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Bioeffects induced by exposure to electromagnetic fields and mitigation by natural antioxidants

Authors:
  • Sabratha Universty

Abstract

Abstract: This review aims to determine whether antioxidants can modulate the harmful of effects of electromagnetic fields, thereby influencing health and disease outcome associated with oxidative stress-induced insults. Electromagnetic fields increase oxidative stress and that dietary supplementation with antioxidants may play a role on the neutralization or buffering of the effects of electromagnetic fields with oxidizing properties. This review summarizes the most common and health-relevant sources of oxidative stress like electromagnetic fields. There are several reports related to the protective effect of natural based substances in prevention and treatment of deleterious effects induced by electromagnetic radiation. Due to space constrains and a broad scientific data, not all the studies could be covered in this review. The use of natural antioxidants from plant is increasing day by day. In this review, we summarized mitigation of bioeffects induced by exposure to electromagnetic fields by some plants rich in natural antioxidants such as, plum (Prunus domestica), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), basil (Ocillium basilicum), garlic (Allium sativum), Loranthus longiflorus, Alstonia scholaris. In addition, numerous natural antioxidants such as, vitamins C, E and their derivatives, date palm pollen, quercetin, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, bixin, flavonoids, epigallocatechin and other polyphenols consumption before or after radiation exposure can protect cells against radiation induced damage. Clinical studies imply that eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and omega-3 fatty acids can help humans in decreasing oxidative stress. It can be concluded that dietary supplementation with antioxidants may play a role on the neutralization or buffering of the effects of electromagnetic fields with oxidizing properties.
126
SAS Journal of Medicine ISSN 2454-5112
SAS J. Med., Volume-2; Issue-6 (Nov-Dec, 2016); p-126-133
Available online at http://sassociety.com/sasjm/
Bioeffects induced by exposure to electromagnetic fields and mitigation by
natural antioxidants
Azab Elsayed Azab1*, Shaban Ali Ebrahim2
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alejelat, Zawia University, Alejelat, Libya.
2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alejelat, Zawia University, Alejelat, Libya.
*Corresponding author
Azab Elsayed Azab
Email: azabelsaied@yahoo.com
Abstract: This review aims to determine whether antioxidants can modulate the harmful effects of electromagnetic
fields, thereby influencing health and disease outcome associated with oxidative stress-induced insults. Electromagnetic
fields increase oxidative stress and that dietary supplementation with antioxidants may play a role on the neutralization or
buffering of the effects of electromagnetic fields with oxidizing properties. This review summarizes the most common
and health-relevant sources of oxidative stress like electromagnetic fields. There are several reports related to the
protective effect of natural based substances in prevention and treatment of deleterious effects induced by
electromagnetic radiation. Due to space constrains and a broad scientific data, not all the studies could be covered in this
review. The use of natural antioxidants from plant is increasing day by day. In this review, we summarized mitigation of
bioeffects induced by exposure to electromagnetic fields by some plants rich in natural antioxidants such as, plum
(Prunus domestica), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis),
basil (Ocillium basilicum), garlic (Allium sativum), Loranthus longiflorus, Alstonia scholaris. In addition, numerous
natural antioxidants such as, vitamins C, E and their derivatives, date palm pollen, quercetin, caffeine, chlorogenic acid,
ellagic acid, bixin, flavonoids, epigallocatechin and other polyphenols consumption before or after radiation exposure can
protect cells against radiation induced damage. Clinical studies imply that eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole
grains, legumes, and omega-3 fatty acids can help humans in decreasing oxidative stress. It can be concluded that dietary
supplementation with antioxidants may play a role on the neutralization or buffering of the effects of electromagnetic
fields with oxidizing properties.
Keywords: Basil, Bitter orange, Garlic, Green tea, Natural antioxidants, Mitigate the harmful effects of EMFs, Plum,
Rosemary, Vitamin C, E.
INTRODUCTION
Electrical energy enters into the operation of a
myriad industrial, scientific, medical, community and
house equipment and appliances. The accompanying
electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are partially transformed
into radiation that affects human health [1].
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones
may affect biological systems by increasing free
radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems
of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress [2].
EMFs exposure has a cumulative effect, increasing over
time and with the dose [1, 2]. The biological effects and
health hazards of non ionizing radiation have been
debated for over fifty years. The results of extensive
studies showed that acute exposure to non-ionizing
radiation can lead to increased internal temperature,
speeds up chemical reactions rate which result in
biochemical and physiological effects [4]. Children,
pregnant women and those with poor health conditions
are especially at risk for a lifetime of exposure [1, 5].
Exposure of human and animals to EMFs have been a
negative effects on cardiovascular system, CNS,
endocrine, immune systems and reproductive system,
the developing embryo/fetus, and cause a
histopathological changes and disturbances in functions
of different body organs [6]. EMFs might produce a
variety of adverse in vivo effects such as chronic
fatigue, headaches, cataracts, heart problems, stress,
nausea, chest pain, forgetfulness, influence the learning
and memory, cardiovascular system and reproductive
system, CNS, endocrine, immune systems, sleep
disturbances. It have been implicated in adversely
affecting multiple facets of human health such as
leukemia, brain cancer, lung and breast tumors, Lou
Gehrig’s disease, genotoxicity and neurodegenerative
disease, infertility, birth defects, increased risk of
miscarriage, childhood morbidity, de novo mutations,
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, depression, reproduction
anomalies, suicide, and Alzheimer’s’ disease [6].
Review Article
Azab Elsayed Azab et al., SAS J. Med., 2016; 2(6):126-133
127
Exposure to EMFs induces harmful effects on testis and
reproductive activities [7].
Several mechanisms of how MFs lead to
cancer have been proposed. One possible mechanism is
the impact of EMFs on free radical combination rates in
certain enzymes, such as coenzyme B12-dependent
ethanolamine ammonia lyase [8, 9]. It was evidenced
that despite the small influence of EMFs on radical pair
recombination, the enzyme reaction rate may be
amplified by a factor of up to 100 [9, 10]. An
alternative mechanism may be the interactions between
electric field and airborne pollutant particles. The
corona ions emitted from high voltage power lines are
able to attach the pollutants and increase their electric
charge states, which can be deposited on the skin or in
the lung through inhalation [9, 11].
Magnetic field is produced by a magnetic
object with particles or by changing the electric field,
and is identified by the force applied to other magnetic
materials or movement of the electric charge. Magnetic
field is identified at any given point by both parameters
of direction and intensity (or resistance), which is
known as a vector field and in today's industrial and
economic world makes its effects on health, forecasting,
and management implications of these developments
difficult [12, 13].
EMR of cellular Mobile phones may affect
biological systems by increasing free radicals, which
appear mainly to enhance lipid peroxidation, and by
changing the antioxidant defense systems of human
tissues, thus leading to oxidative stress [14].
Electromagnetic waves have been shown to
exert their effects on biological systems through
generation or increase in reactive oxygen species
(ROS). ROS, as a medium, contributes to numerous
biological impacts including DNA damage and
mutation induction [15, 16]. Mitochondria are the main
site of intracellular oxygen consumption and the main
source of ROS formation [17]. Once ROS are produced,
they are removed by cellular defenses which include the
enzymes superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD,
and extracellular (EC)-SOD), catalase, glutathione
peroxidase, peroxiredoxins, and the nonenzymatic
antioxidants, like glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin,
ascorbate, α-tocopherol, and uric acid [18]. The balance
between production and neutralization of ROS levels
can increase dramatically, which may cause damage to
cell structures leading to behavioral, histopathological
and biochemical alterations [19]. The increase in
oxidative stress in hematopoietic centers has also been
reported due to use of mobile phone [16, 20].
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species
play an essential role in the occurrence of more than
hundred disorders. Human cells through radiation
produce free radicals and they can damage
macromolecules such as DNA, lipid, proteins and
carbohydrate [21].
Since oxidative damage of cells increases with
age, the increased intake of exogenous antioxidants may
support the endogenous antioxidative defense. Clinical
studies imply that eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables,
whole grains, legumes, and omega-3 fatty acids can
help humans in decreasing oxidative stress and
postponing the incidence of degenerative diseases [22].
Herbal medicines have been popular for
prevention and treatment of diseases from ancient times
and in recent years herbal remedies are used as primary
health care with minimum side effects around the world
[7, 23]. The use of natural antioxidants from plant is
increasing day by day [7]. In addition, numerous natural
antioxidants such as, vitamins C, E and their
derivatives, Vitamin A, β-carotene, curcumin, date palm
pollen, Allium cepa, quercetin, caffeine, chlorogenic
acid, ellagic acid, bixin, flavonoids, epigallocatechin
and other polyphenols consumption before or after
radiation exposure can protect cells against radiation
induced damage [7, 24, 25].
Researchers have confirmed that an adequate
intake of antioxidant rich diet helps to prevent these
degenerative disorders because food rich in antioxidants
play an essential role in the prevention of many diseases
viz cardiovascular diseases cancers and
neurodegenerative diseases [19]. There are several
reports related to the protective effect of natural based
substances in prevention and treatment of deleterious
effects induced by electromagnetic radiation [7, 9, 13,
16, 24-29].
Nowadays, scientists’ effort to use natural
ingredient instead of drugs and chemicals to maintain
human health more and prevention of diseases. Among
such, consumption of green tea has the longest history
in the world and now in over 160 countries around the
world as the common beverage is consumed daily.
Recently, green tea due to its numerous benefits in
health, in prevention and in treatment of diseases such
as cancer has been considered in the public opinion and
in the scientific community. Because of its application,
in addition to traditional methods of brewing has
prevalence as a natural ingredient in food or feed
products and in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics
industries [30].
Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium):
Mansouri and Khaki, [13] evaluated the
diminishing effects of Citrus aurantium on uterus cell
injury in female Wistar rats induced by EMF. In the
experimental rats, apoptotic cells showed significant
increase in the EMF groups. However, in the exposed
group that received Citrus aurantium, apoptotic cells
and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased
and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased (P <
Azab Elsayed Azab et al., SAS J. Med., 2016; 2(6):126-133
128
0.05). Citrus aurantium juice has antioxidative effects
on uterus tissue by reduction of apoptosis.
Date palm pollen
Baharara et al., [7] investigated that the
protective effect of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
pollen (DPP) in preventing the detrimental effects of
low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz) on sperm
parameters and sexual hormones. Adult male mice were
randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 and exposed to
EMF 4 h/day for 10 days. In this study experimental
groups received DPP with doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200
mg/kg, respectively before exposure. At the end of the
experiment each group were tested for sperm
parameters including: motility, count, morphology,
viability and the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and
testosterone. The results revealed that exposure to EMF
induced significant reduction (P < .001) in sperm count,
viability and progressive motility in comparison with
control group. EMF caused abnormalities in sperm and
significant decrease in testosterone level. In testis the
rates of metabolism and cell replication is high and
oxidative stress can be harmful in seminiferous tubules
because electromagnetic exposure and heat can affect
the blood-testis barrier and cause spermatogonial
degeneration [7]. Administration of DPP before
exposure improved the sperm count, viability, motility
and testosterone level in experimental groups. In
addition, pretreatment with DPP prevented the sperm
abnormality induced by EMF. The results indicate the
protective effect of DPP against EMF adverse effects on
sperm parameters and sexual hormones in male mice
[7]. Date palm pollen (DPP) has been used for curing
male and female infertility and impotency for thousands
of years as a traditional herbal medicine. DPP contains
various types of phytochemicals such as estrone, α-
amirin, triterpenoidal saponins, flavonoids estrone,
estradiol and estriol and a crude gonadotrophic
substance [7, 31]. DPP is a good source of natural
antioxidants and has remarkable health benefits and
nutritional values. Many studies have shown that DPP
can enhance spermatogenesis, increase sperm count and
concentration of testosterone, FSH and LH [7, 32].
Plum (Prunus domestica)
Rifat et al., [19] study the effects of 10 GHz
microwave (MW) exposure on hematological changes
in Swiss albino mice and possible modulatory role of
plum (Prunus domestica) fruit extract. MW exposure
resulted in significant decrease (P 0.001) in
hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood
cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration whereas, white
blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation
rate and mean corpuscular volume increased
significantly (P 0.001) in MW exposed mice
compared to the sham exposed. Cholesterol, alkaline
phosphatase and lipid peroxidation also increased
significantly (P 0.001) after MW exposure compared
to sham exposed mice. The depletion in the values of
hematological parameters following MW radiation
exposure may be attributed to (a) direct damage caused
by lethal dose of radiation (b) due to overproduction of
ROS by MW interactions [19, 28]. Changes in
hematological parameters may be attributed to
inhibition by free radicals produced by MW interactions
[19]. Depletion was noted in blood sugar, total protein,
acid phosphatase and glutathione level after microwave
exposure compared to sham exposed mice.
Histopathological alterations in blood cells were also
noted. Signs of improvements in the hematological and
histopathological parameters were recorded in mice of
group received 500mg/kg/b.wt (milligram per kilogram
body weight) of Prunus domestica fruit extract orally
once daily 1 hour before exposure to10 GHz (2 h/day)
for 30 consecutive days. The antioxidants present in
Prunus domestica fruit extract have suppressed these
harmful effects by scavenging some of the free radicals
[19].
Vitamins (C& E)
Mottawie and Ibrahiem, [27] reported that
exposure of Wistar albino rats to electromagnetic waves
emitted from mobile phone led to a significant
difference in the levels of hydrogen peroxide,
glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, conjugated diene,
and lipid hydro peroxide in serum, liver and kidney
when compared to the control group. Supplementation
of Vitamin C and E caused a significant decreased in
the levels of hydrogen peroxide, conjugated diene, and
lipid hydro peroxide while a significant increased in the
activities of glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase in
serum, liver and kidneys of rats when compared to the
control group. The potent free radical scavenger and
antioxidant agent’s Vitamins C and E seem to be highly
promising agents for protecting liver and kidney tissues
from oxidative damage and preventing organ
dysfunction. Since vitamin E , the most important
lipophilic antioxidant resides mainly in the cell
membranes, thus helping to maintain membrane
stability [27, 33]. Vitamin C is the most important
hydrophilic free radical scavenger in extracellular
fluids: It traps radicals in the aqueous phase and
protects bio membranes from peroxidative damage [27,
34]. In addition to providing its antioxidant effects, Vit
C is involved in the regulation of tocopherol from
tocopheroxyl radicals in the membrane. Thus, vitamins
E and C may have interactive effects [27, 35].
Assasa, [36] found that exposure of rats to
electromagnetic field radiated from cellular telephones
base stations with frequency equals 900 MHz caused a
significant decrease in a growth rate. Significant
increase in the following blood indices: the white blood
cell count as compared to control level, mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and blood
platelets count. And a significant decrease in red blood
cell count, hemoglobin incidence, hematocrit value, the
mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration. Serum aspartate
Azab Elsayed Azab et al., SAS J. Med., 2016; 2(6):126-133
129
aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase and
alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased under
electromagnetic field exposure. Signs of improvements
in the body weight rate, the hematological parameters
and the serum of liver enzymes were noticed during
treatments with electromagnetic field in addition to
vitamin C or E. Vitamin E was more effective in
reducing the elevation of ALT, AST, and ALP.
Al-Damegh, [37] investigated the possible
effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional
cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status
in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the
possible protective role of vitamins C and E in
preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic
radiation on the testes. There was a significant increase
in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a
disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle
interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group.
The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid
hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold,
whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione
and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in
the electromagnetism-exposed animals. Vitamins C
and E ameliorate the EMR-induced oxidative stress in
the testes, thus facilitating the restoration of testicular
tissue morphology and function by suppressing
testicular lipid peroxidation and restoring the levels of
GST and GSH to normal physiological levels.
Abd El Rahman et al., [4] evaluated the effect
of vitamin E, Silymarin and their co-administration on
oxidative stress and hormonal changes in rats whole
body exposed to 950 MHz electromagnetic field for
2months (2hrs/day, 3times/week). Vitamin E
(1.35mg/Kg BW) and/or Silymarin (18mg/Kg BW)
were orally administered to rats for 2months before
EMF exposure. Exposure to EMF provokes oxidative
stress identified by significant increases in serum
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS),
advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and
protein carbonyl (CO) levels associated to significant
decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase
(CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities
and glutathione (GSH) content. Oxidative stress was
accompanied by significant decreases of serum follicle
stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH),
and total and free testosterone levels. Vitamin E as well
as silymarin has significantly reduced oxidative stress
and ameliorated hormone levels. The co-administration
of vitamin E with silymarin before EMF exposure
afford a better protection, compared to each treatment
alone, against oxidative stress and hormonal.
Ghanbari et al., [38] evaluated the effects of
3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in
substantia nigra in Wistar rats and the role of vitamin E
in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO
process. A significant increase in MDA levels and
Glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the
substantia nigra following 50 days exposure to EMF
was detected, but the superoxide dismutase (SOD)
activity was decreased. Exposure did not change total
antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in plasma. Vitamin E
treatment significantly prevented the increase of the
MDA levels and GSHPx activity and also prevented the
decrease of SOD activity in tissue but did not alter TAC
levels. The GSH-Px activity increased because the
duration and intensity of exposure were not enough to
decrease it. Treatment with the vitamin E significantly
prevented the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
Mohamed and Elnegris [39] evaluated the
effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-
EMF) on the structure and function of the thyroid gland
and evaluated their reversibility and role of vitamin E in
adult male albino rats. Exposed group showed
significant decline T3 and T4 levels together with
significant increase in TSH level as compared to other
groups. Histologically, this group showed congestion
and dilatation of blood capillaries, cellular infiltration,
follicular disintegration and vacuolar degeneration of
some follicular cells. Other apoptotic follicular cells
appeared with condensed chromatin or desquamated.
The epithelial height and connective tissue area also
affected. Vitamin E improves the biochemical and
histological picture of thyroid gland. Recovery group
had variable alteration as compared to other groups.
Green tea (Camellia sinensis)
Guinea pigs exposed to 900 MHz of cell phone
radiation are scattered cardiac autonomic adjustments,
but green tea has beneficial effects on endothelial
function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular [30, 40].
By using of green tea catechin can prevent microwave
oxidative damages on cardiac tissue [30, 41]. Zahedifar
and Baharara, [30] reported that pro-oxidant and
antioxidant properties of green tea can effective to
neutralize the harmful effects of chemical-physical
environmental pollutants such as electromagnetic
radiation. Therefore, in order to promotion of health
level and prevention of diseases spread, particularly
cancer and reduce the costs of treatment, it is
recommended to predict the daily consumption of green
tea, with the exception of pregnant women.
Baharara et al., [16] found that the mean
number of promyelocytes, myelocytes, erythrocytes,
necrotic and apoptotic cells in bone marrow of Balb/C
mice fetuses exposed to electromagnetic field with 50
gauss intensity compared with sham exposed embryos
showed significant increased but the mean number of
eosinophils showed significant decrease. The mean
number of promyelocyte and erythrocyte in bone
marrow of Balb/C fetuses of pregnant mice treated by
Camellia sinensis extract and exposed to
electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity compared
with bone marrow of Balb/C mice fetuses exposed to
electromagnetic field with 50 gauss intensity showed
significant decrease, and significant increase in the
Azab Elsayed Azab et al., SAS J. Med., 2016; 2(6):126-133
130
mean of necrotic and apoptotic cells. Camellia sinensis
is rich in natural antioxidants and antioxidants can
neutralize free radicals effects. So, usage of Camellia
sinensis can decrease the damage due to teratogenicity
induced by low frequency electromagnetic field in some
cells. Camellia sinensis returned the change in the
levels of minerals including iron, manganese, and zinc
due to the impact of 900-mHz electromagnetic fields in
hepatic and ovarian cells to a normal level in pigs [16,
26].
Zhang et al., [9] investigated that the change in
oxidative stress after exposure to ELF-EMFs, and
potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol
supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced
oxidative stress. A total of 867 subjects, including
workers with or without exposure to ELFEMFs of 110
420 kV power lines, participated and were randomized
into GTPS and placebo treatment groups. Oxidative
stress and oxidative damage to DNA were assessed by
urinary tests of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG. Significant
increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG were
observed in workers with ELF-EMFs exposure, which
were diminished after 12 months of GTPS. No
protective effects of GTPS on oxidative stress and
oxidative damage to DNA were observed after three
months of GTPS withdraw. Authors found a negative
impact of high-voltage power lines on the health of
workers. Long-term GTPS could be an efficient
protection against the health issues induced by high-
voltage power lines.
Ahmed et al., [2] investigated the effect of
EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power
density 0.02 mW/cm2, SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different
oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and
striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to
evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG
on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR
after and during EMR exposure. EMR exposure
resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and
striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and
antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea
mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2
and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-
induced oxidative stress than oral administration of
green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. Tea
mega EGCG may play a protective role against EMR-
induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and
striatum by stimulating the antioxidant defense system
and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. This emphasizes the
ability of green tea and its polyphenolic compounds
catechins to prevent oxidative stress. This
recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to
attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the
antioxidant mechanism of the brain.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Ghoneima and Arafat, [42] investigated the
histological and histochemical changes of the parotid
glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the
possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful
effect. The results of this study revealed that exposure
of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic
radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes
at the level of light and electron microscopic
examination which could be explained by oxidative
stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a
protective role against this harmful effect through its
antioxidant activity.
Basil (Ocillium basilicum):
Ocillium basilicum has been used since ancient
times as a medicine and food and it is known that the
antioxidant effect of Ocillium basilicum is beneficial to
protect tissue and decreasing carcinogenic effect of
electromagnetic field [43]. Khaki et al., [43] reported
that EMF has negative effect on ovary histology in rats
by increasing fibrosis and vein congestion. There was a
significant increase in apoptosis in EMF group when
compared with other groups (P<0.05). However, these
side effects are less seen in the EMF group that received
O. basilicum extract. Usage of O. basilicum extract
could be one of the useful methods as antioxidant
therapy against EMF exposure in industrial area. L-
carnitine and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are 2 effective
antioxidants which scavenge free radicals.
Sesame oil
Marzook et al., [44] studied the effect of
chronic exposure to electromagnetic radiations,
produced by a cellular tower for mobile phone and the
possible protective role of sesame oil on glutathione
reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, total
testosterone and total cholesterol, triglycerides, low
density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density
lipoprotein cholesterol in male albino rats. The results
obtained revealed that TG and testosterone were raised
significantly over control in all groups and the
significant increase in oil groups occurred in dose
dependent manner. SOD and CAT activities were
reduced significantly in exposed rats than control and
increased significantly in sesame oil groups as the dose
of oil increased. Total cholesterol only showed
remarkable reduction in the group treated with 3 ml
sesame oil. Also, in this latter group, significant
elevation of GSH-Rx was recorded. Changes in serum
HDL-c and LDL-c followed an opposite trend in
exposed and sesame oil groups reflecting their
affectation by EMR or sesame oil. All results of the
current study proved that sesame oil can be used as an
edible oil to attenuate the oxidative stress which could
be yielded as a result of chronic exposure to EMR.
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Sharaf-Eldeen et al., [45] reported that
exposure of mature female albino rats to mobile phone
microwave caused induction of newly synthesized
polypeptides in liver and brain tissues. The daily
administration of 20mg/kg garlic decreased the number
Azab Elsayed Azab et al., SAS J. Med., 2016; 2(6):126-133
131
of protein fractions in liver while such fractions were
increased in brain tissue and this effect was associated
especially in liver tissue with expression of new
proteins which may be stress proteins; these proteins
have low molecular weight. Also, garlic prevented
significantly the depression of mitotic index that
occurred under the effect of mobile phone microwave
exposure. This work suggested the in vivo
radioprotective role, antimutagenic and
anticarcinogenic effect of garlic. The protective effects
of garlic has been attributed to the presence of
organosulphur compounds like diallyl sulphide, diallyl
disulphide, ajoene, allixin, allyl mercaptans and allyl
methyl sulphides [45, 46].
Hajiuon, [29] investigated that the probable
effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on
estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. In this
experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat
were used: control, sham (under exposed), experimental
1 (receiving garlic extract), and experimental 2 and 3
(receiving both extract and microwaves). After a one
month, rats were weighed and serum levels of
hormones were measured. In male the mean body
weight in the sham showed a significant decrease,
whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3
compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone
levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen
showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups
progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body
weights in different groups showed no significant
changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in
serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3.
Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence
of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can
compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and
garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive
system, reflected only in the serum progesterone
concentration. Also they reflected in the number of
Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen
concentration. The differences observed in the
responses of male and female to cell phone radiation
might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body
and sensitivity of testis to heat.
Loranthus longiflorus
Nagar et al., [47] aimed to experiment on the
antioxidative property of a parasitic plant Loranthus
longiflorus (Loranthaceae) to protect central nervous
system against oxidative damages of mobile phone
electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Healthy male albino
wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 5 min
calling/ 5min interval for 1 hour per day for two
month, Keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile
phone in Silent mode (no ring tone) in the cage.
After 15, 30, 45, 60 days exposure, three randomly
picked animals from both groups were tested with
using Morris water maze. Antioxidant compounds
and their Neuroprotective action of Loranthus
longiflorus bark sample collected from Ficus religiosa
host trees were assessed. The Ethyl acetate extract of
Loranthus longiflorus bark possesses protective
effect on learning and memory against EMR
exposure. The presence of tannins and phenolic
compounds in the Ethyl acetate extract of the plant
may be responsible for these activities.
Alstonia scholaris
Gupta et al., [48] investigated the
radioprotective potential of the Alstonia scholaris
extract and noted that this extract could be efficient
against radiation-induced biochemical alterations. So
the protective effect of this extract might prove the
beneficial use of plants as radioprotector.
CONCLUSION
It can be concluded that dietary
supplementation with some plants rich in natural
antioxidants such as, plum (Prunus domestica), bitter
orange (Citrus aurantium), green tea (Camellia
sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), basil
(Ocillium basilicum), garlic (Allium sativum),
Loranthus longiflorus, Alstonia scholaris, and vitamins
C, E may play a role on the neutralization or buffering
the effects of electromagnetic fields with oxidizing
properties.
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... ROS, as a medium, contributes to numerous biological impacts including DNA damage and mutation induction. [17][18][19] The increase in OS in hematopoietic centers has been reported due to use of mobile phone. [18][19][20] Objectives This study aimed to present an overview on the previous works from 1997 to 2018 on the varying effects of electromagnetic fields on haematological data in human and different species of experimental models by using different frequencies, intensities, and different sources of electromagnetic fields for different periods. ...
... [17][18][19] The increase in OS in hematopoietic centers has been reported due to use of mobile phone. [18][19][20] Objectives This study aimed to present an overview on the previous works from 1997 to 2018 on the varying effects of electromagnetic fields on haematological data in human and different species of experimental models by using different frequencies, intensities, and different sources of electromagnetic fields for different periods. Table 1 shows the effect of exposure of experimental animals and human to EMFs from different sources, frequency, and intensity on RBCs count, Hb content, Hct value, MCV, MCH, and MCHc. ...
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Background: The use of mobile phones, wireless, and electrical devices has gradually increased throughout the last century, and scientists have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by such devices may have harmful effects on living creatures. Many studies revealed that the EMFs might produce a variety of adverse effects on human health as headaches, chronic fatigue, heart problems, stress, nausea, chest pain, and also some bad effects on central nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Exposure to EMF result in deterioration of RBCs function and metabolic activity, it was expected that, the increase of toxicity in specific organs was a result of the RBCs functional failure. The mechanisms by which the electromagnetic fields cause their bad effects may be by causing deterioration in cellular large molecules, imbalance in ionic equilibrium and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive oxygen species can damage cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA. Measurements of blood parameters are of the most important diagnostic methods by which we can determine the health status of human and animals for certain diseases as anemia, leukemia and also detect the presence of the inflammations. Objectives: This study aimed to present an overview on the previous works from 1997 to 2018 on the varying effects of electromagnetic fields on haematological data in human and different species of experimental models by using different frequencies, intensities, and different sources of electromagnetic fields for different periods. The hematological parameters are fluctuating across the exposure period to the EMFs suggesting the possible induction of hazardous biological effects during the exposure to magnetic field. Conclusion: It can be concluded that exposure of human and experimental animals to EMFs cause harmful effects on blood cells. These effects were disturbance in haematological parameters depending on species, the sources of EMFs, frequencies, intensities and duration of exposure.
... Nowadays there is increasing in using natural antioxidants. With age, there is an increase in oxidative damage which gives rise to the increased need to exogenous antioxidant intake to enhance the endogenous antioxidant mechanism [36]. Natural antioxidant intake as vitamin C and vitamin E has protective role against electromagnetic field induced oxidative stress. ...
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The current study aimed to assess mobile phone usage intensity and evaluate potential oxidative stress exerted among mobile users then evaluate the effect of antioxidants supplement on oxidative stress status. Intervention study done on 150 students using mobile phones from both technical nursing institute and faculty of nursing, Cairo .University. Only (108) students completed to the post intervention phase. Questionnaire and assessment of electromagnetic field exposure from mobile phones was done. Malondialdyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured pre and post supplementation. Mobile phones with two SIM cards, non-Android mobiles and mobile phones owned by the medium users group had significant higher electromagnetic emissions. Malondialdyde was significant higher in high mobile users. Significant negative correlation between emissions from mobile phone and superoxide dismutase. After supplementation, significant improvement in superoxide dismutase and Catalase among both groups using mobiles (>5years and <5years), using one or two phones, using one or two SIM cards and in android mobile users. Moreover, Malondialdyde show significant reduction among non-Android mobile users. It was concluded that exposure to low emissions from mobile phones could be fixed by dietary modification and increase antioxidant intake. © 2021 NIDOC (Nat.Inform.Document.Centre). All rights reserved.
... Therefore, the binding of the synaptic vesicle protein receptor restored the ability of neurons to decrease the excessive glutamate overflow (Lenz et al, 2016). The present results further indicate that rats treated with LLE exhibited higher GABA levels as compared to control rats which may be due to a synergy of LLE associated with beneficial pharmacodynamics action (Azab et al, 2017). In this study, the pyramidal neurons of CA1 region of hippocampus showed shortening of dendrites, loss of spine synapses and suppression of the neurogenesis in EMR exposed animals. ...
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Background: The effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on brain is of serious concern as it causes adverse effects on memory and learning besides causing stress. Earlier studies indicated that EMR exposure could lead to recognized pathologic consequences including increased permeability of blood brain barrier, distressed neuronal function and increased activity of the alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands in electroencephalograph. Oxidant-antioxidant and neurotransmitter imbalances were also noted in previous studies. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of Loranthus longiflorus extract (LLE) on EMR-induced rat brain has been investigated. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=6) were considered for the study. Group 1 consisted of normal animals that received only feed and water while group 2 rats received only exposure to EMR for 28 consecutive days. Groups 3 and 4 were treated respectively with LLE (500 mg/kg bw) and standard drug melatonin (10 mg/kg bw) daily for 28 days together with EMR exposure for the same period. After 10, 20 and 28 days, Y- maze test was carried out to investigate the cognitive functions in experimental animals. Result: It was observed that chronic exposure to EMR decreased cognitive characteristics in rats as revealed by significant changes in their behaviour as well as neurotransmitters such as GABA, ACh and dopamine. Treatment with LLE and melatonin reversed these changes to near normal values weindicating the efficacy of the plant extract in combating the neuronal changes in animals. A normal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in LLE treated animals as compared to melatonin group was also recorded that further confirmed reversal of brain activity.
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Objective: In the industrial world, almost everyone is unavoidably exposed to ambient electromagnetic field (EMF) generated from various technical and household appliances. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the diminishing effects of Citrus aurantium on uterus cell injury induced by EMF. Materials and Methods: In order to examine this, 40 female Wistar rats were selected and kept for 1 week in quarantine, and then, subdivided into two groups of 20 rats and were exposed to 40 Hz of EMF (non-ionizing radiation, 0.1 tesla) for 6 weeks. Group 1 received 3 cc/rat Citrus aurantium juice, and group 2 only received 3 cc Citrus aurantium. The control group only received 3 cc water using gavage method. The materials were processed and apoptosis was observed under a light microscope using TUNEL method. Results: In the experimental rats, apoptotic cells showed significant increase in the EMF groups. However, in the exposed group that received Citrus aurantium, apoptotic cells and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that EMF could induce cell injury on uterus tissue, and 3 cc Citrus aurantium juice has antioxidative effects on uterus tissue by reduction of apoptosis.
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Introduction Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can influence the biological system by the formation of free radicals in cells. The EMFs are able to deteriorate defense system against free radicals that leads to oxidative stress (OS). Lipid peroxidation process (LPO) is an index of oxidative stress, and the Malandialdehyde (MDA) is the final product of LPO. Vitamin E is the most important antioxidant which inhibits the LPO process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in substantia nigra and the role of vitamin E in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO process. Methods 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) Control group: received standard food without exposure to EMF and without consumption of vitamin E, 2) Experimental group 1: was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 3) The experimental group 2: received 200 mg/kg vitamin E with gavage every day and also was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 4) Sham group: received water with gavage for 50 days. Results A significant increase in MDA levels and Glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the substantia nigra following 50 days exposure to EMF was detected, but the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased. Exposure did not change total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in plasma. Vitamin E treatment significantly prevented the increase of the MDA levels and GSHPx activity and also prevented the decrease of SOD activity in tissue but did not alter TAC levels. The GSH-Px activity increased because the duration and intensity of exposure were not enough to decrease it. Conclusion We demonstrated two important findings; that 50 days exposure to 3 MT electromagnetic field caused oxidative stress by increasing the levels of MDA, and decreasing SOD activity in the substantia nigra; and that treatment with the vitamin E significantly prevented the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
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Although it has been several decades since the focus on the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of high-voltage power lines on human health, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. The present study aimed to investigate the change in oxidative stress after exposure to ELF-EMFs, and potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced oxidative stress. A total of 867 subjects, including workers with or without exposure to ELF-EMFs of 110–420 kV power lines, participated and were randomized into GTPS and placebo treatment groups. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were assessed by urinary tests of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG. Significant increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG were observed in workers with ELF-EMFs exposure, which were diminished after 12 months of GTPS. No protective effects of GTPS on oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were observed after three months of GTPS withdraw. We found a negative impact of high-voltage power lines on the health of workers. Long-term GTPS could be an efficient protection against the health issues induced by high-voltage power lines.
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Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.
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Peroxynitrite promotes oxidative damage and is implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases that involve accelerated rates of nitric oxide and superoxide formation. The unambiguous detection of peroxynitrite in biological systems is, however, difficult due to the combination of a short biological half-life, limited diffusion, multiple target molecule reactions, and participation of alternative oxidation/nitration pathways. In this review, we provide the conceptual framework and a comprehensive analysis of the current experimental strategies that can serve to unequivocally define the existence and quantitation of peroxynitrite in biological systems of different levels of organization and complexity. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.
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Free radicals and reactive oxygen species play an essential role in the occurrence of more than hundred disorders. Human cells through radiation produce free radicals and they can ruin macromolecules such as DNA, lipid, proteins and carbohydrate. The present study was aimed at evaluating hematological findings in healthy workers of Radiology Department of a hospital of Mashhad, Iran. The study was carried out on 55 subjects including 25 individuals working with X-ray machines as the examined group and 30 healthy volunteers as the controls. Radiation dose of radiology staff taking part in the study was less than the maximum permissible annual level, 50 millisievert. All parameters except PDW and P-LCR did not show any significant difference between the two groups. However, a significant increase in the percentage of X-ray technicians' PDW (platelet distribution width, 14.50 ± 0.39; <0.01) and PLCR (platelet large cell ratio, 28.20 ± 1.11; p<0.05) were observed in comparison to controls. As a result, our study showed that long-term low dose ionizing radiation might have toxic effects on thrombocytosis and coagulation function. Finally, usage of appropriate personal protective equipments at work and getting periodic medical surveillance and performing of the research projects on radiation protection and hazards to prevent irreversible damages is highly recommended. © 2015, SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine). All rights reserved.