ArticleLiterature Review

A Systematic Review of Personality Trait Change Through Intervention

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Abstract

The current meta-analysis investigated the extent to which personality traits changed as a result of intervention, with the primary focus on clinical interventions. We identified 207 studies that had tracked changes in measures of personality traits during interventions, including true experiments and prepost change designs. Interventions were associated with marked changes in personality trait measures over an average time of 24 weeks (e.g., d = .37). Additional analyses showed that the increases replicated across experimental and nonexperimental designs, for nonclinical interventions, and persisted in longitudinal follow-ups of samples beyond the course of intervention. Emotional stability was the primary trait domain showing changes as a result of therapy, followed by extraversion. The type of therapy employed was not strongly associated with the amount of change in personality traits. Patients presenting with anxiety disorders changed the most, and patients being treated for substance use changed the least. The relevance of the results for theory and social policy are discussed.

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... Karsten et al. [11] identified changes in neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness when a person experiences depression. In a meta-analysis of 207 studies, Roberts et al. [12] recently revealed that emotional stability and extraversion were the primary domains showing changes resulting from intervention. However, personality assessments of depressed individuals at only one or two time points might not appropriately reflect their personality before, between, and after depressive episodes. ...
... In Fig. 2, specific factors of depressive symptoms are used as indicators to simplify the structure of depression. The BDI-II-C displays a three-factor solution [24] that is reflected in Items 1-3, 5-10, and 14; the performance difficulty factor is reflected by Items 4,[11][12][13]15,17,and 20, and the somatic factor is indicated by Items 16,18,19, and 21, respectively. When using item parcels, MI at item level should be obtained [27]. ...
... Therefore, it is difficult to interpret whether interventions change the magnitude of associations between conscientiousness and depressive symptoms. However, given that interventions might influence personality [12], future research must consider complex personality-treatment transactions that may influence associations between personality and depressive symptoms. ...
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The study used trait-state-occasion TSO models to explore longitudinal personality stability in young adolescents with the onset of depressive symptoms and to quantify time-invariant and time-varying personality components in predicting the course of depressive symptoms. A total of 326 young clinical adolescents were recruited from high schools, and only 290 adolescents (112 boys; 178 girls) were followed up for 4 time points. Personality measures were implemented twice each year with an interval of 6 months, providing four assessment waves (T1 to T4); depression measures were administered at the initial stage (T1) and the third wave (T3), respectively. The results showed that five domains of personality in adolescents with depressive symptoms were largely characterized by the stable trait factor (65%–81%). The average autoregressive effects across the four waves were significant for all Big Five personality domains except openness. Moreover, excluding time-varying variance, conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness were negatively associated with T1 depressive symptoms; however, only the latter two domains retained significant relationships in the second year of intervention. An elevated level of neuroticism was consistently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms over interventions. Trait factors of extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with depressive symptoms in early adolsecnets, providing some implications for clinical practitioners.
... However, none of the previous meta-analyses found any significant malefemale rank-order [24,25] or mean-level stability differences [20]. Furthermore, Roberts et al. meta-analysed the effect of interventions on personality and found substantial changes in emotional stability (average d ¼ 0.59) but did not find any significant effect of gender [26], suggesting that male-female differences of personality stability are minimal, if at all present. ...
... This may point to difficulties in separating traits from the state, especially in aspects of neuroticism. However, the present results are well in accordance with a previous meta-analysis finding changes in five-factor traits, especially Neuroticism, after different kinds of interventions [26], suggesting that personality can indeed change and casting doubt on trait vs state aspects with regard to personality. The changes noted in a study of adolescents (age interval 15-20 years) with reduced Detachment and Suspicion and increased Social Desirability are likely to mirror a maturation phase [51] and mean-level personality changes in this age range are anticipated [20]. ...
... However, therapeutic interventions of severe life events may induce a prominent change in different neuroticism-related personality aspects among non-chronically patients, and if the interventions are sufficiently targeted and prominent even among chronically ill patients [54,57]. This is under a previous meta-analysis [26]. Still, many of these studies rely on few subjects, and their results should therefore be treated with caution. ...
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Objective: Personality is an aspect that can affect the symptoms and social function in individuals with psychotic disorders. Several studies have investigated personality in schizophrenia and other long-term psychotic disorders. No study has examined the stability of personality traits exceeding five years in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of personality traits over a 13-year period among patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and healthy individuals and to evaluate case-control differences. Methods: At three occasions during a 13-year period patients with schizophrenia and related disorders (n = 28) and healthy individuals (n = 57) completed Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Mean-level change and case-control differences were investigated for all the individuals using within- and between-subject analyses, respectively. Analyses were performed on three occasions for all 13 subscales and the three overall factors of SSP. Also, correlations, means, and SDs were calculated. Results: Tests of within-subject correlations showed differences in two subscales: Lack of Assertiveness, which were influenced by age, and Physical Trait Aggression, where patients' ratings were stable, whereas controls rated themselves less aggressive at a higher age. Between-subjects correlations showed differences regarding diagnosis, time, age, gender, or age × gender in nine of the 13 subscales as well as in factor Neuroticism. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up showed generally high stability of personality traits measured with SSP. Between-subject analyses over the 13 years showed that patients differed compared to controls for the SSP factor Neuroticism as well as the subscale Detachment, which is in accordance with previous studies within this population.
... This was because of a controversy between the dominating paradigm and an intuitive idea of the changeability of personality, its dependence on the situation, and the possibility to impact personality (cf., Mischel, 1969). Among other things, it has instigated research on shortterm changeability in personality, mostly triggered by various interventions (Roberts, Luo, et al., 2017). ...
... Despite an ever-growing number of studies that assess personality trait changes via interventions (Roberts, Luo, et al., 2017), these studies usually bypass the problem of how personality can change through communicative persuasion. This topic is of particular interest, as personality traits are typically uncovered as self-and observer-reports, which means that persuasion has a good chance to affect them. ...
... Extraversion has long been part of clinical interventions as it is substantively associated with experiencing positive emotions (Watson & Clark, 1997). For the most part, these clinical interventions have been quite successful (see a meta-analysis: Roberts, Luo, et al., 2017). Moreover, extant literature demonstrates that voluntary attempts to change traits, including extraversion, can also be rather efficient (Allan et al., 2018;Stieger et al., 2021). ...
Article
Objective. Changeability of personality over short-term intervals has increasingly become a focus of research. However, the role played by argumentation interventions in short-term variations has scarcely been examined. Methods. In two experiments (Ns = 363 and 320), we investigated how processing positive and negative argumentation regarding extraversion (Study 1: watching a lecture; Study 2: elaborating self-invented arguments) affects self-reports on this trait and attitude towards it. The experiments included three waves of measurements with argument manipulation (in favour of or against extraversion) immediately prior to Time 2 (Study 2 also included a control group). Results. Mean-level changes in extraversion across time moments, measured with the longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, were consistently negligible. Conversely, there were some indications that argumentation about extraversion could have immediate short-term effects on attitudes towards this trait. The random-intercept cross-lagged model showed that rank-order consistency stemmed from a trait-like intercept, which was particularly large for trait extraversion compared to the attitude. The autoregressive and cross-lagged effects of residual within-person variation were consistently small and mostly non-significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that extraversion and the attitude towards it maintained their temporal continuity within three months, even under a single exposure to arguments pro and contra this trait.
... The mediating findings may have further practical implications, especially with respect to the possibility to increase the level of conscientiousness in order to facilitate both health behaviors and physical health (Magee et al., 2013;Takahashi et al., 2013). Conscientiousness predicts important life outcomes, such as longevity, relationship success, educational and occupational attainment, as well as morbidity and well-being outcomes (Atherton et al., 2014;Hill et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2017;Steel et al., 2008;Strickhouser et al., 2017). Even though personality traits are characterized as relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions, empirical evidence also suggests that conscientiousness is sensitive to change across the life course. ...
... The intriguing question, therefore, is whether conscientiousness can be changed through specific interventions. A growing body of research suggests that personality traits change significantly during psychotherapeutic interventions (Roberts et al., 2017). DeFruyt et al. (2006), for example, showed that patients treated for major depression using a pharmaco-psychotherapy program described themselves as slightly more conscientious after treatment. ...
Article
Background. This was the first study aiming to develop a theory-based model to analyze the relation between conscientiousness and impaired physical health as well as between conscientiousness and subjective health-related well-being within a large clinical sample with depressive symptomatology. In addition, a mediating effect of health risk behaviors regarding the association between conscientiousness and objectively impaired physical health as well as subjective health-related well-being were exploratory examined. Methods. Individuals with depressive symptoms (n = 943) with a mean age of 52 years (ranging between 20 and 78 years) undergoing intensive psychiatric rehabilitation treatment were investigated with the Big Five Inventory-10 as well as several self-report health questionnaires (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Food-Craving Inventory and lifestyle questions assessing physical inactivity and alcohol consumption). Health-related well-being was measured using the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment and the construct of impaired physical health comprised anthropometric measurements (Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height-Ratio), blood lipids, and impaired physical performance capacity on the bicycle-ergometric test. Results. Structural path analyses revealed that unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity partially mediated the negative relation between conscientiousness and impaired physical health as well as the positive relation between conscientiousness and health-related well-being. Limitations. Possible limitations include cross-sectional study design, missing data, assessment of conscientiousness on a global level and self-report assessment of health risk behaviors. Conclusions. The findings highlight the importance concerning the extended inclusion of personality aspects in the treatment of depression in order to improve health.
... Although personality traits are defined as enduring, stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, longitudinal research on personality development reveals that while traits are relatively stable, change can happen over the life span (Damian et al., 2019;Donnellan et al., 2007) though volitional behavior (Hudson & Fraley, 2015, 2016aHudson et al., 2019), life events (see Bleidorn et al., [2018] for review) or psychotherapy (Roberts et al., 2017). We now have some understanding of how traits generally change over the life course such that individuals generally become more agreeable, confident, conscientious, and emotionally stable (Roberts et al., 2006) and that personality change also occurs through psychotherapy (i.e., largest changes in emotional stability and extraversion; Roberts et al., 2017). ...
... Although personality traits are defined as enduring, stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, longitudinal research on personality development reveals that while traits are relatively stable, change can happen over the life span (Damian et al., 2019;Donnellan et al., 2007) though volitional behavior (Hudson & Fraley, 2015, 2016aHudson et al., 2019), life events (see Bleidorn et al., [2018] for review) or psychotherapy (Roberts et al., 2017). We now have some understanding of how traits generally change over the life course such that individuals generally become more agreeable, confident, conscientious, and emotionally stable (Roberts et al., 2006) and that personality change also occurs through psychotherapy (i.e., largest changes in emotional stability and extraversion; Roberts et al., 2017). To date, however, apart from a few studies (Hudson & Fraley, 2015, 2016a, less empirical work has focused directly on volitional personality change. ...
Article
Despite clinical theory suggesting that individuals are largely unaware of personality-related problems (Gallrein et al., 2013; Oltmanns & Powers, 2012); work in this area shows that individuals possess insight into their pathological traits and the impairment they may cause. Individuals generally dislike pathological traits and desire change in the direction of greater adaptivity (Lamkin et al., 2018; Miller et al., 2018). Individuals may also be able to make small, intentional changes in some personality domains (e.g., neuroticism; Hudson & Fraley, 2015; Hudson & Roberts, 2014) but not others (no positive change in conscientiousness or agreeableness). It remains unclear why many individuals exhibit relatively little change in their pathological traits (e.g., antagonism), given their awareness of the problems these traits cause and their desire for change. The goal of the present study was to explore the relation between personality disorder (PD) traits and desire for change, perceived impairment and benefits, and barriers to change among an online sample (N = 497). Findings suggest that most individuals were uninterested in changing their trait levels; however, individuals with elevated PD traits were more interested in change than those with lower levels. Pathological traits were generally perceived as impairing rather than beneficial; however, mean level analyses revealed similar levels of perceived impairment and benefits for those relatively high on antagonism. Individuals reported that personality change was stymied in part because it was too hard, they were unmotivated to make the changes, or they did not know how to go about making such changes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Moreover, Bernard et al. (2014) document some simple behavioural interventions that can improve farmers' locus of control and forward-looking behaviour. Roberts et al. (2017) further observe that neuroticism could still be directly improved via social skills training or cognitive-behavioural therapy in adulthood. As our findings highlight the positive roles of openness and internal locus of control, and the negative role of neuroticism on smallholder's decision making and farm performance, such interventions have the potential to enhance rural smallholders' farm management performance, and so improve their welfare and the overall agricultural production. ...
Thesis
Individual differences in personality traits and economic preferences have been found to be powerful in explaining key labour market success. Yet, much of their impact on agricultural production decisions in the rural context remains unclear. This thesis aims to provide more insights into the contribution of personality traits and economic preferences to smallholders’ economic decisions in agricultural production and farm management, using available data sets from China. It starts with an investigation of smallholders’ perception of land tenure security from perspectives of both cognitive-consequentialist and risk-as-feelings. The subsequent two chapters centre on the roles of personality traits and preferences in two important input decisions regarding smallholders’ agricultural production: land renting and fertilizer use. This thesis further examines if human personality has a direct impact on smallholder farmers’ overall farm management performance. Unravelling the mysterious role that personality traits play in smallholder farmers’ decision-making processes is vital for designing policies aimed at increasing agricultural production and alleviating rural poverty.
... Taking a distanced view of oneself-decentering-may allow people to manage not only their emotional states (Nook et al., 2020;Orvell et al., 2019;Quoidbach et al., 2010) but we acknowledge that, at this point, this is really just our data-free attempt at "connecting the dots" and telling the story. If regularly used, decentering might potentially change personality traits, such as neuroticism and emotional volatility (Roberts et al., 2017;Seraj et al., 2021) if such de-centering processes were repeatedly enacted over time and across multiple situations. ...
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We review extant research on the psychological implications of the use of first-person singular pronouns (i.e., “I-talk”). A common intuition is that I-talk is associated with an overly positive, highly agentic, and inflated view of the self—including arrogance, self-centeredness, and grandiose narcissism. Initial (small-sample) research provided evidence that frequent I-talk was associated with grandiose narcissism. More recent (large-sample) research, however, has found that the correlation is near zero. Frequent I-talk is, however, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, in particular, and negative emotionality (i.e., neuroticism), more broadly. Frequent I-talk is also positively related to the neurotic variety of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism. In addition, frequent I-talk has a positive association with sociodemographic characteristics such as (lower) status, (younger) age, and (female) gender; I-talk has a conditional association with truth-telling and authenticity—a correlation that appears to hinge on context. This review summarizes the literature on I-talk, provides some speculations about the emergent psychological meanings of I-talk, and provides a guide for future research.
... Current directions within personality psychology research suggest that personality traits show both continuity and change related to life transitions and important events over the life course (Wrzus & Roberts, 2017). In addition, several clinical studies show how personality changes in response to interventions, especially neuroticism, are subject to variation, followed by extraversion (see metaanalysis by Roberts et al., 2017). Additionally, personality interventions can have surprisingly rapid effects; both shortand long-term personality changes have been reported after only eight weeks of intervention . ...
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Research has identified parental personality and parenting behaviour as important contributors to healthy child development. However, indirect associations are largely unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the mediating role of parenting dimension relations between parental personality and adolescent mental health problems. The cross-sectional sample included 4258 German adolescents (48.7% male, 11–17 years) and one parent who participated in a national health survey (KiGGS Wave 2). The results underline and extend previous indications of direct associations between parental personality and their children’s mental health problems by highlighting the adverse role of neuroticism. Furthermore, new insights are added regarding the mediating roles of parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, behavioural control, and psychological control). Future efforts and parent-focused prevention programmes should be extended by parental personality to identify maladaptive parenting behaviour and thus contribute to the development of their children’s mental health.
... Extant studies found that recognizing and making good use of one's signature character strengths are the channels through which we generate positive experiences, find meaning, and ultimately flourish (Corral-Verdugo et al., 2015;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Park & Peterson, 2009;Schutte & Malouff, 2019). The strengths-based intervention is an approach that allows people to develop their character strengths volitionally (Proctor, 2017;Roberts et al., 2017). However, most strengths-based interventions were used by therapists, coaches, and educators (Biswas-Diener, Kashdan, et al., 2011;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2014;Park & Peterson, 2008) probably because only about one-third of people can identify their own strengths and fewer use them consciously in their lives (Biswas-Diener, Kashdan, et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
... Some newer studies on psychotherapeutic change have also compared the extent of change in individual items or patterns of symptomatology over the course of treatment (e.g., Mullarkey et al., 2018;Sembill et al., 2017). Recently, studies in the fields of clinical and personality psychology have revisited the question about whether some aspects of personality may change over time (e.g., Roberts et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses fundamental issues of change in psychotherapy: how to measure, monitor, predict change, and provide feedback on treatment outcome. The chapter starts with a historical overview, covering several approaches applied to measure change in psychotherapy research. We proceed with a description of classical concepts to evaluate change such as effect sizes, meta-analysis and clinical significance. Next, central concepts to study treatment dosage, attrition, follow-up, as well as the handling of missing data are presented. We then cover new ways to measure and to model change including item response models, multilevel and mixed models, ecological momentary assessment and new biological and technical measures. We discuss the core questions of how to optimally measure outcomes, how often to measure change during therapy, and how therapists can use measurements to improve clinical practice. In addition, the need for further improvements in measurement precision are debated. Furthermore, the chapter discusses predictors and moderators of change, rational and empirical decision-making models, as well as methods to identify patterns of early response. We explore processes and mechanisms of change including sections on between- and within-patient variation and dyadic models. In the final section, we review the evidence base for feedback-informed treatment and the application of evidence- based personalization in clinical practice. Such new developments allow the inclusion of individually tailored problem-solving strategies for treatment selection and adaptation, especially for those patients at risk of treatment failure. The development of change measurement in psychotherapy has evolved considerably in recent decades, making it an integral part of clinical practice and training.
... We showed that trait anxiety is a determinant of CB-PTSD symptoms independent of the group of pregnant women. While it has been state-of-the-art in the past that traits are stable over time, recent research indicates that traits can be altered by environmental influences, development within persons, or by clinical interventions [46]. Therefore, in order to identify anxious women at an early stage, antenatal psycho-diagnostic screening in the outpatient obstetrics area should be considered. ...
Article
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Childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder (CB-PTSD) occurs in 3-7% of all pregnancies and about 35% of women after preterm birth (PTB) meet the criteria for acute stress reaction. Known risk factors are trait anxiety and pain intensity, whereas planned delivery mode, medical support, and positive childbirth experience are protective factors. It has not yet been investigated whether the effects of anxiety and delivery mode are mediated by other factors, and whether a PTB-risk alters these relationships. 284 women were investigated antepartum and six weeks postpartum (risk-group with preterm birth (RG-PB) N = 95, risk-group with term birth (RG-TB) N = 99, and control group (CG) N = 90). CB-PTSD symptoms and anxiety were measured using standardized psychological questionnaires. Pain intensity, medical support, and childbirth experience were assessed by single items. Delivery modes were subdivided into planned vs. unplanned delivery modes. Group differences were examined using MANOVA. To examine direct and indirect effects on CB-PTSD symptoms , a multi-sample path analysis was performed. Rates of PTS were highest in the RG-PB = 11.58% (RG-TB = 7.01%, CG = 1.1%). MANOVA revealed higher values of CB-PTSD symptoms and pain intensity in RG-PB compared to RG-TB and CG. Women with planned delivery mode reported a more positive birth experience. Path modeling revealed a good model fit. Explained variance was highest in RG-PB (R 2 = 44.7%). Direct enhancing effects of trait anxiety and indirect reducing effects of planned delivery mode on CB-PTSD symptoms were observed in all groups. In both risk groups, CB-PTSD symptoms were indirectly reduced via support by medical staff and positive childbirth experience, while trait anxiety indirectly enhanced CB-PTSD symptoms via pain intensity in the CG. Especially in the RG-PB, a positive birth experience serves as protective factor against CB-PTSD symptoms. Therefore, our data highlights the importance of involving patients in the decision process even under stressful birth conditions and the need for psychological support antepartum, mainly in patients with PTB-risk and anxious traits.
... At the same time, personality traits seem to be amenable to change through clinical interventions. A recent meta-analysis investigated changes in personality traits across 207 clinical trials (20). The authors concluded that personality traits, most notably neuroticism and (low) extraversion, change through interventions with small to moderate effect sizes, and that these changes can already be achieved after 8 weeks of treatment. ...
Article
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While mental health treatments have proven to be effective for a range of mental health problems, there is comparably little research on its effects on personality disorders or difficulty (PD). New dimensional conceptualizations of PD such as the ICD-11 PD model enable the cost-and time-effective dimensional assessment of severity and style of PD. Furthermore, they constitute a promising tool to investigate PD, not only as a treatment endpoint but also as a predictive or influencing factor for mental health treatments. In this study, we investigated the effects in two different mental health treatment settings [online (N = 38); face-to-face and blended [FTF/blended] (N = 35)] on the reduction of maladaptive personality traits as well as the interaction between maladaptive personality patterns and the response on primary endpoints (i.e., mental distress). Results indicate that both treatment settings have comparable within-group effects on the reduction of distress symptoms, while the treatment in the FTF/blended setting seems to have a stronger impact on the reduction of maladaptive traits. Further, reduction of maladaptive trait expressions was a reliable predictor of treatment response in the FTF/blended setting while explaining less variance in the online setting. Beyond the promising findings on the utility of maladaptive trait change as an outcome measure, we discuss possible applications as an information source for treatment decisions.
... Néanmoins, des aménagements à l'échelle individuelle, sans redessiner pour autant l'organisation hiérarchique des traits, sont possibles (cf chapitre 4). Une revue systématique récente, portant sur plus 200 études, a objectivé que les psychothérapies, tous types confondus, pouvaient améliorer durablement la stabilité émotionnelle (Roberts et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
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La maladie d’Alzheimer (MA) est une affection neurodégénérative se manifestant par une détérioration cognitive d’aggravation progressive. Elle s’accompagne systématiquement de modifications comportementales désignées sous le terme de symptômes neuropsychiatriques (SNP). Ces SNP regroupent un ensemble de manifestations diverses : symptômes affectifs, symptômes psychotiques, symptômes comportementaux, troubles des fonctions instinctuelles. L’origine des SNP est multifactorielle. La localisation et le degré d’extension des lésions neurodégénérative joue un rôle essentiel dans leur survenue mais d’autres facteurs ont été identifiés. Ainsi, certains profils de personnalité pourraient moduler leur typologie et leur sévérité, notamment aux stades débutants de la MA quand les lésions neurodégénératives sont encore circonscrites. L’objectif de ce travail de thèse est d’évaluer l’impact de la personnalité sur la survenue des SNP aux stades de MA prodromale et débutante. Les données analysées sont issues du protocole PACO (Personnalité Alzheimer COmportement). Deux cent trente-sept patients ont été inclus et suivis longitudinalement pendant 18 mois. Le diagnostic de MA reposait sur des critères neuropsychologiques et d’imagerie. Les domaines de personnalité (Névrosisme, Consciensciosité, Extraversion, Ouverture, Agréabilité) ont été évaluées à l’aide du questionnaire NEO-PI-R issu du modèle à 5 facteurs. Les SNP ont été recueillis à l’inclusion puis tous les 6 mois sur une période de 18 mois. La première partie de la thèse propose une revue de la littérature abordant les liens entre personnalité et expression clinique de la MA. Trois publications sont présentées dans la partie expérimentale. La première introduit la méthodologie et les objectifs du protocole PACO. La deuxième intitulée « Does personality predict behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia ?» démontre l’effet spécifique de la personnalité sur la typologie des SNP, en particulier l’impact protecteur des hauts niveaux de conscienciosité et délétère des hauts niveaux de névrosisme. Suite à ces premières conclusions, nous nous sommes intéressés spécifiquement au névrosisme, domaine de personnalité fortement corrélé à la psychopathologie en population générale. Ainsi, dans une troisième publication nous explorons l’effet de deux sous-dimensions du névrosisme appelées Névrosisme-Volatilité et Névrosisme-Retrait reflétant respectivement la tendance à internaliser ou externaliser les émotions négatives. Le Névrosisme-Volatilité était corrélé positivement au risque d’agitation, d’irritabilité, et de délire tandis que le Névrosisme-Retrait était associé à l’anxiété et à la dépression. L’effet de la personnalité sur les SNP au stade débutant de la MA est discuté comme la résultante d’un possible effet combiné des lésions neurodégénératives et d’une vulnérabilité neurologique prémorbide associée à certains domaines de comme le névrosisme
... Interventions to increase self-control include goal setting, self-monitoring, and behavioral activation, whereas nonjudgmental mindfulness and cognitive flexibility practices may foster curiosity and inquisitiveness. Such abilities can be conceptualized as trait-like but malleable; meta-analytic findings suggest that common therapies change personality traits (Roberts et al., 2017). ...
Article
Background Character strengths and virtues may shape responses to stressors and risk for anxious and depressive distress. However, most studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, and it remains unclear whether virtues directly predict distress in daily life or buffer context-specific stressors. We tested whether higher-order intellectual (inquisitiveness), intrapersonal (self-control), and interpersonal virtues (caring) prospectively predicted coping responses and lower symptoms, and moderated effects of specific stressors on distress. Methods Treatment-seeking individuals diagnosed with anxiety/depression (N = 81; Study 1) and students (N = 112; Study 2) completed the VIA Inventory of Strengths survey at baseline, then experience-sampling of daily symptoms and situational responses (perceptions and/or coping strategies) over seven days (Study 1) or five weeks (Study 2). Results Multilevel models generally linked virtues to more adaptive daily responses during individuals’ worst and best daily events (Study 1) and worst events (Study 2), but inquisitiveness unexpectedly predicted higher symptoms in both studies. Additionally, virtues buffered against the within-person effects of specific stressor perceptions on distress (Study 2). Conclusions The relevance of character virtues for anxiety, stress, and coping may be complex, predicting higher or lower symptoms depending on both the virtue and the situational context.
... If emotional awareness plays a crucial role in buffering selfinfiltration, as supported by the present study, can individuals protect themselves from self-infiltration by temporarily but also permanently (see Roberts et al., 2017, for a recent meta-analysis on trait changes through interventions) increasing one's emotional awareness? If yes, to which degree? ...
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Individuals sometimes mistake others' expectations or imposed duties for self-chosen goals, even though they are not congruent with their emotional preferences or integrated values—a phenomenon coined as self-infiltration. Previous studies demonstrated that self-infiltration is more likely to occur in individuals with reduced self-regulation abilities. Here, we investigated in a sample of 250 students whether this association may be mediated by trait emotional awareness, the ability to recognize and understand one's emotions. This mediation hypothesis could be confirmed. We discuss our findings with respect to their potential relevance for research on motivated goal pursuit and health and practical applications.
... Indeed, our findings build upon data from other serious illnesses, which also observed that factors beyond depression influence negative emotional states, such as hastened death. 23 Data addressing our second hypothesis support that baseline M&P predicts future HRQOL, especially the 56 Supporting this claim is that our results follow previous M&P interventions for the advanced cancer population that has shown positive emotional health changes [27][28][29][30] and, therefore, serve as an additional impetus to adapt an M&P intervention to HD. ...
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Objective: Previous work in Huntington's disease (HD) has shown that a sense of meaning and purpose (M&P) is positively associated with positive affect and well-being (PAW); however, it was unknown whether HD-validated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) influence this association and how M&P impacts PROs in the future. Our study was designed to examine if HD-validated PROs moderate the relationship between M&P and PAW and to evaluate if baseline M&P predicts 12- and 24-month changes in HD-validated PROs. Methods: This was a longitudinal, multicenter study to develop several PROs (e.g., specific for the physical, emotional, cognitive, and social domains) for people with HD (HDQLIFE). The sample consisted of 322 people with HD (n = 50 prodromal, n = 171 early-stage manifest, and n = 101 late-stage manifest HD). A single, multivariate linear mixed-effects model was performed with PAW as the outcome predicted by main effects for M&P and several moderators (i.e., an HD-validated PRO) and interactions between M&P and a given PRO. Linear-mixed models were also used to assess if baseline M&P predicted HD-validated PROs at 12 and 24 months. Results: Higher M&P was positively associated with higher PAW regardless of the magnitude of symptom burden, as represented by HD-validated PROs, and independent of disease stage. In our primary analysis, baseline M&P predicted increased PAW and decreased depression, anxiety, anger, emotional/behavioral disruptions, and cognitive decline at 12 and 24 months across all disease stages. Interpretation: These findings parallel those seen in the oncology population and have implications for adapting and developing psychotherapeutic and palliative HD interventions.
... It is not possible to tell from the current body of research whether poor mental health predisposes psychiatric nurses to PTSD following critical event Neuroticism is one of the "Big Five" factors in personality psychology and represents a predisposition to negative emotionality such as anxiety, depression, withdrawal, emotional volatility, and vulnerability to stress (e.g., Anglim & O'Connor 2019). Personality traits are considered stable individual characteristics; however, they can change with intervention, and emotionality appears especially malleable (e.g., Roberts et al., 2017). The three studies that tested the association of neuroticism and PTSD symptoms all used retrospective designs, making it impossible to tell whether psychiatric nurses with high neuroticism are at greater risk of PTSD should they experience a traumatic exposure (a pre-traumatic risk factor) or whether traumatic exposure triggers emotional reactivity among some individuals, increasing the post-traumatic risk of PTSD. ...
Article
Introduction Psychiatric nurses are at risk of workplace violence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is limited understanding of pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors. Aim To review factors associated with workplace PTSD in psychiatric nurses. Method We searched quantitative and qualitative studies from 1980-2019 in 23 databases plus abstracts for studies on psychiatric hospital nursing staff, potentially traumatic workplace events, workplace factors, and PTSD. Following duplicate abstract (n=10,064) and full text (n=199) screening, data were extracted in duplicate from 19 studies. Using best fit framework synthesis, we identified workplace violence, pre-trauma, and post-trauma risk factors. Results Six variables yielded evidence in at least two empirical studies scoring at least 6/8 on a quality measure, or one such study plus more than one other study (“promising”: severe/injurious assault, cumulative exposure, burnout, poor mental health, low compassion satisfaction, neuroticism). Four were supported by at least one better quality study or at least two others (“suggestive”: gender, poor training, any physical aggression exposure, compassion fatigue). Discussion Pre-trauma measures, consistent definitions of workplace exposures, and thorough reporting of quantitative results are needed to improve research. Implications for Practice Violence prevention, and mental healthcare for exposed nurses, appear the most promising targets for PTSD prevention. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand workplace violence and mental health among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals.
... This implies that a third variable may account for the relation between personality and politics (e.g., Ksiazkiewicz & Friesen, 2018 One means of clarifying the trait-ideology causal pathway has emerged recently. Several interventions (including psychotherapy and a smartphone application) ostensibly change individuals' levels of self-reported personality traits (e.g., Roberts et al., 2017;Stieger et al., 2021), although notably these results do not seem to extend to openness (the trait most studied in relation to ideology) and are much smaller, and often non-significant, for observer reports. ...
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Commentary on Gries, T., Mueller, V., & Jost, J. (2021). The market for belief systems: A formal model of ideological choice. Psychological Inquiry.
... There is still a third possibility, i.e. there is no change in the point temperature value as a result of the stimulus (stressor). Such a situation is called regulatory stiffness, the lack or a significant limitation of plasticity of the tested system [5]. ...
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The relationship between stress and human functioning in an organization has been the subject of research all over the world for years. Most of the studies in this area are focused on medical and psychological aspects. In the era of the development of ICT support tools, it is possible to implement the thermoactive scanning instruments in the methodology of assessing the relationship of stress factors (stressors) with the distribution of selected neurotransmitters. A derivative of this type of research is the ability to assess management / command styles, which is extremely useful in assessing the suitability of employees for positions held in the organization.
... Given that conscientiousness is linked to behaviours such as delayed gratification, selfdiscipline and cognitive control, and that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a key region for the cognitive control of emotions, it is not surprising that improvement in conscientiousness was related to direct stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, 43 as well as indirectly through the activation of medial frontal projections in SCC-DBS. 44 Contrary to a previous report, 45 cognitive behavioural therapy did not affect any personality dimensions, possibly for the same reasons as its lack of effect on depressive symptoms in this cohort. 6 Our study did not include healthy controls without depression or patients with treatment-responsive depression to examine the personality profile of patients with treatmentresistant depression and subsequent changes in personality with DBS relative to control groups. ...
Article
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising investigational approach for treatment-resistant depression. However, reports suggesting changes in personality with DBS for movement disorders have raised clinical and ethical concerns. We prospectively examined changes in personality dimensions and antidepressant response to subcallosal cingulate (SCC)-DBS for treatment-resistant depression. Methods: Twenty-two patients with treatment-resistant depression underwent SCC-DBS. We used the NEO Five-Factor Inventory for personality assessment at baseline and every 3 months until 15 months post-DBS. We assessed depression severity monthly using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: We found a significant decrease in neuroticism (p = 0.002) and an increase in extraversion (p = 0.001) over time, showing a change toward normative data. Improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was correlated with decreases in neuroticism at 6 months (p = 0.001) and 12 months (p < 0.001), and with an increase in extraversion at 12 months (p = 0.01). Changes on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale over time had a significant covariate effect on neuroticism (p < 0.001) and extraversion (p = 0.001). Baseline openness and agreeableness predicted response to DBS at 6 (p = 0.006) and 12 months (p = 0.004), respectively. Limitations: Limitations included a small sample size, a lack of sham control and the use of subjective personality evaluation. Conclusion: We observed positive personality changes following SCC-DBS, with reduced neuroticism and increased extraversion related to clinical improvement in depression, suggesting a state effect. As well, pretreatment levels of openness and agreeableness may have predicted subsequent response to DBS. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory assessment may have a role in clinical decision-making and prognostic evaluation in patients with treatment-resistant depression who undergo SCC-DBS.
... Our findings suggest that leveraging personality traits may lead to improved monitoring of and intervening on fatigue-related health decline. For instance, openness may be malleable with nonpsychopharmacological intervention in older adults (Roberts et al., 2017)-making it an encouraging modifiable target to decrease the risk of high fatigability. Our associations between openness and fatigability further support facilitating noveltyseeking activities pathway to improve functioning in later life (Carlson et al., 2012;Chan & Carlson, 2017;Chan et al., 2019;Moored et al., 2020;Wu et al., 2016). ...
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Physical fatigability, or susceptibility to physical fatigue, is strongly associated with aging, disease, and disability. Over the lifecourse, personality traits are also connected to numerous age-related vulnerabilities and resistance-yet, their longitudinal association with fatigability remains unknown. Well-functioning community-dwelling volunteers aged ≥50 (N = 995) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) were assessed over an average of 2 years on personality traits (NEO-PI-R; openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) and perceived fatigability [Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) after a 5-min slow treadmill walk; 6 (low) to 20 (high) exertion]. Linear and multinomial logistic regression models examined cross-sectional associations [treating fatigability continuously and by RPE category: low (6-7), intermediate (8-9), and high (10+)]. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) tested longitudinal associations. All models were adjusted for demographics and comorbid conditions. In cross-sectional models, openness, β = -.09 RPE (SE =.03); p < .01, conscientiousness, β = -.07 (.03); p < .05, and extraversion, β = -.10 (.03); p < .01, were negatively associated with fatigability. In parallel, lower openness, OR: .98, 95% CI [.96-1.00], conscientiousness, OR: .98, 95% CI [.96-1.00], and extraversion, OR: .97, 95% CI [.95-.99], corresponded with higher odds of having high versus low fatigability. In longitudinal models (mean follow-up time 2 ± 2 years), openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion associations remained significant and did not change over time (Trait × Year p values > .34). Together, findings suggest that personality plays a role in the perceived tolerance of fatigue in well-functioning older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... For all studies, we imputed the median correlation (r = .59) of a meta-analysis that investigated the range of within-group correlation values in active treatment groups (Balk et al., 2012). This value is comparable to other studies that have imputed withingroup meta-analyses (Clond, 2016;Roberts et al., 2017). In addition, a sensitivity analysis for the within-subject correlation is available in the multimedia appendix for all r-values between 0 and 1. Sample sizes lower than n = 10 were not included in the analysis, because this could lead to inaccurate estimates of the standardized mean gain (Morris, 2000). ...
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Background and objectives: Although Interdisciplinary Multimodal Pain Treatment (IMPT) programs share a biopsychosocial approach to increase the wellbeing of patients with chronic pain, substantial variation in content and duration have been reported. In addition, it is unclear to what extent any favorable health outcomes are maintained over time. Therefore, our first aim was to identify and analyze the change over time of patient related outcome measures in cohorts of patients who participated in IMPT programs. Our second aim was to acquire insight into the heterogeneity of IMPT programs. Databases and data treatment: The study protocol was registered in Prospero under CRD42018076093. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and Cinahl from inception to May 2020. All study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessments were independently performed by two researchers. Study cohorts were eligible if they included adult patients with chronic primary musculoskeletal pain for at least 3 months. We assessed the change over time, by calculating pre-post, post-follow-up and pre-follow-up contrasts for seven different patient-reported outcome domains. To explore the variability between the IMPT programs, we summarized the patient characteristics and treatment programs using the intervention description and replication checklist. Results: The majority of the 72 included patient cohorts significantly improved during treatment. Importantly, this improvement was generally maintained at follow-up. In line with our expectations and with previous studies, we observed substantial methodological and statistical heterogeneity. Conclusions: This study shows that participation in an IMPT program is associated with considerable improvements in wellbeing that are generally maintained at follow-up. The current study also found substantial heterogeneity in dose and treatment content, which suggests different viewpoints on how to optimally design an IMPT program.
... Ongoing research at the intersection of personality and ASD may help elucidate whether similar FFM-based subgroups continue to be replicated in other samples; eventually, the distinctions between these subgroups should be tested with other levels of evidence, such as through genetic and neuroscience methods. Additionally, recent research has demonstrated that personality traits can change as a result of clinical interventions (Roberts et al., 2017). Future studies should examine whether individuals may change group membership in the context of empirically identified personality subgroups as a result of CBT, and whether some children demonstrate meaningful and distinct personality change over the course of intervention. ...
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous and likely entails distinct phenotypes with varying etiologies. Identifying these subgroups may contribute to hypotheses about differential treatment responses. The present study aimed to discern subgroups among children with ASD and anxiety in context of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and evaluate treatment response differences to two cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments. The present study is a secondary data analysis of children with ASD and anxiety ( N =202; ages 7–13; 20.8% female) in a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) randomized controlled trial (Wood et al., 2020). Subgroups were identified via latent profile analysis of parent-reported FFM data. Treatment groups included standard-of-practice CBT (CC), designed for children with anxiety, and adapted CBT (BIACA), designed for children with ASD and comorbid anxiety. Five subgroups with distinct profiles were extracted. Analysis of covariance revealed CBT response was contingent on subgroup membership. Two subgroups responded better to BIACA on the primary outcome measure and a third responded better to BIACA on a peer-social adaptation measure, while a fourth subgroup responded better to CC on a school-related adaptation measure. These findings suggest that the FFM may be useful in empirically identifying subgroups of children with ASD, which could inform intervention selection decisions for children with ASD and anxiety.
... Taking a distanced view of oneself-decentering-may allow people to manage not only their emotional states (Nook et al., 2020;Orvell et al., 2019;Quoidbach et al., 2010) but we acknowledge that, at this point, this is really just our data-free attempt at "connecting the dots" and telling the story. If regularly used, decentering might potentially change personality traits, such as neuroticism and emotional volatility (Roberts et al., 2017;Seraj et al., 2021) if such de-centering processes were repeatedly enacted over time and across multiple situations. ...
Article
We review extant research on the psychological implications of the use of first-person singular pronouns (i.e., “I-talk”). A common intuition is that I-talk is associated with an overly positive, highly agentic, and inflated view of the self—including arrogance, self-centeredness, and grandiose narcissism. Initial (small-sample) research provided evidence that frequent I-talk was associated with grandiose narcissism. More recent (large-sample) research, however, has found that the correlation is near zero. Frequent I-talk is, however, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, in particular, and negative emotionality (i.e., neuroticism), more broadly. Frequent I-talk is also positively related to the neurotic variety of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism. In addition, frequent I-talk has a positive association with sociodemographic characteristics such as (lower) status, (younger) age, and (female) gender; I-talk has a conditional association with truth-telling and authenticity—a correlation that appears to hinge on context. This review summarizes the literature on I-talk, provides some speculations about the emergent psychological meanings of I-talk, and provides a guide for future research.
... According to previous research [11], the following three points in CBT can somewhat alleviate patients' sensitive and nervous state: (1) Gradual and orderly relaxation training (training cancer patients to relax the muscles of the whole body, starting with various parts and then gradually relaxing the whole body in an orderly manner, guiding them to mentally relax, selfhypnotize, imagine beautiful scenes, and become peaceful physically and mentally [12] ); (2) Based on cancer patients' different mental states, family conditions, coping styles, and cultural backgrounds, medical staff need to formulate nursing plans with the patients and their families and provide psychological care in an acceptable and nonconfrontational way[13]; and (3) Communication between medical staff and cancer patients can provide patients with psychological counseling and encouragement, help them adjust their mental state, and improve their confidence in their treatment [14]. In addition, previous studies have shown that family comfort and support can greatly reduce the physical symptoms, improve the anxiety-sensitive personality, and improve the quality of life and living conditions of cancer patients [15]. The participation of family members in experimental group 2 allowed the families to understand the patients' state more systematically and take better care of the patients from both the physical and mental aspects. ...
Article
Background: The main treatment methods for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy and so on. Patients often feel anger, anxiety, depression, and other negative psychological reactions in the process of treatment. Aim: To explore the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on the personality characteristics of cancer patients. Methods: According to the matching design requirements, 150 cancer patients were divided into 3 groups based on sex, age, condition, and cultural background. Patients in the control group received conventional treatment. Patients in experimental group 1 received an intervention based on conventional treatment combined with cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients in experimental group 2 received family members' participation in addition to the treatment given in experimental group 1. An Eysenck personality questionnaire was used to investigate all the patients before and after the intervention, and the scores for psychosis, introversion, neuroticism, and concealment degree were analyzed. Results: Compared with the control group, for experimental group 1 and experimental group 2 before and after the intervention, the four dimensions of mental quality, neuroticism, introversion and concealment degree all decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). After the intervention, there were no obvious or statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) among the control group, experimental group 1, and experimental group 2 for two personality traits, psychoticism and neuroticism, both inside and outside degree and all four dimensions. Conclusion: Simple cognitive behavioral therapy could not change the personality characteristics of cancer patients quickly, but the patients' personality characteristics were significantly improved after treatment.
... Researchers have recently found traits could be malleable through intervention (e.g. Roberts et al., 2017). Given that researchers commonly refer explicit motives as explicit traits and study them in the same category, even though yet to be studied, we have reason to believe that explicit motives could also be malleable. ...
Article
Job burnout is a profound concern in modern society producing enormous financial and emotional costs for companies, health insurances, and the individual employee. In this study, we aimed at contributing to the literature on determinants of job burnout by investigating the indirect effects of implicit and explicit motive discrepancies (IED) through intrinsic motivation, with the aim of replicating previous findings from the literature. In addition, we extended this research by adding job satisfaction as an outcome variable in the mediation model, as well as volition as a moderator in these relationships. We preregistered our study and collected data from 136 participants (82 females; Mage = 29.33 years, SDage = 6.30) using indirect measures (for implicit motives) and self-report measures (for explicit motives, job burnout, job satisfaction and volition). IED was shown to have an indirect effect on both job burnout and job satisfaction through intrinsic motivation. Additionally, these indirect effects were mitigated by high levels volition. We discuss implications of our findings for research and practice. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2021.1980758.
... Our analysis shows components of a positive change in personality in the dimensions: conscientiousness and emotional stability. Literature reports that longstanding change continuity generally occurs over years rather than months, so our findings most likely reflect beginnings of change, or a temporary state (Roberts et al., 2017). However, it maybe that these changes indicate the beginnings of one's adaptive coping, as personality traits can condition coping responses to manifest a strategies to stress (Meléndez et al., 2020). ...
Article
Is there a connection between the 2007-2009 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic? To answer this question we examine the relation between both macroeconomic and financial losses derived from the financial crisis and the health outcomes associated with the first wave of the pandemic. At the European level, countries more affected by the financial crisis had more deaths relative to coronavirus cases. We find an analogous significant relation across Spanish provinces and a transmission mechanism running from finance to health outcomes through cross-sectional differences in health facilities.
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Personality traits like neuroticism show both continuity and change across adolescence and adulthood, with most pronounced changes occurring in young adulthood. It has been assumed, but insufficiently examined, that trait changes occur gradually over the years through the accumulation of daily experiences. The current longitudinal measurement burst study examined (a) how changes in average momentary stress reactivity are coupled with changes in trait neuroticism, (b) the extent to which this coupling is specific to stress reactivity and neuroticism, and (c) the extent to which there are age differences in the association between changes in stress reactivity and changes in neuroticism. Participants (N = 581; 50% male) between 14-86 years of age completed up to three waves (T1-T3) of Big Five trait questionnaires and experience-sampling assessments during six years. During each 3-week experience-sampling period, participants reported their momentary affect and occurrences of hassles on average 55 times. Latent change models showed that increases over time in affective reactivity to daily hassles were associated with increases in neuroticism. This effect was consistent from T1 to T2 as well as from T2 to T3, and most pronounced in young adulthood. Importantly, the results were specific to associations between stress reactivity and neuroticism because changes in frequency of hassles in daily life did not predict changes in neuroticism, and stress reactivity did not consistently predict changes in the other Big Five traits. The findings help to inform theoretical models that outline how short-term states might contribute to gradual longer-term changes in traits like neuroticism.
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Living single is becoming increasingly common worldwide and understanding within-group predictors of well-being among singles is becoming a stronger research priority. Although Pepping, MacDonald, and Davis suggested individual differences in attachment security may be useful for predicting singles' well-being, there are no published data on the issue. In this research, single participants (N = 1930; 49% men; Mage = 31 years; 75% White) completed measures of attachment security as well as measures of life satisfaction, satisfaction with singlehood, and desire for a romantic partner. The data suggested that higher levels of attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety were both associated with lower levels of life satisfaction as well as satisfaction with singlehood. However, when controlling for life satisfaction, attachment avoidance was not associated with satisfaction with singlehood. We also found that higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with less desire for a romantic partner whereas higher levels of attachment anxiety were associated with stronger desire for a partner. Our findings suggest that individual differences in attachment security may indeed be useful in predicting well-being-related outcomes for singles.
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Personality traits continue to change throughout the lifespan. However, we still know little about when, why, and how personality traits change. In this paper, we review the current state of scientific evidence regarding the nature, sources, and processes of personality trait stability and change. We revisit past disputes over the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences, discuss studies on life events and personality trait development, and summarize theory and research on personality change processes. In doing so, we derive general principles of personality trait development, highlight limitations of past research, and present the broad outlines for future research on personality trait development, with a particular emphasis on relevant methodological issues and conceptual challenges.
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Subjektivna dobrobit često je ispitivan konstrukt u psihološkim istraživanjima, a njegova popularnost sve više raste tijekom posljednjih tridesetak godina. Definira se kao spoj kognitivne evaluacije života i afektivnih tendencija. Međutim, u literaturi postoje određene nekonzistentnosti i razlike u njezinoj operacionalizaciji koje će se opisati u ovome radu. Nakon upoznavanja s konstruktom ovaj pregledni rad fokusirat će se na dva osnovna cilja. Za početak, predstavit će se dosadašnja saznanja o izvorima individualnih razlika u subjektivnoj dobrobiti na temelju istraživanja koja su koristila bihevioralno-genetičku metodologiju. Rezultati tih studija upućuju na umjerenu heritabilnost subjektivne dobrobiti koja se kreće u rasponu od 30 do 40 %. Glavni fokus zatim će biti na prikazivanju povezanosti subjektivne dobrobiti s osobinama ličnosti. Prvo će se predstaviti nalazi istraživanja na razini fenotipske povezanosti koji ukazuju na snažnu povezanost subjektivne dobrobiti s neuroticizmom, ekstraverzijom te u nešto manjoj mjeri sa savjesnošću. Te fenotipske korelacije u konačnici će se protumačiti iz bihevioralno-genetičke perspektive, odnosno prikazom nalaza istraživanja koja su se bavila ispitivanjem etiologije koja stoji u podlozi navedenih korelacija. Istraživanja jasno upućuju na preklapanje genske varijance između subjektivne dobrobiti i osobina ličnosti, a upitnim ostaje postoji li genski efekt subjektivne dobrobiti koji je nezavisan od ličnosti.
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Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is increasingly used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to change beliefs and meanings about the self associated with negative and traumatic memories. It is quintessentially an imagery intervention that targets the self and autobiographical memory (AM); however, to date most of the research into its effectiveness has focused on symptom alleviation. The mechanisms of change remain unclear. In this article, we outline a narrative identity model of change in ImRs and note the value of the narrative identity literature in helping us understand memory-focused therapeutic interventions.
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Sharing economy brought changes both at the macroeconomic and the individual level. New models of consumption, such as the liquid one, are becoming very frequent, shaping countries’ productive systems and consumers’ habits. This paper—combining both theoretical approaches—aims at measuring the individual characteristics that induce consumers to prefer liquid versus solid consumption. First, the article contextualizes the topic from a broader, macroeconomic perspective, and later on, it narrows its angle of view making it rather microeconomic and behavioral. In this specific regard, by means of a cluster analysis, four profiles of consumers are identified: (1) Rational and liquid; (2) Hybrid and question mark; (3) Solid in transition; (4) Hyper solid. Characteristics as well as theoretical and managerial implications are outlined for each cluster. This research focusing on emerging consumer behavior contributes to the current debate on solid and liquid consumption (i) exploring the continuum between these two extremes, (ii) defining a first behavioral profile of customer that are traveling between solid and liquid state and (iii) designing a possible way to target such a blurred and fast evolving customer that mostly qualifies a global and rapidly evolving economic environment.
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Contact is a reliable method of prejudice reduction. However, individuals higher in prejudice are less interested in contact with diverse groups. This research investigates a novel method of encouraging interest in contact, particularly for those lower in the personality trait of Openness/Intellect, who tend to be higher in prejudice. Although long-term traits are relatively stable, momentary personality states show considerable within-person variation, and can be manipulated. In two experimental studies (total N = 687), we tested whether inducing higher state Openness would affect interest in contact. In Study 1, those lower in trait Openness/Intellect showed a positive indirect effect of condition on two outcome measures, via greater state Openness. In a larger sample with lower trait Openness/Intellect (Study 2), the indirect effect on the first outcome was replicated, regardless of disposition. The findings suggest that experiencing open states more frequently could encourage contact and lead to eventual reductions in prejudice.
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The present study investigates whether social support mediates the relationship between personality traits and physical functioning among African Americans over 2.5 years. Data were collected from a national probability sample of African American adults (analytic sample N = 312). Telephone surveys included measures of the five-factor model personality traits, social support, and physical functioning. Personality traits were assessed at Time 1 (T1), and social support and physical functioning were assessed 2.5 years later at Time 2 (T2). Physical functioning was assessed using the SF-12 at T2. Results indicated that T2 social support mediated the relationship between T1 personality traits and T2 physical functioning for the traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism, but not for openness to experience. This information may be useful to healthcare providers and community members in developing strategies targeting personality traits in cultivating social support for health promotion.
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The present study examines prospective changes in personality traits relevant to social functioning as well as perceived social connectedness in relation to the naturalistic use of psychedelic compounds in an online volunteer sample. The study also examined the degree to which demographic characteristics, social setting, baseline personality, and acute subjective factors (e.g., emotional breakthrough experiences) influenced trajectories of personality and perceived social connectedness. Participants recruited online completed self-report measures of personality and social connectedness at three timepoints (baseline, 2weeks post-experience, 4weeks post-experience). Linear mixed models were used to examine changes in outcomes and the moderation of these outcomes by covariates. The most substantive changes were reductions in the personality domains Neuroticism, and increases in Agreeableness and social connectedness. Notably, reductions in Neuroticism and increases in Agreeableness covaried over time, which may be suggestive of common processes involving emotion regulation. Preliminary evidence was found for a specific effect on a component of Agreeableness involving a critical and quarrelsome interpersonal style. Although moderation by demographic characteristics, social setting, baseline personality, and acute factors generally found limited support, baseline standing on Neuroticism, perspective taking, and social connectedness showed tentative signs of amplifying adaptive effects on each trait, respectively. Our findings hold implications for the potential use of psychedelics for treating interpersonal elements of personality pathology as well as loneliness.
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Background and purpose The diagnosis of infertility not only involves biological but the psychosocial links have also been established. Individual difference variables, such as personality and temperament have been found playing prominent role in modifying the psychological and biological aspects of infertility. This systematic review aimed to examine evidence-based research on the role of personality traits in determining vulnerability to stress in infertility, understand the gender-based differences, and deliver suggestions for future researches. Method The search for studies relating to the variables was accomplished using various electronic databases. The search was kept limited to a time span of about 20 years, that is, from January 2000 to April 2020. Additional researches were collected from library source and others were retrieved by contacting experts. Studies were selected on the basis of a predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and quality of the studies was also taken into account. Results The search of studies through above methods was fruitful in identifying 23 studies including six longitudinal and prospective studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies covering both individual- and model-based personality attributes related findings. The overall quality ratings of the studies ranged from fair to good. Conclusion The review revealed that personality factors such as neuroticism, harm avoidance, and psychoticism are the potential risk factors, whereas optimism has a protective impact in the context of fertility disorders. The long-term impact of personality on infertility needs further exploration. Trait modification interventions during the treatment of infertility were also suggested in the light of previous findings.
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The goal of this research was to explore the relationships between four parenting dimensions (academic involvement, structure, cultural stimulation, and goals) and child personality development. Many theories, such as social learning, attachment theory, and the psychological resources principle assume that parenting practices influence child personality development. Most of past research on the associations between parenting and child Big Five traits specifically has used cross-sectional data. The few longitudinal studies that examined these associations found small relations between parenting and child personality. We extended this research by examining the long-term relations between four underexplored parenting dimensions and child Big Five personality traits using bivariate latent growth models in a large longitudinal dataset (N = 3,880). Results from growth models revealed a preponderance of null relations between these parenting measures and child personality, especially between changes in parenting and changes in child personality. In general, the observed associations between parenting and child Big Five personality were comparable in magnitude to the association between factors such as SES and birth order, and child personality—that is, small. The small associations between environmental factors and personality suggest that personality development in childhood and adolescence may be driven by multiple factors, each of which makes a small contribution.
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A growing body of research suggests that personality traits can be changed through intervention. Theorists have speculated that successful interventions may require (1) that participants autonomously choose which traits they change and (2) that they be deeply invested in the change process. The present studies tested these propositions by examining whether interventions to change conscientiousness and emotional stability can be successful when (1) participants are randomly assigned traits to change or (2) they are naïve with respect to the intervention’s target trait. Results indicated that participants could be randomly assigned to change conscientiousness—even if they were unaware that the intervention was targeting conscientiousness. In contrast, interventions targeting emotional stability were effective only if participants both (1) autonomously chose to work on emotional stability and (2) received an effective intervention. These findings have practical implications for designing interventions—and they suggest that different traits may develop via different processes.
Article
Background Among people receiving residential treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD), premature treatment termination predicts poor post-treatment outcomes. We examined the utility of the alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) for predicting premature residential SUD treatment termination, including interactions with age and gender. Methods Participants (N = 374) were receiving residential treatment for SUD and enrolled in a clinical trial with two conditions: Skills for Improving Distress Intolerance (SIDI) and Supportive Counseling (NCT01741415). Participants were assessed at intake on AMPD traits using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and tracked longitudinally. After establishing gender and age measurement invariance, we used competing risk models to predict treatment completion versus premature termination using interactions of PID-5 scores with age and gender. Findings Disinhibition and Negative Emotionality domains and facets predicted premature treatment termination, particularly among younger, male participants. There were positive effects of SIDI on treatment completion for participants with high levels of domain and facet Negative Emotionality. A small proportion (≈ 12%) of the PID-5 items showed differential item functioning by age or gender; however, the aggregate impact on test-level total scores was negligible. Conclusions Participants (particularly young men) displaying poor self-control and emotional regulation are at risk for premature termination. These findings, together with minimal aggregate differential item functioning at the scale level, suggest that the PID-5 is a practically useful, construct-valid, non-proprietary measure that can be used for screening and triage in residential SUD treatment. Furthermore, among those with high negative emotionality, SIDI may be effective in preventing premature treatment termination.
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Major life events are a possible cause for personality trait changes. However, a clear, replicable pattern of event-related personality trait change has not yet been found. A limitation in the literature is that in most studies, only the simple occurrence of major life events was assessed without considering how people perceive these events. The present study aimed to fill this gap. We hypothesized that perceived impact and valence of major life events are each related to personality trait change. To test these hypotheses, we assessed young adults’ personality traits at five measurement occasions within one year. At the second measurement occasion, we also assessed their perception of a recently experienced major life event using the Event Characteristics Questionnaire. Contrary to our hypothesis, perceived impact was not associated with the amount of personality trait change, but perceived valence was associated with changes in agreeableness and neuroticism. In addition, we found few, small associations between other perceived event characteristics and the amount of personality trait change. Effect sizes were small, and associations depended on the time interval between pre-event and post-event personality assessment. Results indicate that perceived event characteristics, especially valence, should be considered when examining event-related personality trait change.
Article
Objective Are treatment effects on personality trait change ephemeral and attributable to change in clinical states? Data of an intervention study was used to examine if change in clinical states (e.g., stress or depression) accounts for change in personality traits and to test whether both changes in traits and clinical states were independently associated with substance use. Method Seventy-nine substance use patients (Mage = 25.3, SD = 2.7; 35 % female) took part at a 4-week intervention and completed a total of 15 bi-monthly assessments across 28 weeks to measure change in traits and states during and after treatment. Results The results suggest that participants showed large trait and state changes over time, which happened rapidly with the majority occurring during the first four weeks. Trait and state changes were highly correlated, but not perfectly redundant. Significant variance in personality trait change remained after controlling for change in clinical states. Moreover, both trait and state change independently predicted substance use. Conclusion Personality trait change occurred relatively fast and was maintained until the last follow-up assessment six months after the end of the intervention. Also, the findings point to the notion that the conceptual distinction between traits and states may not be as important as originally thought.
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Using data from 58,748 participants from a nationally representative German sample, we tested preregistered hypotheses about factors that impact concerns about the environment over time. We found that environmental concerns increased modestly from 2009 to 2017. Individuals in middle adulthood tended to be more concerned and showed more consistent increases in concern over time than younger or older people. Consistent with previous research, personality traits were correlated with environmental concerns. We present novel evidence that increases in concern were related to increases in the personality traits neuroticism, openness to experience, and potentially agreeableness. These findings highlight the importance of understanding individual level factors associated with changes in environmental concerns over time, towards the promotion of more sustainable behavior.
Chapter
To what extent do individuals have insight to describe their own personalities accurately? How relevant are personality traits to treatment planning? We address these important questions concerning personality assessment, and we highlight how personality-psychopathology research has been and can continue to be influential in shaping how we conceptualize, study, and treat psychopathology. We discuss these issues within the frameworks of the five-factor model of personality and the DSM-5 Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders. We also provide readers with an overview of widely used measures of each framework and their literatures that address the key questions posed and provide guidance for research research endeavors.
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A challenge in the field of social and emotional learning is the lack of consensus regarding a framework to delineate key social and emotional skills (SE skills). Taking a conceptual approach, some have argued that the Big Five model from personality psychology offers a comprehensive framework to organize SE skills; however, little research has been done to empirically support this. In two studies—one using a factor analytic, data-driven approach, and one using an expert consensus approach—we provide multimethod evidence suggesting that there is a significant degree of overlap between SE skills and the Big Five, and we conclude that the Big Five can be used to organize SE skills.
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The COVID-19 lockdowns represent a major life event with an immense impact on university students' lives. Findings prior to the pandemic suggest that changes in personality and subjective well-being (SWB) can occur after critical life events or psychological interventions. The present study examined how university students' extraversion, neuroticism, and SWB changed during two COVID-19 lockdowns in Germany. To this end, we conducted a partly preregistered, two-cohort study with four measurement points each from October 2019 to May 2021 (N Study 1 = 81–148, N Study 2 = 82–97). We used both multilevel contrast analyses and multi-group random-intercept cross-lagged panel models to examine within-person changes over time. Levels of life satisfaction, extraversion, and, unexpectedly, neuroticism were lower during both lockdowns. Students' affect improved during the first but deteriorated during the second lockdown, suggesting that similar experiences with the deceleration of daily life were associated with different affective outcomes during the two lockdown periods. Following the introduction or termination of a lockdown, changes in extraversion (neuroticism) were consistently positively (negatively) associated with changes in SWB. Our results stress the importance of disentangling between- and within-person processes and using pre-COVID baseline levels to examine changes in personality and SWB.
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Most previous research has focused on the relationships between specific personality traits and specific facets of mental health. However, in reality most of the Big Five are associated at non-trivial levels with mental health. To account for this broad correlation, we proposed the ‘barometer hypothesis’, positing that behind both ratings of mental health and personality lies a barometer that indicates one's general feelings of positivity or negativity. To the extent that both the general factors of personality and mental health reflect this same barometer, we would expect them to be correlated. We tested alternative models using data from a large longitudinal panel study that includes two cohorts of participants who were assessed every two years, resulting in parallel 4-year longitudinal studies. Similar results were obtained across both studies. Supporting the ‘barometer hypothesis’, findings revealed that the optimal model included general latent factors for both personality traits and mental health. Compared to the broad raw pairwise correlations, the bi-factor latent change models revealed that the relation among levels and changes in the specific factors were substantially reduced when controlling for the general factors. Still, some relations remained relatively unaffected by the inclusion of the general factor. We discuss implications of these findings. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Personality Psychology
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A large-scale study of the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic methods for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders was conducted. The sample consisted of 112 persons suffering from serious disorders resulting from traumatic events (bereavement, acts of violence, and traffic accidents) that had taken place not more than 5 years before. Trauma desensitization, hypnotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy were tested for their effectiveness in comparison with a waiting-list control group. The results indicated that treated cases were significantly lower in trauma-related symptoms than the control group. (C) 1989 by the American Psychological Association
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A meta-analysis (MA) aggregates estimated effects from many studies to calculate a single, overall effect. There is no one, generally accepted procedure for how to do this. Several estimators are commonly used, though little is known about their relative performance. A complication arises when the sample of published studies is subject to sample selection due to “publication bias.” This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the performance of five different MA estimators in the presence of publication bias. The author considers two kinds of publication bias: publication bias directed against statistically insignificant estimates, and publication bias directed against wrong-signed estimates. The experiments simulate two data environments. In the Random Effects environment, each study produces only one estimate and the true effect differs across studies. In the Panel Random Effects environment, each study produces multiple estimates, and the true effect differs both within and across studies. The simulations produce a number of findings that challenge results from previous research.
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The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of cognitive group therapy compared to a waiting list in a sample of patients with heterogeneous non-psychotic disorders. Participants in this study were referred from either the psychiatric in- or outpatient clinic at the psychiatric university hospital in Trondheim, Norway. The patients were assessed with SCID I and SCID II, and randomized either to cognitive group therapy (n=15) or to a waiting list (n=17). Self-report assessments of symptoms and interpersonal difficulties were administered at the start of therapy, after termination of therapy (8 weeks), and at 6 months and 12 months follow-up. Thirty-two patients completed 8 weeks of therapy. Results showed that an 8-week program of CBGT performed better than the waiting list controls, on symptom relief at post-treatment for all patients. The effects of therapy were still upheld at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Cognitive therapy seems to be useful and effective in a group format in naturalistic clinical settings, with patients suffering from various forms of non-psychotic co-morbid psychiatric disorders.
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Clients (N = 105) presenting with mild depression were assigned to receive 2, 8, or 16 sessions of psychotherapy in a quasi-experimental design involving 2 clinical trials. Rates of recovery were estimated as the proportion of each group achieving reliable and clinically significant change at the end of treatment (shortly after the prescribed dose had been administered) and at a follow-up assessment 2 to 3 months later. Results supported the hypothesis that recovery from interpersonal problems typically requires higher doses of psychotherapy than does recovery from symptoms of depression or broader distress.
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We highlight the role of neuroticism in the development and course of emotional disorders and make a case for shifting the focus of intervention to this higher-order dimension of personality. Recent decades have seen great emphasis placed on differentiating disorders into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses; however, evidence has suggested that splitting disorders into such fine categories may be highlighting relatively trivial differences. Emerging research on the latent structure of anxiety and mood disorders has indicated that trait neuroticism, cultivated through genetic, neurobiological, and psychological factors, underscores the development of these disorders. We raise the possibility of a new approach for conceptualizing these disorders-as emotional disorders. From a service-delivery point of view, we explore the possibility that neuroticism may be more malleable than previously thought and may possibly be amenable to direct intervention. The public-health implications of directly treating and even preventing the development of neuroticism would be substantial.
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The study investigated if the degree of personality pathology among people with clinical levels of social anxiety disorder was similar to those with personality disorders more generally, if the degree of avoidant personality pathology was correlated positively with Neuroticism and negatively with Extraversion and facets of Agreeableness (particularly Trust), and finally if scores on the relevant personality dimensions improve from pre- to post-treatment. Changes in Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness were examined following group treatment for social anxiety disorder. The current study employed a within-subjects repeated-measures design (N = 25) to investigate whether these traits can be changed by group treatment for social anxiety disorder. A measure of personality disorder pathology was found to correlate positively with Neuroticism and negatively with Agreeableness in the absence of significant relationships with other Five-Factor Model traits. Treatment was associated with significant reductions in Neuroticism and there was significant improvement of the Trust facet of Agreeableness. These results are discussed in terms of the way that group treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder may be enhanced.
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Changes in personality trait levels often parallel episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), whereas trait factor structures and substantial retest correlations are preserved. The authors explicated this dual state/trait nature of personality assessments among adults with recurrent MDD (N = 351) receiving cognitive therapy (CT) by testing stability and change with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, 2nd Edition (SNAP-2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press), separating state and trait variance, and predicting depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes. Many SNAP scale scores changed in CT (e.g., positive temperament increased, negative temperament decreased), and decreases in depressive symptoms accounted for most scales' score changes. Nonetheless, SNAP scales' state and trait components predicted depressive symptoms early and late in CT as well as clinical outcomes, and state components predicted changes in symptoms and clinical outcomes. These results support the validity of the SNAP-2 among depressed patients and highlight the salience of personalityrelevant state affect.
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The current study evaluated the temporal stability of personality disorders (PD) and traits as assessed by the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) within a sample being treated for substance dependence in a residential TC. Temporal stability coefficients were similar to the few previous studies with clinical samples and comparable retest intervals; however, the current study extended previous work by examining mean-level stability of the PD scales. While most SNAP scales remained stable or decreased over 6 months of active psychotherapy, increases on some scales (e.g. workaholism as well as antisocial, narcissistic and obsessive–compulsive PDs) raised compelling questions. These findings suggest additional research on the stability and validity of the SNAP in treatment samples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The ability of personality traits to predict important life outcomes has traditionally been questioned because of the putative small effects of personality. In this article, we compare the predictive validity of personality traits with that of socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive ability to test the relative contribution of personality traits to predictions of three critical outcomes: mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment. Only evidence from prospective longitudinal studies was considered. In addition, an attempt was made to limit the review to studies that controlled for important background factors. Results showed that the magnitude of the effects of personality traits on mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment was indistinguishable from the effects of SES and cognitive ability on these outcomes. These results demonstrate the influence of personality traits on important life outcomes, highlight the need to more routinely incorporate measures of personality into quality of life surveys, and encourage further research about the developmental origins of personality traits and the processes by which these traits influence diverse life outcomes. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
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Past work has demonstrated that Big Five personality traits both predict relationship success and respond to changes in relationship status. The current study extends this work by examining how developments on the Big Five traits correspond to another important social outcome in adulthood, social well-being. Using the Mid-Life Development in the U.S. longitudinal data sample of adults, the authors examined traits and social well-being at two time points, roughly 9 years apart. Results find support for two primary claims. First, initial levels of social well-being correlated positively with initial standing on extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. Second, changes in social well-being over time coincided with changes on these traits, in the same directions. Taken together, these findings provide broad support that trait development and social well-being development coincide during adulthood.
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The present study tested hypotheses concerning interpersonal problems and the course of brief psychodynamic treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The authors found that the largest changes from pre- to post-therapy were evident for the Nonassertive, Exploitable, and Intrusive subscales of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Relatively small changes were seen on the Overly Nurturant subscale, which was hypothesized to be most relevant to GAD. Changes in interpersonal problems were significantly associated with improvement in symptoms and worry. Brief dynamic therapy was not found to uniquely improve interpersonal problems compared with supportive therapy, although the psychodynamic approach was statistically and clinically superior to supportive therapy on symptomatic remission rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO–PI–R) in a mostly African American clinical sample and determined if these qualities provided useful information about their motivational characteristics that were germane to treatment. Eighty-two men and 50 women entered a 6-week outpatient drug rehabilitation program, completed the NEO–PI–R, and received counselor ratings of personality at admission. The 99 who finished the program completed a 2nd NEO–PI–R. Counselors provided ratings of treatment responsiveness. The cross-observer, cross-method, cross-time correlations indicated that the NEO–PI–R can be a useful tool for organizing clinical information about clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Objective: Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Method: Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately three years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Results: Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. Conclusions: This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period.
Article
Personality and social relationships were assessed twice across a 4-year period in a general population sample of 489 German young adults. Two kinds of personality-relationship transaction were observed. First, mean-level change in personality toward maturity (e.g., increase in Conscientiousness and decrease in Neuroticism) was moderated by the transition to partnership but was independent of other developmental transitions. Second, individual differences in personality traits predicted social relationships much better than vice versa. Specifically, once initial correlations were controlled for, Extraversion, Shyness, Neuroticism, self-esteem, and Agreeableness predicted change in various qualities of relationships (especially with friends and colleagues), whereas only quality of relationships with preschool children predicted later Extraversion and Neuroticism. Consequences for the transactional view of personality in young adulthood are discussed.
Article
The discriminant validity of the interpersonal-affective and social deviance traits of psychopathy has been well documented. However, few studies have explored whether these traits follow distinct or comparable developmental paths. The present study used the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, in press) to examine the development of the psychopathic traits of Fearless Dominance (i.e., interpersonal-affective) and Impulsive Antisociality (i.e.. social deviance) from late adolescence to early adulthood in a longitudinal-epidemiological sample of male and female twins. Results from mean-and individual-level analyses revealed stability in Fearless Dominance from late adolescence to early adulthood, whereas Impulsive Antisociality declined over this developmental period. In addition, biometric findings indicated greater genetic contributions to stability in these traits and greater nonshared environmental contributions to their change over time. Collectively, these findings suggest distinct developmental trends for psychopathic traits from late adolescence to early adulthood.
Article
In a controlled clinical trial, 57 Ss meeting DSM—III—R criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, and fulfilling an additional severity criterion, were randomly allocated to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior therapy (BT), or a waiting-list control group. Individual treatment lasted 4—12 sessions; independent assessments were made before treatment, after treatment, and 6 months later, and additional follow-up data were collected after an interval of approximately 18 months. Results show a clear advantage for CBT over BT. A consistent pattern of change favoring CBT was evident in measures of anxiety, depression, and cognition. Ss were lost from the BT group, but there was no attrition from the CBT group. Treatment integrity was double-checked in England and in Holland, and special efforts were made to reduce error variance. Possible explanations for the superiority of CBT are discussed.
Thesis
A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment was entitled Creative Coping (CC) therapy. It was a problem-solving skills group that taught methods for coping with distress to replace the self-destructive and suicidal behaviors typically used by many of the patients, particularly those with borderline personality disorder. The control condition was a discussion group entitled the Wellness & Lifestyles (W&L) group. Subjects were hospitalized on a general psychiatric unit for an average of 12.6 days and attended an average of 5.9 group sessions. Assessments were conducted shortly after admission and again just before discharge. Change was assessed in the following: psychiatric symptoms; various emotions; suicidal ideation; locus of control; and coping skills. Also assessed were patients' impressions of the group and its effectiveness; group leaders' impressions of the extent to which each subject benefited from the group; and reports by unit staff of subjects' acting out (self-destructive behaviors and suicide threats) during their hospital stay. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on virtually all change measures, although between-group differences were not demonstrated on most measures. The only between-group difference on a change measure was in the opposite direction than was predicted: W&L subjects became significantly more internal in locus of control than CC subjects. Another unexpected between-group difference was that significantly more CC subjects than W&L subjects acted out on the unit. However, this significant difference did not hold up when the early and late stages of hospitalization were examined separately. In terms of the patients' subjective impressions of the groups, CC subjects significantly more strongly believed that the lessons of group would help them better handle difficult situations in their lives. Similarly, CC group leaders more strongly believed that their group members were able to relate the lessons of group to their own lives. Thus, patients in both groups demonstrated improvement, but the CC group patients and leaders viewed the intervention as more relevant. Follow-up data are needed to demonstrate whether subjects use the new coping skills in their lives outside the hospital.
Article
After patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), continuation-phase treatments may be applied to improve long-term outcomes. We clarified which CT responders experience remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence by testing baseline demographic, clinical, and personality variables. The sample of CT responders at higher risk of relapse (N = 241) was randomized to 8 months of continuation-phase CT, double-blinded fluoxetine, or pill placebo, and followed 24 months (Jarrett & Thase, 2010). Patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation at the end of acute-phase CT showed increased risk for relapse/recurrence of MDD. In addition, patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation, as well as higher residual depression (including emotional, cognitive, and social facets), showed decreased probability of remission (≥6 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Finally, patients with greater residual depression, as well as younger age and earlier MDD onset, showed decreased probability of recovery (≥35 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Moderator analyses did not reveal differential prediction across the continuation phase treatment arms. These results may help clinicians gauge the prognoses and need for continuation treatment among MDD patients who respond to acute-phase CT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Little is currently known about predictors of follow-up outcome of psychological treatment of agoraphobia. In this study, we wished to examine predictors of short- and long-term avoidance after inpatient group interventions for agoraphobia. Ninety-six (68%) of 141 agoraphobic patients (74% women) who had completed treatment in two open and one randomized controlled trial (RCT) were followed up 13 to 21 years after start of treatment. Major depression at pre-treatment predicted less short-term (up to one year after end of treatment) improvement in agoraphobic avoidance. Working and being married/cohabiting at pre-treatment predicted greater long-term (across one-year, two-year, and 13-21 years follow-up) improvement. In contrast, the duration of agoraphobia, amount of Axis I and II co-morbidity, being diagnosed with avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines the month before intake to treatment, were unrelated to short-term as well as long-term outcome. As many as 31.9% of the included patients did not attend long-term follow-up and the power of the study was limited. The long time period between the two and 13-21 year follow-ups is a limitation, in which it is difficult to assess what actually happened. Although all the patients received some form of CBT, there was variability among the treatments. The only short-term predictor identified represented a clinical feature, whereas the long-term predictors represented features of the patients׳ life situation. The limited power of the study precludes the inference that non-significant predictors are unrelated to follow-up outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
We examined symptom-level relations between the emotional disorders and general traits within the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism correlated strongly with the general distress/negative affectivity symptoms (depressed mood, anxious mood, worry) that are central to these disorders; more moderately with symptoms of social phobia, affective lability, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder, lassitude, checking, and obsessive intrusions; and more modestly with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and other symptoms of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Extraversion was negatively correlated with symptoms of social anxiety/social phobia and was positively related to scales assessing expansive positive mood and increased social engagement in bipolar disorder. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness showed weaker associations and generally added little to the prediction of these symptoms. It is noteworthy, moreover, that our key findings replicated well across (a) self-rated versus (b) interview-based symptom measures. We conclude by discussing the diagnostic and assessment implications of these data.
Article
This study attempted to evaluate the ability of an outpatient drug rehabilitation program to effect significant shifts on the five major dimensions of personality. A mostly African American sample of 82 men and 50 women entering a 6-week program were assessed at admission, and the 99 who completed were again measured at termination. Follow-up assessments were completed on 30 clients an average of 15 months later. Results indicated significant shifts on all five personality domains from pre- to posttreatment (mean Cohen's d = .38). Significant shifts on Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were maintained over follow-up (mean Cohen's d = .28). These results suggest that personality change may be possible in the context of treatment.
Article
Background: Dysfunctional cognitions can contribute to depression and its maintenance. They may be related to a higher relapse rate and a longer duration of the depressive episode. The relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for acute inpatient treatment of unipolar depression is examined in this study and its variability by cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods: 222 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were evaluated during their inpatient treatment by assessing admission and discharge depression scores and their relationship to dysfunctional cognitions, using the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). The relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and treatment outcome was examined. Primary outcome measures were the Hamilton-Rating-Scale (HRSD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Higher age, depression severity at admission, comorbid personality disorders and recurrent depressive disorders are related with higher DAS-scores at admission. DAS-Scores declined during treatment but to a lower extend than depressive symptom scales (effect size dDAS-G t1-t2 = .31; dHRSD t1-t2 = 2.88; dBDI t1-t2 = 1.38). Higher DAS-scores at admission correlated negatively with the improvement of depressive symptoms during treatment (HRSD: r = -.62; p < .01; BDI: r = -.54; p < .01) and remission rates (HRSD: r = -.65; p < .01; BDI: r = -.48; p < .01). CBT did not additionally reduce DAS-scores compared to pharmacotherapy only. Conclusion: Dysfunctional cognitions are relatively stable compared to other depressive symptoms and are associated with poorer treatment outcome even in combined treatment of antidepressant medication and CBT during inpatient treatment. Changes of dysfunctional cognitions seem to be a long-term treatment goal, especially because of their association with comorbid personality disorders and recurrent depressive disorders.
Article
Background: Evidence of an inverse relationship between central serotonergic (serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine]) system function and impulsive aggressive behavior has been accumulating for more than 2 decades. If so, pharmacological enhancement of serotonin activity should be expected to reduce impulsive aggressive behavior in subjects in whom this behavior is prominent.Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine hydrochloride was conducted in 40 nonmajor-depressed, nonbipolar or schizophrenic, DSM-III-R personality—disordered individuals with current histories of impulsive aggressive behavior and irritability. Measures included the Overt Aggression Scale—Modified for Outpatients, Clinical Global Impression Rating of Improvement, and several secondary measures of aggression, depression, and anxiety.Results: Fluoxetine, but not placebo, treatment resulted in a sustained reduction in scores on the lrritability and Aggression subscales of the Overt Aggression Scale—Modified for Outpatients that was first apparent during months 2 and 3 of treatment, respectively. Fluoxetine was superior to placebo in the proportion of "responders" on the Clinical Global Impression Rating of Improvement: first at the end of month 1, and then finally demonstrating a sustained drug-placebo difference from the end of month 2 through the end of month 3 of treatment. These results were not influenced by secondary measures of depression, anxiety, or alcohol use.Conclusion: Fluoxetine treatment has an antiaggressive effect on impulsive aggressive individuals with DSM-III-R personality disorder.
Article
The sensitivity of personality measurement to emotional state has been indicated in several studies. This study explored the effect of depressive state on personality assessment with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI-II). Posttreatment assessment showed significant decrease in scores on the schizoid, avoidant, self-defeating, and schizotypal personality scales when contrasted with pretreatment assessment. Reduction in scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was correlated with reduced scores on the schizoid and the self-defeating scales, and with increased scores on the narcissistic scale. These findings are discussed in respect to methodology, previous studies, and theoretical considerations.
Book
Rationale and overview of the book.- Complexities of primary research and meta-analysis.- Fixed, random, and mixed models.- Correlations.- Effect sizes.- Proportion/odds ratio data.- Dependence in primary research and meta-analysis.- Correlations.- Effect sizes (group comparisons and change measures).- Proportion/odds ratio data.- Bayesian approaches.- Missing data.- Combining across designs.- Qualitative studies in synthesis.- Quality assessments.- Studies on quality weighting.- Summary/Conclusions.
Article
A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move towards an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (i) normative trends in personality change, (ii) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (iii) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Personality Psychology
Article
This article reports on one of the largest outpatient group psychotherapy studies which investigated long-term psychodynamic groups in a naturalistic setting, i.e. the PAGE (Projekt für ambulante Gruppentherapie-Evaluation)-Study. More than 450 patients of 28 group analysts in private practices were included in the Study. The analytic and psychodynamically oriented long-term outpatient groups were accompanied by a university based research team without impacting the normal patient-therapist contact, treatment contract, and treatment itself, therefore all treatments took place in a naturalistic setting with very experienced group analysts (effectiveness-study). Results of this large study clearly demonstrate that the longer psychotherapeutic treatments take place the better the outcomes are. The average effect sizes are beyond 1.30. Statistical as well as clinical significance was reached on all levels of investigation: symptoms, interpersonal problems, treatment goals, and overall psychiatric functioning.