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Cyberbullying is the act of using unjustified aggression to harm or harass via digital devices. Currently regarded as a widespread problem, the phenomenon has attracted growing research interest in different measures of cyberbullying and the similarities and differences across countries and cultures. This article presents the Colombian validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) involving 3,830 high school students (M = 13.9 years old, standard deviation = 1.61; 48.9 percent male), of which 1,931 were Colombian and 1,899 Spanish. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), content validation, and multigroup analysis were performed with each of the sample subgroups. The optimal fits and psychometric properties obtained confirm the robustness and suitability of the assessment instrument to jointly measure cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization. The results corroborated the theoretical construct and the two-dimensional and universal nature of cyberbullying. The multigroup analysis showed that cyberbullying dynamics are similar in both countries. The comparative analyses of prevalence revealed that Colombian students are less involved in cyberbullying. The results indicate the suitability of the instrument and the advantages of using such a tool to evaluate and guide psychoeducational interventions aimed at preventing cyberbullying in countries where few studies have been performed.
Validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention
Project Questionnaire for Colombian Adolescents
Mauricio Herrera-Lo´ pez, PhD,
*Jose´ A. Casas, PhD,
Eva M. Romera, PhD,
Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, PhD,
and Rosario Del Rey, PhD
Cyberbullying is the act of using unjustified aggression to harm or harass via digital devices. Currently regarded
as a widespread problem, the phenomenon has attracted growing research interest in different measures of
cyberbullying and the similarities and differences across countries and cultures. This article presents the
Colombian validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) involving
3,830 high school students (M=13.9 years old, standard deviation =1.61; 48.9 percent male), of which 1,931
were Colombian and 1,899 Spanish. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), content validation, and multigroup
analysis were performed with each of the sample subgroups. The optimal fits and psychometric properties
obtained confirm the robustness and suitability of the assessment instrument to jointly measure cyber-
aggression and cyber-victimization. The results corroborated the theoretical construct and the two-dimensional
and universal nature of cyberbullying. The multigroup analysis showed that cyberbullying dynamics are similar
in both countries. The comparative analyses of prevalence revealed that Colombian students are less involved in
cyberbullying. The results indicate the suitability of the instrument and the advantages of using such a tool to
evaluate and guide psychoeducational interventions aimed at preventing cyberbullying in countries where few
studies have been performed.
Keywords: Colombia, cyberbullying, ECIPQ, Spain, validation
The prevalent use of information and communications
technologies (ICTs) has significantly transformed in-
terpersonal relationships among adolescents.
Although ICTs
have certain benefits, they have also given rise to a complex
scenario of interactions that require new abilities and social
skills to navigate cyberspace successfully.
Research has also
shown that the use of ICTs has led to an increase in social
problems, including cyberbullying;
a phenomenon currently
regarded as a major public health issue in schools
given its
negative impact on the social and emotional development of
children and adolescents.
It is estimated that around 20
percent of young people aged from 10 to 18 have been cy-
berbullies or cybervictims;
with puberty and adolescence
increasing the risk of becoming involved in cyberbullying.
Cyberbullying is an aggressive, intentional act or act of
intimidation carried out using electronic media, which cre-
ates an imbalance of power between the bully and the vic-
Some authors regard this phenomenon as an indirect
form of harassment, as it is conceived within the definitional
framework of traditional bullying. Certain characteristics,
however, differentiate cyberbullying from traditional bully-
ing, such as the potential and, in some cases, frequent ano-
nymity of the perpetrator,
and the duration of an aggressive
act in cyberspace, where an image or other humiliating au-
diovisual material is freely accessible (is public) at any
Insulting or threatening behavior through text mes-
sages or the Internet; spreading rumors about someone on
social networks; extracting, disclosing, or publishing personal
information; displaying or sending compromising photos of
someone; excluding or being excluded from a group or chat;
and online identity theft are all actions regarded as cyber-
Moreover, it is important to highlight that both
bullying and cyberbullying constitute unjustified behavior
that involves a certain degree of immorality.
Although there have been notable advances in research on
cyberbullying over the last decade,important questions remain
with regard to the adequate assessment of the phenomenon.
This may be due to cyberbullying’s multiple manifestations,
Department of Psychology, University of Narin
˜o (UDENAR), San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.
Department of Psychology, University of Co
´rdoba (UCO), Co
´rdoba, Spain.
Department of Psychology, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
Department of Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.
Volume 20, Number 2, 2017
ªMary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2016.0414
which render it difficult to develop and validate scales with
optimal psychometric properties.
A systematic review of
636 studies showed that most of the existing measurement
instruments do not take into account the properties and theo-
retical and structural factors involved, and of the 44 recognized
instruments, only 24 reported convergent validity.
studies have shown that the scales used to measure cyberbul-
lying do not have the same factorial structure, unlike tradi-
tional instruments for assessing bullying.
In developing an
instrument to measure cyberbullying, Law et al.
found that
the items used to assess traditional bullying were clearly or-
ganized into two factors (victimization and aggression), while
items related to cyberbullying were organized into just one.
The same result was obtained by Menesini et al.,
who re-
ported a tendency for single factor grouping. In general, there
are few instruments that comprehensively identify and mea-
sure all the factors related to cyberbullying involvement.
Indeed, it is still very common to find studies that measure only
or cyber-victimization,
thus increas-
ing the propensity of biased measures.
The European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Ques-
tionnaire (ECIPQ)
was designed based on the studies of
Dooley et al.
This rigorous measurement instrument is
comparable to other international instruments, and it has
been validated in six European countries with optimal psy-
chometric results.
The ECIPQ includes new definitions
of cyberbullying, reflects its various manifestations and
recognizes the dynamic structure of the phenomenon by
measuring its two principal dimensions: aggression and
victimization. It also makes no distinction between digital
devices (mobile phones and PCs) and includes the criteria of
repetition and the imbalance of power as it assesses the do-
minion of technology in the aggression and the lack of se-
curity measures in victimization.
A recent worldwide review of cyberbullying studies has
shown that the articles published on the Web of Science are
mainly studies from North America (57 percent) and Europe
(28 percent), followed by Western Asia (8 percent) and
Australia (4 percent), which, and denoting an uneven geo-
graphical distribution, highlights the scarce scientific par-
ticipation of developing countries, such as those in Latin
The small number of studies conducted in these
countries tend to report data on prevalence, primarily using
instruments lacking rigorous psychometric properties. Other
studies report on the type of harassment and the description
and characterization of cyberbullying,
while very few
examine the development or validation of instruments.
This situation, coupled with the scarcity of cross-cultural
research, represents important limitations for advancing in
the study of cyberbullying in regions such as Latin America,
where violence is considered to be even more exacerbated.
The validation and use of a common instrument with known
psychometric properties to compare the phenomenon of cy-
berbullying would allow us to get further insight into the
universality of the phenomenon and examine differences and
similarities between countries; additionally comparisons
between two different geographical regions, which share a
similar culture, history, and same language, are of particular
interest as they open up new lines of research into cyber-
bullying beyond cross-cultural, comparative studies among
European countries
or between the United States and
countries of Asia.
Owing to the limited availability of adequately validated
instruments for Latin American countries and the need for
internationally recognized instruments incorporating both
cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression, the main objec-
tive of this study was to validate the ECIPQ
scale in Co-
lombia. The second objective was to compare the prevalence
of involvement in cyberbullying in both countries (Colombia
and Spain) focusing on the following roles: bullies, victims,
bully-victims, and noninvolved students. Our hypothesis was
that the instrument would show a two-factor structure with
optimal psychometric properties and measurement homo-
geneity in the Spanish version, while Colombian students
would be less involved in cyberbullying based on the as-
sumption that technology is used to a lesser degree in the
The overall sample comprised 3,830 adolescent students
(48.9 percent male) aged 10 to 19 (M=13.95, standard de-
viation [SD]=1.61). The Colombian subgroup consisted of
1,931 students (46.9 percent male) of public and private
schools in the city of San Juan de Pasto, southern Colombia,
aged 10 -19 (M=14.9; SD =1.89); while the Spanish sub-
group consisted of 1,899 students (51 percent male) of public
and private schools in Andalucia, southern Spain, aged 11 -
18 (M=14.3; SD =1.81).
We used the ECIPQ,
which comprises 22 items (11 for
cyber-victimization and 11 for cyber-aggression). The
ECIPQ uses a Likert-type scale with five response options
ranging from 0 =never, 1 =once or twice, 2 =once or twice a
month, 3 =about once a week, and 4 =more than one once a
week. An example of an item for cyber-victimization is
‘‘Someone said nasty things to me or called me names using
texts or online messages,’’ while ‘I spread rumours about
someone on the Internet’’ is an example of a cyber-
aggression item. The internal consistency of the original test
is optimal: a
=0.97; a
We used a cross-sectional, ex post facto, retrospective, one
group, one measurement research design.
To ensure ethical
standards, we first obtained authorization from the school
officials and subsequently sent informed consent forms to the
students’ parents and/or legal guardians. After receiving
signed consent from the parents, we then visited the students
who had been authorized to take part in the study and asked
them to sign a consent form. Before administering the
questionnaire to the students, we informed them that par-
ticipation was anonymous and voluntary and explained the
objective of the study. The average time taken to complete
the questionnaire was 15 minutes. Convenience sampling
was performed owing to accessibility.
The scale content was validated by a panel of six Co-
lombian experts, who were given the Spanish version
translated from English to Castilian by Ortega-Ruiz et al.
with the parallel back-translation procedure.
The panel
assessed the compliance of criteria such as adequacy of vo-
cabulary, conceptual clarity, and the consistency and rele-
vance of each item. To this end, a 4-point scale was used
where 1 =noncompliance, 2 =low level of compliance,
3=moderate compliance, and 4 =high level of compliance.
Finally, a pilot test was conducted with 60 students to assess
their understanding of the items. Any words or terms in the
original Spanish text that were not clear to the students were
modified. For example, the item ‘‘Alguien me ha dicho pa-
labras malsonantes o me ha insultado usando el e-mail o
FIG. 1. CFA of the adapted
ECIPQ for Colombia
(*p<0.05). CFA, confirma-
tory factor analysis; ECIPQ,
European Cyberbullying
Intervention Project
Table 1. Polychoric Correlation Matrix: European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire
Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
2 0.77 1
3 0.57 0.57 1
4 0.36 0.40 0.45 1
5 0.37 0.39 0.44 0.80 1
6 0.33 0.40 0.40 0.44 0.55 1
7 0.40 0.43 0.51 0.46 0.49 0.60 1
8 0.32 0.39 0.43 0.41 0.38 0.42 0.67 1
9 0.39 0.38 0.42 0.48 0.41 0.37 0.66 0.64 1
10 0.36 0.39 0.37 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.40 0.44 0.48 1
11 0.59 0.62 0.48 0.36 0.37 0.41 0.58 0.42 0.48 0.40 1
12 0.58 0.50 0.43 0.32 0.32 0.36 0.46 0.40 0.45 0.39 0.52 1
13 0.52 0.47 0.42 0.29 0.36 0.27 0.44 0.44 0.41 0.34 0.51 0.80 1
14 0.39 0.42 0.62 0.35 0.35 0.48 0.54 0.51 0.57 0.42 0.45 0.62 0.65 1
15 0.38 0.35 0.45 0.38 0.35 0.48 0.48 0.44 0.32 0.20 0.29 0.45 0.52 0.64 1
16 0.19 0.34 0.45 0.39 0.41 0.53 0.52 0.55 0.41 0.37 0.33 0.51 0.50 0.67 0.80 1
17 0.27 0.35 0.38 0.36 0.32 0.47 0.42 0.48 0.40 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.46 0.59 0.58 0.71 1
18 0.37 0.43 0.49 0.47 0.43 0.55 0.69 0.73 0.70 0.55 0.56 0.55 0.58 0.71 0.56 0.71 0.69 1
19 0.34 0.42 0.49 0.42 0.40 0.51 0.58 0.72 0.60 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.53 0.61 0.53 0.65 0.62 0.79 1
20 0.29 0.36 0.41 0.31 0.36 0.40 0.47 0.51 0.62 0.44 0.44 0.51 0.48 0.59 0.51 0.66 0.53 0.78 0.74 1
21 0.25 0.34 0.34 0.23 0.28 0.35 0.42 0.37 0.40 0.37 0.40 0.49 0.47 0.56 0.48 0.54 0.42 0.56 0.51 0.57 1
22 0.33 0.43 0.41 0.28 0.33 0.42 0.44 0.60 0.57 0.43 0.60 0.52 0.60 0.52 0.45 0.56 0.46 0.70 0.66 0.65 0.56 1
All correlations with p<0.01.
SMS’’ (Someone used bad words or insulted me using e-mail
or SMS) was substituted for ‘‘Alguien me ha dicho groserı
o insultado por internet (e-mail, redes sociales, llamadas o
SMS)’’ (Someone made rude comments or insulted me on
Internet [e-mail, social networks, calls or SMS]). The
changes were then incorporated into the Colombian version
(Appendix Table A1).
To establish the different roles of involvement, we fol-
lowed the criteria established by the authors of the ECIPQ
For example, to determine the role of cybervictim we
took into account subjects with scores q2 (once a month) in
all the cyber-victimization items, and a score p1 (once or
twice) in all of the cyber-aggression items. Involvement in
the role of cyberbully was measured taking into account
subjects with scores q2 (once a month) in any of the cyber-
aggression items, and scores p1 (once or twice) in all the
cyber-victimization items. The degree of involvement in the
role of bully-victim was obtained with scores q2 (once a
month) in at least one of the cyber-aggression items and in at
least one of the cyber-victimization items. Finally, nonin-
volvement was measured using scores p1 (once or twice) in
all cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization items.
Data analysis
A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed for
the structural validation of the scale. Maximum likelihood
(ML) estimation with robust correction
and polychoric
correlation were used, given the categorical nature of the
To assess the suitability of the instrument, we
used the Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square test
), chi-
square divided by its degrees of freedom (v
acceptable p3 optimal), the comparative fit index (CFI), and
the non-normed fit index (NNFI) (whose values must be
We also took into account the root mean square
error approximation (RMSEA p0.05), the standardized root
mean square residual (SRMR p0.08 acceptable, p0.05
and the Akaike information criterion (AIC),
which is used to compare models (the lowest value indicates
the best model). The analysis was performed using the EQS
6.2 program.
A McDonald’s Omega (O) test was performed to analyze
the internal consistency of the instrument given that the
variables were categorical and reflected the absence of
multivariante normality.
The analysis was performed using
the FACTOR 9.2 program.
To assess the degree of robustness of the factorial structure
and hence the degree of generalization of the model in the
two countries, a multigroup analysis was performed. This
analysis requires a series of sequential comparisons using
progressively restricted models starting with a Model 1 to
test the configurational invariance, conferring the same fac-
torial structure to the two subgroups. To analyze the mea-
surement invariance, we proposed three models: Model 2,
where the covariances in both sample groups were restricted;
Model 3, where the factor loadings were made equal; and
Model 4 in which the residuals were restricted.
After de-
veloping the models, the delta values (D) of the NNFI, CFI,
RMSEA, and SRMR measures of fit were obtained using a
variance of p0.01 as the cutoff point to accept the invariance
The chi-square difference test (Dv
) was
also performed, where nonsignificant differences indicate
model invariance.
This multigroup analysis was performed
using the EQS 6.2 program.
To compare the differences between countries regarding
the roles of involvement included in the questionnaire, we
performed a chi-square test (v
), taking into account the
values of the adjusted standardized residuals greater than
1.96 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]) and 2.58 (99
percent CI).
The level of significance was 0.05.
The validation of the ECIPQ
content for Colombia,
based on the assessment of the expert panel, showed an ad-
equate degree of agreement (r
The CFA performed with the Colombian subsample in-
dicated that the assumptions of multivariate normality
were not met, as a Mardia coefficient value =875.13 was
obtained. The original two-factor structure was confirmed by
the adequate fit indices (v
=644.97; v
/(208) =3.10;
p<0.001; NNFI =0.97; CFI =0.97; RMSEA =0.047 (90
percent CI [0.043, 0.052]); SRMR =0.080; AIC =228.96)
(Fig. 1 and Table 1). The total internal consistency and the
consistency of each factor were optimal (Ocyber-
aggression =0.94; Ocyber-victimization =0.91; Oto-
tal =0.95).
The CFA performed with the Spanish subsample con-
firmed the original two-factor structure (v
/(208) =2.71; p<0.001; NNFI =0.96; CFI =0.97;
RMSEA =0.031 (90 percent CI [0.028, 0.034]); SRMR =
0.079; AIC =147.07). The total internal consistency and the
internal consistency of each factor were also optimal (O
cyber-aggression =0.96, Ocyber-victimization =0.94, O
total =0.97).
The results of the multigroup analysis were within the
established cutoff values (Table 2). In addition, the chi-
square differences between models 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and
models 1 and 4 were not significant. These results
Table 2. Multigroup Analysis: Configuration and Measurement Invariance
Mod v
Mod 1 2,503.97 416 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.08
Mod 2 2,492.47 436 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.08 11.50 0.94 (ns) 20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mod 3 2,483.36 417 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.08 20.61 0.97 (ns) 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mod 4 2,537.58 437 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.09 33.61 0.98 (ns) 21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
CFI, comparative fit index; Mod 1, no restrictions; Mod 2, loaded factorial restrictions; Mod 3, covariance factorial restrictions; Mod 4,
residual restriction; NNFI, non-normed fit index; ns, not significant; RMSEA, root mean square error approximation; SRMR, standardized
root mean square residual.
demonstrate the existence of invariance in the factorial
structure of the scale, indicating an optimal degree of ro-
The chi-square analysis of roles of involvement indicated
a statistically significant and directly proportional relation-
ship between the country and cyber-aggression, with the
Spanish students being the most involved in this role v
1,873) =21.006; p=0.000, and between the country and
noninvolvement v
(1, 1,901) =7.062; p=0.008, with the
Colombian students being the least involved (Table 3).
The aim of this study was to validate the ECIPQ scale for
Colombia; an internationally recognized measurement in-
strument of proven psychometric quality.
The analysis
confirmed the original two-factor structure of the ECIPQ:
cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization. Optimal values
and fit indices, in addition to good internal consistency were
also obtained. These results support the theoretical construct
that cyberbullying consists primarily of cyber-aggression
and cyber-victimization and that both dimensions are clearly
defined as in traditional bullying.
The results for the configuration and measurement in-
variance obtained in the multigroup analysis between Co-
lombia and Spain show that (a) the factorial structural of the
scale presents good robustness, thus ensuring optimal and
rigorous properties, as well as the added benefit of being able
to jointly measure the two major dimensions of cyberbully-
ing, cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization,
and (b)
despite the differences found in the role of aggressor and no
involvement, the dynamics of cyberbullying could be simi-
lar. This similarity could be attributed, among other things,
to the shrinking technology gap.
Although this inference
should be taken with caution, it could be a new line of re-
search focused on comparing the cultural aspects and the use
of new information technologies.
A more detailed analysis of the factorial model validated
for Colombia regarding the high factor loadings and satu-
ration in the items relating to rumors (gossip) and misuse of
personal data (pictures and videos) as bully or victim suggest
both the high tendency to engage intimidating practices us-
ing digital devices and the need for more education targeted
at the prevention and management of the personal data that
adolescents divulge in cyberspace.
The second hypothesis of this study was confirmed by
comparing the prevalence of cyberbullying among Co-
lombian and Spanish students. The results show that the
former are less involved, particularly in the role of cyber-
bully. These results could be attributed to the lower use of
information technologies by Colombian youth. Also may be
due to specific values regarding attitudes, behaviors, and
habits of Colombian adolescents, related to the collectivist
and restrictive Colombian school culture,
by respect for the rules of the institutions, conformity, and
On the contrary, Spanish school culture pro-
motes individualism and self-assertion,
which leads them
to greater use of social networks. It has been shown that a
high use increases the risk of involvement in cyberbully-
In conclusion, owing to its optimal psychometric proper-
ties and ability to measure cyber-victimization and cyber-
aggression in a comprehensive manner, the ECIPQ is a
valuable instrument for gaining greater knowledge of cy-
berbullying. It could also be of use in other comparative
studies on the possible differences in the prevalence of cy-
berbullying and associated variables or that assess the results
of interventions targeted at preventing and reducing cyber-
This study has some limitations, such as the cross-
sectional nature of the analysis and the potential social desir-
ability bias common to self-reporting.
Moreover, although
the overall sample was large, the Colombian subsample was
not representative, which could limit the generalization of the
model. As a future line of research, the sample could include
other Latin American countries, which would allow for
broader cross-cultural studies.
We would like to thank members from the schools of San
Juan de Pasto, Colombia, and Andalusia, Spain, for partici-
pating in the study. This study was performed within the
framework of the following projects: Project PRY040/14
funded by the Fundacio
´blica Andaluza Centro de Estu-
dios Andaluces, Project EDU2013-44627-P funded by the
Spanish National R&D Plan, and Project BIL/14/S2/163
funded by the Fundacio
´n Mapfre.
Author Disclosure Statement
No competing financial interests exist.
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Appendix Table A1. European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire for Colombia
ECIPQ 1 Alguien me ha dicho groserı
´as o insultado por internet (e-mail, redes sociales, llamadas o sms)
[Someone said nasty things to me or called me names using texts or online messages]
ECIPQ 2 Alguien ha dicho a otros groserı
´as sobre
´usando internet o sms (mensajes de celular) [Someone
said nasty things about me to others either online or through text messages]
ECIPQ 3 Alguien me ha amenazado a trave
´s de internet o sms (mensajes de celular) [Someone threatened me
through texts or online messages]
Appendix Table AT1. (Continued)
ECIPQ 4 Alguien ha pirateado mi cuenta de correo y ha sacado mi informacio
´n personal (por ejemplo, a
´s de e-mail o red social) [Someone hacked into my account and stole personal information
(e.g., through e-mail or social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 5 Alguien ha pirateado mi cuenta y se ha hecho pasar por
´(a trave
´s de las redes sociales o e-mail)
[Someone hacked into my account and pretended to be me (e.g., through instant messaging or
social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 6 Alguien ha creado una cuenta falsa en internet para hacerse pasar por
´(facebook, twitter,
whatsapp, e-mail, otra) [Someone created a fake account, pretending to be me (e.g., on Facebook
or MSN)]
ECIPQ 7 Alguien ha colgado informacio
´n personal sobre
´en internet [Someone posted personal
information about me online]
ECIPQ 8 Alguien ha colgado videos o fotos comprometedoras
´as en internet [Someone posted
embarrassing videos or pictures of me online]
ECIPQ 9 Alguien ha retocado fotos
´as que yo habı
´a colgado en internet [Someone altered pictures or
videos of me that I had posted online]
ECIPQ 10 He sido sacado (excluido) o ignorado de una red social o de chat [I was excluded or ignored by
others in a social networking site or Internet chatroom]
ECIPQ 11 Alguien ha difundido chismes (rumores) sobre
´por internet [Someone spread rumors about me
on the Internet]
ECIPQ 12 He dicho groserı
´as o insultado a alguien usando mensajes por internet o sms (mensajes por celular)
[I said nasty things to someone or called them names using texts or online messages]
ECIPQ 13 He dicho groserı
´as sobre alguien a otras personas en mensajes por internet o sms [I said nasty things
about someone to other people either online or through text messages]
ECIPQ 14 He amenazado a alguien por internet o a trave
´s de mensajes de celular (sms) [I threatened someone
through texts or online messages]
ECIPQ 15 He pirateado (hackeado) la cuenta de correo o perfil de alguien y he robado su informacio
´n personal
(e-mail, red social) [I hacked into someone’s account and stole personal information
(e.g., through e-mail or social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 16 He pirateado la cuenta o perfil de alguien y me he hecho pasar por e
´l/ella a trave
´s del chat, mensajes
o correos en las redes sociales [I hacked into someone’s account and pretended to be them
(e.g., through instant messaging or social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 17 He creado una cuenta falsa para hacerme pasar por otra persona (por ejemplo en facebook, twitter,
chat, instagram u otra) [I created a fake account, pretending to be someone else (e.g., on
Facebook or MSN)]
ECIPQ 18 He colgado informacio
´n personal sobre alguien en internet (por ejemplo en redes sociales) [I posted
personal information about someone online]
ECIPQ 19 He colgado videos o fotos comprometedoras de alguien en internet [I posted embarrassing videos or
pictures of someone online]
ECIPQ 20 He retocado fotos o videos de alguien, que estaban colgados en internet [I altered pictures or videos
of another person that had been posted online]
ECIPQ 21 He excluido (sacado) o ignorado a alguien de una red social o de chat [I excluded or ignored
someone in a social networking site or Internet chatroom]
ECIPQ 22 He difundido rumores (chismes) sobre otras personas por internet [I spread rumors about someone
on the Internet]
ECIPQ, European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire.
... Regarding cyberbullying, the most used indicators in the different instruments that evaluate it refer to insulting, speaking ill of another person, or threatening through text messages (Perret et al., 2020;Wright and Wachs, 2019). The items chosen from each questionnaire were structured into four dimensions: victimization, aggression, cybervictimization, and cyberaggression, as reported in previous literature (Benítez-Sillero et al., 2021;Del Rey et al., 2015;Gómez-Ortiz et al., 2017;González Laguna and Arrimada García, 2021;Herrera-López et al., 2017;Lázaro-Visa et al., 2019;. From an empirical point of view, and considering the aforementioned criteria, an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted, using the Minimum Rank Factor Analysis method and subsequent Promin rotation (Lorenzo-Seva and Ferrando, 2019) to select those items that presented higher factor loadings. ...
... The selection of the items included in the definitive self-report was carried out considering, on the one hand, the characteristics of the evaluated phenomena and the original questionnaires and, on the other, the discrimination indices, factor loadings, and proportion of variance explained of the obtained subscales. Previous studies have shown that both the EBIP-Q and the ECIP-Q have a two-factor structure (Benítez-Sillero et al., 2021;Corral-Pernía et al., 2018;Del Rey et al., 2015;González Laguna and Arrimada García, 2021;Herrera-López et al., 2017;Rey et al., 2019) consisting of the victimization and aggression dimensions. After analyzing different groupings of items, three pairs of statements were chosen (victimization and aggression) for each of the scales (bullying and cyberbullying). ...
... In both cases, the first three items are related to victimization and the next three to aggression. Previous studies have found similar dimensional models (Benítez-Sillero et al., 2021;Del Rey et al., 2015;Gómez-Ortiz et al., 2017;González Laguna and Arrimada García, 2021;Herrera-López et al., 2017;Lázaro-Visa et al., 2019;. ...
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Background: In order to prevent school bullying and cyberbullying, brief measurement instruments with adequate psychometric properties are required. The objective of this study was to develop a combined reduced version of the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIP-Q) and the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIP-Q) for its use in the screening of bullying-related behaviors at school. Method: The sample consisted of 1777 students, between 14 and 18 years of age (M = 15.71; SD = 1.26), of which 54.1% were female. Results: The resulting reduced version presents adequate psychometric properties with reliability coefficients between ω = .72 and ω = .82. Factor analyses indicate that both bullying and cyberbullying are structured around two factors: victimization and aggression. The correlations between the scores of the original version and the reduced version were adequate. Bullying and cyberbullying was associated with different indicators of socioemotional adjustment. Conclusions: The European Bullying and Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire Brief version (EBCIP-QB) seems to be brief, useful, and have adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of bullying and cyberbullying in Spanish adolescents.
... De este grupo de participantes, a 184 jóvenes (95 mujeres y 89 hombres) se les aplicó en cada colegio la versión validada para población colombiana del instrumento European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (Herrera-López et al., 2017). De la población que respondió al instrumento, 44 personas fueron identi&cadas con puntajes altos en la escala de victimización para ciberacoso (23 % de la población vinculada), cuyo rango de edad se encuentra entre los 13 y 17 años y 15 años en promedio y, por lo general, residen en zonas donde predominan los estratos socioeconómicos 2 o 3. ...
... , j u l i o -d i c i e m b r e d e 2 0 1 9 · E -I S S N : 2 0 2 6 -7 9 7 6 D O I : …Experiencia social de ciberacoso sexual en jóvenes… Especialmente para mujeres adolescentes, el ciberacoso se observa con mayores niveles de presentación y con formas especí&cas que se asocian con una sociedad en la que se tolera y en muchos casos se promueve la misoginia y la inequidad en el ejercicio de derechos de las mujeres, lo cual también se encuentra en estudios recientes como el de Plan International (2020). Por lo tanto, es necesario que el análisis de esta categoría de ciberacoso sexual tome en cuenta elementos asociados con la reproducción de esquemas de género y formas de relación asimétrica o violenta con base en el género, referidas por autores comoLinares et al. (2019).En relación con los recursos para hacer frente a estas situaciones se observan estrategias usadas en otros momentos de la vida, las cuales han sido efectivas, partiendo desde formas de relación violenta a través de lesiones personales, repetir las acciones de ciberacoso hacia otros, autoexcluirse y en muy pocos casos denunciar o buscar ayuda, esto en consonancia con lo evidenciado sobre el fenómeno en estudios desde la psicología educativa(Herrera-López et al., 2017;Ortega et al., 2012;.Si bien se cuenta con un conjunto de leyes a nivel mundial, nacional y local en relación con la protección y defensa de los derechos de niñas, niños y adolescentes en especial a la intimidad, buen nombre y dignidad, los casos de ciberacoso cuentan con pocas herramientas operativas o con falta de voluntad y acción oportuna por parte de los adultos para hacerle frente a esta realidad que deben afrontar de manera cotidiana.La estructura normativa existente permite tener una base sólida sobre la cual evaluar casos y prevenir su repetición en situaciones diversas, sin embargo se requiere de acciones concretas desde cada uno de los espacios de relación que posibilite que esta estructura normativa efectivamente se use y fomente el desarrollo de entornos de convivencia principalmente en la familia y en las instituciones educativas sin que se excluyan otros entornos en los que estos puntos de partida pueden presentar consecuencias diversas.Es también importante continuar extendiendo la investigación y análisis en líneas de promoción de derechos y prevención para niños, niñas y adolescentes en las TIC, diseño y ajuste de plataformas de relación y comunicación para esta población así como la actualización necesaria en la legislación local, nacional y global en torno a la construcción de sociedad a partir del trabajo de actores que deben administrar condiciones y características de los subsistemas en los que se construyen como sujetos. En particular, es importante que estas líneas promuevan cada vez una mayor re)exividad de parte de quienes diseñan, desarrollan y producen los cambios tecnológicos que permean la vida de niños, niñas y adolescentes. ...
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Explicar y comprender la forma en que jóvenes escolarizados que han pasado por situaciones de ciberacoso sexual construyen su experiencia social requiere de investigaciones diseñadas desde perspectivas comprensivas. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación cualitativa que incluyó la revisión de fuentes documentales oficiales y de prensa y la aplicación de técnicas mixtas como cuestionarios, entrevistas y el uso de un modelo de investigación acción participativa con estudiantes de educación básica y media de tres colegios públicos de Bogotá ubicados en localidades reportadas con altos índices de acoso escolar. Como hallazgos se resalta la construcción heterogénea de experiencias con estrategias diversas para hacer frente al acoso y tensiones en el ejercicio de derechos. Finalmente, se proponen acciones de prevención desde diferentes subsistemas para hacer frente a estas realidades.
... El instrumento se divide en dos dimensiones: la escala de cibervictimización compuesto por 11 ítems, con preguntas como: "Alguien me ha dicho groserías o insultado por internet (e-mail, redes sociales, llamadas o SMS) o "Alguien ha colgado información personal sobre mí en internet" y la dimensión de ciberagresión compuesta por 11 ítems, con reactivos como: "Alguien ha colgado información personal sobre mí´ en internet" o "He colgado información personal sobre alguien en internet (por ejemplo en redes sociales)". Las propiedades psicométricas y traducción española de la escala se desarrollaron por Herrera-López et al (2017) confirmó la estructura bidimensional del ciberbullying obteniendo índices de bondad de ajuste aceptables (χ2S-B = 644.97; χ2S-B/ (208) = 3.10; p<0.001; ...
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Los escolares con altos comportamientos agresivos tienen más probabilidad de estar relacionados con situaciones de perpetración y victimización por ciberbullying; asimismo, la desconexión moral ha demostrado su asociación con comportamientos agresivos, considerando a los entornos virtuales como medios de desarrollo de conductas desinhibidas para el ciberbullying. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar el papel mediador de la desconexión moral en la relación del comportamiento agresivo con la cibervictimización y ciberagresión. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 729 escolares peruanos, del nivel secundario, fueron 415 hombres (56.9%) y 314 mujeres (43.1%), las edades estuvieron entre los 12 a los 18 años (Medad = 14.58; DE = 1.274), obtenidos mediante un muestreo por conveniencia. Los participantes completaron los cuestionarios sobre ciberbullying, agresividad y desconexión moral. Se consideró el uso del paquete estadístico SPSS para el análisis de datos. El análisis de mediación reveló que la desconexión moral media la relación entre la agresividad y ciberbullying (cibervictimización y ciberagresión). Se concluye, que los escolares desinhiben sus creencias morales, en la incidencia de comportamientos de agresividad verbal, expresión de ira y hostilidad en entornos virtuales que impliquen la perpetración y victimización.
... However, the ECIP-Q, developed by Brighi et al. [24], stands out for being a brief instrument that structures the different forms of cyberbullying through 22 items (11 victimization and 11 aggression) [25]. Previous studies have confirmed the psychometric properties of the ECIP-Q scores [26][27][28][29][30][31]. The ECIP-Q's items, which allow the operationalization of 11 behaviors related to cyberbullying, the briefness of its application, and the homogeneity of the results found when analyzing evidence of its validity and its internal consistency in the different studies allow the ECIP-Q to be considered an adequate instrument for measuring school cyberbullying [32]. ...
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The prevention of cyberbullying at school requires assessing its prevalence by means of brief measurement instruments with adequate psychometric properties. The present study aims to study the psychometric properties of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIP-Q) in a sample of 1777 Spanish adolescents (54.1% women, M = 15.71 years; SD = 1.26), selected by stratified random cluster sampling. The two-factor model (victimization and aggression) displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices. Configural measurement invariance model across gender was found. The omega reliability coefficient for the victimization subscale was 0.82, and for the aggression subscale was 0.68. The ECIP-Q scores were negatively associated with self-esteem and prosocial behavior, and positively associated with depression symptoms and emotional and behavioral difficulties. Significant differences were found between victim and non-victim groups, and between aggressor and non-aggressor groups on the same variables. Victims and aggressors scored lower on self-esteem, and higher on depression symptoms and emotional and behavioral difficulties than those not involved in cyberbullying situations. These findings contribute to demonstrate the satisfactory psychometric quality of the ECIP-Q scores as an assessment tool for cyberbullying in Spanish adolescents.
... The design of the investigation instrument would need to be simple, comprehensive, and easy to understand. The cyberbullying research instruments used by Molluzzo et al. (2013), andHerrera-Lopez et al. (2017) could be modified to suit the needs of the university for the purpose of accomplishing this task. ...
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Cyberbullying problem has become a global concern in universities. In Nigerian universities, the concern appears to be blamed on the lack of cyberbullying prevention and management strategies. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the policy decision makers’ recommendations for the development of cyberbullying management strategies for the staff and students of a Nigerian university. The three theories used to guide the study were Glasser’s (1998) choice theory, Bandura’s (1986) theory of moral disengagement, and Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) social ecological theory. Data for the study were obtained from three sources: interviews, documents, and archival records of the university. Seven participants, all members of the Committee of Provosts, Deans, and Directors (COPD), were used for the study. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. Three major themes emerged as findings in the study: cyberbullying awareness, cyberbullying situation in the university, and the university cyberbullying management policy. These findings may help to make university policy makers aware of the significance of cyberbullying policy in Nigerian universities. The findings may also help to make the university management leadership consider the development of research-based cyberbullying awareness raising training programs and cyberbullying management policy for the staff and students.
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Bullying in childhood is very detrimental and has a negative impact both in the short and long term. Bullying can cause stress, decreased self-esteem, difficulty getting along, causing psychosocial problems such as depression, loneliness, and anxiety, triggering somatic symptoms, low academic achievement, dropping out of school, increasing psychosis, and encouraging suicidal ideation. Bullying must be prevented and reduced through various efforts such as bullying prevention programs, namely detection and intervention against bullying. In order to detect the potential for bullying to occur, this research focuses on producing instruments for the early detection of child bullying intentions in elementary school students. The instrument developed was an early detection questionnaire on child bullying intentions (DDIPA). The study involved 1260 elementary school students in the early grades. Data analysis using Rasch modeling. The result is a DDIPA instrument consisting of 39 valid and reliable statement items. The DDIPA instrument can be used by researchers, teachers, and counselors in order to detect potential bullying in schools.
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La presente investigación tuvo el objetivo de determinar las prácticas de Cyberbullying (en adelante, ciberacoso) predominantes en estudiantes de 10° y 11° de una institución educativa del sector privado del municipio de Chinú-Colombia, en el año 2021. Con respecto al aspecto metodológico, se trató de un estudio bajo el enfoque cuantitativo, de diseño no experimental, de corte transversal y alcance descriptivo-comparativo. Como población sujeta a estudio, se utiliza la totalidad de los estudiantes de 10° y 11° del Liceo Campestre Jean Piaget, que dan un global de 55 estudiantes, a los cuales se les aplicó la escala European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ), la cual se encuentra adaptada al contexto colombiano, y se constituye por 22 ítems que tienen un sistema de respuesta de tipo escala Likert. Los ítems están divididos por iguales para identificar casos de ciber-victimización y ciberagresión. Dentro de los resultados principales se obtiene que las prácticas de ciberacoso más predominantes de las cuales eran víctimas los estudiantes son los insultos directos a su persona; los insultos indirectos, es decir, hablaban mal de ellos con otras personas, el robo de cuentas personales de redes sociales; la suplantación de identidad con perfiles falsos; ser ignorados y excluidos; y, por último, la expansión de rumores falsos contra ellos. Las prácticas de ciberagresión más predominantes que realizaban los estudiantes estaban ligada a insultar a otras personas, hablar mal de otras personas con terceros, suplantar identidades de otras personas por medio de la creación de perfiles falsos en redes sociales, ignorar o excluir a alguien y, por último, difundir información y rumores falsos de otras personas.
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Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology. ISSN:1696-2095 Introducción. El Internet y las redes sociales se han convertido en espacios de interacción digital en los que la participación de personas de todas las edades ha conllevado a una serie de intercambios que pueden ser reconocidos por sus contenidos de odio en relación con ideologías políticas, religiosas, de género y origen étnico. A este fenómeno se le ha denominado ciberodio. Método. Esta investigación, se propuso diseñar y validar una escala que midiera el ciberodio en población colombiana. La muestra final estuvo conformada por 1984 estudiantes universi-tarios entre 18 y 61 años (M=23.25; DE=5.06), provenientes de 23 universidades y 14 departa-mentos de Colombia. Resultados: La escala final de ciberodio quedó compuesta por 32 ítems, distribuidos en tres dimensiones: victimización, perpetración y observación de ciberodio político, religioso, de gé-nero y origen étnico. Se realizó validez de contenido con el apoyo de nueve jueces expertos, validez comparada con la prueba ECIPQ y validez de constructo, a través de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio. Discusión y conclusiones. La prueba construida presenta óptimas cualidades psicométricas. Su índice de confiabilidad es α=0.939, lo cual indica un nivel adecuado de consistencia interna. La ECO es válida y confiable para la medición de ciberodio en la población de referencia. Palabras Clave: Ciberodio, estudiantes universitarios, validación, Colombia
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International research on the risk and protective factors of cyberbullying focus on individual personality variables and the use of technological devices. However, it is necessary to examine in greater depth the interpersonal context as a factor that may influence cyberbullying and the possible differences between cultures. The objective of this article was to analyze the relationship of influence of two interpersonal variables, multidimensional social competence and social motivation, on cyberaggression and cybervictimization through a cultural study of Spain and Colombia, which will permit generalizing the influence of interpersonal variables on cyberbullying in different cultural settings. The sample consisted of 3,830 secondary school students (50.4% Colombian and 49.6% Spanish). Self-reporting measurement instruments validated with different European samples were used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed. A model of mutual influence revealing the inverse relationship of normative adjustment and the direct relationship of popularity goals in cyberaggression was obtained. Cybervictimization was explained by the direct influence of prosocial behaviors and avoidance goals and the inverse influence of perceived social efficacy, development goals, and social and normative adjustment. As conclusion, this study demonstrates the homogeneity of the Colombian and Spanish models and the important role that the face-to-face context plays in cyberbullying involvement. This article highlights and supports the design of cyberbullying prevention programs, which requires the inclusion of multidimensional social competence and social goals.
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El ciberacoso es un fenómeno relacionado con internet, reconocido y en crecimiento. Aunque el enfoque de la investigación en este campo está expandiéndose rápidamente, la mayoría de las investigaciones se centraron en las experiencias de adolescentes en países industrializados, como los de Europa occidental o países anglosajones. Pero, los jóvenes de los países en desarrollo ¿están expuestos a los mismos riesgos? Para responder a esta pregunta, este trabajo presenta una parte de los resultados de un proyecto más amplio, y centra su atención en la incidencia de episodios de ciberacoso entre los estudiantes de secundaria en Colombia. Los datos se recogieron sobre una muestra de 359 estudiantes, 64.1% varones y 35.9% mujeres, entre los 13 y los 19 años de edad, utilizando un cuestionario entregado en horario escolar. El análisis demuestra que los episodios de ciberacoso están bastante extendidos en el grupo de la muestra; teniendo en cuenta que más del 60% de los jóvenes entrevistados estuvo involucrado (ya sea como víctima o como acosador) en al menos 2 episodios en los 6 meses anteriores a la investigación. Las diferencias entre los sexos han sido analizadas, pero no han dado resultados significativos. En conclusión este estudio pone en evidencia la necesidad de una investigación más profunda y amplia del ciberacoso, tanto entre la población masculina como entre la femenina, de los así llamados "países en desarrollo", porque parece que la difusión de éste fenómeno está afectando también a la juventud de éstos países.
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The objective of this research was to design an instrument to detect cyberbullying in a school context and analyze its psychometric properties. Participants were 299 adolescents (54.2% female and 45.8% male) with a mean age of 15 years, belonging to the lower stratum (22.1%) and middle layer (78%). A quantitative study with a non-experimental design instrumental and the cross section was performed. Under the classical test theory, adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α = .864) and convergent validity with other measures was obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS version 21, which resulted in three factors was performed. From item response theory, INFIT found that the items ranged from 0.73 and 1.23 and between 0.74 and 1.24 OUTFIT. Based on the favorable results of psychometric analysis, we conclude that the instrument can be used for detection of cyberbullying in a school context.
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This study explores the level of appropriation and the citizen participation model, trough cellular phones, of Colombian young people under condition of vulnerability, registered in the National System of Possible Beneficiaries (Sisbén) in levels 1 and 2. With this objective, 383 surveys were applied in Barranquilla during the first semester of 2010. The findings show that despite of high penetration of mobile phones, relation between young people and social organizations through these devices is still incipient. The paper concludes explaining that participation is still hold in traditional scenarios and predominant communication model of young with vulnerabilities is referred to passive receiver.
The aim of this research work was to analyze the existing relationships between the socialization processes, family, values and self-esteem in adolescents, from a cross-cultural perspective. Participants were 706 adolescents (424 Spanish, 282 Colombians), of both sexes (382 females, 324 males), 14 to 18 years old. All participants were high school students. Instruments were the Scale of Family Socialization (soc 30), Self-esteem Scale (AUT 30) and two scales obtained from the Rokeach Values Survey: The Scale of Terminal Values and the Scale of Instrumental Values. Results were analyzed using correlational techniques, and especial emphasis was placed on the variable culture. Some significant differences were found: More physical and academic self-esteem in Colombian adolescents, more perception of punishment, and higher scores in compliance, than in Spain adolescents. The importance of doing research concerning the influence of the sociocultural context on family socialization, self-esteem, and values, is pointed out.
Cyberbullying is a type of bullying, which in turn is a type of aggression. This paper gives a brief history of research, and discusses definitional issues around cyberbullying, and three challenges facing researchers; it then reviews some basic findings about prevalence, age and gender differences, predictors of involvement, and effects and correlates of involvement. It concludes with evidence as to whether cyberbullying is getting worse, on coping strategies, and on resources, guidance and intervention.
Despite some variations among cyberbullying studies, about 20% of the youth population surveyed appears to be involved in cyberbullying. Coincidentally, the current study found that exactly 20% of the students surveyed were involved in cyberbullying as bullies (7.8%), victims (7.5%), and bully/victims (4.7%). What divides those 20% from the 80% of noninvolved students? This study aimed to produce a parsimonious and accurate model that can predict the occurrence of involvement in cyberbullying among youth. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey administered to 1,036 students enrolled in secondary schools in South Korea. Stepwise logistic regression (SLR) was carried out to predict the dichotomous dependent variable (involved/noninvolved) with 10 independent variables grouped into three categories: (a) demographic, (b) media-related, and (c) school and psychology factors. The result of the SLR analysis yielded a four-step model including the variables of cyber-confidence, weekday game time, mobile activities, and age as being significant in explaining the 20/80 division (model χ(2)=34.306, df=4, p<0.001, Nagelkerke R(2)=0.071). This finding suggests that younger students who spend more time playing games on weekdays while being more confident in cyberspace and active in using mobile phones are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying than other students. In particular, the construct of cyber-confidence calls for further elaboration and research, given its controversial function with respect to adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying. Also, this study may bring about insights into practical considerations needed for concerned researchers, teachers, and parents to identify who is inside the group involved in cyberbullying so as to help the participating adolescents escape from the circle of cyberbullying.
Despite being relatively new, cyberbullying is now well recognized as a serious public health problem affecting children and adolescents. Scientific exploration has lagged media attention, but a synthesis of studies across several disciplines permits an understanding of its epidemiology, phenomenology, mental health dimensions, and management tools. To assess current knowledge of cyberbullying, we searched the MEDLINE, PubMed and PsycINFO databases for articles on "cyberbullying" and related designations. The Google search engine was used to capture otherwise unpublished legislative, governmental, and community response data and to help identify relevant books and book chapters. A significant proportion of children and adolescents (20%-40%) have been victims of cyberbullying, with females and sexual minorities seemingly at higher risk. Perpetrators are more likely to be male. By nature of the electronic platform, there seems to be an easier path to the bully-victim phenomenon (victims who become bullies or vice versa) than that in traditional bullying. A nonlinear relationship with age is suggested, but demographic data overall are preliminary. Accompanying psychopathology, including an increasingly well-established link to suicidality, is common. Several prevention and management approaches have been proposed to help prevent cyberbullying or mitigate its effects. Cyberbullying's seeming ubiquity, its disproportionate toll on vulnerable populations (e.g., children and sexual minorities), the link with suicidality, and the expected continued rise in Internet penetrance and connectivity make confronting it an urgent matter. A multipronged approach is most likely to succeed and would include: educational media campaigns; school-based programs; parental oversight and involvement; legislative action; and screening and evidence-based interventions by health care providers, especially pediatricians and mental health professionals. More research is needed into cyberbullying, but available data suggest a serious problem whose consequences are real and should not be dismissed as a "virtual" by-product of an increasingly digitalized childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.