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Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 70-80% of the world population mainly in the developing countries for Primary Health Care because of better cultural acceptability better, compatibility with the human body and lesser medicine or only palliative therapy is available. Even in this era of antibiotics, radiotherapy and strict drug laws, a very large number of herbal products are consumed and marketed throughout the world as health nutrients, food supplements, and curing agents for disease control. It has been observed that a number of herbs and their extract are used for hair growth activities some are described as follow: Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens showed luxurious growth of hair in albino rats. Nearly 70% ethanolic extract of leaves of Ginko biloba was shown to be effective for hair growth activity. Methanolic extract of Potyporus umbellatus has shown excellent hair growth activity in rats. Combined extract Emblica officinalis, Lawsonia inermis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Cyperus rotundus and Corchorus prevent the falling of hairs and enhancement of hair growth activity. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds promote the proliferation of mouse hair follicle cell in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo similar to Minoxidil 2% solution which is synthetic and has numbers of side effect. Herbal cosmetics are in vogue these days. Nowadays, people have become aware of using herbal cosmetics. Now a day's cosmetology is a well-defined science based on experiences gathered over centuries. The safety and efficacy of natural herbs could not find any suitable match i.e., cannot be replaced by synthetics. There is once again revival of preference for natural products.
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Vol 5, Issue 1, 2017 ISSN - 2321-4406
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Received: 05 December 2016, Revised and Accepted: 23 December 2016
Herbal medicine is still the main-stay of about 70-80% of the world population mainly in the developing countries for Primary Health Care because
of better cultural acceptability better, compatibility with the human body and lesser medicine or only palliative therapy is available. Even in this
era of antibiotics, radiotherapy and strict drug laws, a very large number of herbal products are consumed and marketed throughout the world as
health nutrients, food supplements, and curing agents for disease control. It has been observed that a number of herbs and their extract are used
for hair growth activities some are described as follow: Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens showed luxurious growth of
hair in albino rats. Nearly 70% ethanolic extract of leaves of Ginko biloba was shown to be effective for hair growth activity. Methanolic extract of
Potyporus umbellatus has shown excellent hair growth activity in rats. Combined extract Emblica officinalis, Lawsonia inermis, Nardostachys jatamansi,
Cyperus rotundus and Corchorus prevent the falling of hairs and enhancement of hair growth activity. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds promote
the proliferation of mouse hair follicle cell in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo similar to Minoxidil 2% solution which is synthetic and has numbers
of side effect. Herbal cosmetics are in vogue these days. Nowadays, people have become aware of using herbal cosmetics. Now a day’s cosmetology
is a well-defined science based on experiences gathered over centuries. The safety and efficacy of natural herbs could not find any suitable match
i.e., cannot be replaced by synthetics. There is once again revival of preference for natural products.
Keywords: Herbal medicine, Herbal cosmetics, Natural herbs, Hair growth activity, Hair cycle.
Humans have hair that serves a most important role in their lives. It is
a universal problem, having affected both sexes of all races to different
extents for as long as mankind has existed. Hair loss is a common and
ever increasing problem in cosmetics as well as primary health care
practice. It is a universal problem, having affected both sexes of all
races to different extents for as long as mankind has existed. To date,
the etiology of alopecia is unclear and genetic factors appear to play a
significant role in their pathogenesis.
Hair loss is a dermatologic disorder, and the search for natural products
with hair growth promoting potential is continuing [1,2]. Hair loss,
dandruff, hirsutism, alopecia is a common patient complaint and a
source of significant psychologic and physical stress [3]. Androgens are
considered to be one of the most important causes for alopecia apart
from a variety of other factors [4]. Natural products in the form of herbal
formulations are available in the market and are used as hair tonic, hair
growth prominent, hair conditioner, hair cleansing agent, antidandruff
agent, as well as for the treatment of alopecia and lice infection. Hair
loss results from numerous other factors such as aging, genetic pre-
disposition, thyroid imbalance, malnutrition or imbalance diet, chronic
illness, hormonal effects of birth control pills, pregnancy, or menopause,
certain medications and radiation therapy/chemotherapy used for
treating cancer. The most common cause of hair loss is a hereditary
condition known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA) also known as male
pattern hair loss female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and alopecia areata
(AA) are the most common forms of nonscarring hair loss, people are
now a day’s spending a great part of their earnings for hair care [5].
Hairs can be defined as - “modified epithelial structure formed as a
result of keratinization of germinative cells” [6]. Hair is an epidermal
appendage that lies with the dermis. Every hair emerges from a tubular
invagination referred to as follicle. The follicle resembles a slim pocket
inside the epidermis as if a tiny finger had pushed the epidermis
down into the dermis and underlying subcutaneous tissue. The cut
down severe is penetrated by means of the dermal papilla an upward
protrusion of connective tissue, which produces microscopic cells
of several varieties from which the hair is shaped and developed via
mobile elongation and keratinisation.
There are about 1,000,000-2,000,000 hair follicles (HFs) on the scalp
by myself. Additional HFs are observed all over the place the physique;
hair is present in every discipline of the epidermis besides the arms,
soles, and lips. The presence of hair in a typical place makes a terrible
effect, whereas hairs on the head are part of the total appeal and the
great thing about man or women. From an evolutionary factor of view,
hair on humans is far on our mammal cousins. Each covering emerged to
provide warmth. Hair is likely one of the central components of the body
and considered to be an accessory constitution of integuments together
with sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and nails. Human hair is quite
often composed of fibrous β-keratin proteins. Hair fiber is not steady
in their full length, but instead outcomes from compact agencies of cells
inside the fiber follicle, from which three extra common morphological
accessories of hair constitution originate: There are multi-cellular cuticle
sheath, the fibrous cortex and the medulla [7]. At the follicular level, a
single layer of cells offers upward thrust to the cuticle, a protective layer
overlaying the core of the fiber. It is made from β-keratins and displays a
scaled constitution and possessing between seven and ten superimposed
layers with the cuticle edges pointing toward the tip of the fiber (Fig. 1).
The hair development undergoes a repetitive cycle the place the Anagen
section followed by using the Catagen and the Telogen phase [8].
Within the Anagen section, the hair is actively growing at the same
time within the catagen segment it is characterized by the degeneration
and resorption of the lower region of the HF. The resting section, the
place the hair is inactive, is called Telogen phase, after this segment the
growth of the HF restarts (Figs. 2 and 3).
In the scalp, a hair growth cycle has three essential phases: Anagen,
catagen, and telogen. The anagen segment is the progress cycle most
Review Article
commonly the past 3-5 years. On a healthful scalp, there are roughly
100,000 hair and 90% of the follicles are consistently within the anagen
segment of hair development. The catagen stage follows the end of the
development interval when a follicle begins to end up dormant. The
telogen stage is a dormant or resting interval that lasts 3-4 months. When
the dormant section ends, a historical hair falls out. A HF then returns to
the anagen stage and a brand new hair begins to develop. A natural fee of
hair progress is about 1/2 an inch per 30 days relying on HFs and age of
a character. On normal, 50-60 scalp hairs are lost day-to-day in a normal
hair growth cycle and new hairs begin to grow from these follicles. Hair
loss starts of evolved when much less new hair starts the re-growth stage.
Hair loss is a dermatologic disorder, and the search for natural products
with hair growth promoting potential is continuing (Fig. 4). Hair loss,
dandruff, hirsutism, and alopecia is a common patient complaint and
a source of significant psychologic and physical stress Androgens are
considered to be one of the most important causes for alopecia apart
from a variety of other factors [9].
According to Ayurveda, hair diseases are described as following:
1. Khalitya means loss of hairs
2. Palitya means premature hair graying
3. Indralupta means alopecia areta, alopecia totalis, alopecia univeralis.
The most common form of hair loss affecting men is AGA. As many
as 50% of Caucasian men are affected by age 50 [11,12] and up
to 80% by age 70. The use of the medical term AGA reflects the
current knowledge regarding the important role of both androgens
and genetic inheritance in this form of alopecia. Testosterone
is the major circulating androgen in men and is metabolized to
dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in tissues. DHT is thought to be the key
androgen required for the induction of AGA [13]. The conversion of
testosterone to DHT in HFs is predominately mediated by the enzyme
5-reductase, which exists as 2 isoforms, Types I and II. Both isoforms
are found in scalp follicles; however, the conversion of testosterone
to DHT in HFs is predominately mediated by Type II 5-reductase, and
it has been shown that men who are genetically deficient in Type II
5-reductase do not experience AGA. FPHL is somewhat less common
than AGA, affecting up to 25% of women under age 50 and up to
40% of women by age 70. Although the androgen-dependent nature
of AGA in men is well established, the relationship of androgens to
the development of FPHL is more complex. Although women with
hyperandrogenism certainly have a high incidence of FPHL (up
to 86%), many women with FPHL do not have the elevated blood
level of androgen hormones.
Both AGA and FPHL are indistinguishable on a histological level and
result from altered HF cycling and progressive miniaturization of the
HFs. In both conditions, the duration of the anagen phase shortens,
whereas the duration of the telogen phase remains the same or
lengthens, causing a reduction in the anagen to telogen ratio from
around 10-12:1 to 5:1. Because hair length is determined by the anagen
phase, each passage through the cycle causes the length of the new
anagen hair to be shorter than its predecessor.Fig. 1: Structure of hair follicle
Fig. 2: Hair cycle: Anagen phase, catagen phase and telogen phase
Jain et al.
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
Ultimately, the anagen segment turns into so quick that it does now
not enable time for the brand new hair to acquire sufficient length to
reach the dermis surface. Telogen hair, which now makes up a growing
percentage of the total hair are more loosely anchored to the follicle
than anagen hair, leading to extended hair shedding. Moreover, the
latency interval between telogen hair shedding and anagen regrowth
turns into longer, ultimately main to a discount in the quantity of hair
gift on the scalp. Follicular miniaturization additionally occurs in both
AGA and FPHL, where the scale of the follicle is decreased with each
and every consecutive cycle main to hair which can be narrower and
shorter and of smaller diameter over time. Consequently, a proportion
of the colossal terminal follicles turn out to be miniaturized, making
hair greatly finer, and more susceptible to falling out [14].
Although many hypotheses to explain autoimmune disease development
have been suggested by immunologists, [15,16] most of these scenarios
have not been seriously considered in the context of AA. Currently,
AA development hypothesis focuses on HF immune privilege collapse
or the inappropriate presentation of antigens to the immune system
during normal HF cycling. Anagen stage HFs retain immune privilege,
and a breach of immune privilege and exposure of unique HF antigens
may result in targeting by the skin immune system [17,18]. This
popular hypothesis is highly “skin-centric” and largely ignores current
immunological disorder; although, it is attractive in its simplicity.
An alternative hypothesis is based on the knowledge that HF immune
protection is transient, limited to the anagen growth cycle stage.
Regression of the HF in catagen involves significant apoptosis [19] and
immune cell infiltration. This normal HF cycling event may continuously
expose the immune system to low levels of HF-derived antigens. HF specific
autoantibodies found in humans and animal models in the absence of AA
may be a consequence of this constant low-level exposure [19].
AA (primary stage): AA is a common autoimmune disease that results
in the loss of hair on the scalp and elsewhere. It usually starts with one
or more small, round, non-scarring smooth patches.
Mild transient AA: Patient with repeated transient AA but never
converts into alopecia totalis or universalis.
Transient AA: Patient with AA in progressive phase and some of them
converts into Alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis.
Ophiasis AA: Ophiasis type of AA shows a band like hair loss. It occurs
mostly in the temporal or the occipital regions of the scalp, and
therefore, it is more difficult to treat, as most medicines have a delayed
action on these areas.
Alopecia totalis: Loss of hair from entire scalp.
Alopecia universalis - Loss of hair from the entire body including
eyebrows and eyelashes.
Scarring alopecia: Any inflammatory process (burns, bacterial
infections, ringworm, injury) sufficient to cause permanent loss of
follicles, affected area known as scarring alopecia.
Tricotilomania: This type of hair loss is known as compulsive pulling or
repetitive self-pulling by a patient himself/herself.
Traction alopecia: Hair style that tie hairs so tight can cause much
traction at the root of hairs, and can develop traction alopecia.
Diffuse alopecia: Excessive Loss of hair all over the scalp without
creating a patch.
Dandruff (also referred as “Pityriasis simplex”) is a common
embarrassing disorder, which affects 5% of the global population.
Dandruff mostly occurs after puberty (between ages of 20 and
30 years), and affects males more than females [20].
Dandruff is characterized by scaling of the scalp and is frequently
associated with seborrhea [21], and seborrhea is the precursor of
seborrheic dermatitis [22]. The yeast, pityrosporum ovale is the
causative microorganism of dandruff. Pityrosporum ovale feed on the
dermal lipids and proteins and facilitates lipase activity, which releases
proinflammatory free fatty acids causing dermal inflammation and tissue
damage. The lipase activity indicates that in addition to hypersensitivity,
pityrosporum ovale releases toxic chemicals, which contribute to the
development of a fungal infection [23]. According to the symptoms,
dandruff is classified into two types - dry (common) and oily dandruff.
Unwanted hair happens in each man and ladies. Hirsutism is difficult to
define objectively because of racial, cultural and fashion norms.
Fig. 3: Hair cycle showing anagen, catagen, and telogen
Fig. 4: Causes of hair loss
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Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
In women, hirsutism is most mostly idiopathic and presumed to
be because of HF hypersensitivity to usual levels of circulating
androgens. The next most usual purpose is polycystic ovary syndrome.
Androgen-secreting tumors are rare. Females with expanded serum
androgens often even have menstrual irregularity, extreme acne
or untimely AGA. Hirsute females simplest require investigation
when they have related virilization or menstrual irregularity, and
estimation of serum testosterone, serum dehydroepiandrosterone
sulfate, and free androgen index are enough screening checks.
Normally, serum testosterone is larger than twice the upper limit
of the typical variety when an androgen-secreting tumor is a gift.
Hirsutism will have to be uncommon from hypertrichosis (the
widespread overgrowth of non-androgen-dependent hair) which
is on the whole obvious before puberty, evenly disbursed over the
again and limbs and does now not respond to antiandrogen cure.
Medications reminiscent of minoxidil, diazoxide, cyclosporin, and
prednisolone can intent hypertrichosis.
Telogen effluvium is a slowing of recent hair progress on account of
surprising extreme stress, adopted with the aid of a delayed shedding
of hair. The stress induces an excessive share of follicles to enter the
resting stage, and a few months after the worrying occasion, all the
resting follicles start to shed hairs at concerning the identical time.
Anagen effluvium is the sudden loss of growing hairs as a result of
chemicals or radiation. Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and
radiation therapy halt the growth phase of HFs and result in the sudden
shedding of hair. Some medications (i.e., diuretics, blood thinners, acne
medications and birth control pills) can also cause hair loss as a side
Hair shaft breakage is when part of a hair breaks off; however, the
growing end stays in the follicle and continues to grow. Hair shaft
breakage results in thinner hair, and may also be caused by excessive
styling, chemical substances, solar, and chlorine in swimming pools.
Nutritional deficiencies are rarely a cause of hair loss. In rare cases,
certain nutritional deficiencies can cause weak hair shafts that tend to
break off.
Distinct chronic diseases can effect in hair loss. Hormone-related
irregularities can include hair loss among different symptoms. Skin
infections can effect in hair loss. Trauma, akin to burns and injury to
HFs, can cause permanent hair loss. They can be further manifested
clinically as:
Congenital disorders of hair growth: This type of hair disorder is
genetically not environmentally. It is also called hypertrichosis because
it results in defects in normal growth of HF in the embryonic stage. It is
one kind of alopecia.
Acquired disorders of hair growth: This type of disorder is more
complex in nature and is caused by biological factors of hair [24].
Split ends: It is commonly faced, women. When the hair is dry and
brittle then results in split ends.
Frizzy hair: This is caused by the decreasing in normal hair moisture
level. High brushing condition leads to frizzy hair.
Flaky scalp: It is white flakes of dead skin that prevent growth of hair
and causes hair loss. This problem is most common in women.
Dull, gummy hair: It occurs due to the use of hard water for washing
Hair loss due to a side effect of the beauty treatments: Any beauty
treatments such as hair colors, dye, straightening, softening,
rebounding, and perming which contains harsh chemicals can trigger
hair loss for some individuals.
Chemotherapy and hair loss: Chemotherapy is an exclusive treatment
for cancer patients but it affects normal cells and HFs too. This causes
hair loss and known as anagen effluvium type of alopecia.
Other causes of hair loss: Crash dieting, high-grade fever, anemia, blood
loss, hormonal imbalance, and pregnancy etc., can cause hair loss.
The alterations in HF density, dimension or changes to the hair
development cycle are the fundamental motives of hair disorders.
Androgen additionally a one in every of the main motive of hair
loss. A different rationale of hair loss is the use of chemotherapeutic
sellers [25]. The therapy of any hair disorder entails altering or
modulating one or more of those causes of issues. The healing is relying
on the nature of hair disease. If the causes of the changes to hair growth
density, dimension and growth cycle is famous then probably the
most mighty process of remedy is to target the preliminary sickness
mechanism. The cure allows the broken HFs to get better by means of
their inherent regenerative capability, they don’t affect instantly on the
broken HFs. Quite often hair issues contain alterations to HF distribution,
dimension and growth cycle. By using modulating a number off of those
parameters the disorder can be treated potentially [24]. Patents are on
hand that declare the consequences are as a result of the stimulation
of HF and scalp metabolism by way of bettering blood circulation,
activation of dermal papilla, anti-testosterone motion, and improved
diet to the HF through accelerated blood go with the flow, however, the
mechanism are still not clear [25,26].
An overriding consideration in the administration of AA is that even
though the disease could have a serious psychological influence, it has
no direct have an impact on normal wellbeing that justifies the usage
of hazardous therapies, notably of unproven efficacy. In addition, many
sufferers, even though by no means all, expertise spontaneous re-
growth of hair.
Traditional healing for AA involves the use of corticosteroids, topical
ointments, minoxidil (rogaine), anthralin (psoriatec), sulfasalazine,
topical sensitizers, oral cyclosporine, photochemotherapy, and other
alternative treatment plans with herbs and herbal creams or oils
formulations. None of the work ordinarily as none of those acts to
reverse the clause of the autoimmune ailment. Many of those cures can
cause dangerous facet effects which can be worse than the localized
lack of hair.
Probably the most long-established types of hair development issues are
caused via aberrant HF cycling. One such ailment is AGA, characterized
by way of a shortening of the anagen phase and a prolongation of
telogen, mixed with miniaturization of HF. Hirsutism, alternatively, is
defined because of the presence of excess terminal hairs in females in an
adult male normal sample. To manipulate the quantity of hair produced
for scientific functions, the primary process is to change anagen length
both by way of shortening it in circumstances of hirsutism or by means
of growing it to correct alopecia.
A proof of AA, including dialogue of the nature and direction of the
disorder and to be had treatments, is predominant. Some sufferers are
profoundly upset with the aid of their alopecia and may just require
psychological help. Contact with different sufferers and patient help
Jain et al.
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
organizations may just help patients modify to their incapacity.
The selection to deal with AA actively will have to now not be taken
flippantly. Therapy can be uncomfortable for the sufferer, time-
consuming and possibly toxic. It may additionally alter the patient’s
perspective to their hair loss. Some patients to find it elaborate to cope
with relapse following or in the course of initially victorious medication
and they must be forewarned of this likelihood. These issues are chiefly
foremost in youngsters where the social disruption and focusing of
the youngster’s awareness on their hair loss, which may influence
from lively treatment, have to be weighed carefully in opposition to
the talents advantages. However, some patients are appreciative that
whatever has been tried, even if it does now not work.
Hair transplantation
Early hair-grafting techniques were rather crude, more commonly
leaving a “patchwork” look. More modern tactics, together with
micrografting, involve transplanting productive HFs from a donor
discipline on the scalp to a balding subject. HFs are on the whole taken
in plugs of one or two hairs (micrografts) from the perimeters or
again of the pinnacle and moved to the entrance and/or prime, slowly
reconstructing a hairline. Donor websites with full hair produce extra
triumphant transplants. Transplanted follicles will also be everlasting
or temporary which can final only a few years.
Scalp reduction
Balding scalp areas may also be surgically removed to shrink an
appearance of baldness. Scalp reduction is most of the time used at the
side of grafts or flaps. Previous to discount, the scalp may be stretched
to develop areas where hair is growing. The effectiveness of scalp
reduction is dependent on the degree of hair loss and scalp elasticity.
This technique is now relatively dated and is not often utilized.
DHT (the male hormone DHT) is associated with premature hair
loss. A wide variety of anti-androgens are used to prevent or reverse
premature hair loss: Progesterone, spironolactone (Aldactone®),
flutamide (Eulexin®), finasteride (Proscar®), cimetidine (Tagamet®),
Serenoa repens (Permixon® and cyproterone acetate (Androcur/
Diane®). The most effective anti-androgens are oral finasteride
(Propecia®, Proscar®). Some patients prefer not to use these products
due to potential side-effects associated with the hormones. In hair-loss,
an immune reaction caused by male hormones (e.g., DHT) has perhaps
the most significant role. Stimulated by androgens, the immune system
targets HFs in genetically susceptible areas and causes premature hair
loss characteristic of male-pattern baldness.
Growth stimulators
Topical oxygen free-radical scavengers (e.g., superoxide dismutases
[SODs], enzymes that counter excessive free-radical activity) are
potent hair growth stimulators. SODs inhibit oxygen radicals and may
inhibit a localized immune response implicated in hair loss and offset
damage and inflammation. Unless immunologic factors involved in
hair loss process are effectively treated, the potential for significant
hair re-growth may be very limited. Available agents (e.g., Rogaine®)
stimulate some degree of hair growth in some individuals, but
cannot by themselves produce healthy hair and cosmetic benefits.
A multi-modal approach is required that combines anti-androgens,
autoimmune system protective agents, oxygen free-radical inhibitors,
and other hair growth stimulators halt hair loss and generate hair re-
growth (Table 1) [27-34].
Synthetic based product may cause human health hazard with several
side effects
The main adverse effect of diphenic prone is severe eczema and
disseminated contact eczema
Oral prednisolone documented potential adverse effects including
acne, hypertension, cataracts, diabetes mellitus and bodyweight gain.
Minerals reminiscent of calcium, iron, copper, chromium, iodine,
zinc, selenium and magnesium are integral to keep healthful hair
development. Mineral deficiency will lessen the chance to keep watch
over the blood circulation that promotes healthful hair progress and
thyroid hormones that avoid dry hair and hair loss as well as defects in
hair color. Too much iron is toxic to your body. Be definite to speak to
your health care provider earlier than taking any mineral supplement.
Vitamins B (above all B6, B3, B5 and folic acid), biotin (anti-oxidant,
sources of biotin are: Whole grains, egg yolks, liver, rice, and milk.
Vitamin A is fundamental for overall just right wellness. It’s additionally
important to HFs because it continues the hair root lubricated. Vitamin
E acts as an antioxidant that aids potent circulation within the scalp
as a result of accelerated oxygen uptake in blood, therefore it plays a
most important role in promoting hair progress and stopping hair loss.
Coenzyme Q10 is a fundamental vitamin that presents our body with
the vitamins wanted to grow healthful hair. In addition, they promote
total vitality and make contributions to lovely skin and strong nails
(Table 2).
Yogurt and soy, darkish green vegetable, entire grain products, principal
fatty acid, nuts and seed are fatty meals which are commonly the first-
class sources of vitamin E, an immune bettering antioxidant and nerve
protector. Carrots include excessive quantities of vitamin A. It’s an
antioxidant that helps produce healthy sebum in the scalp. Having too
much vitamin A can lead to hair loss. There are numerous other foods
that support promote hair development and hinder hair loss, akin to
fruits, egg, spinach, and broccoli.
A healthful weight loss program, low in fat and excessive in fiber, fresh
fruit, and greens can have a most important function in inhibiting hair
loss associated with getting older and genetics. In Asian nations, the
place veggies are familiar with regular dietary practices; sample-variety
hair loss is hardly ever located. Botanically based nutrients may just
prevent HFs from coming into an everlasting dormant state. Nutritional
supplements can provide some improvement.
The United States patent has been issued for L-lysine for the treatment
of various types of hair loss, including AGA. L-lysine (an amino acid)
inhibits 5-alphareductase.
HFs use nitric oxide to maintain and promote new hair growth.
L-arginine is required to produce nitric oxide.
Saw palmetto
Saw palmetto (S. repens) is a palm-like plant that is native to North
America. An extract derived from saw palmetto berries contains fatty
acids and sterols. Sawpalmetto is commonly used to treat benign
prostatic hyperplasia because it inhibits testosterone’s action on the
prostate. Extracts of Saw palmetto block 5-alphareductase, reduce DHT
uptake by follicles and block binding of DHT to androgen receptors.
The liposterolic extract of saw palmetto combined with beta-sitosterol
(a phytosterol common to many plants and grains) produced marked
Green tea extract
Topical agents such as finasteride inhibit Type II 5-alpha-reductase
in HFs. Agents from tea (catechins, (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate
and (-) epicatechin-3-gallate) affect Type I 5-alpha-reductase activity
responsible for converting testosterone to DHT. All tea is derived from
the same plant species, but types and varieties differ according to where
and how the plants are grown and how the tea is produced. Catechins
in green tea leaves are more potent. Black pekoe is allowed to dry and
ferment, but green tea is not, thereby preserving catechin integrity.
Jain et al.
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
There is a revival of option for products over the synthesis, in reward
scenario because of their much less or no side effects. Magnificence
salons and more than a few cosmetics corporations also use herbal
soaps, shampoos and beauty merchandise made from more than a few
constructed from various vegetation to treat the hair and scalp concern
considering that the use of natural products is considered safe and free
from allergic reactions/results.
There are various products on hand within the markets that are ready
by way of combinations of one and more herbal medications. These
merchandise are used as hair tonic, hair growth promoters, hair
conditioner, hair cleansing agent, anti-dandruff marketers and for the
treatment of alopecia and lice infection. Preparations are to be had in
the form of creams, dyes, powders, tablets, tonics, lotions, conditioners,
wave units, hair sprays, and detailed rinses.
The following herbal drugs are mainly used as hair growth promoters.
In ayurvedic literature, there are records of herb which promote the
growth of hair, keep them soft and silky and do not allow them to turn
gray at an early stage herbs like Arnica, Henna, Bringraj, Jatamansi,
Shoe flower, Bahera, Ghrit Kumari, Shikakai, Amla, Motha, Bhrami etc.
have been widely used by the traditional communities as a hair wash,
hair dye, hair growth oil formulation and shampoo.
These are located priceless in treating quite a lot of hair issues equivalent
to hair fall, hair development, baldness, lice problems, dandruff, itching
besides being priceless as hair tome, hair dye and hair wash. A majority
of these vegetation/herbs are used by myself, nevertheless, blending in
more than a few varieties can be executed for synergistic action. Such kind
of information may give a lead for constructing herbal formulators extra.
Mankind has located it not possible to reside each in the old and
cutting-edge time without the usage of medicinal plants regardless of
Table 1: The established therapies and synthetic compounds used for treatment of alopecia areata
S. No. Treatment Proposed mechanism Side effect Typical
1. Cimetidine 5α-reductase Type-2 enzyme inhibitor Loss of libido,
impotence and
Extensive disease [27]
2. DPCP Antigen competition - Extensive disease [27]
3. Dithranol (anthralin) Immunomodulatory - Extensive disease [28,32]
4. Dutasteroid Inhibits both Types I and II 5-α
reductase isoenzymes
Hormonal imbalance,
significant reduction in
sperm motility
Extensive disease [33]
5. Finasteroid Binds irreversibly to the 5α-reductase
Type-2 enzyme and inhibits the
conversion of testosterone to DHT
Teratogenic effects in
animals on high doses,
causing genitourinary
abnormalities in male
offspring, hormonal
disorders in male
Extensive disease [31]
6. Flutamide Converts into 2-hydroxyl flutamide
and acts as potent competitive
inhibitor of DHT
Miniaturization of
hair cycles, hepatic
dysfunction and breast
Extensive disease [31]
7. Folligen Contains copper complex with Saw
palmetto, anti-androgen against
5α-reductase isoenzymes
Not clinically proven in
double-blinded clinical
Extensive disease
8. Intralesional triamcinolone Immunomodulatory - Patchy disease
9. Minoxidil Open potassium channels and increase
the proliferation and differentiation of
epithelial cells in the hair shaft
Hirsutism, local
irritation, itching,
dryness and erythema
10. Oral
prednisolone (corticosteroids)
Immunomodulatory mechanism Acne, obesity, mild
hypertension and
lenticular opacities
Extensive disease [33]
11. Photochemotherapy Immunomodulatory - Patchy disease [34]
12. Spironolactone Antiandrogen in blocking the
androgen receptor inhibits androgen
Hyperkalemia, digitalis
glycosides, the increase
in blood pressure
Extensive disease [29]
DHT: Dihydrotestosterone, DPCP: Diphencyprone
Table 2: Herbs providing nutritional support in treatment of hair disorder
Biological source Family Part used Phyto-constituents Uses
Aloe barbadensis Liliaceae Leaves Minerals Nutritional support
Avena sativa Poaeceae Seeds Carbohydrates, iron, zinc and Mn and fibers Nutritional support
Bacopa monniere Scrophulariaceae Entire plant Triterpenoids saponins, bacosides Nutritional support and nervine tonic
Cajanus cajan Fabaceae Seeds Protein, starch and minerals Nutritional support
Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae Fruit Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, K, proteins and fats Nutritional support
Lactuca sativa L. Asteraceae Leaves Vitamin A and folic acid Nutritional support
Medicago sativa Fabaceae Leaves Proteins, calcium, minerals and vitamins Nutritional support
Pelvetia canaliculata Fucaceae Brown algae Isoflavones Anti-oxidant action
Phyllanthus embelica Euphorbiaceae Fruit Gallic acid, vitamin C, quercetin Nutritional support
Jain et al.
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
the overwhelming have an effect on and our dependence on modem
treatment and large advances in synthetic drug, herbal treatment
continues to be the mainstay of about 70-80% of the world populace
in general in the developing nations for primary wellbeing care due to
the fact that better cultural acceptability better, compatibility with the
human body and lesser medicine or only palliative cure is to be had.
Natural drug treatments are for this reason a priceless as good as a
valuable present from nature. They were handled with care and admire
in the early days. The future pattern is more in the direction of the
whole thing “Natural” and it might be valuable looking into the plant
world for ultra-modern medicine. This welcome pattern for the reason
that it makes an attempt to marry typical observe with ultra-modern
Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of tridax procumbens showed
luxurious growth of hair in albino rats. 70% ethanolic extract of leaves
of Ginko biloba was shown to be effective for hair growth activity,
Methanolic extract of Potyporus umbellatus has excellent hair growth
activity in rats [35,36]. Combined extract Embellica officinalis, Lawsonia
inermis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Corchorus retards the falling of
Extract of dried flowers of Madhuca indica has been effective in alopecia.
Extracts of Swertia japonica, Aloe aroberescens. Hftrsngia macrophylla,
Abrus precatorius, Clitoria tornalea. Cirirullus colocynthis, liquorice
roots and ginseng have also been observed for the management of
A combination of N. jatamansi. Aegle marmelos. Glycyrrhiza glabra and
Myristica fragrans rejuvenates the hair, gives superb condition and adds
hair volume. A combination of Brassica nigra oil with meha azadirachita
piper longum Carthamus tinctorius oil, G. glabra, and Euphorbia
thymifolia strengthens the hair roots and promotes the hair growth.
Juice extract of leaf of Lippia nodi flora and lime fruits in gingly oil and
pepper [37] examined methanol extract of 80 herbs for hair growth
promoting activity and find 7 of them were highly potent. Ishida
et al. (1999b) isolated the active substances Acetosyringone and
polyporusterone A and B herb P. umbellatus fries and reported to use
for hair treatment. Ishida Fraf (1999a) isolated senegose A, seniginsll
and Iliad senegasaponm b from the herb polygar senega var latifolia
and also showed hair growth promoting activity.
Proanthocynidins from grape seeds promote proliferation of mouse
HF cell in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo similar to minoxidil, hair
There are many herbal preparations available that have been used to
combat hair loss. For example, cantharidin, extracted from Cantharis
vesicatoria, has been traditionally incorporated into hydro-alcoholic
hair lotions. As the agent is highly irritating, it was formulated at
strengths of about 0.002% [38]. Another remedy was derived from
extracts of jaborandi leaves. The active constituent was pilocarpine
which was used in concentrations of up to 0.4%, either alone or in
combination with cantharidin or quinine. With nearly all of these
preparations, no clinical evidence was supplied to support the claims
being made. Greenberg and Katz compared the efficacy of an herbal
preparation containing a 7.5% extract of fennel, polygonum, mentha,
chamomile, thuja and hibiscus in an aqueous cream base with that of
the aqueous cream base alone. A total of 24 balding males were enrolled
in the randomized, double-blind study. The volunteers applied either
S. No. Biological name Vernacular Name Family Part used
1. Acacia rogeta Shikakai Fabaceae Fruit
2. Allium cepa Onion Liliaceae Bulb
3. Aloe vera Ghrit Kumari Liliaceae Leaves
4. Arctium lappa Burdock root Asteraceae Leaves
5. Arnica montana Arnica Asteraceae Flowers
6. Azadirachita indica Neem Meliaceae Leaves
7. Bacopa monneri Brahmi Scrophulariaceae Entire plant parts
8. Barssica spp. Mustard Brassicaceae Seeds
9. Buxus wallichiana Papri Buxaceae Wood
10. Capsicum annum Lal-mircha Solanceae Fruit
11. Centella asiatica Gotu kola Umbelliferae Entire plant parts
12. Citrullus colocynthis Bitter cucumber Cucurbitaceae Fruits
13. Coccus nucifera Nariyal Arecaceae Kernel
14. Convolvulus pluricaulis Shank puspi Euphorbiaceae Entire herb
15. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb Swarna lata Convolvulaceae Stem
16. Cyperus rotundus Nagarmotha Cyperacaceae Rhizome
17. Eclipta alba Bhangra/Bringraj Asteraceae Entire plant parts
18. Ginseng radix Ginseng Araliaceae Roots and stem
19. Hibiscus rosa‑sinensis Shoe flower Malvaceae Leaves and flowers
20. Hydychium spicatum Kapoor Kachari Zingiberaceae Leaves and rhizomes
21. Lawsonia inermis Henna Lytheraceae Leaves
22. Nardotachys jatamansi Jatamansi Valerianaceae Rhizome
23. Nicotiana tabacum Tobacoo Solanaceae Leaves
24. Nyctanthes arbor‑tristis Harsinghar Oleaceae Leaves, flower and oil
25. Ocimum gratissum Wild basil Lamiaceae Leaves
26. Phyllanthus emblica Amla Euphorbiaceae Fruit
27. Piper nigrum Black mirch Piperaceae Leaf
28. Radix Panax ginseng Ninjin Araliceae Root and stem
29. Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Labiatae Leaves and flowers
30. Sapindus trifloliatus Reetha Sapindaceae Fruit
31. Terminalia bellerica Bahera Combretaceae Fruit
32. Tridax procumbens Coat button Asteraceae Aerial part
33. Trigonella foenum‑graecum Methi seeds Fabaceae Seeds
34. Valeriana wallichi Sugandha bala Valerianaceae Rhizome
35. Ziziphus jujuba Jujube red date Rhamnaceae Seed
Jain et al.
Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
active or placebo cream to their scalps every 24 hrs and also washed
daily with a supplied shampoo. Hair status was assessed by harvesting,
on a bimonthly basis, a selected area of the scalp. After 40 weeks of
treatment, the mean total hair count increased by 77% in the actively
treated group compared with only 3% in the placebo group (p=0.003).
Furthermore, the mean terminal hair count for treated men increased
by 169% compared with a mere 33% increase for the placebo-treated
men. Based on this data, herbal therapy seems to hold great potential as
a treatment for alopecia and warrants further study (Table 3).
Discovery of novel hair growth promoters is of first-class significance
as only two drugs namely minoxidil (topical) and finasteride (oral)
have been accredited by way of FDA for the remedy of alopecia. AGA is
a DHT-mediated approach, described by using steady miniaturization
of androgen reactive HFs and accompanied by perifollicular fibrosis
of follicular units in histological examination. AGA was caused in rats
by way of administration of testosterone. Conversion of testosterone
to DHT, which is an extra robust androgen in comparison with
testosterone explanations miniaturization of HF and shortening of the
anagen segment and markedly prolongs the period of resting segment
or telogen resulting in the conversion of thin terminal hairs into fine
vellus hairs. It is concluded that petroleum ether extract of Phyllanthus
niruri acts as a hair development promoting agent in AGA frequently
via inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme and reduction of the conversion
of testosterone to more powerful compound, DHT within the skin.
Presently on hand healing choices have specific barriers, both due
to terrible efficacies or because of the compliance issues and these
medicines are unable to avoid recurrence, which is the most common
situation. With all of the choices for treating hair loss, it is not shocking
that patients in most cases believe overwhelmed and burdened. Private
preferences could play a principal function in identifying the nice
remedy choice. Hair loss is an original and ever growing trouble in
cosmetics as well as fundamental well-being cared to follow. In a case
of artificial medicines, Minoxidil and finasteride remain our pleasant
retailers in handling hair loss that is approved by means of FDA.
Alopecia is a customary drawback that has affected men and women
for years. It is still now not utterly understood and remains to be
investigated via many healing are on supplied together with natural or
synthetic headquartered products, but average product are continually
gaining popularly and using plant extract in the system is on the rise.
Since looking on the growing fame of the natural medicines in hair care,
it should be useful to soak up systemic investigation on the efficacy of
those medicines and their education. 1 day it is viable that many new
plants extract of industrial importance will be recognized and claims of
many huge spread herbs shall be established.
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Innovare Journal of Medical Science, Vol 5, Issue 1, 25-33
... 24 The disorder is common to the old aged, physical and emotional stressed people, as well as thyroid or other hormonal irregularities. [25][26] The level of effluvium relies upon the gravity and duration of exposure to the causative agent as opposed to the agent itself. Telogen effluvium can be critical (going on for below six months), chronic (more than six months) or chronic repetitive. ...
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There are diverse types of alopecia and each call for a specific treatment. Regrettably there is no curative solution to the problem of alopecia as most drugs target its management. The purpose of the review is to explore the different types of alopecia and how each affect hair appearance and growth. The review begins by describing hair structure and hair physiological changes during life progression. A detailed description of conventional medication prescribed for alopecia and associated adverse effects are also pronounced in this review. Both approved (minoxidil and finasteride) and unapproved medications indicated for the condition are discussed to expose voids, which need to be filled by future drug development. The review also discusses the prospective future therapies of alopecia as directed by current research and technological advancement.
... Not only convenient and simple, natural hair loss treatments are also quite effective and cost-effective. Therefore, we can absolutely use natural ingredients at home to treat hair loss in the following ways [7][8][9]. Most oils including coconut oil, olive oil, jojoba oil, etc. all work very well with hair. ...
Finding out methods or ways to improve people's health is always focused. How to have beautiful hair is what both men and women want. In order to achieve that, people used natural ingredients to nourish their hair in addition to modern Western medical therapies. The paper was based on sources of journals, documents as well as the survey results completed by patients and foreigners living in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. The research paper once again determines the importance of folk therapies as well as some great herbs in this country.
... Hair loss emanate from many factors such as old age, genetic predisposition, thyroid imbalance, undernourishment or wrong diet, chronic infections, hormonal e ects of family planning pills, physiological processes such as pregnancy, certain drugs, and chemotherapy targeting cancer cells [4,5]. In some cases hair loss can be temporary but a hormonal and genetic predisposition condition like androgenic alopecia is usually permanent. ...
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Phytochemicals from Dicerocaryum senecioides were studied for hair rejuvenation activity using BalB/c mice. Solvent extractions and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used to extract and isolate the phytochemicals respectively. Phytochemicals were identified by spraying with target-specific revealing reagents. In vivo hair growth stimulating activity for each extract was tested on denuded dorsal skin of 5-week old BalB/c mice against the controls and the standard drug minoxidil. The parameters used to evaluate hair growth were hair growth completion time, hair length, hair weight, hair follicle length, and relative hair follicle area. The identified phytochemicals from the active ethanol extract were steroidal glycosides, triterpenoid glycosides, and flavonoid glycosides. Flavonoid glycosides treatment had the uppermost hair rejuvenation capacity as measured by the shortest hair growth completion time (19 days) versus control (29 days) and longest hair length (11.04 mm and 11.86 mm for male and female mice respectively while the control group had 5.15 mm for male mice and 5.33 mm for female mice). Hair growth stimulation by flavonoid glycosides was also dependent on dose concentration. It can be concluded from this study that flavonoid glycosides extracted from the leaves of Dicerocaryum senecioides have remarkable hair rejuvenation capacity in BalB/c mice. The present results provides insights on the use of Dicerocaryum senecioides for hair rejuvenation in traditional practices and on the potential of the plant as a source of novel compounds that can be used as hair growth promoters.
... 19 [20][21][22] It is reported that green tea leaves extracts have polyphenolic components exhibit anti-inflammatory and stress inhibitory effect which may influence hair growth among mice. 19 EGCG that is a major component of green tea stimulates human hair growth via its proliferative and antiapoptotic effects on dermal papilla cells also affects Type I 5-alpha-reductase activity which converts testosterone to DHT. [25][26][27] Other significant uses of green tea include antioxidant activity, improved insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular diseases, antiviral potentials, therapeutic potentials against Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, anti-allergic potentials, anti-carcinogenic activity, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, usefulness in skin damage, dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, combat obesity, prevents hair loss, antibacterial activity, and effective in renal failures ( Figure 5). 24 ...
Full-text available
The second most common alopecia—Androgenetic alopecia (AGA)—occurs due to hormonal imbalance. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) an androgenic hormone is a sex steroid, produced in the gonads. The target sites of DHT are similar to that of testosterone, and it attaches easily remaining bound for 53 minutes as compared to 35 minutes of testosterone. Excess of DHT causes miniaturization of hair reducing the anagen phase and increasing the telogen phase leading to hair loss. Normally up to ten percent of testosterone in the body irreversibly gets converted into DHT by the action of enzyme 5‐alpha‐reductase. Inadequate blood flow to the scalp can also be another reason for hair loss encountered due to lower oxygen and nutrients reaching it. AGA affects both sexes; however in males, it leads to major hair loss. Conventional drugs such as minoxidil and finasteride are widely used for the treatment. However, several drawbacks such as allergic contact dermatitis, burning, ejaculation disorder, and decreased libido are reported. Available literature suggests the role of herbal drugs to have the action against 5‐alpha‐reductase enzyme inhibiting it and reducing the hair loss. This can be further potentiated since they exhibit lesser side effects. Recent advancements observed in the medicinal, cosmetic, and engineering fields can prove to be an asset. This article focuses on herbs which can be used in AGA. A review of Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Pumpkin seed (Curcurbita pepo), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Grape seed (Vitis vinifera), and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is attempted.
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Herbal cosmetics have growing demand on the earth market and are a precious gift of nature. Herbal formulations continuously have attracted gigantic concentration on the grounds that of their good endeavor and comparatively lesser or nil side effect with synthetic medications. Herbs and spices have been used in retaining and embellishing human magnificence because time immemorial. Hair loss problem is of great significance to both men and women. The essential issues associated with hair loss are hair fading, dandruff, and falling of hair. Alopecia is the medical term for hair loss or baldness. It is an embarrassing condition for any person as he/she looks extra aged than ordinary. Many forms of medication are available to treat alopecia in special procedure of medication such as Allopathic, Homeopathic, and Ayurveda or can also be surgical like hair transplantation; however, none of them is wholly ample. This hindrance could be solved by the use of natural medicines obtained from herbs. Various herbs are being used to preclude the hair loss and remorse of hairs including Aloe vera, brahmi, nagarmotha, amla, bhringraj, and lots of different herbs. Being average medicines, there are various advantages of making use of them like patient compliance, less side results, convenient availability, inexpensive and multiple mode of applications to treat alopecia, and other hair diseases.
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In the last few decades, a curious thing has happened to Herbal medicines. Instead of being killed off by medical science and pharmaceutical chemistry, it has made come back. Herbal medicine has benefited from the objective analysis of the medical science, while fanciful and emotional claims for herbal cures have been thrown out, herbal treatments and plant medicine that works have been acknowledge. Moreover, herbal medicine has been found to have impressive credentials. Developed empirically by trial and error, many herbal treatments were nevertheless remarkably effective. In a recent survey estimated that 39% of all 520 new approved drugs in 1983-1994 were natural products or derived from natural products and 60-80% of antibacterial and anticancer drugs were derived from natural products. Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Plant-derived drugs came into use in the modern medicine through the uses of plant material as an indigenous cure in folklore or traditional systems of medicine. Bacopa monnieri, Cyperus rotundus, and Emblica officinalis (Brahmi, Nagarmotha, Amla) have several chemical compounds have been isolated from these herbs which are useful in treating number of diseases such as diarrhea, vomiting, indigestion, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, hair growth, hair wash, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-allergic, antifungal, cardiac depressant, and cardio-tonic. These reported therapeutic activities are due to the presence of phytochemicals present in these Herbs. Even Ayurveda has recognizes the nutritional elements derived from foods and Rasayanas which help to optimize the availability of " essential nutrients " in the body.
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Emblica officinalis (Amla, EO, and E. officinalis) is one of the most important herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system, especially Ayurveda and also known as the king of all medicinal plants. EO is famous ayurvedic herb (the name means sour in Sanskrit) is likely one of the most useful drug treatments within the Indian pharmacopoeia, and is considered to be one of the most strongest uvenatives (Rasayana), particularly for the blood, bones, liver, and heart. It is an exceptionally rich source of vitamin C containing 30 times the amount found in oranges. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. EO (Amla) is widely used in the ayurvedic medicines and believed to increase defense or immune power against diseases. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the “fruit.” The fruit is rich in quercetin, phyllemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. A wide range of phytochemical components including terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and tannins have been shown to possess useful biological activities. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of EO as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumor, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory activities, anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, inhibitory effects, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, hair growth tonic, wound healing activities, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and many other traditional uses of the plant. The present study also includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytoconstituent, and physico-chemical evaluation.
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Peptic ulcer is a most common ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. This pathological condition is caused by chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori, excessive use of of NSAIDs like aspirin and smoking. This disorder also results in release of massive amount of toxic free radicals which results in oxidative stress. Ethnobotanically, the whole plant of Calendula officinalis has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and other diseases. Antiulcer-activity of the 50% ethanolic extracts in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant, used in the above disorders. Four groups of six albino rats in each group were used. They were pretreated with (0.25% w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (negative control, 10 ml/kg), 50 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), whole plant extract of Calendula officinalis (250 and 450 mg/kg/body weight) and their effect was studied on aspirin induced ulcer, cold-resistant stress-induced ulcers, pylorus ligation and ethanol-induced ulcers. The results of the present study showed that the whole plant extract of Calendula officinalis possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by physical and chemical agents with a maximum of 87.15 % therapeutic efficiency (450 mg/kg b.w.) in cold resistant stress-induced ulcers. The present study was also aimed to investigate the effect of this extract on oxidative stress by measuring the level of various oxidative markers. The result of enzyme assay and lipid peroxidation clearly indicates the whole plant of Calendula officinalis extract have significant antioxidant effect on ulcer pathology. Whole plant extract have decreased LPO (p< 0.001) and SOD (p<0.01) with concomitant increase in catalyse activity in cold resistant stress-induced ulcers.
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The ethanolic extract of the leaves and bark of Annona squsmosa. (Annonaceae) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in wistar rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 450 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective.
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The aim of performing this work is to study and evaluate Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Prazosin HCL in mice. The animals were treated with Prazosin (PZ) at the doses of 5, 15, 25 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneal (IP) for single dose (14 days) toxicity studies. Different methods were used to perform the study like Measurement of body weight, organ weight and food intake, Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, Estimation of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) level, For evaluation of Genotoxicity following parameters has been evaluated: Micronucleus assay in bone marrow, Micronucleus assay in peripheral blood, Determination of DNA damage: Metaphase chromosome analysis, Determination of DNA damage: DNA fragmentation assay, Determination of Cytotoxicity: Histological examination.The results obtained clearly demonstrate that PZ produced toxic responses at the higher dose in the hepatocytes as evident from increased MDA level, decreased GSH level, DNA damage, increased DNA fragmentation in mice. Also, it is interesting that in bone marrow cells, PZ induced structural chromosomal aberrations, and significantly DNA strand breakage observed. So it is considered as Genotoxicity toward the bone marrow cells and to the hepatocytes of mice. The present study provided evidence that Prazosin induced significant genotoxic effects in mice at its equivalent hepatotoxic dose level.
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It is said that the use of Bacopa monnieri (BM) for memory enhancement goes back 3000 years or more in India, when it was cited for its medicinal properties, especially the memory enhancing capacity, in the vedic texts " Athar-Ved Samhila " (3:1) of 800 BC and in Ayurveda. In the folklore of Indian medicine, several herbs have been used traditionally as brain or nerve tonics. One of the most popular of these neurotonics is BM, a well-known memory booster. Brahmi has been administered at religious institutions to help students to enhance their memory for learning ancient, religious hymns. It is also used as cardio-tonic, tranquilizer and sedative, improves the process of learning, restores memory, and enhances power of speech and imagination, diuretic and nervine tonic, antistress, for nervous and mental strain, use in insanity, epilepsy, hysteria, esthenia, nervous breakdown. It is a small, creeping succulent herb. The leaf and flower bearing stems are 10-30 cm long and arise from creeping stems that form roots at the nodes with pale blue or pinkish white flowers belonging to family Scrophulariaceae grown nearly banks of freshwater streams and ponds, paddy fields, and other damp places. The chief phytoconstituents present are brahmine, herpestine, alkaloids, and saponins.
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In present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate a Comparative study of powder v/s gel of proniosomal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen. Flurbiprofen, are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is used for the relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. It will be also effected the transdermal system rate because of its size, nature and chemistry, these systems give better drug permeability from biological bioavailability membranes and helps in solubilization of some practically insoluble drugs and hence solve problems of many drug. In the present study we are using various surfactants like span 20, 40, 60, 80, and brij 35 and studided in various proniosomal powder and gel formulation and studied in both result in following formulation. In this result proniosomal gel of formulation brij 35 show better entrapment and highest in vitro drug release. The best result obtain in which formulation which having equimolar ratio(1:1) of brij 35 and cholesterol.The release mechanism was explained with zero order, first order, higuchi equations. Thus it can be concluded that the proniosomes gel posses higher entrapment efficiency and utilizes alcohol, which itself act as penetration enhancer. The elicited an increase of the percutaneous permeation of flurbiprofen both in-vitro and in-vivo. In addition, in vivo experiments showed that flurbiprofen proniosomes gel can ensure a sustained release of the drug and hence a prolongation of its therapeutic activity, which can be related to an accumulation of flurbiprofen in the skin.
Nyctanthes arbortristis (N. Arbortristis) is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. It is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions and Southwards to Godavari. Each part of the plant has some important medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases and also for the development of some industrial products. The present review is to focus on the potential phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activity of plant N. Arbortristis. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant pharmacological activity. Phyto-chemicals like flavanoid, glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid have been reported for significant hair tonic, hepatoprotective, anti-leishmaniasis, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-pyretic, anti-histaminic, anti-malerial, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Night jasmine and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.