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STUDENT
PERCEPTIONS
OF
ACTIVE
LEARNING
ANGELA
LUMPKIN
Texas
Tech
University
REBECCA
M.
ACHEN
University
of
Kansas
REGAN
K.
DODD
Missouri
Western
State
University
A
paradigm
shift
from
lecture-based courses
to
interactive classes
punctuated
with
engaging,
student-centered
learning
activities
has
be
gun
to
characterize
the
work
of
some
teachers
in
higher education.
Convinced
through
the
literature
of
the
values
of
using
active learning
strategies.
we
assessed through
an
action
research
project
in
five
col
lege
courses
student
perceptions
of
their
impact
on
learning.
Specifi
cally,
students
were asked
to
engage
in
a
variety
of
in-class
and
out-of-
class
exploratory
writing
assignments
and
pairs
and
other
small
group
discussions
interspersed
among short
lectures.
Quantitative
and
quali
tative data revealed students
valued
participating
in
engaging
learning
activities. Students
also
affirmed
how
active
engagement
positively
impacted their
learning.
Lecturing remains
the
predominant
instructional method
used
in
college
class
rooms
as
many
academicians
claim
it
is
the
most
efficient
and
effective
way
to
deliver
content
(Lom,
2012). That
is,
lectures
are
effectual
for
teaching
and
synthesizing
in
formation,
especially
when
information
is
complex,
large
classes
make
lecturing
eco
nomical,
and
lecturing
conforms
to
the
way
universities
are
configured
relative
to
space
and
titne.
However,
evidence
is
lacking
that
this
should
be
the
instructional
approach
used,
especially
when
too
many
college
stu
dents
passively
sit
in
classrooms
while
pre
tending
to pay
attention.
In
fact,
an
increas
ing
wealth
of
evidence
confirms
how
active
engagement
significantly
impacts student
learning,
understanding,
and
critical
thinking
(e.g.,
Bonwell
&
Eisen,
1991;
Komarraju
&
Karau,
2008;
Machemer
&
Crawford,
2007).
As
such,
the
scholarship
of
teaching
strongly
affirms what
students
across
most
disciplines
readily espouse. Endless lectures
do
not
keep
their
minds
engaged
as
many
mentally
check
out
after
only
a
few
minutes.
To
combat
this,
Bonwell
and
Eisen
(1991),
Brookfield
(2006),
and
Cavanaugh
(2011)
argue
that
at
least every
10-15
minutes
lectures should
be
punctuated
by
a
diversity
of
learning
activ
ities
to
keep
students
focused
and
engaged,
which
in
turn
will
help
them
learn.
Creating learner-centered environments
is
the
most
important thing faculty
can
do
to
optimize student learning (Doyle,
2008).
Learner-centered environments,
Doyle
stress
es,
are
different because
they
require students
to
move beyond
taking
notes
and
passing
tests
to
embracing
new
learning roles
and
121
122
/
College
Student
Journal
responsibilities.
When
students
exert
real
control
over
their educational experiences,
they
make
important choices
about
what
and
how
they
will learn.
Higher
education.
emphasizes Mansson
(2013),
is
experiencing
a
paradigm
shift
from
teacher-centered
in
struction
to
learner-centered
instruction.
This
learner-centered
paradigm requires
teachers
who
value
maximizing opportunities
for
stu
dents
to
learn,
while
urging
students
to
accept
that
what
is
learned
in
any
course
will
always
be
their
responsibility.
“Student-centered
instruction
is
a
broad
teaching
approach
that
includes
substituting
active learning
for lectures,
holding
students
responsible
for
their
learning, and
using
self-
paced and/or cooperative (team-based)
learn
ing”
(Felder
&
Brent.
1996,
p.
43).
Cavanagh
(2011)
concludes cooperative activities
help
students understand
content better
because
they
are
more actively
engaged.
In
fact,
co
operative
learning
leads
to
deeper
learning
and
increased critical
thinking
(Millis,
2010).
Doyle
(2011)
astutely concludes,
“Neurosci
ence,
biology,
and
cognitive science research
have made
it
clear
that the
one
who
does
the
work
does
the
learning”
(p.
1).
No doubt,
students
learn
best
when they
engage actively
in
the
learning process
(Davis,
1993).
So,
who
is
right
the
defenders
of
only
lecturing,
or are
the
advocates
of
engaging
students
more
actively
in
their
learning?
To
help
answer
this question,
we
examined
the
literature
on
numerous instructional
practic
es
and
from
these
chose
exploratory
writing
assignments
and
small-group discussions
as
learning
strategies
to
intersperse
with
short
lectures
(See
Figure
1).
Specifically,
we
wanted
to
gain
a
better understanding
about
student perceptions
of
engagement
in
one
or
more
of
these
activities
as
each
relates
to
their
learning.
The
purpose
of
this
action
research
project
is
to
quantitatively
and
qualitatively
assess
how
students
perceive
the
use
of
a
variety
of
exploratory writing assignments
and
small-group discussions.
We
hypothe
size
our
students
in
five
courses
will
Learn
more
and
enjoy
the
learning
process
more
by
participating
actively
than they
would
in
lecture-based
courses. If
student perceptions
strongly support
use
of
active
learning
ac
tivities,
this
will
provide
further
evidence
of
their
validity
and
encourage
us
and
others
to
Figure
1.
Punctuating
Lectures
to
Enhance
Student Learning
Pose
review
questions
for
th
in
k
j
pair-share
Discuss
new
information
presented
in
j
smaligroups
J
Students
I
I
Discuss
key
points
of
content
presented
in
jiecture
in
pairs)
T
Learning
L
E
1
C
TT
U
R
IjN
G
(Ask
students
1
to
answer
questions
on
assigned
readings
I
Pose
question
1
about
foundational
points
to
discuss
in
writing
I
(Answer
check
for
understanding
questions
Write
responses
to
one
minute
papers
Student Perceptions
Of
Active
Learning
I
123
explore
how
use
of
a
myriad
of
active
learn
ing
strategies
will
benefit
students.
As
Bon
well
and
Eisen
(1991)
stress,
“Developing
instructional
strategies
to
help
students
learn
to
think
creatively
and
critically
has
become
recognized
as
one
of
the
most
pressing
ed
ucational
challenges
facing
faculty
today”
(pp.
76-77).
Review
of
Literature
Active
learning
“involves
students
in
doing things
and
thinking
about
the things
they
are
doing”
(Bonwell
&
Eison,
1991,
p.
2).
Simply
stated,
as
students
read, write,
discuss,
and
problem
solve,
they
learn
more
(Millis, 2012).
Prince (2004)
added, “The
core
elements
of
active learning
are
student
activity
and
engagement
in
the
learning
pro
cess.
Active learning
is
often
contrasted
to
the
traditional
lecture where
students
passively
receive
information
from the
instructor”
(p.
2).
Active
learning
included
any
activity
en
couraging
students
to
participate
in
learning
approaches engaging
them with
course
ma
terial
and
enhancing
critical
thinking
as
they
make
applications
beyond
the
classroom.
Bonwell
and
Eison
(1991)
stated
emphat
ically,
“...research
suggests
that
the exclusive
use
of
the
lecture
in
the
classroom
constrains
students
‘learning”
(p.
24).
They
emphasized
numerous research studies
have
shown
con
clusively
through
student
achievement that
active learning
strategies
are
comparable
to
lectures
in
promoting
student mastery
of
con
tent
while
superior
to
lectures
in
promoting
the
development
of
students’
skills
in
thinking
and
writing.
They
added,
“...some
cognitive
research
has shown that
a
significant
num
ber
of
individuals
have
learning
styles best
served
by
pedagogical techniques other
than
lecturing”
(p.
iii).
For
example,
discussions,
questioning
techniques,
and
short writing
activities
in
class
can
skillfully engage
stu
dents’
exploration
of
the
subject
matter. They
concluded
if
an
instructor’s
goals include
developing
critical
thinking
skills,
then
lec
tures should
be
interspersed
with
alternative
learning strategies.
When
the
objectives
of
a
course
are
for
students
to
retain
information after
the
end
of
the
course,
to
be
able
to
apply
knowledge
to
new situations,
to
change
students’
attitudes,
to
motivate
students
toward
further
learning
in
the
subject
area, or
to
develop
students’
prob
lem-solving
or
thinking
skills,
however,
then
discussion
is
preferable
to
lecture.”
(Bonwell
&
Eison,
1991,
p.
36)
Bachman
and
Bachman
(2011) argued
that
the
constructivist
approach
places
stu
dents
at
the
center
of
the
learning
process
as
teachers
help
students interact
with
content
and
create
their
own
knowledge. After
in
vestigating
student
perceptions
and
finding
students
with
different types
of
academic
motivation
responded differently
to
in
structional practices,
Kornarraju
and
Karau
(2008)
concluded different
instructional
techniques
should
be
used
to
most
effective
ly
reach
all
students.
They
stated, “Teachers
using
instructional techniques
that
encourage
students
to
reflect
on
their
own
learning,
pro
vide them with
feedback, give
them
a
chance
to
review
material,
and
encourage
them
to
take
responsibility
for
their
own
learning
tend
to
increase
learning”
(p.
73).
Merely
attempting
to
pass
knowledge
on
through
lectures
is
much
less
effective
than
engaging
students
in
the
learning process.
Machemer
and
Crawford
(2007)
have
joined
the
chorus
refusing
to
accept
students
as
passive
listeners
and
calling
for
active
learning
experiences
placing
the
student
at
the
center
ofthe
teaching-learning
process. Active
learning, they
emphasized,
did not
negate
the
need
for
lectures
rather
it
“provides
opportu
nities
for
students
to
reflect,
evaluate,
analyze,
synthesize,
and
communicate
on
or
about
the
information
presented”
(p.
10).
The
passivity
124
I
College
Student
Journal
of
lecture-based
courses
can
be
effectively
transformed
using
active
learning
strategies
focusing
on
students
rather
than
on
teachers
as the
conveyers
of
all
knowledge.
Interactive
learning
prepares students better
as
they are
exposed
to
the
thinking
approaches
of
class
mates
foreshadowing
the
interdisciplinary
teams
of
real-world situations
(Machemer
&
Crawford,
2007).
Diamond
(2008)
concluded
active
in
volvement
was
much more effective
than
passively
listening
to
lectures
and
offered
several
insightful assessments.
Among
these,
he
stressed
students’
effort
and
involvement,
such
as
hours
spent studying,
determined
how
much
they learned;
students
learned
more
through positive
reinforcement
and
interactions
with
other
students
and
faculty;
and
the
instructor
and learning
environment
affected
students’
motivation
to learn.
To
this
list
of
benefits
of
active learning,
Cavanagh
(2011)
added
higher
student
motivation,
bet
ter
student
attitudes,
improved
critical
think
ing
skills,
and
more
self-directed
learning.
Additionally,
Yazedjian
and
Kolkhorst
(2007)
suggested
active-learning
activities positively
affected
the
degree
of
students’
retention
and
retrieval
of
knowledge
and
affirmed
active
learning helped
students make
practical
appli
cations
of
abstract
concepts.
They
concluded
how
small-group
activities, “although
requir
ing
more
work
on
the part
of
the
instructor,
can
be
an
effective
strategy
for
promoting
classroom
engagement
in
that
they
compel
students
to
take
on
a
more
active
role
in
the
learning
process.”
(p.
169)
Student
and
faculty
perceptions
have
supported
the
espoused
benefits
of
active
learning. Based
on an
examination
of
per
ceptions
of
students
and
faculty about student
engagement,
faculty
practices,
and
institu
tional
characteristics
in
two
nationally
repre
sentative
data
sets,
Umbach
and
Wawrzynski
(2005)
reported
“higher
levels
of
engagement
and
learning
at
institutions
where
faculty
members
use
active,
collaborative
learning
techniques, engage students
in
experiences,
emphasize
higher-order
cognitive activities
in
the
classroom,
interact
with
students,
challenge students academically,
and
value
enriching
educational experiences”
(p.
153).
Since
faculty
attitudes,
beliefs,
and
behaviors
fostered
student
learning
when
faculty
em
phasized
these best
practices,
Umbach
and
Wawrzynski
encouraged
faculty
to
include
active learning
activities
as
well
as
emphasize
higher-order cognitive
activities,
such
as
the
application
of
learning
or
synthesis
of
ideas,
to
help
students
learn
more.
Continuing
the
overwhelming
support
for
the
incorporation
of
active learning strategies
in
college
courses,
the
literature specifically
supports
the
use
of
exploratory
writing
activi
ties
to increase
student
learning.
Additionally,
there
also
is
significant support
for
the
use
of
small-group discussions
to
enhance
student
engagement
and
learning.
The
next section
of
the
literature
review
provides
a
focused
over
view
of
these active
learning strategies.
Exploratory
Writing
Activities
Interspersing
short
writing
assignments
in
class or
punctuating
lectures
with
a
variety
of
writing
exercises
has
been
found
to
impact
quality
of
student learning (Angelo
&
Cross,
1993).
One
example
of
exploratory
writing
occurs
when
teachers
ask
probing questions
to
review
previously taught content
and
ask
students
to
think
about responses
and then
share
their
responses
with
classmates.
A
sec
ond
example
is
posing questions
so
students
reflect
on
key
points
presented
during
a
short
lecture
followed
by
their
explaining their
understanding
of
these
concepts
in
writing.
A
third
example
invites
students
to
respond
to
a
“check
for understanding’ during
or
outside
of
class
or
minute
papers
in
class
to
ensure
they
fully
understand
key
concepts.
Explor
atory
writing
assignments,
especially
those
completed
in
class,
involve
students
in
course
Student
Perceptions
Of
Active
Learning
/
125
content
by
asking
them
to
put
ideas
on
paper,
thus
expanding
their
critical
thinking
skills.
Exploratory writing helped
students
pre
pare
better
for
class,
engage
in
richer
discus
sions,
become
more
thoughtful,
and
improve
critical
thinking
and
learning
(Angelo
&
Cross,
1993;
Davis,
1993).
Because
many
undergraduate students
were
not
experienced
or
confident writers,
completing
explorato
ry
writing
assignments
helped
them
learn
through
reflection
(Bean,
2011).
Bean
(2011)
advocated,
“Perhaps
more
than
any
other
instructional
tool,
exploratory
writing
transforms
the
way
students
study
for
a
course
because
it
can
make active
criti
cal
thinking about
course subject matter
part
of
each
day’s
homework”
(p.
7).
Bean
rec
ommended
22
approaches
for
incorporating
exploratory
writings
into
courses including
at
the
beginning
of
class
to
probe
a
subject,
during
class
to
refocus
a
lagging
discussion
or
cool
off
a
heated
one,
during
class
to
ask
questions
or
express
confusion,
and
at
the
end
of
class
to
sum
up
a
lecture
or
discus
sion.
He
concluded,
The
evidence
from both
research
and
instructor
testimony
seems
irrefut
able:
exploratory
writing,
focusing
on
the
process
rather
than
the
product
of
thinking,
deepens
most
students’
en
gagement
with
course
material
while
enhancing
learning
and
developing
critical
thinking...
.The
payoff
of
ex
ploratory
writing
is
students’
enhanced
preparation
for class,
richer
class
dis
cussions,
and
better
final-product
writ
ing.
(pp.
144-145)
Davis
(1993)
agreed
exploratory
writing
helped
students
learn
course content,
synthe
size
ideas, and
identify points they
failed
to
understand.
When
any
student’s
misunder
standing
was
identified
through
exploratory
writing,
teachers
could
redesign
and
sequence
future
instruction
to
explain
key
concepts
more
clearly
or
clarify content,
such
as
through
the use
of
minute
papers
and
“checks
for
understanding.”
Also
advocating
explor
atory
writing,
Fry
and
Villagomez
(2012)
em
phasized
using
the
pedagogical approach
of
“writing-to-learn”
because
it
helped students
understand
a
topic
more
clearly
by
reasoning
through
it
in
writing.
These
authors
reported,
“qualitative analysis
suggested
that
many
students
improved
in
their metacognitive
and
reflective
thinking
over
the
course
of
the
se
mester
as
evidenced
by
deeper,
richer writing
in
response
to
the
prompts”
(p.
173).
Numerous
researchers
have
advocated
the
use
of
minute papers (Angelo
&
Cross,
1993;
Brookfield,
Cooper,
&
Robinson;
Lom,
2012;
Mansson,
2013;
Nilson,
2010;
Millis,
2012).
Minute
papers
provided
an
other example
of
in-class
writing
as
students
were
asked
to
briefly
reflect
on
content
at
the end
of
class
by
responding
in
writing
to
two
questions:
What
was
the
most
important
thing
you
learned
today
in
class?;
and
What
important
question
remained
unanswered
or
concept
remained
unclear
or
needed
further
explanation? Anderson
and
Burns (2013)
and Stead
(2005)
reported
the
use
of
minute
papers allowed
students
to
make
connections
between
key
content
and
other
knowledge
and
apply
what
they
learned
to
other
sit
uations.
Minute
papers
encouraged
active
learning, helped
with
constructivist
learning,
prompted
students
to
ask
questions,
provided
immediate
feedback
to
students
about
their
understanding,
and
improved
students’
writ
ing
(Stead,
2005).
As
the
authors
cited
in
this
section
em
phasized,
exploratory writing required
reflection,
deepened
students’
understand
ing
and
long-term
recall,
and
linked
prior
knowledge
to
readings
and
class
discussions.
Reflectively
making connections
and
apply
ing
disciplinary
theories
and
concepts
to
re
al-world
scenarios
and
issues
made
learning
more
enjoyable
and
enduring.
126
/
College
Student
Journal
Small-Group
Discussions
Small-group discussions challenged
stu
dent
assumptions
and
improved
problem-solv
ing
skills
by
requiring
students
to
interact
with
one
another
and
course
material
(Millis,
2012).
Pairs
and
other small-group discussions
have
been
shown
to
be
powerful learning
tools
by
Ambrose
(2010),
Cavanagh
(2011),
Doyle
(2008,
2011),
McKeachie,
Svinicki,
and
Hofer
(2011),
Millis (2002, 2010,
2012),
and
Prince
(2004).
Further
supporting
use
of
small-group
discussions, Davis (1993) concluded,
“stu
dents
working
in
small
groups
tend
to learn
more
of
what
is
taught
and
retain
it
longer
than
when
the
same
content
is
presented
in
other
instructional
formats”
(p.
147).
Hamann,
Pol
lock, and
Wilson
(2012)
emphasized
partici
pation
in
small-group discussions enhanced
student
learning.
Additionally,
when
teachers
used
discussions
“.
.
students
get
to
know
each
other
better,
raise
questions
on
course
material,
stimulate interest
in
the
course,
and
raise overall
student
satisfaction
with
the
dis
cussion,
small
groups
may
be
the
best
way
to
achieve
those goals” (Hamann,
Pollock,
&
Wilson,
2012,
p.
72).
These outcomes
contrib
uted
to
the
value
of
incorporating
small-group
discussions
in
classes.
Brookfield
and
Preskill
(2005)
and
Cooper
and
Robinson (2000) offered
several
strat
egies
to
facilitate small-group discussions
and
emphasized using varying
group
sizes
and
number
of
students.
Cooper,
MacGregor,
Smith,
and
Robinson
(2000)
emphasized
teachers
must
articulate clear
ideas
about
what
they
wanted
students
to
learn, give
thoughtfully
structured
assignments,
help
en
sure
goals
were
achieved
using
active
learn
ing
strategies,
and
implement meaningful
assessments
of
learning.
They
reported
teach
ers
who
incorporated small-group
activities
into
their classes found increased
learning,
much
greater conceptual understanding,
more
complex
critical-thinking
skills,
better
class
attendance,
and
greater
confidence.
Benefits
of
small-group
discussions
includ
ed
“checking
for
understanding,” preparing
for
lectures
to
follow,
refocusing
on
information
presented,
increasing student engagement,
and
enhancing
student learning
(Cooper
&
Robinson,
2000).
Additionally,
Doyle (2008)
listed
nine
benefits
of
students
working
with
others:
(1)
improves
students intellectually,
(2)
stimulates
interest
in
learning,
(3)
in
creases
confidence
in
intellectual
and
social
abilities,
(4)
improves
understanding
of
group
dynamics,
(5)
helps students
learn
to
express
feelings,
(6)
helps
build
assertiveness
skills,
(7)
enhances awareness
of
diverse views
and
ideas, (8)
exposes students
to
different
ways
of
thinking,
and (9)
validates
existing
ideas
and
beliefs. Barkley,
Cross,
and
Major
(2005)
add
ed
the
benefits
of
collaborative
group
learning
included content
mastery,
critical
thinking,
problem-solving
abilities,
development
of
valuable interpersonal
skills,
more positive
attitudes
toward
the
subject
matter,
and
an
increased motivation
to
learn
more.
Moreover,
Yazedjian and
Kollthorst
(2007)
reported
small-group activities
en
hanced
processing
and
comprehending
course
material, reduced
anonymity associated
with
large
lecture classes,
and
promoted
student
accountability.
To
help ensure
small-group
activities
enhanced
learning, they also
empha
sized clearly stating goals
and
objectives
and
framing questions
and
tasks
so
students
could
use
their
knowledge
to
help
shape and absorb
new
information.
Class
engagement
benefit-
ted
students socially
as
well
as
intellectually.
Clear
evidence
from
teachers
has
contin
ued to
reaffirm
the
positive outcomes
of
reg
ularly
incorporating
active learning
strate
gies
in
classes.
Active
engagement
in
critical
thinking
and
reflective
writing successfully
improved student
learning,
especially
when
done
in
groups
or
pairs. This
literature
re
view
affirmed the value
and
importance
of
incorporating
activities
in
classes
to
enhance
student engagement.
Student
Perceptions
Of
Active
Learning
/127
While
numerous
teachers
used
these
strat
egies
and
found
them
beneficial
to
students,
evidence
specifically about
student
percep
tions
of
active learning
classroom strategies
remained somewhat
limited.
We
chose
to
use
action
research
to add
to
the
literature
de
scribing
student
perceptions
of
active
learning
strategies.
As
more
teachers
shifted
from
a
traditional lecture-based
approach
to
more
ac
tive
learning
environments,
we
concluded
ad
ditional research
about
student
perceptions
of
participating
in
active
learning
strategies
and
any
resultant learning
benefits
was
needed.
The
research questions framing
our study
include:
1)
What
are
student
perceptions
of
exploratory writing assignments
as
they
impact
their
learning?;
2)
What
are
student
perceptions
of
small-group discussions
as
they
impact
their
learning?;
3)
What
are
student perceptions
of
exploratory writing
assignments
as
they
impact
their
enjoyment
of
learning?:
and
4)
What
are
student
per
ceptions
of
small-group discussions
as
they
impact
their enjoyment
of
learning?
Method
We
used
action
research
to
investigate
student
perceptions
of
the
impact
of
active
learning strategies
on
their
knowledge
and
enjoyment
of
the
learning
process.
As
a
basis
for this
study,
we read and
discussed
a
pleth
ora
of
research
describing
numerous active
and
learner-centered
strategies about
how
to
increase
student
involvement
in
classes.
Us
ing
this
knowledge,
we
chose
the
instructional
strategies
explicated
in
the
literature
we
be
lieved
were
most
appropriate
for
our
students.
Figure
1
illustrates
the
interface
among
these
active learning
strategies
as
they
relate
to
lecturing
and
student
learning.
Using
a
course
design
template,
we
described
the
purpose,
planning process,
and
implementation
for
using
each strategy.
After
the
semester
ended,
we
added
our
reflections about
how
writing
activities
and
group work helped achieve
learning
outcomes.
Also,
we
reflected
on
student
feedback
about
participating
in
these
activities.
In
designing
the
action
research
project,
we
determined
student
perceptions
of
the
activities were
an
appropriate
measure
of
learning activities
including
the
impact
of
these
activities
on
student
learning
and
enjoy
ment
in
using
these activities.
A
variety
of
writing
assignments
and
small-group
discussions
were
used across
5
courses,
with
a
total
enrollment
of
208
stu
dents,
with
the
goals
to help
each
prepare
better
for
class,
engage
in
richer discussions,
improve
critical
thinking,
and
achieve
learn
ing
outcomes.
Specifically,
these courses
included
the
following:
Introduction
to
Sport
Management,
a
prerequisite,
required
course
for
admission
into
the
sport
management
ma
jor
that
also
could
be
taken
as
an
elective
(n
=
80);
Sport
Finance
and
Economics,
a
junior!
senior
required course
restricted
to
sport
man
agement
majors
(n
=
65):
Human
Sexuality.
an
elective
course
open
to
all
undergraduate
students
(n
=
16);
Exercise
and
Sport
Nutri
tion,
a
required course for physical education
majors
(n
=
20), and
Ethics
in
the
Sport
Indus
try,
a
required
course
in
the
master’s
degree
program
in
sport
management
(n
=
27).
Exploratory
writings
were
uniquely
im
plemented
across
the
five
courses.
Under
graduate
students
were
asked
to
write
their
answers
to
questions
about
assigned
readings
or
information
presented
to
assess learning
either
in
the
middle
of
class
to
reflect
on
a
particular
concept
or
at
the end
of
class
to
re
view
concepts discussed.
For
example,
stu
dents were
asked
to
describe
in
writing
the
major
points
or thesis
of
the
assigned reading
for
a
class.
Alternatively,
after
the
teacher
lectured
about
a
foundational concept
or
students
discussed
this
concept
with
a
class
mate,
students
then
were
asked
to
summarize
in
writing
what
they
had
learned.
Graduate
students
were asked
to
complete
in-class
as
well
as
out-of-class
writing
assignments
to
128
I
College
Student
Journal
demonstrate their
understanding
of
a
topic
or
discuss
an
ethical
issue.
The
purpose
of
asking about
what
students
believed
was
important
and
if
any
concept
remained unclear
through minute
papers
was
to
get timely
feedback
about
how
effectively
content
was
being
learned.
A
combination
of
in-class
and
out-of-class
writing
for
undergrad
uates asked
students
to
complete “checks
for
understanding”
to
encourage
them
to
assess
what
they
did
and
did not
understand
about
information
on
a
specific
topic
by
answering
questions
and
subsequently
ask
questions
of
the
teacher
about
anything
remaining
unclear.
Working
in
pairs
and
small
groups
during
class
was
designed
to
challenge
students’
understanding
of
content,
help them
review
important concepts
and
apply
new
concepts
learned,
and
provide
active,
change-of-pace
learning
opportunities.
Prior
to
each
lecture,
difficult
concepts
needing reinforcement
were
identified
as
potential discussion
topics.
At least
once
per
class,
but
usually
multiple
times,
each
student
was
asked
to
pair
with
a
classmate
to
discuss
the
assigned
reading,
review
or
apply
a
specific
sub-topic,
or
dis
cuss
how
to
answer
an
instructor’s
question.
Typically,
students were asked
to
work
with
different
classmates
each
time
so
no
student
was
left
less
engaged
and
to
enable
students
to learn
from
a
student
who
might better
un
derstand
the
content.
Use
of
small
groups
facilitated
oppor
tunities
for
explaining
difficult
topics
to
classmates, applying real-life situations
us
ing
course
content,
and
learning
from each
other
through
peer
feedback. Groups could
include
two
to
four
classmates
who
sat
in
close
proximity
to each
other,
with
students
asked
to
sit
in
a
variety
of
seats
throughout
the
classroom
so
they
could
form
groups
with
different
classmates.
Group
discussions
were
used
to
increase
understanding
and
encourage
critical
thinking
because
many
responses
and
reactions
to
discussion questions
could
be
shared.
To
encourage
students
to
stay
on
task,
sometimes students were
asked
to
share
their
results orally
with
the
class or
turn
in
written
reports
of
discussions.
Student
perceptions
were
measured
through
course feedback
gathered
at
the
end
of
the
semester.
Feedback
was
solicited
through
an
author-designed questionnaire
stu
dents
were
asked
to
complete
anonymously
in
conjunction
with
regular
course evaluations.
The
teacher
was
not
present
while students
completed their responses.
To
encourage
students
to
respond,
no
demographic
infor
mation
was
collected
to
further
ensure
stu
dent
responses
would remain anonymous.
A
student volunteered
to
place
completed
ques
tionnaires
in
an
envelope
and return
it
to
the
instructor.
The first
question
asked
students
to
check, using
a
three-point
scale
(0
=
not
at all:
=
sometimes:
and
2
often),
the
degree
of
positive
impact
on
learning
for
each
instruc
tional activity
used
in
the
class
(i.e.,
the
list
of
the
activities
varied
for
each
course). Students
were asked
to
choose
which
activity
was
most
and least
helpful
to
their
learning, which
they
enjoyed
the
most
and
least,
and why
for
each
question.
Quantitative (frequency)
data
and
qualitative
(students’
written comments)
from
five
courses
were
compiled
to
organize
student
perceptions
of
each
active learning
strategy
used.
Results
Undergraduate
students
found
exploratory
writing
beneficial (44%
often;
44%
some
times).
One
student
commented,
“I
think that
sometimes
we
don’t
kiiow
ourselves
well
enough
to
explain
how
we
became
who
we
are
so
spending
time
to
write
it
out helps
to
find
things
out.”
Graduate
students rated
in-class
writing
as
helpful
(52%
often;
48%
sometimes)
to
their
learning. Three students
commented,
“It
forced
understanding
on
a
subject without
too
much
overanalyzing”;
“Forces
on
spot
comprehension
of
material”;
Student
Perceptions
Of
Active
Learning
/
129
and
“Good
practice
with
writing
skills
and
critical
thinking.”
Many
students
stated
they
found
“checks
for
understanding”
very
help
ful
in
studying
for
tests.
For
example,
84%
reported
“checks
for
understanding”
often
positively
impacted
their
learning, while
14%
responded that
these
did
so
sometimes.
One
student summed
it
up
by
saying,
“Bringing
things
up
multiple
times helps
me
remem
ber
the
important
information.”
When asked
about
minute
papers,
17%
of
students
found
these
positively
impactful,
while 35% stated
these
sometimes
had
a
positive
impact.
Com
ments about
minute
papers
from
undergrad
uate
students
included, “It
reinforced
a
new
concept
we
learned
and
let
us
ask
a
question
anonymously;”
“It
helped
get
everyone
on
the
same
page;”
and “It
was
a
good
way
to
refresh
my
mind
and
jot
ideas
on
paper
and
unanswered
questions
were
anonymous.”
Data
indicated
students
overwhelmingly
believed
working
in
pairs
and
small
groups
positively
impacted
their
learning.
For
exam
ple,
undergraduates
stated
working
in
pairs
often
(35%)
and
sometimes (54%)
had
a
pos
itive
impact
on
their
learning, while
graduate
students
(44% often
and
52%
sometimes)
found
discussions
in
pairs
beneficial
to
their
learning.
Regarding
working
in
small
groups,
students
in
the
4
undergraduate
courses
be
lieved
these activities
positively
impacted
their
learning
(44% often and
44%
some
times).
In
the
graduate
course,
59%
often
and
41%
sometimes
found
working
in
small
groups impactful. Student
comments
indi
cated
small-group
work
aligned
with
course
objectives
as
shown
in
Table
1.
For example,
one
student
said,
“Hearing
everyone’s
opin
ions
and
stories
helped when
talking
about
different subjects; made
information
stick
in
my
mind.”
Another undergraduate
student
commented,
“Very
helpful
to
interact
with
others.”
“Additionally,
a
graduate
student
of
fered,
“Being
able
to
have
a
voice
and
opinion
in
a
small
setting
and
argue
your
stance.”
Discussion
Bountiful evidence
from
faculty confirms
how
active,
collaborative
activities engaged
students
and
positively impacted
learning
as
Angelo
and
Cross
(1993),
Barkley
et
al.
(2005),
and
Umbach
and
Wawrzynski (2005)
emphasize.
Our
students perceive
when
lec
tures
are
interspersed
with
exploratory
writing
and
small-group discussions
(as
illustrated
in
Figure
1),
their
learning
is
positively
im
pacted.
Based
on
qualitative
and
quantitative
evidence,
students
state
that when
they
reflect
upon,
write
about, and
then
discuss
what
they
are
learning,
it
clarifies
their
thinking
and
deepens their understanding
and
retention.
As
such,
the
majority
of
our
students
were
able
to
make
more
concrete
and
thoughtful
real-world
applications
of
concepts
they
are
learning.
Additionally,
comments
from
stu
dents
suggest
they
want
to
have
their
voices
heard
and
find
value
in
interacting
and
collab
orating
with
other
students.
Overall,
active
involvement
indicates
stu
dents
appreciate participating
in
a
variety
of
class
activities
as
they
learn
through writing
and
discussing
course
content
which
supports
the
findings
ofAngelo
and
Cross (1993),
Bar
kley
et
al.
(2005), Bonwell
and
Eison
(1991),
Cooper
and
Robinson
(2000),
Doyle
(2008,
2011), Millis (2012),
and
Prince (2004).
That
is,
students
find
participating
in
active learning
activities
an
invigorating
break,
interesting,
interactive,
and
enjoyable.
Students
comment
how
writing helps
with
self-reflection
and
clarifies
their
understanding.
While
it
is
often
assumed
students
do
not
like to
write,
they
clearly
find
writing
useful
to
their
learning.
Other
students report
discussions
with
class
mates help
them
understand
ideas
better
and
grasp
different
points
of
view.
Students
indi
cate
how
in-class
writings
and
small-group
discussions facilitate their
willingness
to
an
swer questions
in
class
after having
a
chance
to
write about
and
discuss
possible
responses.
Additionally,
students
appreciate
how
writing
130
I
College
Student
Journal
Table
I
Students’ Comments
about
How
Instructional
Strategies
Aligned
with
Learning
Outcomes
Learning
Outcomes
Students
will
be
able
to
describe,
analyze,
and
apply
the
principles
and
issues
in
sport
management
by
developing
critical
thinking
skills
through
research
and
writing.
Undergraduate
Students
will
be
able
to
describe,
Course analyze,
and
apply
issues
associ
ated
with
the
financial
operations
of
intercollegiate
athletics
and
professional
sports.
Undergraduate Students
will
be
able
to
identi
Course
ty
and
describe feelings about
human
sexuality,
understand
how
empirical research data
relates
to
human
sexuality,
and
demonstrate
an
increased
understanding
of
controversial
social
issues
related
to
human
sexuality.
Undergraduate Students
will
be
able
to
explain
Course
the
functions
and
roles
of
essential
nutrients
in
the
body
and
demon
strate
an
increased
understanding
of
specific
nutritional
and
weight
management
practices.
Graduate Students
will
develop their
Course
abilities
to
reason
morall
and
challenge
their
personal
perspec
tives and
past
experiences
as
they
learn
how
to
apply
a
principled
decision-making
process
to
ethical
issues
in
sport.
Selected
Students’ Comments about
Instructional
Strate
gies
and
Impact
on
their Learning
“We
were
able to
take
what
we
learned
and
apply with
other people”
“Seeing
how
other
people
got
their answers
or
viewed
articles
compared
with
your own”
“Enabled
us
to
share our
understanding”
“Very
helpful
to
interact with others”
“Chance
to
discuss
with
classmates; further
our
understanding”
“I
get
to
talk
to
others
and
see
how
they
feel
and
tell
people
my
opinion
and
thoughts”
“We
bonded
in
our
little
group”
“I
think
the
discussion
style
of
teaching
got
everyone
involved
and
interested.
Some
students helped
other
students
understand
a
certain
perspective”
“I
would
have
to
say
that
allowing
us
to
engage
with
other students
is
a
great
way
to
learn.
We
take
the
information
we
learn and
discuss
it,
which
leads
to
a
way
better
understanding.
Great tool”
“We
were
able
to
talk and get
a
better understanding
of
a
topic
after
we
had
gone over
it in
notes
in
the
class”
“Loved
that
we
could
talk
with
you the
instructor,
and
other students
as
well”
“Because
it
really
got
all
the
things
you
wanted
to
say
about
a
particular
topic
and
your
neighbor
didn’t
always
think
the
same way
you
did,
which was
interesting
and made
it
easier
to
remember
the
subject
content”
“It’s
both
fun
and
enlightening
to
hear other
people’s
perspectives
on
these
topics”
“I
liked
hearing
what others
opinions/thought
process
es
were”
“Because
you
get
to
work
with
classmates
and
talk
about different opinions”
“Other
people
had
good
ideas
about
the
material”
“It
helped
us
see the
information
from
someone
else’s
perspective”
“Because
I
got
to
see
someone
else’s
view
or
opinion
on
the
question”
“Gave
more
of
an
opportunity
to
discuss
openly”
“Generated
good
discussion”
“It
was
interesting
to
hear
others’
opinions
and
to
form
your own”
“It
provided
more
viewpoints
and
perspective
when
looking
at
topics”
“In
ethics
sharing
ideas
is
so
important”
Course
Undergraduate
Course
Student Perceptions
Of
Active
Learning
/131
and
discussing
give
them time
to
formulate
more
thoughtful
answers
to
questions
we
ask
in
class and
stimulate better
class
discussions.
Anecdotally,
students
express
how
learning
activities
effectively
varies
the pace
of
class
es,
thus
making
them
more
enjoyable.
Through
use
of
a
variety
of
exploratory
writing
activities
and
small-group discussions,
this action
research
project
demonstrates
pos
itive
student
perceptions
of
enhanced
learn
ing
through active
engagement
with
course
content.
Often,
students’
body
language
in
class
indicates
they
are
unwilling
to
engage
in
small-group discussions
or
find
writing
in
class
unenjoyable.
However,
our
results
suggest students
overwhelmingly
find
value
in
active
learning activities,
even
if
teachers
do
not
perceive this
to
be the case. Even
if
some
students
seem
reluctant,
teachers
should
still
use
writing
and
discussions
to
improve
learning
and
the
classroom environment.
Af
ter
listening
to
lectures,
students
write about
and
discuss among
classmates
course
content
to
explicate their
learning.
Qualitative
and
quantitative
data
from
students
with
multiple
ways
of
learning
specifically
support
the
use
of
a
variety
of
active
learning
strategies
be
cause
they
learn
more.
Active
engagement
leading
to
perceptions
of
greater
student learning
trumps content
coverage.
Today,
increasingly
higher
educa
tion
holds
faculty
accountable
for
providing
evidence
of
actual
student
learning.
Relying
on
assumptions
about
what
students
do
and
or
do
not
find
helpful
to
their
learning
has
been
shown
to
be
unreliable
and
indefensible,
or
at
least
not
acceptable
to
outside
stakeholders.
Assessments
of
student
perceptions
about
what
helps
them
learn
should
not
be
based
on
body
language
or
what
the
teacher
thinks.
Rather,
it
is
imperative
that
formal
evalua
tions
of
what
leads
to
enhanced
learning
are
conducted
through action
research
in
courses.
Since
qualitative
and
quantitative
data
ver
ify
when
students
are
involved
and
interact
during
class
time,
class
periods
are
perceived
by
them
as
more
academically productive
and
enjoyable. Therefore,
it
is
incumbent
on
teachers
to
modify
and
expand
their
teaching
strategies
to
make
classes
student-centered
instead
of
lecture-based.
Conclusion
Several
lessons emerge
from
this action
research
project. For
example,
scaffolding
shorter,
low-stakes
assignments
before
ad
vancing
to
longer and
more
analytical
writing
makes
exploratory
writing
assignments
even
more beneficial
to
students.
Alternatively,
ex
ploratory
writing assignments
ask
students
to
address
the
pros
and
cons
of
ethical
situations
or
argue
one
side
of
a
controversial
ethical
dilemma.
Adding
more
exploratory writings
increases
students’
understanding
of
key
concepts
and
helps
students
reason through
difficult
topics
while
building
on
existing
knowledge. Providing additional
feedback
on
responses
to
minute
papers,
such
as
through
re-teaching
content
that
remains
unclear,
also
helps
students
learn
more.
Regarding
the
enhancement
of
small
groups,
greater
clarity
by
aligning
learning
outcomes
with
assigned
tasks
as
well
as
requiring
note
taking
by
every
student,
reporting
to
the class the
key
points
of
discussions, sharing
findings
with
non-group
members,
or
submitting
a
written
report
from
each
group
are
alternative
strategies.
This action
research project
could
prompt
other faculty
to
diversify
and
expand their
instructional
methods,
which
in
turn
would
improve
student
perceptions
of
their
posi
tive
connections
between
active
engagement
and
learning.
Three
critical “calls
to
action”
emerge
from this
action
research
project.
First,
all
teachers
are
encouraged
to
incorpo
rate
more active
learning strategies
in
their
classes.
Second,
it
is
incumbent
on
all
teachers
to
vary
the use
of
active learning
approaches
to
meet
the
academic
needs
of
students.
Third,
every
instructor
owes
it
to
students
to
assess
132
I
College
Student
Journal
their
perceptions
of
learning activities
and
then modify
teaching
accordingly.
Among
these,
the
most important
result
of
this study
is
the
need
to
evaluate
teaching
strategies
to
ensure
learning
objectives
are
met and
stu
dent
learning
enhanced.
We
believe soliciting
anonymous student
perceptions provides
valuable,
useful
insights
for
ways
to
improve
course
design
and
instructional
approaches.
Suggestions for future
research
include
an
encouragement for
more faculty
to
con
duct
action
research
in
their
courses
so
they
can
discover
more about
how
students
per
ceive
their
learning.
Helpful
in
this
process
would
be
development
of
valid
and
reliable
assessments
of
student
perceptions
to
connect
learning outcomes
to
specific
active learning
strategies
used.
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... So, a good reactivity of the teacher with regard to the requests of the online learner will improve considerably its satisfaction and a lack of reactivity will have, on the other hand, a negative consequence on the results of the electronic learning (Soon et al., 2010;Barbour, 2010). The relevance of this variable was qualified however in certain searches as that of Lumpkin et al. (2015) which stipulate that the researchers should not ask to people to estimate the attitudes of the other subjects because these estimations will reflect more probably their own attitudes rather than the real attitude of the subjects. However, Viberg et al. (2019) and Hodges et al. (2020) stipulate according to the postulate of the theory of social influence; the perceptions of the attitudes of others can be more important than their real attitudes. ...
... In the Information System researches, the study of Nückles (2009, p. 265 ) introduced the notion of ease of received use which defines her as being "the degree in which a person believes that the use of a system will be divested of efforts" and which was judged as having an association is positive with the intention of use. The researches of Lumpkin et al. (2015) considered the complexity a variable opposite to that of the ease of received use and having a negative association with the intention of use. ...
... Among the important considerations of the use of the site we find: learn ability (it is easy for the users to carry out basic tasks from the first time?), the efficiency (the speed with which the users can make tasks?), and the satisfaction of the user (how it is pleasant to use the conception?) (Shaw, 2017). Consequently, the review of literature relative to this variable suggests that the high use is associated with positive results of the user, as reduction of the number of errors of the user (Lumpkin et al., 2015) and a more positive attitude to the Web site (Larson & Archambault, 2019;Shaw, 2017). ...
... Research has shown that shifting from a teacher-centered emphasis to a learner-centered classroom environment that includes peer collaboration and application can result in improved learning outcomes for students (Freeman et al., 2014;Haak et al., 2011;Prince, 2004;Umbach & Wawrzynski, 2005), such as increasing student understanding and critical thinking (Lumpkin et al., 2015). Our FLC's working definition of active learning included activities that encourage students to participate and engage with the course material and each other in a more meaningful way (Lumpkin et al., 2015). ...
... Research has shown that shifting from a teacher-centered emphasis to a learner-centered classroom environment that includes peer collaboration and application can result in improved learning outcomes for students (Freeman et al., 2014;Haak et al., 2011;Prince, 2004;Umbach & Wawrzynski, 2005), such as increasing student understanding and critical thinking (Lumpkin et al., 2015). Our FLC's working definition of active learning included activities that encourage students to participate and engage with the course material and each other in a more meaningful way (Lumpkin et al., 2015). Even though the evidence demonstrates that active learning improves student learning outcomes, students often resist active learning. ...
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... Whether offline or online, learning environment is an important necessary ingredient for effective student learning (Kira and Cotgrave, 2016). There are numerous roles being played by learning environment such as students feeling a sense of community (Kira and Cotgrave, 2016), which motivates students to participate as active learners (Lumpkin, Achen, and Dodd, 2015). In activeness and with the support of the environment, students' cognitive and engagement processes are expectedly put into motion (Neo, 2005). ...
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... The results of research by Dallimore et al. (2004) confirm that lectures that encourage student input and participation give students an impression of greater engagement, and they are more likely to ask questions and participate in discussions. Lumpkin et al. (2015) found that students positively perceive active learning strategies that include working in pairs, writing various research papers, and discussions in small groups. ...
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This research paper on "How to use the Linux Kali operating system and Ethical Hacking" will examine: (1) respondents' opinions about hackers, i.e., whether they consider hackers to be moral or immoral people and which hackers are bad or good, (2) whether respondents have ever hacked or not, (3) if respondents have not ever hacked, what was the reason, (4) if respondents have hacked, what was the reason, (5) whether respondents, i.e., the 'respondents' data, have ever been hacked on a computer and / or on social networks, (6) what the reasons for hacking were according to the respondents, (7) whether there is a need to introduce the teaching of ethical hacking in certain subjects in schools and / or in university courses, (8) whether the respondents believe that hackers are malicious people, (9) whether the respondents have heard of the operating system Kali Linux, (10) whether respondents knew that Kali Linux strongly supports open source and that it is free, (11) whether respondents have ever used Kali Linux, (12) whether respondents have used and/or use Kali Linux and if they hacked-what they think are the best tools for hacking and penetration testing, (13) whether respondents knew that one of the six basic principles of hacking ethics is: "All information must be free", (14) whether respondents agreed with the assertion that: "Many hackers show that 'real hackers' use the most used Windows to protect their identity", (15) whether the respondents knew that Kali Linux, a Linux distribution based on Debian, is intended for digital forensics, penetration testing and hacking. In addition to the survey, the paper will also use the scientific method of content analysis, based on which individual definitions of open-source application programs for ethical hacking will be given, including definitions of operating systems from the group of open-source tools, with an emphasis on Kali Linux. The survey was carried out on respondents (sample) who belong to the group of hacking tools users. Also, all types of hackers will be explained theoretically.
... In addition, a lecture-based format may be interpreted by the student as abstract and may not provide an adequate representation of real-world scenarios. Experimental education methods, however, including active learning, have shown significantly more success than these traditional methods (Lumpkin et al., 2015). By utilizing the latest technology, construction students may engage in an immersive reality-based simulation that mimics real-world scenarios and allows the user to freely explore a virtual 3D simulation of a real construction project. ...
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Construction management is considered a hands-on field of study which requires good spatial and visual cognitive ability. Virtual reality and other innovative immersive technologies have been used to facilitate experiential learning and to improve students’ spatial cognitive abilities. Virtual environments have been criticized due to the gamified look of the environment. Static panorama pictures have been previously used to bring a better sense of reality and immersion at the same time in construction education. However, they cannot provide a continuous experience, and the sense of presence (immersion) is not ideal either. Immersive videos such as 360-degree videos can address this shortfall by providing a continuous experience and a better sense of presence. The use of this technology in construction education field is very limited. As a result, this study investigated a pilot experiment where a combination of 360, 180 3D, and flat videos was incorporated as an educational instrument in delivering construction management content. The content was recorded using different configurations from different body postures to further investigate the optimal way of utilizing this technology for content delivery. The content of the videos was focused on construction means and methods. Students reviewed the content using head-mounted display devices and laptop screens and answered a survey designed to capture their perception and experience of using this technology as an educational tool in the construction management field. The results show a positive perception toward using immersive videos in construction education. Furthermore, the students preferred the head-mounted display as their favorite delivery method. As a result, the prospect of incorporating immersive videos to enhance construction management education is promising.
... Institutional culture that is positive and cohesive enhances excellence in teaching and learning. Conclusively, the adoption of a particular learning approach is determined by various contextual fac- There are studies on student learning and teaching practices in higher education (Lumpkin, Achen, & Dodd 2015). However, researchers identify pockets of innovative teaching practices in higher education (Sinclair & Aho 2018;White et al., 2016), despite the frequent calls for change from students, researchers, policymakers and university leaders and a few signs of continuous and large scale improvements. ...
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