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The need to protect the environment was felt from a long time but came into effect only after introduction of terms like sustainability and eco-friendly. Green marketing the next step in this direction focused mainly on introduction of products and practices which do not harm the environment. Thus, many companies came forward with green marketing strategies to overcome the environmental hazards. In this paper an attempt has been made to review previous literature related to green marketing strategies. These strategies are aimed at promoting environment friendly products, adopting sustainable green practices and forming alliances with other organizations in order overcome problems related to green marketing. Next some of the companies making use of such strategies have been studied. These firms have been classified into three categories, namely, green products (firms which produce environment friendly products), green firms (firms which are using environment friendly operations in their day to day activities) and green alliances (alliances between firms that work for the greening of environment and other businesses).This paper provides new insight into the role played by some of the firms in evolution of green marketing. It was found that although abundant research is being done in this field still certain gaps need to be filled regarding the impact being made by introduction of such strategies.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 4(12), 339-349
Journal Homepage:
Article DOI:10.21474/IJAR01/2400
Dr. Rupa Rathee and *Ms. Pallavi Rajain.
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and
Technology, Murthal (Sonepat), India.
Manuscript Info Abstract
……………………. ………………………………………………………………
Manuscript History
Received: 19 October 2016
Final Accepted: 20 November 2016
Published: December 2016
Key words:-
Green strategies, green products, green
firms and alliances.
The need to protect the environment was felt from a long time but
came into effect only after introduction of terms like sustainability and
eco-friendly. Green marketing the next step in this direction focused
mainly on introduction of products and practices which do not harm
the environment. Thus, many companies came forward with green
marketing strategies to overcome the environmental hazards. In this
paper an attempt has been made to review previous literature related to
green marketing strategies. These strategies are aimed at promoting
environment friendly products, adopting sustainable green practices
and forming alliances with other organizations in order overcome
problems related to green marketing. Next some of the companies
making use of such strategies have been studied. These firms have
been classified into three categories, namely, green products (firms
which produce environment friendly products), green firms (firms
which are using environment friendly operations in their day to day
activities) and green alliances (alliances between firms that work for
the greening of environment and other businesses).This paper
provides new insight into the role played by some of the firms in
evolution of green marketing. It was found that although abundant
research is being done in this field still certain gaps need to be filled
regarding the impact being made by introduction of such strategies.
Copy Right, IJAR, 2016,. All rights reserved.
The environmental revolution has been around for almost three decades and it has changed forever how companies
do business. In the earlier days, corporations were in a state of denial regarding their impact on the environment.
Then a series of highly visible ecological problems which caused environmental deterioration created the need for
strict government regulation. Today many companies have accepted their responsibility of not harming the
environment. Products and production processes are becoming cleaner and greener leading to an improvement in the
environment. In the industrialized nations, more and more companies are “going green” as they realize that they can
reduce pollution and increase profits simultaneously. Beyond greening lie an enormous challenge and an enormous
opportunity. Even if all the companies in the developed world were to achieve zero emissions, the earth would still
be stressed beyond what biologists refer to as its carrying capacity (Hart, 1997).
The past decade has shown that harnessing consumer power to effect positive environmental change is far easier
said than done. In essence, there is no definition of being good enough when it comes to a product or company
making green marketing claims. This lack of consensus by consumers, marketers, activists, regulators, and
Corresponding Author: -Pallavi Rajain.
Address: -Research Scholar, Department of Management Studies, Deenbandhu Chhotu
Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal (Sonepat), India.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 4(12), 339-349
influential people has slowed the growth of green products because companies are often reluctant to promote their
green attributes and consumers are often skeptical about claims(Makower, 2009).
Until now, the business logic for greening has been largely operational or technical, bottom-up pollution-prevention
programs have saved companies billions of dollars. However, few executives realize that environmental
opportunities might actually become a major source of revenue growth. Rarely is greening linked to strategy or
technology development, and as a result, most companies fail to recognize opportunities of potentially staggering
proportions (Hart, 1997; Abe et al., 2012).
Thus we can categorize the evolution of green marketing in three stages with different implications for marketing:
(1) Ecological marketing, a narrowly focused initiative which concentrated on reducing dependence on particularly
damaging products; (2) Environmental marketing, a more broadly based initiative which aimed to reduce
environmental damage by tapping into green consumer demand and opportunities for competitive advantage; and (3)
Sustainable marketing, a more radical approach to markets and marketing which seeks to meet the full
environmental costs of production and consumption to create a sustainable economy (Peattie, 2001).
The so-called "green consumer" movements in the U.S. and other countries have struggled to reach critical mass and
to remain in the forefront of shoppers‟ minds (Dodds, 2006). In India, also the concept of sustainable development
becamepopular only when New Delhi, capital of India, was being polluted at a very fast pace. In order to curb this
pollution, the Supreme Court of India forced a change to alternative fuels. In 2002, a directive was issued to
completely adopt CNG in all public transport systems which led to the first green initiative in India (Pal, 2009).In
the same year,the Government of India, under the Ministry of Power created The Bureau of Energy Efficiency as an
agency under the provisions of the nation's 2001 Energy Conservation Act. The agency's function is to develop
programs which will increase the conservation and efficient use of energy in India. The government had proposed to
make it mandatory for all appliances in India to have ratings by the BEE since January 2010. The mission of Bureau
of Energy Efficiency was to "institutionalize" energy efficiency services, enable delivery mechanisms in the country
and provide leadership to energy efficiency in all sectors of the country. The primary objective is to reduce energy
intensity in the economy.
Different authors define green marketing in different ways:American Marketing Association (1975) defines green
marketing as the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Henion and Kinnear (1976)
defined the concept of ecological marketing as, “Ecological marketing is concerned with all marketing activities (a)
that have served to help environmental problems and (b) that may serve to provide a remedy for environmental
problems”. According to Mintu and Lozada (1993) green marketing is “The application of marketing tools to
facilitate exchanges that satisfy organizational and individual goals in such a way that the preservation, protection,
and conservation of the physical environment are upheld”.Dam and Apeldoorn (1996), suggested that “Green
marketing focuses on market pull and legislative push towards improved, environmentally friendly corporate
performance.” In addition to this, the concept was further developed by Charter (1992) who coined the term
„Greener marketing‟, which is defined as, “A holistic and responsible management process that identifies,
anticipates, satisfies and fulfils stakeholder requirements, for a reasonable reward, that does not adversely affect
human or natural environmental wellbeing.” Elkington (1993) defined green consumer as one who avoids products
that are likely to endanger the health of the consumer or others; cause significant damage to the environment during
manufacture, use or disposal; consume a disproportionate amount of energy; cause unnecessary waste; use materials
derived from threatened species or environments; involve unnecessary use of, or cruelty to animals; adversely affect
other countries.According to Coddington (1993) environmental marketing is marketing activities that recognize
environmental stewardship as a business development responsibility and business growth responsibility. Polonsky
(1994) “green marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to
satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental
impact on the natural environment.
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Literature review:-
and Polonsky
Examined how
forming a strategic
alliance with an
group can assist
organizations in
associated with
green marketing.
Reviewed previous
Forming an alliance
assumes that both
parties cooperate, are
mutually beneficial and
are not adversarial.
environmental groups
may see alliances as
astrategic tool to
improve the
Compared hotel
managers operating
with an
policy and those
managers operating
Questionnaire survey
of general managers
from large and
medium hotel groups.
The “with policy”
manager perceives the
strategic importance of
the environmental issue
more highly than the
“no policy” manager.
Min and
Role of “green”
Empirical survey of
NAPM members in
firms with a high
level of awareness.
professionals cited
recycling as the most
popular waste source
reduction strategy.
Polonsky et
Examined US and
Australian markets‟
perceptions of
potential to
influence the green
new product
(NPD) process and
Two separate samples
were collected, in the
first sample,
Australian marketers
were asked to
evaluate eight
influence. In the
second sample, US
the influence of
thirteen stakeholders.
The findings suggested
that marketers believe
some stake holders
with “high” influencing
abilities should be
involved in the green
NPD process, although
it appears that in
practice, firms use very
basic methods to
include these
Focused on
promoting products
by employing
claims about their
attributes or firms
those sell them.
Draw inference from
multiple literatures.
Firms gain first-mover
advantages if they
correctly anticipate or
influence regulations,
adopt them earlier than
others and manage to
reduce costs or to
occupy a market niche.
Getzner and
Explored the
influence of a
number of
important variables
on consumer
willingness to
invest in “green
sampling representing
the Austrian
population with
sample size of 400.
The empirical study
showed that 80 percent
of the respondents have
not heard about ethical
criteria regarding
financial investments.
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Baker and
Operationalized the
marketing (EM)
construct and
examined its
relationship with
firm performance.
A cross-sectional, ex
post facto survey
design was used as
the approach to the
research study.
It was found that a
higher-order construct
(EM) exists and that it,
in turn gives rise to
specific values and
Hartmann et
Test the suggested
green positioning
strategies against
one another.
A theoretical model
of the dimensionality
and attitudinal effects
of green brand
positioning was
Results indicate an
overall positive
influence of green
brand positioning on
brand attitude.
Examined the
influence of
stakeholders on
green marketing
strategy (GMS).
This research
comprised several
phases, development
of a typology of
GMS, a study of the
influence of
stakeholders, and an
analysis of the
influence of the
context on managers‟
perception of the
Results showed that the
“greening” process is
not a linear, one-
progression, rather an
uneven process in
which several GMS
profiles prioritize
different stakeholders.
Chen and Lin
Combined generic
strategies and
green marketing
strategy to create a
new function that
firm can use to
develop the
optimal green
marketing strategy.
This article adopts
Michael Porter‟s
generic competitive
strategy as the basic
dimension of firms in
choosing the optimal
green competitive
The revised green
marketing strategy
matrix adds the firm‟s
cost as a dimension to
evaluate the total cost
of green marketing
Suggested ways to
create an
organizational level
green strategy.
Studied real life
examples of
organizational level
green strategy.
Enterprise-level green
strategies are starting to
see partnerships
develop from sharing a
common interest in
improving the
Examined current
and prospective
purchase intent and
parent brand
evaluation due to
green brand.
Online surveys by
602 pet-owners at
social networking
Results suggest that
consumers are more
likely to purchase
green extensions of
products with high
environmental impact
and that current
consumers prefer green
line extensions to green
category extensions.
Cronin et al.
Reviewed the
In order to achieve
From their analysis of
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 4(12), 339-349
literature regarding
green initiatives
and offered a series
of research
opportunities for
the advancement of
the marketing
this goal a framework
was generated based
on stakeholder theory
in terms of the 3P
the literature they
obtained three main
types of green
strategies green
innovation, greening
the organization and
green alliances.
Reviewed the
literature on green
Reviewed previous
The review indicated
that individuals and
organizations can
benefit from green
marketing strategies
and at the same time
protect the
environment to achieve
Conding and
Investigated the
between green
innovation and
green performance
in Malaysian
A conceptual model
using Structural
Equation Modeling
(SEM) has been
GI and GP have
become most important
of green initiatives and
it involves local car
manufacturers and
automotive suppliers in
their effort to become
more environmentally
effective and
Green et al.
Assessed the
impact of an
established market
orientation on the
implementation of
green supply chain
practices and
Collected data from
225 manufacturing
managers and
analyzed using a
partial least squares
structural equation
Findings indicated that
market orientation both
directly and indirectly
impacts environmental
and Wong
Investigated a
guest‟s subjective
appraisal of a
hotel‟s green
marketing program
or green equity.
Structural equation
modeling was used to
find the best model.
Green equity plays a
significant role in
customers‟ overall
assessment of a hotel‟s
marketing programs.
To study the strategies used by various companies in greening their firms or products.
In order to gather data for the review, a rigorous keyword search of the literature using emerald insight and science
direct was done. The keywords “sustainability,” “green marketing,” and “environment” were initially used to
generate a large number of articles for review. To ensure the validity of the review top-tier journals in the core
management disciplines weresearched for any article that addressed a green concept. From the selected 47 papers
those directly addressing the use of various strategies used by companies for green marketing were finally reviewed.
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Marketing Strategies Used By Various Companies:-
These firms have been classified into three categories, namely, green products, green firms and green alliances.
Green Products:-
HCL: HCL launched its range of eco-friendly notebooks, HCL ME 40 and claimed that it was India's first PVC
free and eco-friendly notebook. This notebook was completely free from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material and
other harmful chemicals. Further, Bureau of Energy Efficiency had given HCL eco-friendly products a five-star
rating, and they also met REACH standards and were 100 per cent recyclable and toxin free.
Voltas: In 2007, Voltas initiated the 'Green' range of air-conditioners, following which the government made it
mandatory for home appliances to have energy star ratings. Thus, devices carrying the star logo, such as
computer products and peripherals, kitchen appliances and other products, use about 20-30 per cent less energy
than the set standards.
Wipro: The first company to launch wide range of eco-friendly desktops was Wipro. Introduced under the
Wipro Green Ware initiative, these products aimed to cut down e-waste in environment. The systems launched
were toxin free and operated under a total recycling policy. With the removal of the toxins, recycling of the
electronic products would be safer. Wipro has 17 e-waste collection centers in India where products are
collected and recycled.
MRF Tyres: Indiantyre manufacturer MRF with its ZSLK series was next to join the eco-friendly product
wagon. The premium eco-friendly tubeless tyres MRF ZSLK were made from unique silica-based rubber
compounds and promised to offer fuel efficiency for vehicle owners.
ACC Ltd:India-based cement manufacturer ACC had recently launched its eco-friendly brand, 'Concrete+'.This
brand uses fly ash (a hazardous industrial waste) to help conserve natural resources, thus making it an eco-
friendly product. The new product has been designed exclusively to ensure high durability and resistance of
structures under extreme climate.
Fevicol: Fevicol, a leading brand of adhesive in India, had introduced environment friendly synthetic resin
adhesive. Claiming to be India's first eco-friendly adhesive, Fevicol AC Duct King Eco Fresh, boasted of being
an all-in-one adhesive.This water-based adhesive had exceptional bonding strength and spread smoothly at
room temperature without emitting any toxic fumes.
Kansai Nerolac Paints Ltd: It has introduced new eco-friendly paint - "Nerolac Impressions Eco Clean". It is a
low VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) and is an odour less paint. It provides a distinctly rich and smooth
finish with an optimum sheen look to the walls. It has excellent wash ability and superior stain resistance
quality.Nerolac was a pioneer in creating awareness for Lead Free products in India.
Pratt & Whitney:Pratt & Whitney used to scrap 90 percent of its ingots in the process of manufacturing jet
engine blades. This massive waste continued unabated until someone at Pratt & Whitney had the bright idea to
have the supplier simply cast the ingots into ready-made blade-like shapes which lowered the amount of wasted
ingots and factory emissions to a great deal.
Tesla Motors:Tesla Motors, manufacturers of performance electric cars, developed the Tesla Roadster, the
world‟s first all-electric, Lithium-ion battery powered sports car.It is capable of going from zero to 60 mph in
around four seconds. The car‟s power comes from its Lithium-ion Energy Storage System, or battery pack,
which can be recharged in about 3.5 hours.
Honda:Going so far as to being called “the most fuel-efficient auto company in the US” Honda is hard at work
on the hydrogen fuel cell powered “FCX.” Honda is apparently also taking steps to create an entire
infrastructure for hydrogen, looking forward to a day when hopefully more cars will be powered by that
instead of gasoline. In addition to all of this, Honda had pledged to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions.
Toyota: Toyota Prius hybrid cars are priced relatively higher than conventional cars as they use fuel oil (BBM),
because this eco-friendly technology is still relatively new in the world. Toyota Prius concept car is using petrol
and electric power source whichis more fuel efficient and has lower exhaust emissions and eco-friendly.
Method Products: Method produces nontoxic, biodegradable natural cleaning supplies with a focus on
minimalist product design. Among the company‟s first products was an hourglass-shaped bottle of dish soap.
All of Method‟s bottles are completely recyclable and made from 100% recycled plastic. The design of the
packages Themselves is scored against Method‟s very own “green card” program that ensures roommates
considers the recyclability of packaging design, packaging weight, reusability and compostability.
Brooks: Brooks has joined the race to go green by cleverly rolling out a completely biodegradable running
shoe. The $140 BioMoGo is just as durable during the time you wear them as any other mass-market shoe. The
decomposition doesn‟t begin until the shoes are stored in an active enclosed landfill, at which point they will
biodegrade in just 20 years instead of the 1,000 years traditional.
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Enterprise Rent-A-Car:Enterprise Rent-A-Car‟s foray into more sustainable business practices since January
2008 has boasted the world‟s largest fleet of fuel-efficient vehicles, over 440,000 of which offer drivers 28MPG
or better for highway travel. Roughly 5,000 of those vehicles are gas/electric hybrids, while another 73,000
have the option of being powered on E85 ethanol. In addition to these efforts, Enterprise has promised to plant
fifty million trees across America‟s forests.
Mahindra Group: Mahindra Reva, an initiative by this group, was the India‟s first automatic and electric 2 -
door car.Mahindra Group had also launched a 4-door electric vehicle by the name of “E-Verito” which is again
the first in the industry like Mahindra Reva. Electric Vehicles are taking a step towards cleaner future, as they
are energy efficient: 60% energy conversion rate from grid to power at the wheels which is 3 times as compare
to gasoline. Environmentally friendly: EVs emit no tailpipe pollutants.
Green Firms:-
Vivanta by Taj Hotel Resorts & Palaces: Earth friendliness is the hallmark of the Vivanta line, just as it is at
all Taj hotels.The parent company follows guidelines established at a United Nations Earth Summit and
endorsed by nearly 200 countries.These green benchmarks are monitored by a leading worldwide certifier,
Green Globe.Taj aims to bring the total of its Vivanta hotels to 30-plus in the next 2 years, totaling 5,000-plus
guest rooms.
TNPL: TNPL has taken several measures for protecting the environment in line with its commitment for
sustainable development. In its choice of raw materials, sources of energy, and production processes, as well as
in product development, the objective is to minimize the pollution load on environment. By using bagasse as
primary raw material, TNPL preserves over 40000 acres of forest land from depletion every year.
Suzlon: It is the world‟s fourth largest wind-turbine maker and known for its environment-friendly practices.
Tulsi Tanti built his factory in Pondicherry to run entirely on wind power. Suzlon‟s corporate building is the
most energy-efficient building ever built in India.Suzlon‟s global headquarters, Suzlon One Earth, was
inaugurated in 2010. The campus has won the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
Platinum rating awarded by the US Green Building Council.
Essar Oil (EOL):It is part of the progressive world approach towards environmental conservation. EOL has
depicted a deep commitment towards this purpose and has engaged its efforts towards being a leader in a low
carbon approach that has been endorsed by theUnited Nations‟ Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC). At the Vadinar refinery operations, EOL‟s project endeavours to reduce GHG emissions through
the replacement of fuel oil with natural gas.
ONGC: India‟s largest oil producer has energy-efficient, green crematoriums that will soon replace the
traditional wooden pyre across the country. ONGC‟s Mokshada Green Cremation initiative will save 60 to 70%
of wood and a fourth of the burning time per cremation.ONGC has taken up concept of constructing green
building, with due compliance to the guidelines of GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment).
Indian Tobacco Company(ITC):ITC has been carrying out green initiatives mainly to reduce Green House
Gas emissions through energy conservation, use of renewable sources of energy and identifying ways of
mitigating the adverse effects of climate change caused by global warming.Energy efficiency practices of ITC
have helped in achieving world-class standards of energy utilization in several units. 30.9 % of ITC‟s energy
consumption is from renewable sources.
IDEA: The pan-India mobile brand launched a nation-wide awareness campaign to spread 'Use Mobile, Save
Paper'message.World over, millions of tonnes of trees get cut every day to produce paper, leading to alarming
rates of deforestation. IDEA showcases how the mobile phone can be used as an efficient tool to read daily
newspapers generate e-bills, make payments and transactions, issue e-tickets and boarding passes; thereby
saving tonnes of paper every day.
Tata Metaliks(TML): At Tata Metaliks every day is Environment Day.Working on Saturdays is discouraged.
This instruction, combined with the practice of keeping the lights switched off during the day and depending
solely on sunlight. The Ministry of Environment and Forests mandates that 33 per cent of the area around a
plant should consist of greenery. TML‟s 197-acre plot has already achieved a green cover of 33.46 per cent.
Bank of America: Bank of America is proving that eco-friendly operations can coexist with business
growth. The company reduced paper use by 32% and also runs an internal recycling program that recycles
30,000 tons of paper each year, good for saving roughly 200,000 trees for each year of the program‟s operation.
The company also offers employees a $3,000 cash back reward for buying hybrid vehicles.
TimberlandLLC: It is a US-based global manufacturer and retailer of outdoors wear with a focus on footwear.
The company unveiled a solar panel installation at its distribution centre in Ontario California and reduced the
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facility's greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 480000 pounds per year. In 2008 the company entered
Working Mother's list of “Best Green Companies for America's Children.”
Ceres: Ceres has advised some of the nation‟s biggest corporations and investors on the environmental impact
of their operations. They have billed themselves as “the largest coalition of investors, environmental and public
interest organizations in North America”. Major achievements thus far include persuading Dell Computer to
support national product “take back” legislation and convincing Bank of America to spend $20 billion on the
growth of eco-friendly business practices.
Anheuser-Busch: Anheuser-Busch is committed to reducing the energy and emissions in both the brewing and
transportation of beers. Their operations have reduced energy use by more than 25 percentand today more than
11 percent of their energy is generated from renewable resources, including biomass, solar, wind and landfill
gas.Besides this they also recycle 99.8 percent of the solid waste generated in the brewing and packaging
process, including beech wood chips, aluminum, glass, brewers‟ grain, scrap metal, cardboard and many other
Dupont: Dupont is another company that has drawn the ire of green advocates for many years. However, it now
seems that they are taking strides toward more sustainable operations by drastically lowering its emissions of
airborne carcinogens and greenhouse gases, it has also appointed an ex-Greenpeace head as an adviser to the
board. The company successfully reduced greenhouse gas emissions during the 90‟s by 63% far ahead of the
timetable set forth in the controversial Kyoto Protocol.
Innovest: Innovest has boldly set out to “reengineer the DNA of Wall Street”. As William Grieder explains in
his book “The Soul of Capitalism”, Innovest grades publicly traded companies for such things as its track record
in hazardous waste disposals and past pollution. Interestingly, it was found that companies with higher
“EcoValue” rankings outperform lower ranked companies as stocks, boasting returns 1.5 to 2.4 percent higher.
Home Depot:The Home Depot was the first national retailer to provide CFL light bulbs and rechargeable
battery recycling for consumers.They did re-lamping of their stores with more efficient lighting, replacing old
HVAC systems with new Energy Star®-rated units, using LEDs for exit lighting and much more.They installed
122 water reclamation tanks from 20102013. Each tank saves an average of 500,000 gallons per year.
Wal-Mart: Possibly the most hated name in the entire green movement, Wal-Mart is now positioned to make
all but the most dogmatic of its detractors eat their words. Wal-Mart has launched an ambitious long-term
plan to eventually power each and every one its stores using 100% renewable energy sources. According to the
company‟s executives, Wal-Mart is committed to using its waste-eliminating corporate philosophy to make its
own operations eco-friendlier than ever.
S.C. Johnson: S.C. Johnson, maker of indispensable household products such as Windex, has gone on
a mission to lessen the environmental impact of its products. Through their use of the Greenlist Process, the
company has slashed 1.8 million pounds of volatile organic compounds from its Windex line of products. The
company has also scaled back its coal-fired plants by working to replace them with natural gas and methane
powered facilities.
TJX Companies: TJX became an early adopter of electronic ballast technology, a practice that significantly
lowered the use of electricity in the company‟s stores. TJX also prioritizes lighting conservation at its
distribution centres, which use T5 fluorescent bulbs that use 50% less power than non-fluorescents. Beyond
lighting, TJX‟s distribution centres are purposely structured to recycle the corrugated cardboard that comes in
from vendors.
Green Alliances:-
McDonalds:The successful McDonald‟s- Environmental Defence Fund partnership arose in 1990. At the time,
McDonald‟s, a multimillion dollar fast food restaurant with over 11,000 restaurants worldwide was the single
largest user of polystyrene. To avoid being targeted, it launched a 100-million-dollar program entitled
“McRecycle” to purchase and use recycling material. Despite this effort, with its inadequate waste management
strategy and overconsumption, it appeared on the radar quickly, soon to be saved by Environmental Defence
Starbucks: Starbucks has green advocates smiling about its “bean-to-cup” approach, which stresses top
efficiency at each link of its global supply chain. The company‟s decision to use coffee cup sleeves made of
recycled paper saves roughly 78,000 trees per year. Starbucks has also partnered up with many environmental
organizations, from Conservation International to the Earthwatch Institute, in efforts to do right by the
communities it operates in.
Foron: The partially successful Foron-Greenpeace alliance blossomed in 1992 after Greenpeace, an
environmental organization known for its radical activism, initiated the Atmosphere Campaign in Germany.To
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propel the campaign, Greenpeace advocated “Green freeze,” a substitute for Freon, chlorofluorocarbon- based
refrigeration technology which was ripping apart the ozone layer.Greenpeace opted to fund Foron if it adopted
the Green freeze technology and from there sprang the alliance.
Target: While many retailers are launching plans to “greenify” their operations, Target is taking the fight
straight to its store shelves. The company launched an “eco-clothing” line at Barney‟s, New York. Done in
collaboration with eco-fashion designer Rogan Gregory, the clothing line is said to have been created using
dynamic fabrics and has been available at Target locations.
Continental Airlines: Continental Airlines has replaced its entire fleet of airplanes with more fuel-efficient
ones, in addition to installing fuel-saving “winglets” that cut emissions 5% on its 737-model aircraft. Beyond
that, nitrogen oxide emissions from Continental‟s busy Houston hub have been sliced by an astounding 75%.
Continental might also be the only company with 12 full time “staff environmentalists” on the payroll who are
constantly pairing up with engine manufacturers to design greener, more efficient processes into company
Goldman Sachs: The ultra-profitable bank has parlayed its new found green ethos into a bona-fide profit-
center. The firm‟s $1.5 million investment in solar, ethanol, and wind have paid off in spades, prompting
companies like Kolhberg Kravis Roberts and Texas Pacific to consult Goldman on their own environmentally-
focused projects. It is also said that many of the bank‟s employees and executives are proud, hybrid-driving
The present paper covered the strategies implemented by some of the Indian as well as multinational companies in
the field of green marketing. These companies have come a long way and improved their processes as well as
introduced many new and innovative products to save the environment. These strategies not only help in creating a
sustainable environment but also make the earth more clean and green (Rathee and Rajain, 2013). People have been
using the natural resources without caring for the consequences which led to detrimental after effects. In present
times, there is an urgent need on part of both the companies as well as the customers to do their bit. The companies
can contribute to a large extent by efficiently utilizing the raw materials being used and thus reducing waste being
generated after manufacturing the products. In order to distinguish energy efficient electronic appliances, the Bureau
of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has introduced star rating program where the products are rated according to their
efficiency. The waste being produced is reduced, reused or recycled.Several companies have formed alliance with
environmental groups that work for environmental conservation. The present study which reviewed literature
relating to strategies being used by firms concentrated on the fact that such strategies should not be adopted just to
save the face in front of customers but to contribute towards creating a sustainable future. The previous researchers
have focused on the importance of developing such strategies where the stakeholders‟ viewpoint is given importance
in order to develop sustainable and innovative products (Polonsky et al., 1998; Camino, 2007). The development of
such products saves energy, reduces waste and is thus profitable for both the company as well as the environment.
The strategies also focus on forming partnerships with organizations already working in the field of sustainable
development. Such alliances are quite fruitful as these environmental organizations pave the way for their partners in
greening their firms and operations. This paper provides new insight into the role played by some of the firms in
evolution of green marketing and also the future research implications as provided by some of the researchers in the
literature reviewed. The future of green marketing is very bright as people have environmental concerns as priority
while selecting the products or services.
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Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate a guest’s subjective appraisal of a hotel’s green marketing program, or green equity, along with value, brand and relationship equities on guest loyalty. Design/methodology/approach – Study 1 presents three models to explicate the role of a luxury hotel’s green initiatives in influencing guest loyalty. By means of structural equation modeling, one model emerges with the best fit. Study 2 examines how tourists assign economic value to a hotel’s green programs. Findings – Green equity plays a significant role in customers’ overall assessment of a hotel’s marketing programs; however, the effect is weaker when compared with the other indicators, including a hotel’s value proposition, brand image and loyalty programs. Furthermore, the results reveal that tourists are willing to pay a price premium for a hotel’s green marketing programs. Research limitations/implications – The paper links green marketing to the customer equity model and clarifies the impact of green marketing programs on loyalty and profitability. However, the study was conducted among luxury hotel guests and tourists in Macau, a leading gambling destination; thus, these customers might not have been concerned with green marketing initiatives. Practical implications – The results show that green initiatives are beneficial as long as managers include these initiatives in their overall strategic marketing programs that also promote firm value propositions, brand images and reputation. Originality/value – The paper clarifies the role of green marketing programs in hospitality and shows how hotels can benefit from enhanced guest loyalty and decreased operational expenses by implementing green initiatives.
Full-text available
Green innovation is increasingly implemented in the automotive industry. The aim of this study is to review and structural relationship analysis of green innovation and green performance. A set of assessment measurement of strategy propose green performance is expected to be suitable to their innovation characteristics and improve their green performance. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between green innovation and green performance in Malaysian automotive industry. The conceptual model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been proposed. Based on the proposed conceptual model and reviewed, research hypotheses are being developed. The paper culminates with suggested future research work. 1. Background of the study The automotive industry is one of the industries that have visibly suffered a strong demand for higher environmental performance. In the 21 st century, many companies or manufacturing process give more emphasis into innovation. Innovations carried out predominantly driven by focus on the products and processes to create a more simple system and in time it can provide lower cost, as well as to respond to save the environment and social responsibility. Therefore, if the automotive industries in Malaysia want to improve their Green Performance (GP) and in the same time increase the company's competitiveness, they need to involve their activities with emphasis on innovation, especially in products and processes. Green Innovation (GI) refers to innovations that are applied in products and processes that bring the automotive industry to leads to higher levels of the environmental sustainability. According to Chen et al., (2006), GI is defined as hardware or software innovation that is related to green products or processes, including the innovation in technologies that are involved in energy-saving, pollution-prevention, waste recycling, green product design or corporate competitive management. Therefore, GI can be defined as a method to identify, implement and monitor the new ideas that have a positive impact on the environment and increase the company's competitiveness.
Business schools have not been as cognizant of environmental or “green” issues as other professional schools. For example, law and public administration schools as well as the environmental sciences have offered courses in this area for at least ten years. Until recently, business schools’ responses have been minimal. The authors review the pioneering efforts of several institutions and the various tools available to interested marketing academics. They provide recommendations on how green concerns could be incorporated into the marketing curriculum.
Purpose This study aims to assess the impact of an established market orientation on the implementation of green supply chain practices and environmental performance. Design/methodology/approach Data collected from 225 manufacturing managers are analyzed using a partial least squares structural equation modeling methodology. Findings Findings indicate that market orientation both directly and indirectly (through green supply chain management practices) impacts environmental performance. Research limitations/implications The study focuses on the impact of a market orientation on environmental sustainability within the manufacturing sector, thereby limiting generalization to other sectors. Practical implications Manufacturing practitioners are provided with information emphasizing the importance of implementing and maintaining a strong market orientation as a precursor to establishing an environmental sustainability strategy. Social implications The results have important societal implications, in that a marketing approach that leads to the more rapid adoption of environmental sustainability programs within the manufacturing sector is identified. Originality/value This is believed to be the first empirical investigation of the relationship between market orientation and environmental sustainability.
Illustrates alternative “green” strategies to indicate possible reactions of the hotel sector to the environmental issue and the extent of the “greening” process on the control system. Discusses the results of a questionnaire survey into the environmental standing of an hotel and the control system used to appraise the hotel manager. Analysis is based on comparison of hotel managers operating with an environmental policy and those managers operating without. Tentative conclusions drawn would indicate that although a number of companies have adopted an environmental policy, in general, the hotel sector is not taking a proactive approach to environmental concerns.