal stress during production are also key elements in achieving sustainability in meat production. in addition, sustainability bears a direct relationship with various social dimensions of meat production efficiency such as non-market attributes, balance between demand and consumption, market and policy failures. The present review critically examines the various aspects that significantly impact the efficiency and sustainability of meat production.
... In many parts of the world, especially in temperate regions, meat is the main product and meat is becoming more important in the production of sheep (1). 11 Sheep and goats contribute significantly to the economy of farmers in different countries including Iraq (2). Numerous biological diseases such as fungal diseases can infected small Bas J Vet Res, 21(2), 2022. ...
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The current study aimed at the isolation and identification of some fungal types that infected the lungs and rumens of small ruminants (non-healthy animals). To achieve this goal, 100 samples from sheep, and goat lungs and rumen tissues (50 for each), were collected from the Basrah slaughterhouse. Fungi were isolated from the samples and diagnosed based on the morphology of colonies cultured on Sabraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media, then detected microscopically after staining with methylene cotton blue and Indian ink stain. PCR and DNA sequencing of the18S rRNA ribosomal gene confirmed the important and common fungal isolates. The current study showed the presence of fungal isolates in lung samples of sheep including, Cryptococcus spp. (29.43%) represented the highest percentage. While the lowest percentage was Coccidioides spp. accounted for (4.878%). However, those isolated from the rumen of sheep in high percent was Cryptococcus spp. (48.571%), and finally, the lungs contained Coccidioides spp. (4.878%). The result of fungal isolates from the lungs of the goats in high numbers was Aspergillus spp. (42.5%), the fungal isolate that appears in low numbers, Candida spp. (7.5%).
... Agricultural and Food Economics (2022) 10:18 omnivorous diet has a higher environmental impact than a conventional one (see also Chai et al. (2019)). Additionally, Mottet et al. (2017) highlight that animals have relatively low efficiency in converting feed into human-edible foods, more so when considering that feed rations may contain human-edible food and that these feed rations are competing for land suitable for human-edible food production. Particularly, the authors estimate that to produce 1 kg of boneless requires an average of 2.8 kg and 3.2 kg of human-edible feed in ruminant and monogastric systems, respectively. ...
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Plant-based diets are often promoted as healthier and more sustainable and thus as a mechanism to achieve the targets proposed to mitigate climate change and noncommunicable diseases. However, plant-based diets can be perceived as more expensive than the common omnivorous diets, when considering the expensive novel meat substitutes and also the higher costs of fruits and vegetables, whose consumption is perceived to increase. Therefore, the present study assesses the question: Do plant-based consumers spend more on food compared to omnivorous consumers? Based on primary data ( n = 1040) collected through an online survey, representative of the Portuguese population, through logistic regressions, it was possible to conclude that plant-based consumers, particularly vegan, are associated with lower food expenditures compared to omnivorous consumers. In fact, plant-based consumers are shown to spend less than all other consumers assessed. Food policies aligning healthiness and sustainability with affordability can deliver a major boost for the promotion of plant-based diets and help achieve the mitigation targets proposed.
... Entre estos ambientes, los pastizales, conocidos localmente como campos naturales, son los más importantes en cuanto a extensión y son el principal recurso forrajero de la ganadería. Esta actividad agropecuaria ocupa 12,8 millones de hectáreas (73 % del territorio) de las cuales 92 % pertenecen a ambientes naturales y 8 % a pasturas sembradas (MGAP.DIEA, 2020) La ganadería genera impacto ambiental a través de la modificación de los hábitats naturales y de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero que contribuyen al cambio climático (Gerber et al., 2013, Mottet et al., 2017, Brazeiro et al., 2020. Aún cuando los pastizales no se sustituyan, los manejos con alta intensidad de pastoreo se asocian con efectos negativos como la erosión del suelo, la reducción de las reservas de carbono orgánico y la disminución de la biodiversidad de plantas y animales (Modernel et al., 2016). ...
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Resumen La ganadería genera impacto ambiental a través de la modificación de los hábitats naturales y de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero que contribuyen al cambio climático. Sin embargo, la ganadería basada en pastizales naturales y manejada con adecuado ajuste de intensidad de pastoreo, puede tener también impactos positivos y mitigar varios efectos negativos. El presente trabajo está basado en el análisis de información sobre poblaciones de aves y resume datos obtenidos en 30 establecimientos ganaderos y cuatro campos experimentales del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), generada durante 15 años en diversos proyectos de investigación. Se registraron un total de 274 especies de aves, 43 de las cuales son consideradas prioritarias para la conservación. Se analiza la presencia de especies prioritarias especialistas de pastizal en función del manejo ganadero. Para ello se clasifican dichas especies en tres grupos según necesidades de hábitat. Del análisis surge que las especies de aves que requieren pastizales con pastos bajos o la ocurrencia de parches de pastizal alto en la matriz de pastos bajos pueden encontrar condiciones adecuadas en predios ganaderos bien manejados. Las especies que requieren exclusivamente pastizales altos, tienen dificultad para encontrar las condiciones adecuadas dentro de los sistemas ganaderos. Palabras clave Biodiversidad; sistemas pastoriles; ecosistemas; pastizales. Livestock agroecosystems important habitat for birds: qualitative analysis of the effect of productive management on conservation priority species in Uruguay Abstract Livestock production generates environmental impact through the modification of natural habitats and greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, livestock based on natural grasslands and managed with adequate grazing intensity adjustment, can also have positive impacts, and mitigate several negative effects. This work is based on the analysis of information on bird populations and summarizes data obtained in 30 livestock farms and four experimental fields of the National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), generated during 15 years in various research projects. A total of 274 species of birds were recorded, 43 of which are considered a priority for conservation. The presence of priority grassland specialist species is analyzed based on livestock system management. For this objective, species are classified into three groups according to habitat needs. From the analysis it appears that bird species that require grasslands with low grass or the occurrence of patches of tall grassland in the matrix of low grasslands, can find suitable conditions in well-managed cattle farms. Species that exclusively require tall grasslands have difficulty finding the right conditions within livestock systems. Introducción La biodiversidad de plantas, animales y otros organismos vivos es esencial para el sostenimiento de diversos servicios eco-sistémicos que contribuyen al bienestar, como por ejemplo la producción de biomasa; el ciclado de nutrientes, la formación del suelo, la fijación de nitrógeno, la polinización, el control de plagas y enfermedades, la regulación del clima, etc. (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Artigo Oscar Blumetto Los agroecosistemas ganaderos importante hábitat para las aves: análisis cualitativo del efecto del manejo productivo en especies prioritarias para la conservación en Uruguay Recursos Rurais (2022) nº 18 : 5-15 IBADER: Instituto de Biodiversidade Agraria e Desenvolvemento Rural
Article
Purpose Although the livestock sector is considered to be an important segment of the Saudi Arabian economy, its contribution, including the multiple sources of commercial income it provides, is underestimated. This industry provides thousands of jobs in various related sectors and meets national demand for food. This study aims to examine the impact of breeding inputs such as animal production, marketing processes and operation and legislation on livestock sector efficiency and strategic food security. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted an exploratory approach. The sample consisted of specialists in industrial production and livestock breeders in the northern region of Saudi Arabia. The relative importance index was used to analyze the data, which was evaluated using structural equation modeling in SPSS. Findings The results show the significant influence of breeding inputs, markets and legislation on increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector and the impact of livestock on strategic food security. They also highlight the need to motivate governments to focus on this sector, especially by reducing taxes on breeders’ income and lowering livestock costs accordingly. The Saudi Arabian Government should also facilitate innovative agreements to create global markets for the export of surplus livestock products. In addition, a marketing process is lacking in all areas of production and the local and international marketing of livestock products, which requires the support of different sources of fodder and establishment of markets for specific types of meat slaughter, packaging and sales. Research limitations/implications This research was limited to the northern region of Saudi Arabia. Practical implications This study highlights the importance of marketing processes and activities according to marketing operations as they used in study instrument to explore their impact on in the marketing livestock sector for national food security strategies and guides future studies in this field. Social implications This research recommends that decision-makers support marketing in the livestock sector and reduce production taxes. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, no previous related research has been conducted in the field of food security.
Chapter
Water buffaloes are integral part of the livestock production system in South Asian countries. Over the years, water buffaloes have proved their rusticity, productivity, adoptability, and contribution to nutritional security under the resource-poor conditions in underdeveloped and developing countries. This chapter highlights their contribution to national economies, nutritional security, sustainable practices, and success stories. Climate smart nature of water buffaloes, their multiple utility, suitability under smallholder production system, reduced food miles, and contribution to UN-sustainable development goals have been narrated.
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Environmental pollutants are considered a serious health problem for humans and animals mainly in ruminants for several regions of the world. Previously, many studies have investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of these pollutants on laboratory animals. Afterward, other studies have demonstrated that exposure to environmental pollutants may cause several adverse effects on the ruminant organs, influencing their performance and leading to socioeconomic problems for breeders. Fluoride, lead, arsenic, and cadmium are the most common poisonings in ruminants, they can cause several irreversible toxic effects in many organs depending on the mode of action. The adverse effects of fluoride, lead, arsenic, and cadmium toxicities in laboratory animals and ruminants have been clearly summarized in this review. In addition, several results on protective or ameliorative effects by means of natural products against these toxicities have been illustrated.
Technical Report
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Executive Summary 1. Livestock are raised in 208 countries around the world for human consumption. This sector provides meat-based protein, milk and supply raw material for other industrial products. It is estimated that globally between 600 million (Thornton et al., 2002; Thornton et al., 2009) and 1.3 billion (The World Bank, 2020; van de Steeg et al., 2009) people are dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributes only 1.5 percent to the global economy. 2. Livestock production occupies up to 75 percent of global agricultural land (Foley et al., 2011) and up to 45 percent of the land surface of the planet (Ritchie and Roser, 2013). Livestock farming consumes 30 percent of agricultural freshwater (Mekonnen and Hoekstra, 2012; Ran et al., 2017), 58 percent of the economically appropriated plant biomass and farmed animals have come to dominate the biosphere with 60 percent of all mammals on the planet being domesticated. 3. From a nutritional and economic perspective, livestock products play a surprisingly small role in our diets and economy. Livestock products provide only 17 percent of average global calorie intake and 30 percent of average global protein intake (Mottet et al., 2017), and livestock now consume more human edible protein than they produce (Steinfeld et al., 2006a). 4. Total number of livestock estimated to be raised in 2018 are 28.6 billion. It includes 1.4 billion cattle, 206 million buffaloes, 1.2 billion sheep, a little over 1 billion goats, 978 million pigs, and 24 billion poultry. 5. Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of six types of livestock (cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry) are estimated to be in the range of 10.7 – 16.9 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) assuming a global warming potential (GWP) for methane of 34 and 86 respectively. 6. This includes enteric fermentation (CH4) between 3.4 – 8.8 Gt CO2e, manure management (CH4) between 343 – 890 Mt CO2e, manure management (N2O) at 119 Mt CO2e, manure grazing (N2O) at 870 Mt CO2e, animal feed (CO2) at 143 Mt CO2e, fertiliser (N2O) at 253 Mt CO2e, fertiliser (CO2) at 291 Mt CO2e, crop residue (N2O) at 77 Mt CO2e, foregone soil carbon sequestration (CO2) at 1.4 Gt CO2e, LUC for pasture expansion (CO2) at 1.8 Gt CO2e, LUC for cropland expansion (CO2) at 141 Mt CO2e, degraded grazing land (CO2) at 244 Mt CO2e, animal respiration (CO2) at 1.86 Gt. 7. Our results show that, total livestock related emissions are in the range of 19.2 – 30.3 percent of the total anthropogenic global emissions from all economic sectors (55.6 Gt in 2018). 8. Our results include estimates for foregone soil carbon sequestration from the land that is used to grow animal feed, land use change (LUC) due to pasture and cropland expansion, degraded grazing land and includes animal respiration, However, we did not include transport, energy and processing related emissions due to lack of publicly available granular data at local to global scale. We assume that our estimates would significantly improve if we include energy, transport and processing related emissions. 9. We also estimated carbon sequestration potential from afforestation of cropland that is currently used to grow animal feed. It ranged from 38 Gt CO2 assuming low biomass estimates to 225 Gt CO2 assuming the highest estimates of biomass accumulation. 10. Further research can help to refine these estimates by using granular data about each stage of livestock value chain 11. While we estimate total GHG emissions attributable to global livestock sector, there are several other environmental, social and health impacts that need further attention by future research, practice and policy.
Thesis
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A more circular food system is increasingly proposed to address the challenge of feeding a growing world population while limiting environmental impacts and resource use. A circular food system prioritises resources for direct food supply to avoid feed-food competition. The role of animals is to upcycle resources unsuitable or undesired for human consumption, so called low-opportunity-cost feeds (LCF) into animal-source food. This thesis evaluates the potential of various animals in upcycling LCF in a circular food system by applying an optimisation model that allocates available LCF to that combination of animals that maximise the supply of human digestible protein (HDP) to a EU-28 case study. We first explored the potential of common livestock species in the EU (e.g. pigs, laying hens, broilers, dairy cattle and beef cattle) under various productivity levels. Optimal use of LCF required livestock systems that had a high conversion efficiency (laying hens, dairy cattle), were best able to valorise specific LCF (dairy cattle for grass; pigs for food waste) and could valorise low quality LCF due to their low productivity. When, in addition, considering fish – currently the only natural source of the essential eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) ω-3 fatty acids – while demanding EPA/DHA requirements are met, fish provide nutritious food via both capture fisheries and fish farming. Even if capture fisheries rebuilds stocks and prioritises edible fish for human consumption, it can only fulfil 40% of EPA/DHA requirements. The farmed fatty fish needed to meet these requirements depend on fisheries by-products to meet their EPA/DHA requirements and livestock slaughter by-products to meet their high fat and protein requirements. A circular food system thus requires a combination of co-dependent animal production systems, tailored to the available LCF and the desired nutrient output. As the availability of food leftovers as LCF is currently restricted by legislation and other barriers, we explored the potential of food leftovers currently not used as LCF. Potential to increase animal protein intake was highest for, currently banned, household waste (+12%) and livestock by�products (+18%) that are allowed in fish feed but currently not used and appear essential to meet human requirements of EPA/DHA ω-3 fatty acids in a circular food system. Improved use and legalisation of inevitable food leftovers can improve the resource use efficiency of both current and future circular food systems. When allowing all LCF in a circular food system, livestock and fish provide an HDP intake up to 39 g per capita per day, less than current animal protein supply but meeting 65% of total protein requirements. A circular food system, thus, requires a reduction in ASF consumption, and a change in the type of ASF we consume, where fish and milk become more prominent. While the used food systems approach illustrates the potential of animal production in a circular food system, it provides little direction to farmers in achieving sustainability objectives. Currently, they base their sustainability strategies on supply chain life cycle assessments (LCA) that does not account for feed-food competition. In a case study of a novel egg production system, such LCA underestimated the environmental benefit of feeding only LCF with 57% for global warming potential and 96% for land use. The proposed food-based allocation, better captures the complexity of the food system, a first step towards metrics that stimulate circularity. Besides improved understanding of our food system, such novel metrics and changed consumption patterns, the paradigm shift needed to move towards a circular food system requires that policy makers value social and economic aspects within the ecological boundaries of our planet. This way, farm animals can contribute to the resource use efficiency of the entire food system.
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In 2000, the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) projected that global demand for animal source food (ASF) would double by 2050 (Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012). Although these projections were revised slightly during recent years, they form the basis of many scientific and policy documents related to livestock production. Those projections, however, are based on global trends for a growing population and increasing incomes and urbanization, but not based on ensuring global nutrition security in a sustainable way. Currently, the world’s livestock sector adds to the total anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and competes for scarce resources, such as land, water, and fossil-energy. Without changes to reduce the environmental impact, concerns about the environment will only increase further. We asked ourselves, how and why livestock production is essential and what would be the proportion of ASF in human diets to ensure nutrition security in a sustainable way? As land is a strict limitation of nutrition security, we took a land-use perspective, irrespective of socio- economic or technical constraints.
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Growing global population figures and per-capita incomes imply an increase in food demand and pressure to expand agricultural land. Agricultural expansion into natural ecosystems affects biodiversity and leads to substantial carbon dioxide emissions. Considerable attention has been paid to prospects for increasing food availability, and limiting agricultural expansion, through higher yields on cropland. In contrast, prospects for efficiency improvements in the entire food-chain and dietary changes toward less land-demanding food have not been explored as extensively. In this study, we present model-based scenarios of global agricultural land use in 2030, as a basis for investigating the potential for land-minimized growth of world food supply through: (i) faster growth in feed-to-food efficiency in animal food production; (ii) decreased food wastage; and (iii) dietary changes in favor of vegetable food and less land-demanding meat. The scenarios are based in part on projections of global food agriculture for 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO. The scenario calculations were carried out by means of a physical model of the global food and agriculture system that calculates the land area and crops/pasture production necessary to provide for a given level of food consumption. In the reference scenario - developed to represent the FAO projections - global agricultural area expands from the current 5.1 billion ha to 5.4 billion ha in 2030. In the faster-yet-feasible livestock productivity growth scenario, global agricultural land use decreases to 4.8 billion ha. In a third scenario, combining the higher productivity growth with a substitution of pork and/or poultry for 20% of ruminant meat, land use drops further, to 4.4 billion ha. In a fourth scenario, applied mainly to high-income regions, that assumes a minor transition towards vegetarian food (25% decrease in meat consumption) and a somewhat lower food wastage rate, land use in these regions decreases further, by about 15%.