Validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention
Project Questionnaire for Colombian Adolescents
Mauricio Herrera-Lo´ pez, PhD,
*Jose´ A. Casas, PhD,
Eva M. Romera, PhD,
Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, PhD,
and Rosario Del Rey, PhD
Cyberbullying is the act of using unjustiﬁed aggression to harm or harass via digital devices. Currently regarded
as a widespread problem, the phenomenon has attracted growing research interest in different measures of
cyberbullying and the similarities and differences across countries and cultures. This article presents the
Colombian validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) involving
3,830 high school students (M=13.9 years old, standard deviation =1.61; 48.9 percent male), of which 1,931
were Colombian and 1,899 Spanish. Conﬁrmatory factor analysis (CFA), content validation, and multigroup
analysis were performed with each of the sample subgroups. The optimal ﬁts and psychometric properties
obtained conﬁrm the robustness and suitability of the assessment instrument to jointly measure cyber-
aggression and cyber-victimization. The results corroborated the theoretical construct and the two-dimensional
and universal nature of cyberbullying. The multigroup analysis showed that cyberbullying dynamics are similar
in both countries. The comparative analyses of prevalence revealed that Colombian students are less involved in
cyberbullying. The results indicate the suitability of the instrument and the advantages of using such a tool to
evaluate and guide psychoeducational interventions aimed at preventing cyberbullying in countries where few
studies have been performed.
Keywords: Colombia, cyberbullying, ECIPQ, Spain, validation
The prevalent use of information and communications
technologies (ICTs) has signiﬁcantly transformed in-
terpersonal relationships among adolescents.
have certain beneﬁts, they have also given rise to a complex
scenario of interactions that require new abilities and social
skills to navigate cyberspace successfully.
Research has also
shown that the use of ICTs has led to an increase in social
problems, including cyberbullying;
a phenomenon currently
regarded as a major public health issue in schools
negative impact on the social and emotional development of
children and adolescents.
It is estimated that around 20
percent of young people aged from 10 to 18 have been cy-
berbullies or cybervictims;
with puberty and adolescence
increasing the risk of becoming involved in cyberbullying.
Cyberbullying is an aggressive, intentional act or act of
intimidation carried out using electronic media, which cre-
ates an imbalance of power between the bully and the vic-
Some authors regard this phenomenon as an indirect
form of harassment, as it is conceived within the deﬁnitional
framework of traditional bullying. Certain characteristics,
however, differentiate cyberbullying from traditional bully-
ing, such as the potential and, in some cases, frequent ano-
nymity of the perpetrator,
and the duration of an aggressive
act in cyberspace, where an image or other humiliating au-
diovisual material is freely accessible (is public) at any
Insulting or threatening behavior through text mes-
sages or the Internet; spreading rumors about someone on
social networks; extracting, disclosing, or publishing personal
information; displaying or sending compromising photos of
someone; excluding or being excluded from a group or chat;
and online identity theft are all actions regarded as cyber-
Moreover, it is important to highlight that both
bullying and cyberbullying constitute unjustiﬁed behavior
that involves a certain degree of immorality.
Although there have been notable advances in research on
cyberbullying over the last decade,important questions remain
with regard to the adequate assessment of the phenomenon.
This may be due to cyberbullying’s multiple manifestations,
Department of Psychology, University of Narin
˜o (UDENAR), San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.
Department of Psychology, University of Co
´rdoba (UCO), Co
Department of Psychology, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
Department of Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.
CYBERPSYCHOLOGY,BEHAVIOR,AND SOCIAL NETWORKING
Volume 20, Number 2, 2017
ªMary Ann Liebert, Inc.
which render it difﬁcult to develop and validate scales with
optimal psychometric properties.
A systematic review of
636 studies showed that most of the existing measurement
instruments do not take into account the properties and theo-
retical and structural factors involved, and of the 44 recognized
instruments, only 24 reported convergent validity.
studies have shown that the scales used to measure cyberbul-
lying do not have the same factorial structure, unlike tradi-
tional instruments for assessing bullying.
In developing an
instrument to measure cyberbullying, Law et al.
the items used to assess traditional bullying were clearly or-
ganized into two factors (victimization and aggression), while
items related to cyberbullying were organized into just one.
The same result was obtained by Menesini et al.,
ported a tendency for single factor grouping. In general, there
are few instruments that comprehensively identify and mea-
sure all the factors related to cyberbullying involvement.
Indeed, it is still very common to ﬁnd studies that measure only
ing the propensity of biased measures.
The European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Ques-
was designed based on the studies of
Dooley et al.
This rigorous measurement instrument is
comparable to other international instruments, and it has
been validated in six European countries with optimal psy-
The ECIPQ includes new deﬁnitions
of cyberbullying, reﬂects its various manifestations and
recognizes the dynamic structure of the phenomenon by
measuring its two principal dimensions: aggression and
victimization. It also makes no distinction between digital
devices (mobile phones and PCs) and includes the criteria of
repetition and the imbalance of power as it assesses the do-
minion of technology in the aggression and the lack of se-
curity measures in victimization.
A recent worldwide review of cyberbullying studies has
shown that the articles published on the Web of Science are
mainly studies from North America (57 percent) and Europe
(28 percent), followed by Western Asia (8 percent) and
Australia (4 percent), which, and denoting an uneven geo-
graphical distribution, highlights the scarce scientiﬁc par-
ticipation of developing countries, such as those in Latin
The small number of studies conducted in these
countries tend to report data on prevalence, primarily using
instruments lacking rigorous psychometric properties. Other
studies report on the type of harassment and the description
and characterization of cyberbullying,
while very few
examine the development or validation of instruments.
This situation, coupled with the scarcity of cross-cultural
research, represents important limitations for advancing in
the study of cyberbullying in regions such as Latin America,
where violence is considered to be even more exacerbated.
The validation and use of a common instrument with known
psychometric properties to compare the phenomenon of cy-
berbullying would allow us to get further insight into the
universality of the phenomenon and examine differences and
similarities between countries; additionally comparisons
between two different geographical regions, which share a
similar culture, history, and same language, are of particular
interest as they open up new lines of research into cyber-
bullying beyond cross-cultural, comparative studies among
or between the United States and
countries of Asia.
Owing to the limited availability of adequately validated
instruments for Latin American countries and the need for
internationally recognized instruments incorporating both
cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression, the main objec-
tive of this study was to validate the ECIPQ
scale in Co-
lombia. The second objective was to compare the prevalence
of involvement in cyberbullying in both countries (Colombia
and Spain) focusing on the following roles: bullies, victims,
bully-victims, and noninvolved students. Our hypothesis was
that the instrument would show a two-factor structure with
optimal psychometric properties and measurement homo-
geneity in the Spanish version, while Colombian students
would be less involved in cyberbullying based on the as-
sumption that technology is used to a lesser degree in the
The overall sample comprised 3,830 adolescent students
(48.9 percent male) aged 10 to 19 (M=13.95, standard de-
viation [SD]=1.61). The Colombian subgroup consisted of
1,931 students (46.9 percent male) of public and private
schools in the city of San Juan de Pasto, southern Colombia,
aged 10 -19 (M=14.9; SD =1.89); while the Spanish sub-
group consisted of 1,899 students (51 percent male) of public
and private schools in Andalucia, southern Spain, aged 11 -
18 (M=14.3; SD =1.81).
We used the ECIPQ,
which comprises 22 items (11 for
cyber-victimization and 11 for cyber-aggression). The
ECIPQ uses a Likert-type scale with ﬁve response options
ranging from 0 =never, 1 =once or twice, 2 =once or twice a
month, 3 =about once a week, and 4 =more than one once a
week. An example of an item for cyber-victimization is
‘‘Someone said nasty things to me or called me names using
texts or online messages,’’ while ‘‘I spread rumours about
someone on the Internet’’ is an example of a cyber-
aggression item. The internal consistency of the original test
is optimal: a
We used a cross-sectional, ex post facto, retrospective, one
group, one measurement research design.
To ensure ethical
standards, we ﬁrst obtained authorization from the school
ofﬁcials and subsequently sent informed consent forms to the
students’ parents and/or legal guardians. After receiving
signed consent from the parents, we then visited the students
who had been authorized to take part in the study and asked
them to sign a consent form. Before administering the
questionnaire to the students, we informed them that par-
ticipation was anonymous and voluntary and explained the
objective of the study. The average time taken to complete
the questionnaire was 15 minutes. Convenience sampling
was performed owing to accessibility.
The scale content was validated by a panel of six Co-
lombian experts, who were given the Spanish version
translated from English to Castilian by Ortega-Ruiz et al.
with the parallel back-translation procedure.
´PEZ ET AL.
assessed the compliance of criteria such as adequacy of vo-
cabulary, conceptual clarity, and the consistency and rele-
vance of each item. To this end, a 4-point scale was used
where 1 =noncompliance, 2 =low level of compliance,
3=moderate compliance, and 4 =high level of compliance.
Finally, a pilot test was conducted with 60 students to assess
their understanding of the items. Any words or terms in the
original Spanish text that were not clear to the students were
modiﬁed. For example, the item ‘‘Alguien me ha dicho pa-
labras malsonantes o me ha insultado usando el e-mail o
FIG. 1. CFA of the adapted
ECIPQ for Colombia
(*p<0.05). CFA, conﬁrma-
tory factor analysis; ECIPQ,
VALIDATION OF THE ECIPQ FOR COLOMBIA 119
Table 1. Polychoric Correlation Matrix: European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire
Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
2 0.77 1
3 0.57 0.57 1
4 0.36 0.40 0.45 1
5 0.37 0.39 0.44 0.80 1
6 0.33 0.40 0.40 0.44 0.55 1
7 0.40 0.43 0.51 0.46 0.49 0.60 1
8 0.32 0.39 0.43 0.41 0.38 0.42 0.67 1
9 0.39 0.38 0.42 0.48 0.41 0.37 0.66 0.64 1
10 0.36 0.39 0.37 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.40 0.44 0.48 1
11 0.59 0.62 0.48 0.36 0.37 0.41 0.58 0.42 0.48 0.40 1
12 0.58 0.50 0.43 0.32 0.32 0.36 0.46 0.40 0.45 0.39 0.52 1
13 0.52 0.47 0.42 0.29 0.36 0.27 0.44 0.44 0.41 0.34 0.51 0.80 1
14 0.39 0.42 0.62 0.35 0.35 0.48 0.54 0.51 0.57 0.42 0.45 0.62 0.65 1
15 0.38 0.35 0.45 0.38 0.35 0.48 0.48 0.44 0.32 0.20 0.29 0.45 0.52 0.64 1
16 0.19 0.34 0.45 0.39 0.41 0.53 0.52 0.55 0.41 0.37 0.33 0.51 0.50 0.67 0.80 1
17 0.27 0.35 0.38 0.36 0.32 0.47 0.42 0.48 0.40 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.46 0.59 0.58 0.71 1
18 0.37 0.43 0.49 0.47 0.43 0.55 0.69 0.73 0.70 0.55 0.56 0.55 0.58 0.71 0.56 0.71 0.69 1
19 0.34 0.42 0.49 0.42 0.40 0.51 0.58 0.72 0.60 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.53 0.61 0.53 0.65 0.62 0.79 1
20 0.29 0.36 0.41 0.31 0.36 0.40 0.47 0.51 0.62 0.44 0.44 0.51 0.48 0.59 0.51 0.66 0.53 0.78 0.74 1
21 0.25 0.34 0.34 0.23 0.28 0.35 0.42 0.37 0.40 0.37 0.40 0.49 0.47 0.56 0.48 0.54 0.42 0.56 0.51 0.57 1
22 0.33 0.43 0.41 0.28 0.33 0.42 0.44 0.60 0.57 0.43 0.60 0.52 0.60 0.52 0.45 0.56 0.46 0.70 0.66 0.65 0.56 1
All correlations with p<0.01.
SMS’’ (Someone used bad words or insulted me using e-mail
or SMS) was substituted for ‘‘Alguien me ha dicho groserı
o insultado por internet (e-mail, redes sociales, llamadas o
SMS)’’ (Someone made rude comments or insulted me on
Internet [e-mail, social networks, calls or SMS]). The
changes were then incorporated into the Colombian version
(Appendix Table A1).
To establish the different roles of involvement, we fol-
lowed the criteria established by the authors of the ECIPQ
For example, to determine the role of cybervictim we
took into account subjects with scores q2 (once a month) in
all the cyber-victimization items, and a score p1 (once or
twice) in all of the cyber-aggression items. Involvement in
the role of cyberbully was measured taking into account
subjects with scores q2 (once a month) in any of the cyber-
aggression items, and scores p1 (once or twice) in all the
cyber-victimization items. The degree of involvement in the
role of bully-victim was obtained with scores q2 (once a
month) in at least one of the cyber-aggression items and in at
least one of the cyber-victimization items. Finally, nonin-
volvement was measured using scores p1 (once or twice) in
all cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization items.
A conﬁrmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed for
the structural validation of the scale. Maximum likelihood
(ML) estimation with robust correction
correlation were used, given the categorical nature of the
To assess the suitability of the instrument, we
used the Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square test
square divided by its degrees of freedom (v
acceptable p3 optimal), the comparative ﬁt index (CFI), and
the non-normed ﬁt index (NNFI) (whose values must be
We also took into account the root mean square
error approximation (RMSEA p0.05), the standardized root
mean square residual (SRMR p0.08 acceptable, p0.05
and the Akaike information criterion (AIC),
which is used to compare models (the lowest value indicates
the best model). The analysis was performed using the EQS
A McDonald’s Omega (O) test was performed to analyze
the internal consistency of the instrument given that the
variables were categorical and reﬂected the absence of
The analysis was performed using
the FACTOR 9.2 program.
To assess the degree of robustness of the factorial structure
and hence the degree of generalization of the model in the
two countries, a multigroup analysis was performed. This
analysis requires a series of sequential comparisons using
progressively restricted models starting with a Model 1 to
test the conﬁgurational invariance, conferring the same fac-
torial structure to the two subgroups. To analyze the mea-
surement invariance, we proposed three models: Model 2,
where the covariances in both sample groups were restricted;
Model 3, where the factor loadings were made equal; and
Model 4 in which the residuals were restricted.
veloping the models, the delta values (D) of the NNFI, CFI,
RMSEA, and SRMR measures of ﬁt were obtained using a
variance of p0.01 as the cutoff point to accept the invariance
The chi-square difference test (Dv
also performed, where nonsigniﬁcant differences indicate
This multigroup analysis was performed
using the EQS 6.2 program.
To compare the differences between countries regarding
the roles of involvement included in the questionnaire, we
performed a chi-square test (v
), taking into account the
values of the adjusted standardized residuals greater than
–1.96 (95 percent conﬁdence interval [CI]) and –2.58 (99
The level of signiﬁcance was 0.05.
The validation of the ECIPQ
content for Colombia,
based on the assessment of the expert panel, showed an ad-
equate degree of agreement (r
The CFA performed with the Colombian subsample in-
dicated that the assumptions of multivariate normality
were not met, as a Mardia coefﬁcient value =875.13 was
obtained. The original two-factor structure was conﬁrmed by
the adequate ﬁt indices (v
p<0.001; NNFI =0.97; CFI =0.97; RMSEA =0.047 (90
percent CI [0.043, 0.052]); SRMR =0.080; AIC =228.96)
(Fig. 1 and Table 1). The total internal consistency and the
consistency of each factor were optimal (Ocyber-
aggression =0.94; Ocyber-victimization =0.91; Oto-
The CFA performed with the Spanish subsample con-
ﬁrmed the original two-factor structure (v
/(208) =2.71; p<0.001; NNFI =0.96; CFI =0.97;
RMSEA =0.031 (90 percent CI [0.028, 0.034]); SRMR =
0.079; AIC =147.07). The total internal consistency and the
internal consistency of each factor were also optimal (O
cyber-aggression =0.96, Ocyber-victimization =0.94, O
The results of the multigroup analysis were within the
established cutoff values (Table 2). In addition, the chi-
square differences between models 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and
models 1 and 4 were not signiﬁcant. These results
Table 2. Multigroup Analysis: Conﬁguration and Measurement Invariance
df p NNFI CFI RMSEA SRMR Dv
DpDdf DNNFI DCFI DRMSEA DSRMR
Mod 1 2,503.97 416 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.08
Mod 2 2,492.47 436 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.08 11.50 0.94 (ns) 20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mod 3 2,483.36 417 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.08 20.61 0.97 (ns) 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mod 4 2,537.58 437 0.00 0.96 0.96 0.05 0.09 33.61 0.98 (ns) 21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
CFI, comparative ﬁt index; Mod 1, no restrictions; Mod 2, loaded factorial restrictions; Mod 3, covariance factorial restrictions; Mod 4,
residual restriction; NNFI, non-normed ﬁt index; ns, not signiﬁcant; RMSEA, root mean square error approximation; SRMR, standardized
root mean square residual.
VALIDATION OF THE ECIPQ FOR COLOMBIA 121
demonstrate the existence of invariance in the factorial
structure of the scale, indicating an optimal degree of ro-
The chi-square analysis of roles of involvement indicated
a statistically signiﬁcant and directly proportional relation-
ship between the country and cyber-aggression, with the
Spanish students being the most involved in this role v
1,873) =21.006; p=0.000, and between the country and
(1, 1,901) =7.062; p=0.008, with the
Colombian students being the least involved (Table 3).
The aim of this study was to validate the ECIPQ scale for
Colombia; an internationally recognized measurement in-
strument of proven psychometric quality.
conﬁrmed the original two-factor structure of the ECIPQ:
cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization. Optimal values
and ﬁt indices, in addition to good internal consistency were
also obtained. These results support the theoretical construct
that cyberbullying consists primarily of cyber-aggression
and cyber-victimization and that both dimensions are clearly
deﬁned as in traditional bullying.
The results for the conﬁguration and measurement in-
variance obtained in the multigroup analysis between Co-
lombia and Spain show that (a) the factorial structural of the
scale presents good robustness, thus ensuring optimal and
rigorous properties, as well as the added beneﬁt of being able
to jointly measure the two major dimensions of cyberbully-
ing, cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization,
despite the differences found in the role of aggressor and no
involvement, the dynamics of cyberbullying could be simi-
lar. This similarity could be attributed, among other things,
to the shrinking technology gap.
Although this inference
should be taken with caution, it could be a new line of re-
search focused on comparing the cultural aspects and the use
of new information technologies.
A more detailed analysis of the factorial model validated
for Colombia regarding the high factor loadings and satu-
ration in the items relating to rumors (gossip) and misuse of
personal data (pictures and videos) as bully or victim suggest
both the high tendency to engage intimidating practices us-
ing digital devices and the need for more education targeted
at the prevention and management of the personal data that
adolescents divulge in cyberspace.
The second hypothesis of this study was conﬁrmed by
comparing the prevalence of cyberbullying among Co-
lombian and Spanish students. The results show that the
former are less involved, particularly in the role of cyber-
bully. These results could be attributed to the lower use of
information technologies by Colombian youth. Also may be
due to speciﬁc values regarding attitudes, behaviors, and
habits of Colombian adolescents, related to the collectivist
and restrictive Colombian school culture,
by respect for the rules of the institutions, conformity, and
On the contrary, Spanish school culture pro-
motes individualism and self-assertion,
which leads them
to greater use of social networks. It has been shown that a
high use increases the risk of involvement in cyberbully-
In conclusion, owing to its optimal psychometric proper-
ties and ability to measure cyber-victimization and cyber-
aggression in a comprehensive manner, the ECIPQ is a
valuable instrument for gaining greater knowledge of cy-
berbullying. It could also be of use in other comparative
studies on the possible differences in the prevalence of cy-
berbullying and associated variables or that assess the results
of interventions targeted at preventing and reducing cyber-
This study has some limitations, such as the cross-
sectional nature of the analysis and the potential social desir-
ability bias common to self-reporting.
the overall sample was large, the Colombian subsample was
not representative, which could limit the generalization of the
model. As a future line of research, the sample could include
other Latin American countries, which would allow for
broader cross-cultural studies.
We would like to thank members from the schools of San
Juan de Pasto, Colombia, and Andalusia, Spain, for partici-
pating in the study. This study was performed within the
framework of the following projects: Project PRY040/14
funded by the Fundacio
´blica Andaluza Centro de Estu-
dios Andaluces, Project EDU2013-44627-P funded by the
Spanish National R&D Plan, and Project BIL/14/S2/163
funded by the Fundacio
Author Disclosure Statement
No competing ﬁnancial interests exist.
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Table 3. Percentage of Involvement in Cyberbullying
Cyber-victimization Cyber-aggression Cyberbully-victim Not involved
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SR, standardized residual.
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Dr. Mauricio Herrera-Lo
University of Narin
Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo
Calle 18 N50-40
CP 520002 San Juan de Pasto (Narin
Appendix Table A1. European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire for Colombia
ECIPQ 1 Alguien me ha dicho groserı
´as o insultado por internet (e-mail, redes sociales, llamadas o sms)
[Someone said nasty things to me or called me names using texts or online messages]
ECIPQ 2 Alguien ha dicho a otros groserı
´as sobre mı
´usando internet o sms (mensajes de celular) [Someone
said nasty things about me to others either online or through text messages]
ECIPQ 3 Alguien me ha amenazado a trave
´s de internet o sms (mensajes de celular) [Someone threatened me
through texts or online messages]
´PEZ ET AL.
Appendix Table AT1. (Continued)
ECIPQ 4 Alguien ha pirateado mi cuenta de correo y ha sacado mi informacio
´n personal (por ejemplo, a
´s de e-mail o red social) [Someone hacked into my account and stole personal information
(e.g., through e-mail or social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 5 Alguien ha pirateado mi cuenta y se ha hecho pasar por mı
´s de las redes sociales o e-mail)
[Someone hacked into my account and pretended to be me (e.g., through instant messaging or
social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 6 Alguien ha creado una cuenta falsa en internet para hacerse pasar por mı
whatsapp, e-mail, otra) [Someone created a fake account, pretending to be me (e.g., on Facebook
ECIPQ 7 Alguien ha colgado informacio
´n personal sobre mı
´en internet [Someone posted personal
information about me online]
ECIPQ 8 Alguien ha colgado videos o fotos comprometedoras mı
´as en internet [Someone posted
embarrassing videos or pictures of me online]
ECIPQ 9 Alguien ha retocado fotos mı
´as que yo habı
´a colgado en internet [Someone altered pictures or
videos of me that I had posted online]
ECIPQ 10 He sido sacado (excluido) o ignorado de una red social o de chat [I was excluded or ignored by
others in a social networking site or Internet chatroom]
ECIPQ 11 Alguien ha difundido chismes (rumores) sobre mı
´por internet [Someone spread rumors about me
on the Internet]
ECIPQ 12 He dicho groserı
´as o insultado a alguien usando mensajes por internet o sms (mensajes por celular)
[I said nasty things to someone or called them names using texts or online messages]
ECIPQ 13 He dicho groserı
´as sobre alguien a otras personas en mensajes por internet o sms [I said nasty things
about someone to other people either online or through text messages]
ECIPQ 14 He amenazado a alguien por internet o a trave
´s de mensajes de celular (sms) [I threatened someone
through texts or online messages]
ECIPQ 15 He pirateado (hackeado) la cuenta de correo o perﬁl de alguien y he robado su informacio
(e-mail, red social) [I hacked into someone’s account and stole personal information
(e.g., through e-mail or social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 16 He pirateado la cuenta o perﬁl de alguien y me he hecho pasar por e
´l/ella a trave
´s del chat, mensajes
o correos en las redes sociales [I hacked into someone’s account and pretended to be them
(e.g., through instant messaging or social networking accounts)]
ECIPQ 17 He creado una cuenta falsa para hacerme pasar por otra persona (por ejemplo en facebook, twitter,
chat, instagram u otra) [I created a fake account, pretending to be someone else (e.g., on
Facebook or MSN)]
ECIPQ 18 He colgado informacio
´n personal sobre alguien en internet (por ejemplo en redes sociales) [I posted
personal information about someone online]
ECIPQ 19 He colgado videos o fotos comprometedoras de alguien en internet [I posted embarrassing videos or
pictures of someone online]
ECIPQ 20 He retocado fotos o videos de alguien, que estaban colgados en internet [I altered pictures or videos
of another person that had been posted online]
ECIPQ 21 He excluido (sacado) o ignorado a alguien de una red social o de chat [I excluded or ignored
someone in a social networking site or Internet chatroom]
ECIPQ 22 He difundido rumores (chismes) sobre otras personas por internet [I spread rumors about someone
on the Internet]
ECIPQ, European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire.
VALIDATION OF THE ECIPQ FOR COLOMBIA 125