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Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice

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... As shown in Figure 1a, the molecular weight of the SPED (6.4 kDa) was higher than that of SPE (4.8 kDa). A similar result was also obtained by Wang et al. (2017) [13]. Therefore, the chelation reaction between Cr 3+ and SPE led to the increase of molecular weight. ...
... As shown in Figure 1a, the molecular weight of the SPED (6.4 kDa) was higher than that of SPE (4.8 kDa). A similar result was also obtained by Wang et al. (2017) [13]. Therefore, the chelation reaction between Cr 3+ and SPE led to the increase of molecular weight. ...
... Additionally, the chromium content (20.26%) of SPED was relatively higher, compared with that of an Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-chromium (III) complex (13.01%) [13]. Chromium content of SPED might be closely related to the unique structure of the carbohydrate chain. ...
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Polysaccharide chromium (III) derivatives are gaining increasing attention in improving type 2 diabetes. In this study, the sulfated polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera (SPE) with 4.8 kDa was prepared by specific enzymatic hydrolysis. The obtained SPE was used to prepare a rhamnan-type sulfated polysaccharide derivative (SPED). Results indicated that O-H, C=O, and S=O were effectively involved in the chelation of SPED (chromium content 20.26%). Acute (half lethal dose > 2.38 g/kg) and sub-acute toxicity showed that SPED had no damaging effects on mice. Anti-diabetic experiment demonstrated that SPED improved glucose metabolism. Moreover, SPED promoted the PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β signaling pathway by regulating mRNA expression of insulin receptors (IR), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In conclusion, the SPED might represent a novel marine-derived candidate against hyperglycemia, which may undergo further pharmaceutical development as a hypoglycemic agent.
... Organic germanium protects against diseases that are associated with oxygen starvation, such as carbon monoxide asphyxiation/poisoning or stroke, and Raynaud's disease conditions. The oxygenated effect of germanium results in a glowing and warm feeling [92]. ...
... The cell membranes are protected against damage by free radicals using antioxidant systems such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, etc., and nonenzymatic (glutathione, ceruloplasmin, vitamins) systems [92]. Natural antioxidants such as vitamins C and E exert a protective effect against chromosomal damage by reactive species generated by the irradiation. ...
... Cysteine is known to increase the endogenous antioxidant levels by enhancing intracellular stores of glutathione. New prepared germanium L-cysteine a-tocopherol is a protective agent against gamma-irradiation-induced free radicals' production and liver toxicity [92]. ...
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This review focuses on the therapeutic effects of ions when released in physiological environments. Recent studies have shown that metallic ions like Ag+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, P+5, etc., have shown promising results in drug delivery systems and regenerative medicine. These metallic ions can be loaded in nanoparticles, mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs), hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphates, polymeric coatings, and salt solutions. The metallic ions can exhibit different functions in the physiological environment such as antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, bioactive, biocompatible, and angiogenic effects. Furthermore, the metals/metalloid ions can be loaded into scaffolds to improve osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, bone development, fibroblast growth, and improved wound healing efficacy. Moreover, different ions possess different therapeutic limits. Therefore, further mechanisms need to be developed for the highly controlled and sustained release of these ions. This review paper summarizes the recent progress in the use of metallic/metalloid ions in regenerative medicine and encourages further study of ions as a solution to cure diseases.
... The characteristics of 25 animal studies included in the current systematic review are demonstrated in Table 1. These studies were published between 2006 and 2020 and were from the Asia, [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]42 Africa, 40,41,43,44 Europe, 33,44-51 and the USA. 47,48,[52][53][54] Among these 25 animal studies, three studies were conducted on mice, 52,55,56 and 22 studies were conducted on rats. ...
... 47,48,[52][53][54] Among these 25 animal studies, three studies were conducted on mice, 52,55,56 and 22 studies were conducted on rats. 32,33,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]53,54,[57][58][59][60][61][62] Also, among these 25 animal studies, three studies were conducted on animal models of type 1 diabetes, 41,52,55 and 22 studies were conducted on animal models of type 2 diabetes. 32,33,40,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]53,54,[56][57][58][59][60][61][62] Moreover, the dosage of chromium supplements varied from 1.2 to 900 mg/kg, and the duration of the intervention varied from 2 to 18 weeks. ...
... 32,33,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]53,54,[57][58][59][60][61][62] Also, among these 25 animal studies, three studies were conducted on animal models of type 1 diabetes, 41,52,55 and 22 studies were conducted on animal models of type 2 diabetes. 32,33,40,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]53,54,[56][57][58][59][60][61][62] Moreover, the dosage of chromium supplements varied from 1.2 to 900 mg/kg, and the duration of the intervention varied from 2 to 18 weeks. Also, a total of 16 studies administered chromium picolinate, 28,33,40,44,45,[47][48][49]54,[56][57][58][59][60][62][63][64] and others performed the intervention with a combination of chromium. ...
Article
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder defined as an increase in blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia) and insufficient production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas. Chronic hyperglycaemia leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, which consequently results in insulin resistance, beta cell degeneration, dyslipidaemia, and glucose intolerance in diabetic patients. Chromium has an essential role in the metabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates through increasing insulin efficiency. This systematic review aimed to evaluate chromium supplementation's potential roles in oxidative stress indices in diabetes mellitus. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases until November 2020. All clinical trials and animal studies that assessed chromium's effect on oxidative stress indices in diabetes mellitus and were published in English-language journals were included. Finally, only 33 out of 633 articles met the required criteria for further analysis. Among 33 papers, 25 studies were performed on animals, and eight investigations were conducted on humans. Twenty-eight studies of chromium supplementation lead to reducing oxidative stress indices. Also, 23 studies showed that chromium supplementation markedly increased antioxidant enzymes' activity and improved levels of antioxidant indices. In conclusion, chromium supplementation decreased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. However, further clinical trials are suggested in a bid to determine the exact mechanisms.
... Показатели содержания триглицеридов увеличены в 100 раз, липазы в крови -в 10 раз. изменялось количество мочевой кислоты в крови и активность АлАТ, что указывает на нормализацию функции печени и поджелудочной железы (26). ...
... Фернандо Де Ритис (Fernando De Ritis) в 1957 году установил, что важное значение имеет не только собственно активность АлАТ и АсАТ в сыворотке крови, но и их соотношение (коэффициент де Ритиса). Колебания этого показателя у человека находятся в диапазоне от 1 до 2. У подопытных кур его значение было чрезвычайно высоким -21, [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]7. Возможно, следует отказаться от расчета коэффициента де Ритиса для кур, но отметим, что выполненный нами корреляционный анализ показал прямую и достаточно устойчивую связь между АсАТ и АлАТ, для которой величина r достигала 0,98 (р < 0,05). ...
... Показатели содержания триглицеридов увеличены в 100 раз, липазы в крови -в 10 раз. изменялось количество мочевой кислоты в крови и активность АлАТ, что указывает на нормализацию функции печени и поджелудочной железы (26). ...
... Фернандо Де Ритис (Fernando De Ritis) в 1957 году установил, что важное значение имеет не только собственно активность АлАТ и АсАТ в сыворотке крови, но и их соотношение (коэффициент де Ритиса). Колебания этого показателя у человека находятся в диапазоне от 1 до 2. У подопытных кур его значение было чрезвычайно высоким -21, [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]7. Возможно, следует отказаться от расчета коэффициента де Ритиса для кур, но отметим, что выполненный нами корреляционный анализ показал прямую и достаточно устойчивую связь между АсАТ и АлАТ, для которой величина r достигала 0,98 (р < 0,05). ...
... To date, the effects of I. obliquus extracts on the activity and/or expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), xanthine oxidase (XOD) in cell cultures and mouse tissues have been described. 30,37,55,57,59,66,78 In addition, extracts from I. obliquus affected reactive oxygen species (ROS) production measured with the malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and 2 0 ,7 0 -dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCFDA) methods. 58,63,92 Interestingly, the effects were different depending on the type of cell. ...
... 56 In the same experimental model, I. obliquus polysaccharides with the chromium (III) complex significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels, plasma insulin levels, and body weight in mice. 55 This is consistent with the previously described studies of total extracts. Cha et al. demonstrated that I. obliquus dietary treatment lowered serum glucose and leptin levels and alleviated obesity-related complications in T2DM OLETF rats. ...
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The Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) mushroom was traditionally used to treat various gastrointestinal diseases. For many years, mounting evidence has indicated the potential of I. obliquus extracts for treatment of viral and parasitic infections. Furthermore, substances from I. obiquus have been shown to stimulate the immune system. The most promising finding was the demonstration that I. obliquus has hypoglycemic and insulin sensitivity potential. This review summarizes the therapeutic potential of I. obliquus extracts in counteracting the progression of cancers and diabetes mellitus as well as their antiviral and antiparasitic activities and antioxidant role. As shown by literature data, various authors have tried to determine the molecular mechanism of action of I. obliquus extracts. Two mechanisms of action of I. obliquus extracts are currently emerging. The first is associated with the broad-sense impact on antioxidant enzymes and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The other is related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) effects. This receptor may be a key factor in the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activity of I. obliquus extracts. It can be concluded that I. obliquus fits the definition of functional food and has a potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition; however, studies that meet the EBM criteria are needed.
... There is no information on the antiglycation activity of these mushroom species. In previous studies, the antiglycation activities of a crude water-soluble fraction extracted from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus [38] and Lignosus rhinocerus [39] were found to be 23 and 133 mg AG/g fraction. Compared to these latter studies, the antiglycation activities of the ethanol-insoluble fractions of P. ostreatus and A. bisporus were found to be much higher. ...
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Mushroom irradiation has been considered a sustainable process to generate high amounts of vitamin D2 due to the role of this vitamin for human health and of the global concerns regarding its deficient or inadequate intake. Mushrooms are also receiving increasing interest due to their nutritional and medicinal properties. However, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the effect of UV irradiation on mushroom bioactive compounds. In this study, two of the most cultivated mushroom species worldwide, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, were irradiated with UV-B, and the effect of processing was investigated on the contents of vitamin D2 as well as on antioxidant and antiglycation activities. UV irradiation increased vitamin D2 up to 57 µg/g d.w, which is an adequate level for the fortification of a number of target foods. UV irradiation decreased the antioxidant activity when measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6 trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical assay and the ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power assay, but did not decrease the mushroom’s ability to inhibit glycation of a target protein. These results open up a new area of investigation aimed at selecting mushroom species with high nutraceutical benefits for irradiation in order to maintain their potential properties to inhibit oxidative and glycation processes responsible for human diseases.
... Animals were divided into two groups: the control group fed with standard laboratory chow (STD) and the experimental group fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Indeed, to induce T2DM, the animals in the experimental group were fed an HFD containing 15% carbohydrate, 20% protein and 75% fat for 4 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (35 mg/kg suspended in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer at pH 4.5) [13]. Seventy-two hours (72 h) after the injection of STZ, the blood glucose of the animals was measured and only the rats with a blood glucose greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL were used for the experiment. ...
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Backgroud Vitellaria paradoxa is a plant belonging to the Sapotaceae family and used in traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidant effects of V. paradoxa on type 2 diabetic rats. Methods To induce type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), animals were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were divided into groups and treated for 28 days with V. paradoxa extract (AEVP) at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Body weight, urine volume, food and water consumption were assessed at the start and end of treatment. The glucose tolerance test was performed on the last day of treatment. Blood samples were taken for the assay of biochemical parameters, organs (kidneys and liver) for markers of oxidative stress and pancreas for histological sections. Results AEVP (250 and 500 mg/kg) improved the drop in body weight, polyphagia, polydipsia and polyuria in diabetic rats. AEVP significantly reduced the concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, urea, creatinine, activities of transaminases, and increased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum insulin. AEVP resulted in a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. An increase in the size and number of islets in the pancreas has also been observed after administration of the extract. Conclusion AEVP has antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidant properties, thus confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. These effects could be due to the presence of phytoconstituents, phenols and flavonoids presents in the plant extract.
... Many studies of I. obliquus have been conducted to investigate its bioactive components (Shikov et al. 2014). The representative bioactive components of I. obliquus are polyphenols and triterpenoids, which have antitumor properties, and polysaccharides, which have anticancer and anti-diabetes properties (Tian et al. 2017;Wang et al., 2017a;Wang et al., 2017b;Xu et al. 2016). Due to its extensive bioactivity, the import volume of I. obliquus as a food item is increasing rapidly, having doubled between and 2016(MFDS 2013, 2017. ...
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Current quality control of Inonotus obliquus requires chromogen complex content limit of 10% in accordance with the State Pharmacopoeia of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. However, this causes ambiguous results, impeding precise quality control. To improve ambiguous quality control criteria, this study developed a new HPLC method using two novel marker compounds (inotodiol and 3β-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-al) to control the quality control of I. obliquus . The HPLC analysis was carried out in a C18 column with an isocratic elution of 95% acetonitrile at 210 nm. The developed method validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. The content criteria were established by the linear regression method and relative standard deviation method. As the results of the quantitative monitoring, 1.165 mg/g of inotodiol and 1.717 mg/g of 3β-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, calculated by the relative standard deviation method, were suggested new quality criteria. A new HPLC method was developed to improve current quality control of I. obliquus and new lower content criteria were proposed as a result of quantitative monitoring. Graphical abstract
... Based on the monosaccharide composition analysis (Figures 1(b) and 1(c)), ADES1 was composed of L-Ara, D-Xyl, D-Man, D-Gal, and D-Glc with a molar ratio of 1.00 : 1.10 : 2.22 : 4.16 : 16.01, showing that ADES1 was a heteropolysaccharide and Glc was the main sugar unit. However, monosaccharide compositions of ADES1 were different neither from those of mycelia polysaccharides and EPS from T. albuminosus [17,18] nor from Flammulina velutipes, Grifola frondosa, and Inonotus obliquus [23,29,30]. The differences might be related to the methods of extraction and processing, origin, strains, culture medium, and so on. ...
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The acid-depolymerised exopolysaccharides (ADES) of Termitomyces albuminosus were obtained, and the major fraction of ADES1 was isolated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography. Physicochemical characterizations showed that ADES1 was an α - and a β -configuration with the molecular weight of 2.43 kDa, containing (1→3, 4)-linked-Glc p , (1→4)-linked-D-Glc p , (1→3)-linked-D-Xyl p , (1→4)-linked-D-Man p , T-Glc p , (1→6)-linked-D-Gal p , and (1→4)-linked-L-Ara p . The in vivo assays showed that ADES1 could reduce lipid levels in the serum and liver, decrease serum enzyme activities, and improve antioxidant enzyme activities and p-AMPK α expressions in hyperlipidemic mice, which were also confirmed by histopathological observations. These data indicated that ADES1 might be considered as a novel substance to treat and prevent hyperlipidemia and as a hepatoprotective agent.
... Hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides extracted from Inonotus obliquus and Ophiopogon japonicus were reported in diabetic mice models conducted by modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway (Wang, Chen, Pan, Gao, & Chen, 2017). Bahrami et al. revealed that oligosaccharide derived from R. canina ameliorated hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. ...
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Isolation of active components of therapeutic plants and discovering molecular mechanisms play a pivotal role in therapy of diabetes. This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic mechanism of an oligosaccharide isolated from Rosa canina (RCO) by measuring the expression of some miRNAs and their targets involved in autophagy. RCO was extracted and characterized by using HPLC and spectroscopic methods. Rin‐5F cells were treated with STZ and RCO alone and in combination. The viability of the cells and the expression of miR‐21, miR‐22, Akt, ATG5, Beclin1, LC3A, and LC3B were analyzed using MTT assay, and qRT‐PCR, respectively. Oligosaccharide fraction could improve the viability of RCO‐treated cells as compared to STZ‐treated cells. Further, the expression of autophagy markers was increased in RCO‐treated diabetic cells compared to STZ‐treated cells. The results indicated that the antidiabetic effects of the oligosaccharide components of R. canina seem to be mediated by modulation of autophagy pathway. Practical applications Given effectiveness of an oligosaccharide fraction isolated from Rosa canina in management of diabetes in STZ‐induced diabetic rats, we have intention to scrutinize its molecular mechanism as modulation of autophagy pathway in STZ‐treated Rin‐5F cells. It is expected that the results paved the way to speculate novel antidiabetic strategies.
... The body's antioxidant system is a complete and complex system comparable to the immune system, in which the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH can be increased to protect cells or the body from oxidative damage or immunotoxicity (Hassan and Abdel-Aziz, 2010;Hassan and Yousef, 2009;Wang et al., 2017;Yang et al., 2016). The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins can inhibit T cell activation indicating that the antioxidant and immune systems are also involved in the process of atherosclerosis (Hansson and Hermansson, 2011). ...
Article
Immunomodulatory peptides with the sequences TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ from selenium (Se)-enriched rice protein hydrolysates (SPHs) were identified in our previous study. We synthesized these two peptides to study whether they have neuroprotective effects on Pb2+-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells, SPHs and a purified SPH fraction (SPHs-2) were used to compare the effects. Peptides pretreatments significantly suppressed Pb2+-induced cytotoxicity by increasing cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels by 37.47% and 14.72% of Pb2+ group, as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by 12.98% and 6.32% of Pb2+ group. TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ could increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes; for example, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased by 47.79% and 13.93%, respectively, and that of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased by 94.7% and 78.73% of Pb2+ group. Additionally, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression were triggered. These results suggest that TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ can suppress oxidative damage caused by Pb2+; moreover, TSeMMM showed better neuroprotective potential than SeMDPGQQ.
... Over the last decade, studies have revealed that the extract of I. obliquus contains biologically active molecules derived from the specialized metabolism, supporting the effectiveness of chaga in traditional medicine. These specialized metabolites (e.g., polysaccharides, polyphenols and terpenoids) are responsible for I. obliquus's medicinal effects including those of the antioxidant [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11], antibacterial [1,7,12,13], anti-diabetic [14][15][16][17][18][19], and anticancer [16,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] types. ...
Article
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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is a medicinal fungus used in traditional medicine of Native American and North Eurasian cultures. Several studies have demonstrated the medicinal properties of chaga’s bioactive molecules. For example, several terpenoids (e.g., betulin, betulinic acid and inotodiol) isolated from I. obliquus cells have proven effectiveness in treating different types of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms and regulation underlying the biosynthesis of chaga terpenoids remain unknown. In this study, we report on the optimization of growing conditions for cultured I. obliquus in presence of different betulin sources (e.g., betulin or white birch bark). It was found that better results were obtained for a liquid culture pH 6.2 at 28 °C. In addition, a de novo assembly and characterization of I. obliquus transcriptome in these growth conditions using Illumina technology was performed. A total of 219,288,500 clean reads were generated, allowing for the identification of 20,072 transcripts of I. obliquus including transcripts involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. The differential expression of these genes was confirmed by quantitative-PCR. This study provides new insights on the molecular mechanisms and regulation of I. obliquus terpenoid production. It also contributes useful molecular resources for gene prediction or the development of biotechnologies for the alternative production of terpenoids.
... Polysaccharide is a good metal ion chelating agent with excellent stability and multiple biological activities. In recent years, many polysaccharide-chromium (III) complexes have been continuously synthesized and investigate [26,27]. Up to now, there is no report on the preparation of organic chromium (III) complex using polysaccharide from G. frondosa. ...
Article
Polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best metal-ion chelating agents because of its structural characteristics and excellent functional activities. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide‑chromium (III) [GLP-Cr(III)] complex. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions for the maximum chelation rate of GLP-Cr(III) complex. The optimal reaction conditions obtained from RSM were as follows: concentration of CrCl3 5.71 mg/mL, pH 6.36, temperature 66.4 °C and time 2.0 h, respectively. The pH was the most significant factor, followed by reaction temperature and CrCl3 concentration. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental chelation rate was 94.17 ± 1.0% for GLP-Cr(III) complex, which agreed closely with the predicted value (94.60%). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed that the primary sites of chromium (III)-binding in G. lucidum polysaccharide were OH and CO groups, which induce the morphology change from flat sheet to rough surface. Meanwhile, according to the result of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the crystal degree of GLP was disappeared after chelation with Cr(III). The presence of a "blind zone" in the 1H NMR spectrum obviously indicated the binding of Cr(III) to GLP. Additionally, the effects of GLP-Cr(III) complex on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high fructose and fat diet-induced pre-diabetic mice were also investigated. Results showed that the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in mice supplemented with GLP-Cr(III) complex (50 mg/kg day) were significantly lower than the model group (P < 0.01). More importantly, the GLP-Cr(III) complex had no significant adverse effects on the physiological metabolism, organ index, and liver tissue morphology of mice fed a normal diet. These results suggest that GLP-Cr(III) complex could be used as potential functional food ingredients for the prevention or treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.
... The FTIR spectra of AAPS and the AAPS-iron(III) complex ( Figure 4) showed that iron complexing did not significantly disrupt the structures of the functional groups in AAPS of the AAPS-iron(III) complex. Similarly, the results by Wang et al. [40] also showed the congruence between the infrared spectra of both the polysaccharide and the polysaccharide-chromium(III) complex in Inonotus obliquus, indicating that the structure of the polysaccharide was not destroyed in the polysaccharidechromium(III) complex. Based on these results, it is predicted that the structure (i.e., the functional groups) of the polysaccharide is not destroyed when complexing with the metal ion. ...
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Iron deficiency anemia has been a widespread disease. As an effective and stable iron supplement, the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharide iron complex have been widely studied. In this study, we characterized a novel polysaccharide-iron(III) complex extracted in an edible fungal species Auricularia auricular (AAPS-iron(III)). The highest iron content (28.40%) in the AAPS-iron(III) complex was obtained under the optimized preparation conditions including an AAPS to FeCl 3 ∙ 6H 2 O ratio of 2:3 (w/w), a pH value of 8.0 in solution, a reaction temperature of 50°C, and a reaction time of 3 h. The physical and chemical properties of the AAPS-iron(III) complex were characterized by qualitative and quantitative analyses using scanning electron microscope, particle size distribution, thermogravimetric analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and ¹ H nuclear magnetic resonance. Result showed that, although the iron was bound to the polysaccharide, it was released under artificial gastrointestinal conditions. The AAPS-iron(III) complex exhibited high stability (under 50-256°C) and water solubility. The AAPS-iron(III) complex also showed high antioxidant activity in vitro, demonstrating an additional health benefit over other typical nonantioxidant iron nutritional supplements. Furthermore, the AAPS-iron(III) complex showed high efficiency on the treatment of the iron deficiency anemia in the model rats. Therefore, the AAPS-iron(III) complex can be used as a nutritional fortifier to supply iron in industrial processing and to assist the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.
... Polysaccharide is a good metal ion chelating agent with excellent stability and multiple biological activities. In recent years, many polysaccharide-chromium (III) complexes have been continuously synthesized and investigate [26,27]. Up to now, there is no report on the preparation of organic chromium (III) complex using polysaccharide from G. frondosa. ...
... Normal control mice were injected with citrate buffer alone. After 120 h, animals showing plasma glucose level more than 11 mM [22,23] were considered diabetic and included in the study. ...
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The rhizome of Polygonatum kingianum has been used as a traditional medicine in China. In this study, a novel polysaccharides (PKPs-1) was isolated from P. kingianum and characterized by its molecular weight, primary structure. The hypoglycemic activity of PKPs-1was investigated by in vitro assay with the HepG2 cell line and in vivo test using STZ-induced diabetic mice. Results showed that the average molecular weight of PKPs-1 was 14.05 kDa and is composed mainly of glucose and mannose. Methylation analysis indicated that this polysaccharides fraction consisted mainly of β1,2-link glucose. Besides, PKPs-1 exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity on STZ-induced mice, improved insulin tolerance, and affected the metabolism of serum lipids. Results of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) showed that PKPs-1 significantly increased the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT), indicating that PKPs-1 regulates glucose metabolism by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study provides new insights for investigating the hypoglycemic effects of PKPs-1 and suggests that PKPs-1 could be a promising functional food or medicine for treating T2DM.
... Additionally, the DSC curve of PPP showed that there were two endothermic peaks at 97.82 • C and 260.4 • C, while the PPP-Cr(III) at 64.4 • C and 312.8 • C. From these results, both PPP and PPP-Cr(III) have good thermal stability, while the thermal stability was slightly decreased after complexing Cr(III), which was consistent with the results of Zhao et al. [40] and Gao et al. [12]. In the polysaccharide-Cr(III) complex, the O-H groups in the natural polysaccharide could combine with CrCl 3 to form Cr-O groups [41]. However, the high temperature may cause the departure of Cr-O groups and then lead to the faster degradation of the polysaccharide-Cr(III) complex. ...
Article
The aim of our study was to synthesize a pumpkin peel polysaccharide (PPP)-Cr(III) complex and investigate its hypoglycemic activity. Firstly, a novel PPP-Cr(III) complex with a Cr content of 23.77 mg/g was synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical characterization indicated that PPP-Cr(III) had some changes in chemical composition, monosaccharide composition, and morphological structure compared with PPP. The molecular weights of PPP-Cr(III) and PPP were 1.398 × 106 g/mol and 3.386 × 106 g/mol, respectively, showing a lower molecular weight after the introduction of Cr(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a new characteristic absorption peak of Cr-O appeared at 534 cm-1 in PPP-Cr(III), indicating that Cr(III) was successfully complexed with PPP. Secondly, the hypoglycemic activity of PPP-Cr(III) based on α-glucosidase inhibitory and insulin resistance (IR)-HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compared with PPP, PPP-Cr(III) exhibited a more significantly α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The IR-HepG2 cells confirmed an obvious increase in glucose consumption. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the treated IR-HepG2 cells were able to increase the protein levels of p-AMPK and p-GSK-3β, indicating that IR-HepG2 cells exerted hypoglycemic activity via the AMPK/GSK-3β signaling pathway. These results suggested that PPP-Cr(III) had good hypoglycemic activity, which could provide theoretical support for the development of novel hypoglycemic products.
... According to the FTIR spectra analysis, UIOPC contains C-H, O-H, and C-O, which was consistent with our study. However, -CH3 and Cr-OH were not detected [31]. According to SEM images, native sample IOPS was irregular with different sizes. ...
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Excessive lipid intake will cause hyperlipidemia, fatty liver metabolism disease, and endanger people’s health. Edible fungus polysaccharide is a natural active substance for lipid lowering. In this study, the HepG2 cell model induced by oleic acid and mice model induced by a high-fat diet was established. The lipid-lowering effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Glucose (251.33 mg/g), rhamnose (11.53 mg/g), ribose (5.10 mg/g), glucuronic acid (6.30 mg/g), and galacturonic acid (2.95 mg/g) are present in IOP, at a ratio of 85.2:3.91:1.73:2.14:1. The molecular weight of IOP is 42.28 kDa. Treatment with 60 mg/L of IOP showed a significant lipid-lowering effect in HepG2 cells compared with the oleic acid-treated group. In the oil red O-stained images, the red fat droplets in the IOP-treated groups were significantly reduced. TC and TG levels of IOP-treated groups decreased. IOP can alleviate the lipid deposition in the mice liver due to high-fat diet, and significantly reduce their serum TC, TG, and LDL-C contents. IOP could activate AMPK but decrease the SREBP-1C, FAS, and ACC protein expression related to adipose synthesis in mice. IOP has a certain potential for lipid-lowering effects both in vivo and in vitro.
... [37][38][39] With this treatment approach for CVD, several agaricoid and polyporoid MMs, such as Inonotus obliquus, H. erinaceus, P. ostreatus, G. frondosa, T. (=Coriolus) versicolor, G. lucidum, L. edodes, and Laricifomes officinalis, are considered potential natural products to develop mycopharmaceuticals with CPEs. 4,8,19,23,39,53,[56][57][58][59] Among these species, G. frondosa, G. lucidum, L. edodes, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius are considered ideal products along with a low-calorie healthy diet to prevent the development of CVD due to their high content of fiber, proteins, and microelements. [31][32][33] In particular, Pleurotus species decrease the levels of LDL, homocysteine, total cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides; prevent the development of AH, diabetes, and other pathological conditions; and reduce oxidative stress. ...
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Several edible and medicinal Agaricomycetes mushrooms possess biologically active compounds with different therapeutic effects, such as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive, fibrinolytic, thrombolytic, potentially used as cardioprotective remedies. Previous studies have shown that mushrooms possessing cardioprotective effect (CPE) contain a high amount of vitamins and minerals, low contents of fat which makes them applicable as supplementary dietary and functional food for prevention and treatment of a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current review is directed to the evaluation of resource value of 31 edible and non-edible medicinal Agaricomycetes mushrooms with potential CPE growing in the territory of Armenia and discusses the future perspectives of their usage in biotechnology and biomedicine. Contacts: s.badalyan@ysu.am; sylvie.rapior@umontpellier.fr
... Cong Wang studied the sub-acute toxicity of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in normal mice. His result confirmed that high dose administration of IOPS had neither an obvious influence on serum profiles levels nor an antioxidant ability, as the organ tissues of the toxicity group maintained organization and integrity after having been given a high dose of IOPS chromium (III) complex [146]. Briefly, 20 mice were randomly separated into two groups; the normal control group (NC) received normal saline, while the toxicity group (TC) received IOPS chromium (III) complex at a daily dose of 1500 mg/kg. ...
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Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) is a kind of medicine and health food widely used by folk in China, Russia, Korea, and some occidental countries. Among the extracts from Inonotus obliquus, Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) is supposed to be one of the major bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, which possesses antitumor, antioxidant, anti-virus, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities. In this review, the current advancements on extraction, purification, structural characteristics, and biological activities of IOPS were summarized. This review can provide significant insight into the IOPS bioactivities as their in vitro and in vivo data were summarized, and some possible mechanisms were listed. Furthermore, applications of IOPS were reviewed and discussed; IOPS might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancers and type 2 diabetes. Besides, new perspectives for the future work of IOPS were also proposed.
... Concisely, CCr retains most of the structure of FSC. Moreover, CCr displayed a band different from FSC at 700 cm − 1 (Cr-N) it was deduced that chromium ions were binding on amine group in FSCs [43][44][45]. ...
Article
Trivalent chromium (Cr³⁺) plays an important role in balancing blood sugar level. Among organic and inorganic chromium, the former has the higher bioavailability rate upon intake. Therefore, this study aims to transform inorganic chromium into organic form. Firstly, fish scale collagen peptide (FSC) was extracted from fish scale by enzyme hydrolysis with a 7% dosing ratio at pH 7.0 and 50℃ for 2 hr. Later, chelate containing inorganic CrCl3 was used to prepare organic collagen peptide-chromium (CCr) which was characterized to have a molecular weight of 666 Da. The optimal chelating conditions were determined at pH 3.0 and 60°C for 1 hr, and chelation rate obtained was 90.6%. The resulting CCr was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, and confirmed for retaining structure as type 1 collagen, and approved the Cr³⁺ bonding to the amine group of FSC at 700 cm⁻¹ (Cr-N). In vitro test will be the next milestone for determining the reduction rate of chromium ion under simulated gastric- and gastro-intestinal tract conditions respectively to be addressed in the later communications.
... As a possible consequence of asymmetric C=O stretching vibrations, a distinct sharp peak appears at 1,675 cm −1 , indicating the presumable presence of glyoxalate in the sample (29). A small peak at 1,408 cm −1 was attributed to σ(C-H) stretching vibrations, and some diminished peaks around 1,608 cm −1 may be related to C=O or σ(-OH) stretching vibrations (38). A strong absorption peak at 1,124 cm −1 was attributed to the characteristic C-O stretching vibrations and O-H deformation vibrations of polysaccharides (39). ...
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Objectives The effects of high-temperature, high-pressure, and ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical properties and structure of soluble dietary fibers in millet bran were studied to provide a comprehensive reference for the utilization of millet bran. Methods Different physical methods were used to treat millet bran dietary fibers, and their microstructures and Fourier-transform infrared spectra before and after modification were compared. The physicochemical properties (water-holding capacity, swelling capacity, oil-holding capacity, fat-binding capacity, cation exchange capacity), total antioxidant capacity, and thermal characteristics were also analyzed. Results There were no significant changes in the chemical groups of millet bran's soluble dietary fibers after modification, but cracks appeared on the surface of the fibers and the structure became loose and porous. Fiber agglomeration was observed, as well as improved thermal stability. After modification, the water-holding capacity, swelling capacity, oil-holding capacity, fat-binding capacity, and cation exchange capacity of millet bran were improved. When compared to the original soluble dietary fibers, ultrasound-treated fibers showed the most substantial improvement in all four capabilities, with increases of 140, 50, 78.1, 65.7, and 37.8%, respectively, compared with the original soluble dietary fibers ( P < 0.05). The total antioxidant capacity of the ultrasound-treated fibers was found to be higher than those of the fibers that underwent the other three treatments ( P < 0.05). Conclusions The physicochemical qualities and structural characteristics of the soluble dietary fibers in millet bran are affected by all three physical modification methods; however, the physicochemical properties of the ultrasound-treated fibers are most significantly improved.
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Inonotus obliquus is a rare medicinal fungus that contains several potential therapeutic ingredients. In this study, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of I. obliquus was examined, and a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor, (E)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one, was isolated from the I. obliquus extract through ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography (UF-LC). Consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was used for separation to obtain large quantities of the target compound. The universal quasi-chemical functional group activity coefficient (UNIFAC) model was utilized to prepare a two-phase solvent system, n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (4:4.5:3.5:5, v/v/v/v), wherein the proportions of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water in the stationary and mobile phases were 19.8:19.7:7.9:2.2 (v/v/v/v) and 1:16.4:57.5:136.6 (v/v/v/v), respectively. A flow rate of 2.5 mL/min and a column speed of 860 rpm were maintained. Consequently, 10.3 mg of the target compound (95.9% purity) was obtained from 900 mg (6 × 150 mg) of the I. obliquus extract. The use of the UNIFAC model, in combination with consecutive HSCCC separations, allows the purification of large quantities of samples over a short time. Furthermore, the volume of the organic solvent required is reduced. Thus, UF-LC is an effective technique for screening potential α-glucosidase inhibitors isolated from I. obliquus. This can ultimately aid in the discovery of bioactive compounds for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.
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Alhagi honey polysaccharides (AHP) have been widely studied as immunomodulators. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles have been frequently used to control the release of drugs. In this study, AHP was extracted and encapsulated within PLGA (AHPP). Enhancement of immune activity in vitro and the adjuvanticity when inoculated with OVA were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the average molecular weight of AHP was 46.8 kDa and possessed typical polysaccharide absorption peaks. The entrapment efficiency for AHP within AHPP was 65.76 ± 3.31%. AHPP significantly stimulated phagocytic activity, MHCII and CD86 expression in macrophages. Further investigation showed that AHPP/OVA significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and improved the CD4 ⁺ /CD8 ⁺ T cell ratio. Moreover, AHPP/OVA treatment significantly increased IgG levels and up-regulated Th-associated cytokines with overall Th1 polarization. These studies demonstrated that AHP encapsulated within PLGA as a vaccine delivery system enhanced adaptive immunity.
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Natural polysaccharides are critical to a wide range of fields (e.g., medicine, food production, and cosmetics) for their various remarkable physical properties and biological activities. However, the bioactivities of naturally acquired polysaccharides may be unsatisfactory and limit their further applications. It is generally known that the chemical structure exhibited by polysaccharides lays the material basis for their biological activities. Accordingly, possible structural modifications should be conducted on polysaccharides for their enhancement. Recently, polysaccharides complexed with metal ions (e.g., Fe, Zn, Mg, Cr, and Pt) have been reported to be possibly used to improve their bioactivities. Moreover, since the properties exhibited by metal ions are normally conserved, polysaccharides may be endowed with new applications. In this review, the synthesis methods, characterization methods, and bioactivities of polysaccharide metal complexes are summarized specifically. Then, the application prospects and limitations of these complexes are analyzed and discussed.
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Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) was initially separated and purified via precipitation from an aqueous extract with 80% alcohol, a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column, and a Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography system. IOPS was found to have a molecular weight of 111.9 kDa. In L-glutamic acid (L-Glu)-damaged HT22 cells, a 3-h pre-incubation with IOPS enhanced cell viability, inhibited apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, restored the dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, and suppressed the excess accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Compared with L-Glu-exposed cells, IOPS pre-treated cells exhibited reduced levels of Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and enhanced levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), NF-E2p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), and cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. In amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, an 8-week course of IOPS improved the pathological behaviors related to memory and cognition, reduced the deposition of β-amyloid peptides and neuronal fiber tangles induced by enhanced phosphor-Tau in the brain, and modulated the levels of anti- and pro-oxidative stress enzymes. Additionally, IOPS enhanced the expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream proteins, including HO-1 and SOD-1, in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. The present study successfully demonstrated the protective effect of IOPS against AD and revealed the possible mechanism underlying the ability of IOPS to modulate oxidative stress, especially Nrf2 signaling, and mediate mitochondrial apoptosis.
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Four soluble dietary fiber subfractions were obtained via stepwise ethanol precipitation from Lentinula edodes by-products (LESDF). The molecular weight distributions of these four LESDF subfractions were 6.43 × 10 ⁷ Da, 6.25 × 10 ⁶ Da, 1.58 × 10 ⁵ Da and 2.50 × 10 ⁴ Da, respectively, and they exhibited different surface morphology properties, particle size distribution, ζ-potential and apparent viscosity. Different structural features of LESDF subfractions were analyzed through monosaccharide composition, FT-IR, periodate oxidation and smith degradations. These characteristics affected their thermal (TGA-DSC) properties and the rheological properties of LESDF-containing doughs. Results indicated that the higher the molecular weight of LESDF products, the greater the loss of dietary fiber weight by degradation. Meanwhile, LESDF-3 exhibited the most rheological benefits and the possible repeating unit were investigated by 1D/2D NMR. It was found that addition of LESDF with medium molecular weight and high branching degree played an important role in improving dough elasticity.
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The sulfated rhamnose polysaccharides found in Enteromorpha prolifera belong to a class of unique polyanionic polysaccharides with high chelation capacity. In this study, a complex of sulfated rhamnose polysaccharides with chromium(III) (SRPC) was synthesized, and its effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet was investigated. The molecular weight of SRPC is 4.57 kDa, and its chromium content is 28 μg/mg. Results indicated that mice treated by oral administration of SRPC (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg body mass per day) for 11 weeks showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance, decreased body mass gain, reduced serum insulin levels, and increased tissue glycogen content relative to T2DM mice (p < 0.01). SRPC treatment improved glucose metabolism via activation of the IR/IRS-2/PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β signaling pathway (which is related to glycogen synthesis) and enhanced glucose transport through insulin signaling cascade–induced GLUT4 translocation. Because of its effectiveness and stability, SRPC could be used as a therapeutic agent for blood glucose control and a promising nutraceutical for T2DM treatment.
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Background: Inonotus obliquus, namely as Chaga mushroom, is a medicinal and edible fungus, which is widely used in food and medical fields. Inotodiol, a natural lanostane-type triterpenoid with remarkable pharmacological activities, was isolated from Inonotus obliquus, which its potential anti-tumor molecular mechanism was elaborated poorly. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Inotodiol on HeLa cell migration, invasion and apoptosis through p53-dependent pathway. Study design and methods: The potential mechanisms of Inotodiol on HeLa cell anti-metastatic and pro-apoptosis via wound healing assay, trans-well invasion assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and western blot analysis were studied, as well as the involvement of p53 signaling pathway in anti-metastatic and pro-apoptosis of Inotodiol. Besides, the function of tumor suppressor p53 was further verified by small interfering RNA. Results: Firstly, the cell viability assay showed that low-concentration of Inotodiol had no cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and whereas the concentration above 25 μM significantly inhibited HeLa cell growth and even induced apoptosis. This result was further demonstrated by cell proliferation and morphology assay. Secondly, in vitro wound healing and trans-well invasion assays reported that low-concentration treatment of Inotodiol significantly inhibited cells migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner, the western blot analysis of matrix mettalloprotinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix mettalloprotinase-9 (MMP9) levels were also decreased. Moreover, Inotodiol notably induced tumor cell apoptosis by Annexin-V-FITC apoptosis assay, which is associated with activation pro-apoptotic proteins of PARP, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax expression, inhibition anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression. Finally, the anti-tumor activity of Inotodiol was attenuated by silencing p53 tumor suppressor, the result revealed that pre-treatment with p53-specific small interfering RNA (si-p53) markedly inhibited Intodiol-indeuced HeLa cell apoptosis and decreased the caspase-3 activity. What is more, the inhibitory effect of Inotodiol on tumor migration and invasion was blocked under p53 knockdown. Conclusion: To sum up, the present study indicated that Inotodiol possessed the potential to prevent malignant tumor migration and invasion, and it might be a natural active compound candidate for clinical treatment of human cervical cancer.
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Background Hyperlipidaemia is a chronic disorder characterized by imbalance of energy metabolism and high blood lipid level. The rhamnan-type sulfated polysaccharide is an excellent metal-ion chelating ligands. In this study, hypolipidemic activity and safety evaluation of a rhamnan-type sulfated polysaccharide-chromium (III) complex (RSPC) were studied. Methods Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the structure of RSPC. The effects of the RSPC on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic mice were evaluated by lipid contents, histopathological observation, immunofluorescent analysis, and adipocytokine levels. Moreover, sub-acute toxicity evaluation of RSPC was carried out on ICR mice. Results SEM and AFM further demonstrated formation of the polysaccharide-chromium (III) complex and revealed the intertwined network of RSPC. The RSPC significantly (p < 0.05) regulated lipid levels in the mice. The RSPC inhibited over-growth of adipocytes and reduced inflammatory infiltration induced by hyperlipidemia. The RSPC promoted differentiation of white adipose tissue into beige adipocytes and increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), thereby eliminating fat accumulation. Moreover, RSPC (5 mg/kg for mice; equivalent to 924 µg/d for adults) promoted secretion of adiponectin and suppressed resistin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation showed that 1500 mg/kg of RSPC exhibited no apparent adverse effects on the mice. Conclusion These results indicated that RSPC could be safely used to prevent hyperlipidemia and inflammation and may provide a new idea for the prevention of hyperlipidaemia and the related metabolic disorders.
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The use of mushrooms as functional foods and in the treatment of diseases has a long history. Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom belonging to the Hymenochaetaceae family and has possible anticancer, antiviral, and hypoglycemic properties. Chemical analysis of this mushroom has allowed the identification of various constituents such as melanins, phenolic compounds, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. A plethora of findings have highlighted the potential molecular mechanisms of actions of this mushroom such as its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibit the growth of tumors, decrease inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, and stimulate the immune system. This review summarizes the relevant findings with reference to the therapeutic potential of this mushroom in countering the progression of cancers, diabetes mellitus, and antiviral activities, while highlighting its possible molecular mechanisms of action. The possible role of this mushroom as a therapeutic agent in addressing the pathogenesis of diabetes and cancer has also been suggested.
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Sulfated rhamnose polysaccharide (SRP) derived from Enteromorpha prolifera is a metal-ion chelating agent that could potentially be used to treat diabetes. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of a variant of SRP on DIABETES. First, we synthesized and characterized SRPE-3 chromium(III) [SRPE-3-Cr(III)] complex using an enzymatic method. The maximum chelation rate was 18.2% under optimal chelating conditions of pH 6.0, time 4 h, and temperature 60 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed important sites for Cr(III)-binding were O–H and C=O groups. We then studied the hypolipidemic effects of SRPE-3-Cr(III) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFSD). Decreased blood glucose content, body fat ratio, serum TG, TC, LDL-C, and increased serum HDL-C were observed after treatment with SRPE-3-Cr(III). In addition, SRPE-3-Cr(III) significantly reduced leptin, resistin, and TNF-α levels, and increased adiponectin contents relative to T2DM. Histopathology results also showed that SRPE-3-Cr(III) could alleviate the HFSD-lesioned tissues. SRPE-3-Cr(III) also improved lipid metabolism via a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activities in the liver. SRPE-3-Cr(III) at low doses exhibited better lipid-lowering activities, hence, could be considered to be a novel compound to treat hyperlipidemia and also act as an anti-diabetic agent.
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The current research aims to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of Pleurotus pulmonarius, an edible basidiomycetes mushroom fungi in diabetic induced wistar albino rats. Mycelial Hot Water Extracts (HWE) and Acetone Extracts (AE) of Pleurotus pulmonarius was orally administrated to STZ-NA induced (55 mg/kilogram body weight) diabetic wistar albino rats at a concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The outcomes revealed that the HWE of Pleurotus pulmonarius resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose level. A noteworthy (p < 0.001) reduction in serum lipid profile and elevation in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) after administration with HWE, also demonstrating the protective effects of HWE in diabetes-related complications. Besides all antidiabetic parameters, pathological morphology of the pancreas, liver and kidney are regularised. This observation indicated that HWE of Pleurotus pulmonarius possessed higher antidiabetic activity than AE. Besides, HWE also promoted a significant control of alpha amylase enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum activity of 99.23% inhibition at 1000 µg/ml. The outcomes of the present study indicated that the HWE possesses a potential antidiabetic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, it can be used as a nontoxic complementary drug in the controlling of diabetes and related complications, thus providing scientific authentication of its use as an antidiabetic agent.
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In this paper, Fe (III), Zn (II), and Cr (III) were used to complex with corn silk polysaccharide (CSP) by classical methods and CSP-Fe, CSP-Zn, and CSP-Cr were successfully synthesized, respectively. The physicochemical properties were characterized by chemical composition analysis, inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The antioxidant and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase of CSP, CSP-Fe, CSP-Zn, and CSP-Cr were compared. The results showed that the Fe (III), Zn (II), and Cr (III) chelation could change the morphology, conformation, thermostability, and biological activities of CSP. CSP-Zn exhibited higher antioxidant activities and inhibition effect in α-glucosidase than CSP, which suggested that it could be considered as a potential candidate for developing an ingredient of functional foods for antidiabetics.
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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is an edible herbal mushroom extensively distributed in the temperate to frigid regions of the Northern hemisphere, especially the Baltic and Siberian areas. Chaga parasites itself on the trunk of various angiosperms, especially birch tree, for decades and grows to be a shapeless black mass. The medicinal/nutraceutical use of chaga mushroom has been recorded in different ancient cultures of Ainu, Khanty, First Nations, and other Indigenous populations. To date, due to its prevalent use as folk medicine/functional food, a plethora of studies on bioactive compounds and corresponding compositional analysis has been conducted in the past 20 years. In this contribution, various nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic activity, anti-virus, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-hyperuricemia activities/effects, as well as main bioactive compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and alkaloids of chaga mushroom have been thoroughly reviewed, and tabulated using a total 171 original articles. However, only key bioactivities and bioactives are selectively discussed. Besides, the up-to-date toxicity concerns and risk assessment about the misuse of chaga, which limit its acceptance and use as medicinal/nutraceutical products, have also been clarified.
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The water dropwort aqueous extract (WDAE) was confirmed to be rich of phenolic compounds, and 5 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis in this study. The hypoglycemic effects of WDAE on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were further investigated. In comparison with diabetic model group, the food intake, body weight loss, blood glucose and insulin level of high-dose WDAE (400 mg/kg/d) treatment group significantly reduced, and the glycogen contents in liver and muscle tissues of the WDAE (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) groups remarkably increased. Moreover, WDAE treatment notably improved glucose and insulin intolerance, insulin resistance and sensitivity of diabetic mice. Additionally, WDAE treatment suppressed the oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxides (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as decreasing malonaldehyde (MDA) level. Furthermore, WDAE treatment could ameliorate insulin resistance via improving the signaling pathway of IRS-2/PI3K-AKT and activating GLUT4 translocation. Then, all results indicated that WDAE might be a promising candidate for diabetes management.
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Guava leaf flavonoids were obtained using a simple extraction method to evaluate their anti-hyperglycemic and liver protective effects with a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin induced diabetic mouse model. Flavonoids supplementation significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance, and the insulin resistance index in diabetic mice, lowered the serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the diabetic control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, guava leaf flavonoids significantly decreased the liver and kidney indexes, and improved hepatocyte morphology in diabetic mice. Taken together, these results showed that guava leaf flavonoids had significant anti-diabetic and liver protective activities in diabetic mice. This study could facilitate the development of hypoglycemic functional foods from guava leaves.
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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus): a medical marvel becomes a conservation dilemma .-Sydowia 72: 123-130. Fungi have a rich history of medicinal use within many cultures. In most cases it is the fruiting body that is harvested and appreciated. Historical use of the species Inonotus obliquus is different, in that it is a conk-like structure of sterile mycelial mass formed in a pre-sporulation phase, that is utilized. Analysis of 7,516 occurrence records shows a largely circumboreal distribution and further investigation reveals an affinity for tree hosts in the Betula genus. The medicinal benefits of this sterile-mass, known as 'Chaga' have recently been proven with potent anticancer, antioxidation, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activity having been reported. However, the academic interest in this species has fuelled a boom in the commercial exploitation of a product that is almost exclusively harvested from the wild. The huge harvesting of this organism in its pre-reproductive (pre-sporulation) phase rises significant issues. The medicinal properties of this species are discussed along with the conservational concern. Possible alternatives, such as cultivation are discussed along with a call for urgent educational and legislative approaches to protect a species with a rich pattern of use by cultures both contemporary and historically.
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The current research aims to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of Pleurotus pulmonarius, an edible basidiomycetes mushroom fungi in diabetic induced wistar albino rats. Mycelial Hot Water Extracts (HWE) and Acetone Extracts (AE) of Pleurotus pulmonarius was orally administrated to STZ-NA induced (55 mg/kilogram body weight) diabetic wistar albino rats at a concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The outcomes revealed that the HWE of Pleurotus pulmonarius resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose level. A noteworthy (p < 0.001) reduction in serum lipid profile and elevation in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) after administration with HWE, also demonstrating the protective effects of HWE in diabetes-related complications. Besides all antidiabetic parameters, pathological morphology of the pancreas, liver and kidney are regularised. This observation indicated that HWE of Pleurotus pulmonarius possessed higher antidiabetic activity than AE. Besides, HWE also promoted a significant control of alpha amylase enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum activity of 99.23% inhibition at 1000 mg/ml. The outcomes of the present study indicated that the HWE possesses a potential antidiabetic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, it can be used as a non-toxic complementary drug in the controlling of diabetes and related complications, thus providing scientific authentication of its use as an antidiabetic agent. Ó 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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The catalytic effect of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on the oxidation of sulfanilic acid by hydrogen peroxide was studied. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of the reaction product at 360 nm. Under the optimum conditions 2 calibration graphs (for chromium(III) up to 100 ng mL -1, and for chromium(VI) up to 200 ng mL -1) were obtained, using the "fixed time" method with detection limits of 4.9 ng mL -1 and 3.8 ng mL -1, respectively. The results suggest that at the reaction conditions chromium(VI) is reduced and chromium(III) is oxidized to an intermediate oxidation state and the catalytic action of chromium is due to the formation of an active complex between oxidant, catalyst and substrate. A new catalytic spectrophotometric method for the determination of chromium was developed. The proposed method was successfully applied to chromium determination in tap and industrial waters.
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A new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex (IOPS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. The preparation conditions of IOPS-iron(III) were optimized and the physicochemical properties were characterized by physicochemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The highest iron content of IOPS-iron(III) complex (19.40%) was obtained at the conditions: the ratio of IOPS and FeCl3•6H2O was 3:5 (w/w), the pH value of alkali solution was 10, the reaction temperature was 30°C and the reaction time was 6h. The iron(III) was shown to be bound through the binding sites of the polysaccharide IOPS and it could form spatially separated iron centers on the polysaccharides backbone. IOPS-iron(III) complex was found to have good digestive availability and antioxidant activities in the in vitro assays, which suggested the IOPS-iron(III) complex might be used as a new iron supplement candidate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Diabetes, particularly type II diabetes, is a severe disease condition which affects human health worldwide, with a dramatically increasing trend in Asian countries including China. Currently, no efficient drugs other than those with observable side effects are available. Chromium complexes, with the most known representative chromium picolinate, have been listed as one of most attractive health supplements to attenuate this disease condition in western countries. Recent efforts have been made to develop new chromium complexes with novel ligands. Although fair amounts of reviews have been published to emphasize the biological activity, preclinical and clinical information of chromium picolinate, this mini-review is trying to cover the entire picture of updated research efforts on various chromium complexes highlighting the role of ligands. Chromium phenylalanine sensitizes insulin cell signaling pathway via the activation of phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B (PKB)) and/or AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). The biological activities, toxicity, pharmacological features and clinical implications, including the effect of anti-oxidative capacities, protective effect on obese-induced heart dysfunction, and efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes are discussed as well.
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The zero shear viscosity (η0), relaxation time, relaxation spectrum index (RSI) of 20 metallocene-catalyzed, and conventional polyethylenes are presented. The effect of molecular weight (Mw) determined by gel-permeation chromatography on rheology parameters was analyzed. The dependence of zero shear viscosity or relaxation time on molecular weight allowed the polyethylene samples to be separated into three different groups and different values of parameter in were obtained, respectively. Two groups of polymers display viscosity deviation from linear relationship and the reason was attributed to different level of long-chain branching and high-molecular weight tails. The intrinsic reason was disclosed when relaxation spectra at frequencies between 1 s and 10 s were involved and RSI was used for quantitative analysis. Thus, an alternative single rheological method, based on the effect of molecular structure on dynamic rheological behaviors, was proposed to evaluate the molecular weight of polyethylene. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012
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Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese Momordica charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic β-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic β cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against β-cell dysfunction.
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a b s t r a c t Highly monodispersed Ag/SiO 2 nanohybrids with excellent antibacterial property were synthesized by using DMF as a reducing agent and employing an additional redox potential of metal Fe 3+ ion as a cata-lytic agent. The obtained Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids of about 240 nm were highly monodispersity and unifor-mity by adding trace Fe 3+ ions into the reaction which Ag + reacted with N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) at 70 °C. Compared to the conventional techniques, which need long time and high temperature for silica coating of Ag nanoparticles, this new method was capable of synthesizing monodispersed, uniform, high yield Ag/SiO 2 nanohybrids. The electron was transferred from the Fe 2+ ion to the Ag + ion to accelerate the nucleation of silver nanoparticles. The chemical structures, morphologies and properties of the Ag/SiO 2 nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), (High-resolution, Scanning transmission) transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM and STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis) and test of antibacterial. The results demonstrated that the sil-ver nanoparticles supported on the surface of SiO 2 spheres in Ag/SiO 2 -2 nanohybrids structure, the Ag nanoparticles were homogeneous and monodispersed. The results also indicated that the Ag/SiO 2 -2 nano-hybrid had excellent antibacterial. Crown Copyright Ó 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
The task of this study was to prepare a complex of tea polysaccharides (TPS) with ferric iron and research its bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Optimum condition for preparing tea polysaccharides–iron complex (TPIC) was as follows: TPS and FeCl3 with a weight ratio of 1:2.4, reacted in a water bath at 60 °C for 3 h, generating an iron content for TPIC of 14.60 %. The digestion in vitro experiment showed that availability of TPIC was sufficient. Then, iron bioavailability in vivo of TPIC was evaluated by the rat hemoglobin-repletion bioassay with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) as the positive control. Results indicated that at the end of 21 days’ iron regeneration phase, the values of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), serum iron (SI) concentration, and mean cell hemoglobin (MCHC) of rats supplemented with FeSO4 and TPIC increased quickly to those of normal ones. If the bioavailability of FeSO4 was given 100 % with Hb concentration, SI concentration and MCHC as the evaluation index, respectively, bioavailability of TPIC were in the range of 101.85–116 %. These results demonstrate that TPIC is a good iron supplement source for increasing uptake and bioavailability in the body.
Article
Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and α-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption.
Article
Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by the metabolic disorder in specific tissues. Our present study was designed to assess the potential benefits of puerarin (PR) on hypoglycemic and hypolipemic effects in diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The results achieved from these experiments showed that glycemia in STZ-diabetogenic mice were significantly reduced following the PR administration, while serum insulin concentration was increased. In addition, PR contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Histopathological examination indicated that the STZ-lesioned pancreas tissue in PR-administrated mice was effectively alleviated. Meanwhile, intrapancreatic protein levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were up-regulated, respectively. On the other hand, endogenous mRNA levels of skeletal muscle insulin receptor (InsR) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) were increased after administration of PR. Taken together, these findings reveal that puerarin effectively exerts the hypoglycemic and hypolipemic roles, which its potential anti-diabetic activity is associated with elevating insulin expression and maintaining metabolic homoeostasis in STZ-diabetogenic mice.
Article
Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application.
Article
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of OJP1, a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of Ophiopogon japonica, on blood lipid metabolism, antioxidant activity, as well as its protective effect on the liver and kidneys in diabetic rats. Results showed that OJP1 significantly reduced the MDA concentration and increased the activity of both GPx and SOD in the serum, liver and kidneys of diabetic rats. Moreover, the values of TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C in diabetic rats were significantly reversed by OJP1 treatment. Biochemical and histopathological analyses also showed that OJP1 can alleviate liver and kidneys injury in diabetic rats. The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in diabetic rats decreased significantly after administration of OJP1. Altogether, these results suggest that OJP1 possess potent antioxidant activity and can protect the liver and kidneys from the injurious effects of diabetes.
Article
Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry.
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Significant advances in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) include the implementation of prevention efforts aimed at delaying progression of glucose intolerance to overt diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of new classes of blood glucose-lowering medications to supplement existing therapies. While the current management approach for T2DM continues to encompass traditional drugs that focus on β-cell failure and/or insulin resistance, newer agents that target other defects (eg, incretin deficiency/resistance) are increasingly incorporated. Furthermore, the effect of therapies on associated comorbidities (eg, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, hypercoagulability) has become an additional therapeutic focus. This article provides a discussion of specific pharmacologic agents, based on guidelines from the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes and relevant clinical studies. An extensive update on the newest drugs (eg, incretin-based therapies, amylin agonists) and managed care aspects of diabetes care is also included.
Chapter
The authors make a critical assessment of the large body of recent research into Cr chemistry and biochemistry in relation to its biological activities. Insight is provided to rationalize the current state of knowledge with regard to implications for health, highlighting those areas that demand further study. The authors discuss the health effects of Cr outlining the methods of characterization of the many intermediates and products formed during biotransformation processes and the reliability and pitfalls of various methods used in their characterization. The chemical basis of Cr toxicity is outlined, primarily using the data published during the period 1996-2001. This is followed by discussions of the origins of proposed Cr (III) dependent biomolecules, possible chemical mechanisms of Cr (III) biological activity, and safety concerns over the use of Cr (III) in food supplements. Controversies in Cr (III) biochemistry are discussed, with the emphasis on distinguishing between the experimental evidence, and hypotheses and unproved claims. The chapter concludes with a brief summary of the authors' opinion on the current position of Cr biochemistry.