The Frequency of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease by Age, Ethnic Group, and Sex in Northern Manhattan, 1988-1993

Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 11/1995; 142(8).
Source: OAI


Sex and ethnic differences in the frequency of Parkinson's disease have become increasingly important, because putative genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified. The authors estimated the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in a culturally diverse community in New York City over a 4-year period (January 1, 1988–December 31, 1991) using a disease registry substantiated, for older individuals, by a subsequent survey of a random sample of Medicare recipients between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1993. The prevalence rate was 107 per 100,000 persons, and over a 3-year period the average incidence rate was 13 per 100,000 person-years. Age-adjusted prevalence rates were lower for women than for men in each ethnic group and were lower for blacks than for whites and Hispanics. Incidence rates were highest among black men, but they were otherwise comparable across the sex and ethnic groups. The estimated cumulative incidence of Parkinson's disease up to age 90 years was lower for women than for men, which could partially explain the lower prevalence rate. By ethnic group, the cumulative incidence was higher for blacks than for whites and Hispanics, but more deaths occurred among incident black cases. Discrepant prevalence and incidence rates of Parkinson's disease among blacks and women warrant further investigation. While selective mortality could partially account for this paradox, it is also possible that a delay in diagnosis due to limited access to appropriate health services among these individuals could have resulted in the observed discordant rates of disease.

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    • "Compared to women, men have a higher incidence of post ischemic stroke Parkinsonism, a neurodegenerative condition in which oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the progression of cell death [181] [182]. Moreover, at the same age, men have a greater incidence of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD than women [183] [184] [185]. "
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    • "Characterized by motor impairment and, with time, cognitive deficits, Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects ~1% of people over the age of 65 [1]. Histopathological features include loss of dopaminergic neurons, predominantly in the substantia nigra pars compacta, often accompanied by intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies [2,3]. "
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    • "Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 2% of those over the age of 75 years (Mayeux et al., 1995). Neuropathologically, it is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, associated with the formation of fibrillar aggregates composed of α-synuclein and other proteins (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) (Braak et al., 2003). "
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