ArticleLiterature Review

A Systematic Review of Personality Trait Change Through Intervention

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Abstract

The current meta-analysis investigated the extent to which personality traits changed as a result of intervention, with the primary focus on clinical interventions. We identified 207 studies that had tracked changes in measures of personality traits during interventions, including true experiments and prepost change designs. Interventions were associated with marked changes in personality trait measures over an average time of 24 weeks (e.g., d = .37). Additional analyses showed that the increases replicated across experimental and nonexperimental designs, for nonclinical interventions, and persisted in longitudinal follow-ups of samples beyond the course of intervention. Emotional stability was the primary trait domain showing changes as a result of therapy, followed by extraversion. The type of therapy employed was not strongly associated with the amount of change in personality traits. Patients presenting with anxiety disorders changed the most, and patients being treated for substance use changed the least. The relevance of the results for theory and social policy are discussed.

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... CI [.45,.93]) and from pre-to post-treatment (d = .57,95% CI [.52,.62]; Roberts et al., 2017). ...
... 95% CI [-.05, .16]; Roberts et al., 2017). Although patients in BPD Compass reported large and significant improvements in conscientiousness over the course of treatment that were at the higher end of meta-analytic estimates (d = .19,95% ...
... Although patients in BPD Compass reported large and significant improvements in conscientiousness over the course of treatment that were at the higher end of meta-analytic estimates (d = .19,95% CI [.14,.23]; Roberts et al., 2017), these results should be interpreted with caution given the lack of between-condition differences. The difference between changes in neuroticism and changes in agreeableness and conscientiousness may reflect several factors. ...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a heterogeneous condition that is particularly associated with three broad personality dimensions: neuroticism (i.e., high negative affectivity), agreeableness (i.e., low antagonism), and conscientiousness (i.e., low disinhibition). The purpose of the present study was to explore whether treatment with BPD Compass, a novel personality-based intervention for BPD, results in greater reductions in BPD symptoms, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness compared to a waitlist control (WLC) condition. We also aimed to characterize within-treatment effects for participants assigned to the BPD Compass condition and evaluate patients' satisfaction with treatment. Participants (N = 51; Mage = 28.38; 83.3% female; 93.8% White; 54.2% sexual minority) meeting DSM-5 criteria for BPD were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of BPD Compass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 18 sessions of BPD Compass or complete an 18-week waiting period. BPD Compass led to larger reductions in BPD symptoms (assessor-rated [β = -0.47] and self-reported [β = -0.62]) and neuroticism (β = -0.37), but not agreeableness (β = 0.08) or conscientiousness (β = 0.10), compared to the WLC condition. Within the BPD Compass condition, pre- to posttreatment improvements in BPD symptoms, neuroticism, and conscientiousness were significant and large in magnitude (Hedges' gs: -1.38 to -1.08). Patients were highly satisfied with BPD Compass and generally perceived it to be an appropriate length. Thus, BPD Compass may be an accessible and useful complement to more specialty or intensive treatments for BPD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).
... The most common evidence that personality can be changed comes from studies on clinical interventions (e.g., Bagby et al., 1995;De Fruyt et al., 2006;Roberts et al., 2017;Santor et al., 1997;Sauer-Zavala et al., 2020;Stieger et al., 2022;Tang et al., 2009). These studies often incorporated personality trait measures in addition to clinical measures to assess pre-and post-treatment effects of clinical, psychopharmacological, and psychotherapeutic interventions (see Jackson et al., 2021 for a review). ...
... The results indicated large changes of the clinical states and the traits that occurred rapidly during the intervention. A large-scale meta-analysis of 207 clinical intervention studies found broad evidence for marked changes in personality traits over an average time interval of 24 weeks (Roberts et al., 2017). Neuroticism was the primary trait showing decreases as a result of therapy, followed by increases in Extraversion. ...
... The review also found that the trait changes persisted in longitudinal followups beyond the course of intervention. Moreover, in psychotherapy, there is a lasting research tradition to describe conditions where patients are able to explore and change their personality independent of particular therapeutic techniques most likely reflecting shared interventional principles across different orientations (e.g., Kramer et al., 2020;Norcross & Goldfried, 2019;Roberts et al., 2017;Rogers & Dymonds, 1954). ...
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Recent intervention research has shown that personality traits can be modified through psychological interventions. However, it is unclear whether reported effects represent changes in the trait domain or only some facets or items. Using data ( N = 552) from a recent intervention trial, the present study examined the effects of a digital-coaching intervention on self- and observer-reported personality facets and items. We focused on participants who wanted to decrease in Negative Emotionality, increase in Conscientiousness or increase in Extraversion. We used measurement invariance testing to examine which level of the trait domain hierarchy changed during the intervention. For the self-reports, we found some heterogeneity in the effects on all three trait domains, but most notably Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Specifically, participants reported to increase strongly on sociability (Extraversion), and moderately on productiveness and organization (Conscientiousness), but not on the other facets of these trait domains. Observers generally reported small but non-significant changes, with no scalar invariance violations except for Extraversion. Overall, this suggests considerable heterogeneity in intervention-related personality change that can be overlooked if only focusing on the trait domain level. We discuss the relevance of measurement invariance testing and measurement approaches for personality development and intervention research.
... This framework has exceptional predictive utility with respect to meaningful life outcomes, including health and health behaviours (1999). Moreover, research indicates that, while the Big Five traits are relatively stable across the lifespan, they can be modified through intervention (Roberts et al., 2017;Roberts & Takahashi, 2011). Therefore, personality traits are an important consideration when deciphering the harmful, inverse relationship between physical activity and stress. ...
... The knowledge gleaned will further inform the personality and health psychology research fields as well as offer meaningful insights for health behaviour promotion interventions. Research demonstrates that high conscientiousness is associated with healthy behaviour (Bogg & Roberts, 2004) and that personality traits are amenable to targeted interventions (Roberts et al. 2017;Roberts & Takahashi, 2011). As such, health behaviour promotion interventions to increase conscientiousness are well-supported throughout personality and health psychology research (Roberts et al. 2017;Roberts & Takahashi, 2011). ...
... Research demonstrates that high conscientiousness is associated with healthy behaviour (Bogg & Roberts, 2004) and that personality traits are amenable to targeted interventions (Roberts et al. 2017;Roberts & Takahashi, 2011). As such, health behaviour promotion interventions to increase conscientiousness are well-supported throughout personality and health psychology research (Roberts et al. 2017;Roberts & Takahashi, 2011). In contrast, our findings showed less physical activity among more conscientious older adults experiencing day-to-day stress, which suggests that health behaviour promotion interventions targeting trait conscientiousness may, in certain contexts, yield negative effects (such as reduced physical activity). ...
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People are typically less physically active when experiencing stress, an unavoidable aspect of life. Since physical activity has been associated with health benefits, it is important to understand what influences physical activity during stress. Research has demonstrated that individuals who are high in conscientiousness are more physically active; however, studies that have examined physical activity among people high in neuroticism have yielded mixed findings. Healthy neuroticism, a term used to describe individuals high in conscientiousness and neuroticism, may explain these mixed results. While individuals low in conscientiousness and high in neuroticism may become overwhelmed, stress may motivate people high in healthy neuroticism to be physically active as an investment in their future. We assessed older adults’ (N = 60; Mage = 70.72; 76.70% cisgender women) personality at baseline as well as daily physical activity and daily stress over 14 days. Regression analyses investigated whether daily stress predicted daily physical activity and whether healthy neuroticism moderated the physical activity-stress association. Ultimately, this study found that daily stress did not predict daily physical activity; as stress increased, individuals higher in conscientiousness were less physically active, while individuals lower in conscientiousness were more active. These findings were inconsistent with our predictions and previous research. Consequently, we propose future research directions and potential explanations for these unforeseen findings.
... CI [.45,.93]) and from pre-to post-treatment (d = .57,95% CI [.52,.62]; Roberts et al., 2017). ...
... 95% CI [-.05, .16]; Roberts et al., 2017). Although patients in BPD Compass reported large and significant improvements in conscientiousness over the course of treatment that were at the higher end of meta-analytic estimates (d = .19,95% ...
... Although patients in BPD Compass reported large and significant improvements in conscientiousness over the course of treatment that were at the higher end of meta-analytic estimates (d = .19,95% CI [.14,.23]; Roberts et al., 2017), these results should be interpreted with caution given the lack of between-condition differences. The difference between changes in neuroticism and changes in agreeableness and conscientiousness may reflect several factors. ...
Preprint
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a heterogeneous condition that can be understood as the manifestation of three personality dimensions: neuroticism (i.e., high negative affectivity), agreeableness (i.e., low antagonism), and conscientiousness (i.e., low disinhibition). The purpose of the present study was to explore whether treatment with BPD Compass, a novel personality-based intervention for BPD, results in greater reductions in BPD symptoms, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness compared to a waitlist control (WLC) condition. We also aimed to characterize within-treatment effects for participants assigned to the BPD Compass condition and evaluate patients’ satisfaction with treatment. Participants (N = 51; Mage = 28.38; 83.3% female; 93.8% white; 54.2% sexual minority) meeting DSM-5 criteria for BPD were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of BPD Compass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 18 sessions of BPD Compass or complete an 18-week waiting period. BPD Compass led to larger reductions in BPD symptoms (assessor-rated [ = –.47] and self-reported [ = –.62]) and neuroticism (β = –.37), but not agreeableness (β = .08) or conscientiousness (β = .10), compared to the WLC condition. Within the BPD Compass condition, pre- to post-treatment improvements in BPD symptoms, neuroticism, and conscientiousness were significant and large in magnitude (Hedges’ gs: –1.38- –1.08). Patients were highly satisfied with BPD Compass and generally perceived it to be an appropriate length. Thus, BPD Compass may be an accessible and useful complement to more specialty or intensive treatments for BPD.
... In addition to the basic elements and sub-competencies that foster a physically active, healthy lifestyle, the authors of this model postulate that PAHCO holds the characteristics of a personality trait (30). In line with modern personality trait theories (35) and competence research in educational sciences (36), PAHCO is assumed to display both changeability and relative temporal stability, which includes the potential for lasting promotion through structured interventions. Such interventions should address one or -following the idea of the integration of skills, knowledge and attitudes -ideally multiple basic elements to target the sub-competencies of the PAHCO model (30). ...
... While the ndings of these studies are inconclusive in respect of PAHCO's temporal stability over shorter periods, temporal stability over a longer time frame beyond four months has not yet been investigated. In addition to this research gap on temporal stability over longer periods, investigating PAHCO's temporal stability over longer periods and the changeability of this construct resulting from HEPA interventions in OWs would empirically corroborate the conceptual assumptions of this model against the backdrop of modern personality trait theory and general competence research (35,36). The empirical examination of these assumptions is of particular relevance for the development of PAHCO interventions in OWs, as the changeability and temporal stability of PAHCO represents the cornerstone of this model for long-term improvements in HEPA and successful transfer for the promotion of HRQOL (37,33,39,42). ...
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Background:Office workers (OWs) are at risk of low levels of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Interventions based on physical activity-related health competence (PAHCO) aim to facilitate long-term changes in HEPA and HRQOL. However, these assumptions rely on the changeability and temporal stability of PAHCO and have not been tested empirically. This study therefore aims to test the changeability and temporal stability of PAHCO in OWs within an interventional design and to examine the effect of PAHCO on leisure-time PA and HRQOL. Methods: 328 OWs (34% female, 50.4 ± 6.4 years) completed an in-person, three-week workplace health promotion program (WHPP) focusing on PAHCO and HEPA. The primary outcome of PAHCO as well as the secondary outcomes of leisure-time PA and HRQOL were examined at four measurement points over the course of 18 months in a pre-post design. Results: PAHCO displayed a substantial increase from the baseline to the time point after completion of the WHPP (β = 0.44, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was no decrease in PAHCO at the first (p = 0.14) and the second follow-up measurement (p= 0.56) compared with the level at the end of the WHPP. In addition, the PAHCO subscale of PA-specific self-regulation (PASR) had a small to moderate, positive effect on leisure-time PA (β = 0.18, p < 0.001) and HRQOL (β = 0.26, p < 0.001). The subscale of control competence for physical training (CCPT) also had a positive small to moderate effect on HRQOL (β = 0.22, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results substantiate PAHCO’s theoretical characteristics of changeability and temporal stability, and underline the theoretically postulated effects on leisure-time PA and HRQOL. These findings highlight the potential of PAHCO for intervention development, which can be assumed to foster long-term improvements in HEPA and HRQOL in OWs. Trial Registration: The study was retrospectively registered in the German Clinical Trials Register, which is an approved Primary Register in the WHO network, at the 14/10/2022 (DRKS00030514).
... Regarding motivation, Thielmann and de Vries (2021) reported a small negative relation ( r = −.12) between individuals' personality change goals and concurrent levels of Agreeableness. Regarding ability, Roberts et al. (2017) examined trait change from clinical interventions (e.g., therapy). The authors reported a small positive effect size ( d = .15). ...
... BMC Psychiatry (2023) 23:57 and improve functioning. While some evidence suggests that personality traits can change following intervention [116], studies examining personality change as a treatment outcome in people with 'personality disorder' diagnosis are limited. In addition, little evidence is available regarding the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial treatments in improving functioning in this patient group. ...
Article
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Background: Quality of care and access to effective interventions have been widely criticised as limited for people diagnosed with 'personality disorder' or who have comparable needs (described in some recent papers as "Complex Emotional Needs" (CEN). It is important to identify effective interventions and the optimal context and mode of delivery for people with CEN. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions delivered in community and outpatient settings in treating symptoms associated with 'personality disorder', and the moderating effects of treatment-related variables. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA for articles published in English, from inception to November 23, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials examining interventions provided in community or outpatient settings for CEN. The primary outcome was 'personality disorder' symptoms, while secondary outcomes included anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and global psychiatric symptoms. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for each outcome, and meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the moderating effects of treatment characteristics. The quality of the studies and the degree of publication bias was assessed. Results: We included 54 trials (n = 3716 participants) in the meta-analysis. We found a large effect size (g = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.01, p < 0.0001) favoring interventions for 'borderline personality disorder' (BPD) symptoms over Treatment as Usual or Waitlist (TAU/WL), and the efficacy was maintained at follow-up (g = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.37 to 1.65, p = 0.002). Interventions effectively reduced anxiety symptoms (g = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.95, p = 0.002), depressive symptoms (g = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.83, p < 0.0001), and global psychiatric symptoms (g = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.66, p < 0.0001) compared to TAU/WL. The intervention types were equally effective in treating all symptom categories assessed. Treatment duration and treatment intensity did not moderate the effectiveness of the interventions for any outcome. Conclusions: People with a 'personality disorder' diagnosis benefited from psychological and psychosocial interventions delivered in community or outpatient settings, with all therapeutic approaches showing similar effectiveness. Mental health services should provide people with CEN with specialised treatments in accordance with the availability and the patients' preferences.
... As discussed in section 2, there is indication to believe that personality traits can be adaptive, albeit to a small extent. Several studies show that personality changes are possible, for example, through ageing or clinical interventions such as psychotherapy (Roberts & Mroczek, 2008;Roberts et al., 2017). Therefore, to account for the potential changes in personality traits, a second-order reification level was added. ...
Article
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Job burnout has been on the rise in the past decade, especially amongst the younger working generation. While work environmental aspects play an important role in predicting burnout, variations in personality traits are integral for understanding the syndrome's risk factors, processes, and outcomes. This paper studies the complex interaction of personality factors on the one hand and work environment aspects on the other through the relatively novel adaptive causal network modelling paradigm. Due to the adaptive nature of the model, it can investigate the effects of changes in particular job demands and resources on the symptoms of burnout and their dependence on different personality traits. The model can also demonstrate how an individual’s personality traits, environmental perception, and burnout symptoms can adaptively be altered by individual therapy, in this case, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Using the dedicated software environment in MATLAB to simulate the designed adaptive causal network model, two main scenarios were explored, focusing on the neuroticism personality trait. The results demonstrate that neuroticism increases due to interpersonal conflict, indicating that neuroticism can be treated as an adaptive trait. Furthermore, when mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was introduced into the simulation, the likelihood of developing burnout decreased because the perception of the work environment was positively changed due to the therapy. This model contributes to the field of burnout modelling by representing personality traits as adaptive factors that can be changed through individual interventions. More detailed research is needed to understand how organisational-level interventions can also impact burnout development through changes in environmental perception and personality.
... This particular point implies something larger and more sweeping, though, and it merits space in our conclusion. Personality traits can change through cognitive therapies (Roberts et al., 2017) and volitional efforts (e.g., Hudson & Fraley, 2015), to mention but two mechanisms. By extension, along with the evidence for the reduction in antisocial behaviours linked to psychopathy traits, such as violent behaviour (Skeem et al., 2002), there is also evidence that the 'psychopathic' traits themselves may be open to psycho-therapeutic intervention (see Hawes et al., 2014). ...
... In a meta-analysis of 152 longitudinal studies, test-retest correlations of personality trait increased from 0.31 in childhood to 0.64 at age 30, and reached at 0.74 between age 50 and 70; personality continues to change throughout adulthood but only modestly after age 50 (Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000). A meta-analysis of 207 studies found that clinical interventions may result in marked changes in personality traits (Roberts et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Work stress has been extensively supported to predict health outcomes like health behaviors. Evidence has linked work stress and personality independently to health, but the interrelationships between work stress and personality and their joint effects on health might deserve more attention in research. This study attempts to integrate recent developments in psychological research (diverse roles of personality in stress processes) into the well–established Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) model for work stress. Based on the ERI model, this population–based cohort study aims to investigate the relationships between work stress, personality and alcohol consumption; it particularly focuses on potential roles of overcommitment (OC) personality in ERI–drinking relations, including modifying, antecedent, mediator or direct effects. This two–wave cohort study was conducted in population samples of 3782 men and 3731 women (aged 45–69 years) from Czech Republic, Poland and Russia. Alcohol consumption was assessed by three drinking outcomes: binge drinking, heavy drinking and problem drinking. To assess modifying effect of OC in ERI–drinking relations, logistic regression was used. To assess antecedent or mediator role of OC in ERI–drinking relations, path analysis with the autoregressive and cross–lagged model was conducted. The results showed that OC had no significantly modifying effect in ERI–drinking relations. OC and ERI might have bidirectional relationships in the average follow–up period of 3.5 years; the effect of OC on ERI was remarkably stronger than the reversed causation. Antecedent role of OC in ERI–drinking relationship was significant, but mediator role of OC was not. In conclusion, our findings imply that “antecedent role” of OC in ERI–drinking relations is significant and promising as a potential target for individual intervention; future interventions are suggested to identify and target potential cognitive–behavioral mechanisms via which personality might influence work stress and subsequently health behaviors.
... Although there is empirical overlap between these two dimensions (Bastiaansen et al., 2013), personality traits are thought to differentiate personality dysfunction ratings by articulating the particulars of personality-relevant dysfunction. Both personality traits and personality dysfunction are relatively stable over time with regard to rank-order stability (Bleidorn et al., 2021;Roberts et al., 2017;Wilson et al., 2017). However, levels of personality dysfunction provide information about the severity of patients' pathology, whereas traits tell us something about the "flavor" of their difficulties, including their interpersonal problems. ...
Article
This study examined patients' personality traits as operationalized by the five-factor model in relation to early alliance and reduction of interpersonal distress through an intensive group treatment program for personality dysfunction. A sample of 79 consecutively admitted psychiatric outpatients with personality dysfunction who attended an 18-week intensive group treatment program completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory at pretreatment, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems at pre- and posttreatment, and the Edmonton Therapeutic Alliance Scale, a measure of the therapeutic alliance with the program therapist, at Session 5. Results indicated that patients who were relatively extraverted tended to rate the alliance with their program therapist higher and subsequently reported more improvement of interpersonal distress. The presence of a personality disorder did not moderate this mediation. Patients' extraversion likely promotes a bonding with the therapist and facilitates the interpersonal group work necessary for improvement. Assessing patients' level of extraversion before starting intensive group treatment might indicate which intervention strategies could be useful with that patient within the program frame.
... Whether it is sensible to measure personality in such an unstable group as treatment seeking patients with SUD, is a question embracing the construct validity of personality, and the intersection between personality traits and states (Fleeson, 2004). Personality traits are supposed to measure relatively stable individual differences (McAdams et al., 2019); nevertheless, the risk of added on state-artifacts (Roberts et al., 2017) when measuring personality traits during the initial phase of recovery cannot be ruled out. A few studies indicate a normalization of personality traits after recovery from AUD (Boulze et al., 2014;Betkowska-Korpala, 2015), but more research is needed to understand the longitudinal dynamics between SUD and personality. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the personality characteristics of a cohort of patients with Substance Use Disorders. The included participants (n = 123) were recruited from specialized treatment for addictions in Norway. The personality scores in the current sample were compared to the Norwegian norm sample with t-tests. Age and gender differences in personality scores were assessed by bivariate correlation analyses and t-tests, respectively. The sample had higher scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness compared to the norm sample (p < 0.01). The effect sizes of the differences between the current sample and the Norwegian norm sample were large for Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Older participants scored higher on Agreeableness and its facets A1: Trust and A2: Straightforwardness and lower on the facet E5: Excitement-Seeking (p < 0.01). No significant (p < 0.01) gender differences in NEO-PI-R scores were found. In conclusion, the current results support previous findings regarding personality traits associated with SUD. The clinical relevance of the findings is discussed.
... Apesar das previsões de mais longevidade, as evidências no campo da personalidade mostram que há uma tendência das pessoas em se tornarem cada vez menos abertas e curiosas com as experiências, menos extrovertidas, gregárias e amáveis, além de mais dogmáticas em suas crenças após os 60 anos de idade (Bleidorn et al., 2021;Pires, 2020;Roberts et al., 2017;Soto, John, Gosling, & Potter, 2011). Portanto, em um futuro breve, poderá haver algum descompasso entre as condições para uma vida longeva, conforme as previsões do IBGE, e as tendências nos padrões individuais de funcionamento (personalidade), conforme as evidências empíricas. ...
Article
Predictions indicate that the Brazilian population will be predominantly elderly in the future and will live longer. However, evidence from the personality field suggests that people become more dogmatic, less sociable, less curious, and less outgoing as they age, making it difficult for them to live a long and quality life. This article summarizes evidence on the relatonship between personality and sucessful aging, examines current discussions regarding interventions aimed at personality changes, and presents an intervention proposal focused on healthy aging. In addition to naturalistic changes in personality, it is possible to promote long-term changes in functioning patterns by adjusting the present functioning through psychotherapy and other interventions. Personality-based interventions can foster the development of aspects of healthy aging. These evidences highlight the potential of the Big Five Factor model as a framework for thinking about interventions aimed at changes in personality.
... Neuroticism, although often considered as a stable personality trait, can be changed through treatment. [41] Patients with high levels of neuroticism could benefit from treatments specifically targeting this dimension. [42] Resilience or optimism building interventions may be especially appropriate for patients with low levels of these traits. ...
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There is some controversy whether psychological distress after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment remains elevated at the long-term follow-up. This study compares the prevalence of psychological distress and anxiety and depressive disorders between patients with breast cancer and women without cancer in a prospective longitudinal design. Moreover, risk and protective factors for psychological distress and anxiety and depressive disorders were compared between the 2 groups. Two hundred fifty-three patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery completed a series of self-report questionnaires immediately after surgery and 18 months later. In addition, 211 female participants without being diagnosed with cancer were assessed at the same time points. Outcomes are psychological distress as measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and possible presence of anxiety and depressive disorders measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Trait resilience, optimism, and neuroticism were investigated as protective or risk factors for the development of psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. We found that the levels of psychological distress and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders are higher in the breast cancer group both at baseline and at 18 months of follow-up. Trait resilience and optimism were observed to be protective factors, and neuroticism was found to be a risk factor in both the breast cancer group and the comparison group. Psychological distress, depression, and anxiety remain elevated in patients with breast cancer over a period of one-and-a-half year. The identified protective and risk factors for these conditions are not unique for patients with breast cancer.
... Thus, the neural effects of short-term manipulations of behavior provide only potential clues, rather than direct evidence, for the neural causes of personality. Traits themselves can potentially be manipulated in more long-term ways, for which the clearest evidence so far comes from clinical intervention studies (Roberts et al., 2017), but nonclinical interventions are beginning to be studied as well (Stieger et al., 2021). In future, longitudinal studies of neural change accompanying experimental manipulations of traits could be important for the field. ...
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Personality neuroscience is the study of persistent psychological individual differences, typically in the general population, using neuroscientific methods. It has the potential to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences and their manifestation in ongoing behavior and experience. The field was inaugurated many decades ago, yet has only really gained momentum in the last two, as suitable technologies have become widely available. Personality neuroscience employs a broad range of methods, including molecular genetics, pharmacological assays or manipulations, electroencephalography, and various neuroimaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Although exciting progress is being made in this young field, much remains unknown. In this brief review, we discuss discoveries that have been made, methodological challenges and advances, and important questions that remain to be answered. We also discuss best practices for personality neuroscience research and promising future directions for the field.
... Hence, it has been shown that persons become more confident and emotionally stable with increasing age (Damian, Spengler, Sutu, & Roberts, 2019;Lucas & Donnellan, 2011;Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer, 2006;Wagner, Lüdtke, & Robitzsch, 2019). Moreover, it has been found that life events (Bleidorn, Hopwood, & Lucas, 2018), clinical interventions (Roberts, Luo, Briley, Chow, & Su, 2017), persons' intentions to change (Hudson & Fraley, 2015), and even non-clinical interventions (Stieger et al., 2021) can substantially change personality (see also Wagner, Orth, Bleidorn, Hopwood, & Kandler, 2020, for an overview and conceptual framework). Assumptions on personality change have already been outlined in the early days of personality psychology. ...
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Recent research on personality change increasingly relies on digital technology-based interventions, such as apps on mobile devices. A central ingredient of these apps is the feedback about how much the person has changed, which can stimulate further change. However, to be efficacious, it is vital that the feedback is accurate. We investigated three different approaches for quantifying individual change: (a) the common change score, which is obtained by first computing scale scores from two consecutive measurements and then subtract these scores from one another, (b) the ad-hoc approach, which is similar to the former approach but uses regression scores instead of scale scores, and (c) Kelley’s approach, which computes the change score directly from a regression. Specifically, we compared these approaches with one another with regard to the mean squared error (MSE), a measure of the accuracy of an estimator. Our findings indicated that the ad-hoc approach and Kelley’s approach provide change scores that can be more accurate in terms of the MSE than the common change score and that Kelley’s approach can be more accurate than the ad-hoc approach under certain conditions. Moreover, we present an example and provide a step by step guide to implement the approaches.
... The third implication concerns the practical implications of the synergistic interaction found in our study. The malleability of the personality has been discussed in the recent literature (see Roberts et al., 2017;Magidson et al., 2014) and some evidence has been found on the effectiveness of possible interventions to enhance conscientiousness. These kinds of interventions become even more interesting and important when the enhancement of conscientiousness and conscientious behavior might allow students to use their full cognitive potential, thereby influencing their academic achievement. ...
Article
Cognitive ability is the most powerful predictor of academic achievement. However, increasing attention is being paid to the role of personality traits in students’ academic achievement. Results indicate incremental effects beyond cognitive ability, especially for conscientiousness. Investigating the interplay of conscientiousness and cognitive ability can increase understanding of students’ academic achievement and learning. This study examined whether there are interaction effects of a synergistic or compensatory nature. We applied the approach of integrative data analysis, using four highly powered data sets with a total of 18,637 upper secondary school students in Germany to investigate this research question across four different achievement measures and three educational domains (i.e., school subjects). We used an integrative approach and pooled the results across the four samples to obtain an average estimate of the hypothesized interaction effects. Findings support a small synergistic interaction, indicating that conscientiousness moderates the association between cognitive ability and achievement. This means conscientiousness can enhance the positive effects of cognitive ability. In conclusion, results highlight the role of the type of academic measure used and the domain investigated in understanding how personality and achievement are related, providing evidence of the interplay between effort-related traits such as conscientiousness and cognitive ability.
... In their meta-analysis of mean-level personality change, Roberts et al. (2006) found that individuals exhibit development throughout their lifespan. Furthermore, meta-analyses demonstrate that interventions can alter personality traits significantly even when the interventions last for short periods of time (Hudson et al. 2019;Roberts et al. 2017). Similarly, metaanalyses speak to the effectiveness of SEL interventions. ...
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A focus on implementing social and emotional (SE) learning into curricula continues to gain popularity in K-12 educational contexts at the policy and practitioner levels. As it continues to be elevated in educational discourse, it becomes increasingly clear that it is important to have reliable, validated measures of students’ SE skills. Here we argue that framework and design are additional important considerations for the development and selection of SE skill assessments. We report the reliability and validity evidence for The Mosaic® by ACT® Social Emotional Learning Assessment, an assessment designed to measure SE skills in middle and high school students that makes use of a research-based framework (the Big Five) and a multi-method approach (three item types including Likert, forced choice, and situational judgment tests). Here, we provide the results from data collected from more than 33,000 students who completed the assessment and for whom we have data on various outcome measures. We examined the validity evidence for the individual item types and the aggregate scores based on those three. Our findings support the contribution of multi-method assessment and an aggregate score. We discuss the ways the field can benefit from this or similarly designed assessments and discuss how the assessment results can be used by practitioners to promote programs aimed at stimulating students’ personal growth.
... While personality traits are by definition relatively stable, they can nevertheless be changed and addressed by health professionals, and there are already promising interventions that use Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and novel cognitive behavioral interventions to affect levels of Neuroticism (Armstrong & Rimes, 2016;Sauer-Zavala et al., 2020). As a systematic review by Roberts et al. (2017) showed, interventions were especially effective when they addressed Neuroticism (as opposed to other traits) and when they were applied to patients with anxiety disorders. While the primary focus of the review was on clinical interventions, it nevertheless shows a potential for interventions and measures that target personality to improve anxiety. ...
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Studies show a connection between anxiety and stress, but with little differentiation between different domains of stress. In this article, we utilize a multi-dimensional approach to better understand the relationship between different chronic stress domains and anxiety. This will allow researchers to identify and address those areas of stress that are most relevant with regard to anxiety. We used data from a sub sample of the LIFE-Adult-Study (n = 1085) to analyze the association between nine different areas of chronic stress (Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress, TICS) and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder 7, GAD-7), controlling for sociodemographic variables, personality, and social support. There was a significant and positive association between Work Overload, Pressure to Perform, Social Tensions, Social Isolation, Chronic Worrying, and anxiety. After including the control variables, only Work Overload and Chronic Worrying remained significant. By focusing on Work Overload and Chronic Worrying researchers, practitioners, and policy makers can help to mitigate anxiety and related health problems in the population in an efficient way.
... At a theoretical level, our findings will help to shed further light on the degree to which childhood experiences are related to the development of personality in adulthood, thereby contributing to earlier work on personality development such as the sociogenomic framework of personality development (Roberts & Jackson, 2008) and the neosocioanalytic frameworks of personality development (Roberts & Wood, 2006) that both emphasize the role of social forces (e.g., experiences with caregivers or adults) in determining the manner in which genetic predispositions are expressed and personality develops. At a practical level any findings of a non-trivial relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality in adulthood may be useful for the development of interventions designed to change personality traits (see Roberts et al., 2017 for a recent summary of this literature) because such interventions may become more effective if they acknowledge the formative and perhaps unprocessed influence of adverse childhood experiences. For example, an individual who is working with a therapist in an effort to become less emotionally reactive (i.e., more emotionally stable) or to be less prone to isolating themselves socially may benefit from an exploration of the impact that childhood experiences have had on the way in which they view themselves and others. ...
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In this manuscript we present the results of a preregistered meta-analytic synthesis of the literature on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and non-clinical personality traits. Our findings, based on data from 228 correlations, 32 unique samples and 48,125 individuals indicates that adverse childhood experiences are most strongly related to emotional stability and psychoticism with weaker but still meaningful relationship evident with conscientiousness. Specific types of adverse childhood experiences exhibited relationships of different strength with personality traits with emotional abuse and emotional neglect exhibiting the strongest relationships. We discuss the degree to which these findings are congruent with different theoretical frameworks including those focused on the manner in which personality develops as well as methodological factors.
... Another opportunity to reduce levels of workplace deviance arises from the exploration of the underlying mechanisms for the relation between age and workplace deviance because it helps researchers and practitioners to target the process by which age relates negatively to workplace deviance. For example, recent evidence suggests that personality traits can be changed through interventions (Roberts et al., 2017), and such interventions can even be implemented on smartphones (Stieger et al., 2020). Organizations could utilize these findings to decrease levels of workplace deviance especially among younger employees. ...
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In the current meta-analysis, we examine the relation between age and workplace deviance, and find a small but significant negative correlation (ρ¯ = −.124, k = 198). More importantly, we test several trait-based mechanisms to help explain this relation. Specifically, based on the neo-socioanalytical model of personality change, we hypothesized that those Big Five personality traits that change with age, HEXACO honesty–humility, and trait negative affect mediate this relation. These hypotheses were supported, as the Big Five traits conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism, as well as honesty–humility and trait negative affect simultaneously mediated the negative relation between age and workplace deviance. These findings highlight important underlying mechanisms for this relation and suggest several opportunities for organizations to reduce the occurrence of workplace deviance. Further theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and future research ideas are discussed.
... The same applies to avoidant personality disorder and attachment avoidance. Although further support is needed, there is some evidence suggesting not only that attachment can be enhanced during treatment but that such enhancements are predictive of changes in personality (Bo et al., 2017;Levy et al., 2019;Roberts et al., 2017;Taylor et al., 2015). Levy et al. (2019) argued that changing attachment in clients with personality disorders should be one of clinicians' goals in treatment. ...
Article
The current study investigates the relationship between insecure attachment and pathological personality trait domains in a sample of psychiatric outpatients. Participants (N = 150) completed measures for attachment and personality. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses investigated the extent to which insecure attachment and personality pathology were associated. Insecure attachment positively correlated with overall personality pathology, with attachment anxiety having a stronger correlation than attachment avoidance. Distinct relationships emerged between attachment anxiety and negative affectivity and attachment avoidance and detachment. Insecure attachment and male sex predicted overall personality pathology, but only attachment anxiety predicted all five trait domains. Insecure attachment might be a risk factor for pathological personality traits. Assessing attachment in clinical contexts and offering attachment-based interventions could benefit interpersonal outcomes.
... Interventions and tutoring for this at-risk group can either seek to influence their personality development (Roberts et al. 2017) or help them with their studies to improve their academic achievement and reduce their risk of dropping out (Rheinheimer et al. 2010). Notes 1. ...
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The present study investigates the effect of pre-service teachers' cognitive abilities and personality traits on graduation and teacher self-efficacy using data from the German National Education Panel Study (N = 5 520). Applying latent profile analysis, we found four different profiles of pre-service teachers based on high school grade point average, reading and maths achievement as well as the Big Five. Our results show that the profile with low cognitive abilities and low extraversion is negatively associated with graduation and teacher self-efficacy. Conversely, high cognitive abilities in combination with high extraversion are positively related to both aspects of university success. The findings provide novel evidence on the identification of at-risk students in teacher education and have implications on the selection of teacher candidates as well as targeted support offers.
... As discussed above, it is assumed that personality traits can be adaptive, albeit to a small extent. These assumptions are based on several studies that indicate that personality changes are possible, for example, through ageing or clinical interventions such as psychotherapy (Roberts & Mroczek, 2008;Roberts et al., 2017). So lastly, to account for the potential changes in personality traits, a secondorder reification level was added. ...
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For a video presentation, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ujo6QKT0SAQ. Burnout has been on the rise in the past decade, especially amongst the younger working generation. While work environmental aspects play an important role in predicting burnout, variations in personality traits are integral for understanding the risk factors, processes, and outcomes of burnout. This paper studies the complex interaction of personality factors on the one hand and work environment aspects on the other hand through the relatively novel adaptive causal network modelling paradigm. Due to the adaptive nature of the model, the model can investigate the effects of changes in particular job demands and resources on the symptoms of burnout, and their dependences on different personality traits. The model can also demonstrate how an individual's personality traits, environmental perception, and burnout symptoms can adaptively be altered by individual therapy, in this case, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Using the dedicated software environment in MATLAB for simulation of the designed adaptive causal network model, two main scenarios were explored, both focusing on the neuroticism personality trait. One of the results demonstrates that neuroticism increases due to interpersonal conflict, indicating that neuroticism can be treated as an adaptive trait. Furthermore, when mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was introduced into the simulation, the likelihood of developing a burnout decreased because the perception of the work environment was positively changed due to the therapy. This model contributes to the area of burnout modelling by representing personality traits as adaptive factors that can be changed through individual interventions. More detailed research is needed to understand how also organisational level interventions can impact burnout development through changes in environmental perception and personality.
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Deliberate practice and having a growth mindset have been hypothesized to increase school performance. But previous studies are few, have been limited to very short interventions, and on average resulted in small effect sizes on school performance. This study compared the attitudes, performance, and behavior of 130 7th-grade students taking part in eight 30-minute sessions of deliberate practice and growth mindset over 14 weeks to a same-age active control group. The intervention had no significant effects on attitudes related to deliberate practice, growth mindset, or mathematical performance. However, students who participated in the intervention engaged in more deliberate practice behavior in a mathematics test. We pre-registered our hypothesis and research design at aspredicted.org/13742.
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Sosyal politikalar toplumun tüm kesimlerine yönelik olsa da dar anlamda sosyal politika işçi ve çalışanların iş ilişkilerini ve bu ilişkiden doğan sorunları kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, akademik yayınlarda sosyal politika ve çalışma hayatının temel unsuru olan bağlı çalışanlar hakkında yapılan yayınların bibliyometrik bir analizi yapılmıştır. Web of Science Core Collection veri tabanında yayınlanmış makale ve literatür makaleleri ele alınmıştır. “Sosyal politika” ve “çalışan/işçi” kavramları ile tarama yapılmış, toplamda 777 makale ve litaretür makalesine ulaşılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler, R programlama dili tabanlı bibliometrix paket programında analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular doğrultusunda sosyal politika ve çalışan bağlantılı yayınların genel görünümü, alandaki en üretken ve etkili yazar, çalışma, dergi, ülke ve kurumlar belirtilmiş, trend kavramlardaki değişiklik ile alandaki değişim, ortak atıf analizi ile birlikte alıntılanan yazar, çalışma ve dergiler arasındaki ilişki ağları ortaya çıkartılmıştır. Bunun için performans analizi, atıf analizi ve ortak atıf analizleri yapılmıştır.
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Objective: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) diagnosis comprises several constellations of trait, neurocognitive and psychosocial alterations. Dimensional models of psychopathology provide new opportunities to parse heterogeneity and create a stronger interface between individual characterisation and psychosocial outcomes. However, dimensional models have focused on either traits or neurocognitive features, lacking integration to capture the multifaceted nature of BPD. Method: We assessed 100 participants with BPD using a combination of tools stemming from trait (Alternative Model for Personality Disorders) and neurocognitive models (Research Domain Criteria; RDoC) to examine if trait-derived subgroups display distinctive social-processing and psychosocial profiles. We used two complementary analytical approaches: person-centered (k-means clustering) and construct-based (multiple-factor analysis). Results: Our person-centered approach identified four subgroups with separable internalizing, detached, externalizing, and low psychopathology trait-profiles. These profiles revealed distinctive patterns of affiliation, emotion recognition and mentalisation performance in RDoC tasks, and psychosocial measures of quality of life and social connectedness. RDoC-based measures showed close construct proximity with negative affectivity, disinhibition, and antagonism trait domains, relative to the detachment domain, which had close proximity with self-knowledge. Conclusions: Altogether, findings support consilience between trait-based and neurobiological frameworks and suggest that trait models are useful to parse BPD heterogeneity leading to unique social functioning profiles.
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Developmental science benefits from a rich tradition of conceptual frameworks, such as Relational Developmental Systems metatheory, that seek to understand the individual ⇔ context relations that promote thriving across the lifespan. However, there are substantive methodological challenges associated with capturing individual‐level and contextual variables, let alone the dynamics between them. These challenges have encouraged the perpetuation of simple models that focus on either individuals or their contexts alone, or as parallel processes with little attention to the dynamics of the relations. In this paper, we engage in cross‐disciplinary dialogue between developmental and personality science (adding to recent work being done by those in personality development) and highlight the benefits that developmental science can reap by adopting several recent advancements in dynamic personality theory and the methods used to test them. In addition, we discuss what personality science might gain from applying a developmental lens to their research questions. Such integration may also help personality scientists better understand how developmental theory can complement their methods for understanding the development of individual differences over time. Ultimately, the two fields can use their similar missions of understanding the development of individual differences in order to support one another in pursuing good science.
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The present research investigates brand love for luxury cars and extends the knowledge on brand love by testing and validating psychographic consumer qualities, including emotional stability. Data for the present research study was collected through an online survey administered to 700 respondents. A total of 426 responses were received, and after deleting 26 unfilled responses, the total sample size came to 400 responses. In the first stage, the data were tested for the construct reliability. After testing the composite reliability of constructs, convergent validity, and discriminant validity was estimated. AMOS 26 was employed for path analysis which revealed the robustness of the conceptual model. Using Model 1 and Model 4 in the PROCESS macro in SPSS Version 26, the present study performed mediation and moderation analysis. The results revealed that consumers brand love mediates the relationship between brand anthropomorphism and consumer’s intention to purchase and it also mediates the relationship of NWOM with purchase intention. Further, the analysis revealed that consumer’s brand attitude mediates the relationship between brand anthropomorphism and NWOM with purchase intention. The moderation results showed that emotional stability moderates the association of brand anthropomorphism with brand love and it also moderates the association of brand anthropomorphism with brand attitude. Further, emotional stability has a moderating effect on the relationship between NWOM and brand attitude.
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of ketamine treatment on depression and suicidal ideation in treatment resistant depression (TRD) and to determine whether they are influenced by other psychiatric and personality comorbidities. Methods: A randomized double-blind parallel-arm controlled study on 36 patients with TRD. Patients were divided into two treatment groups: ketamine (K group) and placebo (P group). Patients in the K and P groups received one infusion of medicine per week for two weeks. All participants were assessed using the Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Personality Model (SIFFM), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Suicide Probability Scale (SPS), and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90). Results: After treatment, there was a significant decrease in the total HDRS and SPS scores in the K group compared to the P group, but the magnitude of response was not influenced by the presence of other psychiatric symptoms. Regression model, only receive ketamine treatment was significant factor for improve suicide and depression scores. Limitations: lack of data on other outcomes that are important to patients (e.g., quality of life, cognition) and need for a larger sample size. Conclusions: Ketamine infusions in TRD reduce suicidal ideation and depression despite the presence other psychiatric and personality disorders.
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Personality researchers are increasingly interested in the dynamics of personality, that is, the proximal causal mechanisms underlying personality and behavior (Jayawickreme, Fleeson et al., 2021; Quirin et al., 2020). Here, we review the Zurich Model of Social Motivation (Bischof, 1985, 1993) concerning its potential to explain central aspects of personality. It is a cybernetic model that provides a nomothetic structure of the causal relationships among needs for security, arousal, and power, and uses them to explain an individual's approach‐avoidance or “proximity‐distance” behavior. We review core features of the model and extend them by adding features based on recent behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. We close by discussing the model considering contemporary issues in personality science such as the dynamics of personality, five‐factor personality traits and states, and personality growth.
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Why, despite all we know about the causes and harms of global heating, has so little effective action been taken to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and what we can do to change that? This book explains the mechanisms and impacts of the climate crisis, traces the history and reasons behind the lack of serious effort to combat it, describes some people's ongoing scepticism and how to shift it, and motivates an urgent program of action. It argues that the pathway to stopping dangerous global heating will require a much larger mobilization of advocacy and activism to impel decision makers to abandon fossil fuels, and transition to renewable energy and electrification embedded in a political and social framework guided by justice principles. It is an excellent resource for students and researchers on the climate crisis, the need for a renewable energy transition, and the current blocks to progress.
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Research on intellectual humility has accumulated rapidly. In this content analysis, we review existing published empirical work. We conducted searches using Google Scholar, ProQuest, and PsycInfo and found 59 articles with 134 samples. Most studies have focused on convenience samples and used similar measurement approaches – self-reports of intellectual humility. Nonetheless, some teams are beginning to move towards methods that can test causal implications of evolving theory, such as experimental methods or longitudinal studies. Furthermore, although most studies have focused on measurement issues, some scholars are beginning to venture out into applied work on intellectual humility. At least initially, researchers are gravitating towards areas where cultural ideology and commitment-related biases might put pressure on individuals to prioritize loyalty over truth seeking. Implications for future research are discussed.
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Intellectual humility (IH) likely is most challenging when individuals are confronted with existential threats, a state we label existential humility (EH). Existential humility includes holding cherished beliefs regarding the meaning of life and death loosely enough to revise in light of evidence, as well as lower defensiveness following existential threats or reminders. We discuss the broader personality structure IH and EH, focusing on the Big Five factor of agreeableness as well as narcissism. We propose that the most diagnostic situations of the existence of intellectual humility – heretofore rare in the empirical literature – are in the realm of existential beliefs. Moving from existential arrogance to humility may require substantial self-change, though transcendent situations such as flow experiences, awe (e.g., wondrous vistas in nature), meditation, or even experience with psychedelics may be viable pathways toward greater existential humility.
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The current study sought to investigate the differential risk/protective factors of neuroticism and extraversion among individuals with only suicide ideation, those with a single suicide attempt, and those with multiple attempts. We hypothesized that extraversion would moderate the relation between neuroticism and suicide attempts (single and multiple) but not ideation. Patients in a private facility (N = 3343) completed measures assessing suicide history and general personality traits. Four moderation analyses were conducted with extraversion moderating the relationship between neuroticism and suicide ideation, single attempt (compared to zero attempts), and multiple attempts (compared to zero attempts and to single attempts). Extraversion moderated neuroticism only when comparing individuals with multiple suicide attempts to those with no attempts. Individuals who were low in both neuroticism and extraversion had higher levels of attempts than individuals with low neuroticism and high extraversion, highlighting the importance of considering biological predispositions as risk factors for suicide.
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Personality disorder affects more than 10% of the population but is widely ignored by health professionals as it is viewed as a term of stigma. The new classification of personality disorder in the ICD-11 shows that we are all on a spectrum of personality disturbance and that this can change over time. This important new book explains why all health professionals need to be aware of personality disorders in their clinical practice. Abnormal personality, at all levels of severity, should be taken into account when choosing treatment, when predicting outcomes, when anticipating relapse, and when explaining diagnosis. Authored by leading experts in this field, this book explains how the new classification of personality disorders in the ICD-11 helps to select treatment programmes, plan long-term management and avoid adverse consequences in the treatment of this patient group.
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Background Personality and coping may be related to symptom severity and psychosocial functioning in patients with recent-onset psychosis. This study aimed to investigate associations of personality traits and coping strategies with concurrent and follow-up symptom severity and functioning in those patients, and identify whether coping mediates relations between personality and symptoms or functioning. Methods At baseline, 527 recent-onset psychosis patients (73 % male, mean age = 28 years) received assessments on personality (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness – Five-Factor Inventory), coping (Utrecht Coping List), symptom severity (Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale) and psychosocial functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale). Of those, 149 also received symptom and functioning assessments at follow-up. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess cross-sectional associations of personality and coping with symptoms and functioning at baseline. Longitudinal associations of baseline personality and coping with follow-up symptomatic remission and functioning were analyzed with multivariable linear and binary logistic regression analyses, respectively. Lastly, it was investigated whether coping mediated associations between personality and symptoms or functioning. Results Higher baseline Agreeableness (B = -0.019, [95%CI: −0.031; −0.007]) and Neuroticism (B = -0.017, [95%CI: −0.028; −0.006]) were associated with lower concurrent symptom severity. Reassuring Thoughts were associated with better functioning at baseline (B = 0.833, [95%CI: 0.272; 1.393]). Neither personality nor coping were associated with follow-up symptomatic remission or functioning. Coping did not mediate associations between personality and symptoms or functioning. Conclusion Only the coping strategy Reassuring Thoughts is associated with better baseline functioning in patients with recent-onset psychosis. Personality traits seem to have limited clinically relevant relations with symptom severity or functioning.
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Parental burnout is a specific syndrome resulting from enduring exposure to chronic parenting stress. It encompasses three dimensions: an overwhelming exhaustion related to one’s parental role, an emotional distancing with one’s children and a sense of ineffectiveness in one’s parental role. This study aims to facilitate further identification of antecedents/risk factors for parental burnout in order to inform prevention and intervention practices. In a sample of 1723 french-speaking parents, we examined the relationship between parental burnout and 38 factors belonging to five categories: sociodemographics, particularities of the child, stable traits of the parent, parenting and family-functioning. In 862 parents, we first examined how far these theoretically relevant risk factors correlate with burnout. We then examined their relative weight in predicting burnout and the amount of total explained variance. We kept only the significant factors to draw a preliminary model of risk factors for burnout and tested this model on another sample of 861 parents. The results suggested that parental burnout is a multi-determined syndrome mainly predicted by three sets of factors: parent’s stable traits, parenting and family-functioning.KeywordsParentBurn-outExhaustionAntecedentsCauses
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Objective: Why personality changes in young adulthood remains a critical theoretical and empirical question. We studied personality change during the education-to-work transition, including mean-level personality change and its specific timing, the degree of individual variability in change, and the link between sense of mastery and personality change. Methods: We used two intensive longitudinal studies. Study 1 included 5 waves of data across 2 years during the university-to-work transition (N=309; mean-aged 25). Study 2 included 3 waves of data across 8 months during an internship-heavy teacher education program (N=317; mean-aged 22). We measured personality traits and work-related mastery with questionnaires and personality states and general mastery with the experience sampling method. Results: First, we found no evidence for mean-level personality maturation but decreases in trait Conscientiousness. Second, young adults differed significantly in personality trait and state change. Third, young adults with higher levels of work-related sense of mastery showed more positive changes in trait Conscientiousness. Decreases in general sense of mastery predicted later decreases in state Emotional Stability and vice versa. Change in general sense of mastery correlated with personality state change. Conclusions: Sense of mastery seems to be part of a dynamic short-term process underlying personality change in young adulthood.
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Researchers, theorists, and practitioners have expressed a renewed interest in the longitudinal dynamics of personality characteristics in adulthood, including organic life span trajectories and their amenability to volitional change. However, this research has apparently not yet expanded to include the Dark Triad (psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism), despite approximately 2 decades of research that has thoroughly examined other important issues related to construct validity and interpersonal behavior. We argue that researchers in postsecondary, occupational, and community‐based settings are in a unique position to study the important phenomenon of Dark Triad malleability, as they are less hindered by obstacles in clinical and forensic contexts that have generated largely inconclusive results. In this article, we discuss several examples of methods for evaluating, quantifying, and interpreting Dark Triad malleability, examples of relevant extant training programs, possibilities for developing new programs, and factors that may moderate training efficacy, including Dark Triad levels themselves. Beyond addressing a fundamental question regarding the nature of these traits, the Dark Triad's destructive tendencies suggest that efforts to reduce them would provide myriad societal benefits and could propel Dark Triad research in an important new direction.
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Personality approaches suggest that who the leader is crucial to adequately understanding the conjuncture and historical dynamics in studying politics. In thisagent-centred perspective, personal traits and leadership styles play significant roles in shaping a leader’s policy-making process. This article provides a chance to get inside the personal ‘black-box’ of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, one of the most influential political figures in the history of the Republic of Turkey, in questioning who he is affects how he makes political decisions and how he reacts to institutional and situational constraints, such as e-memorandum and party closure case of the AKP. Reflecting the detailed results of systematic and comparative research, this article also empirically broadens the literature about Turkish leaders and provides a theoretical contribution to international leadership studies by highlighting the effects of a Turkish leader’s traits and styles on the domestic policy orientations in Turkey.
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This study explored the relationship between the Big Five personality traits, rumination, resilience, and anxiety in a sample of Chinese undergraduates (N = 323) from a cross-sectional perspective. Results showed that neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness significantly predicted anxiety of college students and that rumination mediated the association between neuroticism and anxiety, and between agreeableness and anxiety. In addition, resilience had a significant moderating effect on neuroticism and rumination, agreeableness and anxiety. Overall, higher level of resilience led to less rumination and anxiety in individuals with low neuroticism and high agreeableness, but there were adverse effects in those with high neuroticism and low agreeableness. This study is valuable to understand the complex mechanisms of the relationship between personality traits and anxiety and provides a direction for reducing anxiety of college students.
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Objectives: Work is an important developmental context in adulthood, yet little is known about how it contributes to personality trajectories in midlife. The present study examines how subjectively perceived work environment (autonomy, innovation, social integration, stress) and objectively measured work activities (activities related to information and people, physical/manual activities) are related to levels of Big Five personality traits at age 44 and to change over 20 years. Methods: We analysed four-wave longitudinal data from N = 374 participants (born 1950-1952; Mage T1 = 44 years, SD = 1; 44% women) from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development and Aging (ILSE) within the structural equation modeling framework. Results: At baseline, subjective perceptions of work environments showed a higher number of significant associations with personality than objective work activities. Over time, small declines in neuroticism and extraversion and small increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness were observed, which were largely independent of work characteristics. Conclusions: Our findings show slight changes in most Big Five traits from age 44 to 64, which were mostly unrelated to work characteristics. More research is needed to uncover the sources and dynamics of personality trait change in midlife and the role of work for personality trajectories.
Chapter
Zahlreiche Klassifikationsmöglichkeiten gesundheitsfördernder Maßnahmen im Arbeitskontext wie z. B. die Unterscheidung personenbezogener und bedingungsbezogener Maßnahmen oder die Einordnung als primäre, sekundäre oder tertiäre Prävention beziehen sich auf die inhaltliche Ausrichtung der Verfahren. Darüber hinaus lassen sich gesundheitsfördernde Interventionen hinsichtlich ihres klassifizieren. Das bei der Planung einer Maßnahme festgelegte Design determiniert in der Regel deren Evaluation (z. B. hinsichtlich der Akzeptanz) als auch die Überprüfung der Wirksamkeit. Während bei face-to-face Ansätzen Prä-Post-(Follow-up)-Designs am häufigsten umgesetzt werden, erleichtern web/app-basierte und blended learning Ansätze eine engmaschigere Erfassung und damit Evaluation der intendierten Veränderungsprozesse. Obwohl sowohl in der Praxis als auch im Forschungsalltag die Planung von gesundheitsfördernden Maßnahmen pragmatische oder Kosten-Nutzen-Aspekte einbeziehen muss, möchten wir im vorliegenden Kapitel einige ausgewählte Themen diskutieren, deren Berücksichtigung bei der Implementierung von Interventionsdesigns von Relevanz für eine adäquate Evaluation des beabsichtigten Ziels der Maßnahme sein können. Wir erörtern versuchsplanerische Voraussetzungen, aber auch konzeptuelle Aspekte (z. B. Fragen der Operationalisierung relevanter Konstrukte, deren Stabilität versus Fluktuation) und schließlich methodische Aspekte diverser Designs und Auswertungsmöglichkeiten.
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Stigma attached to schizophrenia among patients is a global concern to mental health advocates. The extent of internalized stigma experienced by consumers with schizophrenia living in the community and its correlates have not been fully explored. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of high internalized stigma and its association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, personality traits and aspects of health‐related quality of life among community‐dwelling consumers with schizophrenia. A descriptive, correlational study with a cross‐sectional design was conducted with 149 consumers from outpatient psychiatric clinics of two hospitals in Taiwan. Face‐to‐face interviews with structured questionnaires were adopted. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, chi‐squares tests, independent t‐tests and a binary logistic regression analysis. Approximately 41.6% of consumers with schizophrenia experienced high internalized stigma. In the subscales, a high experience of discrimination experience (43.6%) was reported, followed by alienation (34.2%), social withdrawal (28.2%), stereotype endorsement (24.8%) and stigma resistance (20.8%). Being younger at the onset of schizophrenia, attaining lower education, having a history of suicidality, fewer positive personality traits and poor aspects of health‐related quality of life were significantly associated with high internalized stigma. Personality traits in the domains of emotional stability and conscientiousness and social and environmental aspects of health‐related quality of life appeared to be the most relevant to risk of high internalized stigma. Anti‐stigma initiatives coupled with personality‐traits modules and modifications of health‐related quality of life are suggested for mental health professionals and policy makers to ameliorate internalized stigma among community‐dwelling consumers with schizophrenia.
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People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) are at an increased risk for impaired everyday functioning and they may also experience poor awareness of their functional status. This study identified factors associated with (1) subjective and objective instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and (2) awareness of functional capacity in PWH. In this cross-sectional study, 236 PWH completed a neurobehavioral assessment, including self-report and performance-based measures of IADLs. Multiple regressions were performed to identify demographic, personality, and cognitive factors contributing to subjective and objective evaluation of everyday functioning, as well as discrepancy between self-report and performance-based measures of IADLs. Results indicated that increased depression was associated with worsened self-report of everyday functioning but not performance of IADLs. Cognitive function and age were associated with IADL performance. Most participants (58.1%) demonstrated a discrepancy between self-report and actual performance of IADLs. Worse processing speed was correlated with greater discrepancy. Inaccurate self-reporters had worse overall cognitive functioning and lower levels of personality traits, including openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. In conclusion, self-report and actual performance of IADLs in PWH is influenced by different factors. Self-report may be more affected by psychological variables, such as mood and personality, while actual performance is more sensitive to age and cognitive function.
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Most previous research has focused on the relationships between specific personality traits and specific facets of mental health. However, in reality most of the Big Five are associated at non-trivial levels with mental health. To account for this broad correlation, we proposed the ‘barometer hypothesis’, positing that behind both ratings of mental health and personality lies a barometer that indicates one's general feelings of positivity or negativity. To the extent that both the general factors of personality and mental health reflect this same barometer, we would expect them to be correlated. We tested alternative models using data from a large longitudinal panel study that includes two cohorts of participants who were assessed every two years, resulting in parallel 4-year longitudinal studies. Similar results were obtained across both studies. Supporting the ‘barometer hypothesis’, findings revealed that the optimal model included general latent factors for both personality traits and mental health. Compared to the broad raw pairwise correlations, the bi-factor latent change models revealed that the relation among levels and changes in the specific factors were substantially reduced when controlling for the general factors. Still, some relations remained relatively unaffected by the inclusion of the general factor. We discuss implications of these findings. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Personality Psychology
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This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO–PI–R) in a mostly African American clinical sample and determined if these qualities provided useful information about their motivational characteristics that were germane to treatment. Eighty-two men and 50 women entered a 6-week outpatient drug rehabilitation program, completed the NEO–PI–R, and received counselor ratings of personality at admission. The 99 who finished the program completed a 2nd NEO–PI–R. Counselors provided ratings of treatment responsiveness. The cross-observer, cross-method, cross-time correlations indicated that the NEO–PI–R can be a useful tool for organizing clinical information about clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment was entitled Creative Coping (CC) therapy. It was a problem-solving skills group that taught methods for coping with distress to replace the self-destructive and suicidal behaviors typically used by many of the patients, particularly those with borderline personality disorder. The control condition was a discussion group entitled the Wellness & Lifestyles (W&L) group. Subjects were hospitalized on a general psychiatric unit for an average of 12.6 days and attended an average of 5.9 group sessions. Assessments were conducted shortly after admission and again just before discharge. Change was assessed in the following: psychiatric symptoms; various emotions; suicidal ideation; locus of control; and coping skills. Also assessed were patients' impressions of the group and its effectiveness; group leaders' impressions of the extent to which each subject benefited from the group; and reports by unit staff of subjects' acting out (self-destructive behaviors and suicide threats) during their hospital stay. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on virtually all change measures, although between-group differences were not demonstrated on most measures. The only between-group difference on a change measure was in the opposite direction than was predicted: W&L subjects became significantly more internal in locus of control than CC subjects. Another unexpected between-group difference was that significantly more CC subjects than W&L subjects acted out on the unit. However, this significant difference did not hold up when the early and late stages of hospitalization were examined separately. In terms of the patients' subjective impressions of the groups, CC subjects significantly more strongly believed that the lessons of group would help them better handle difficult situations in their lives. Similarly, CC group leaders more strongly believed that their group members were able to relate the lessons of group to their own lives. Thus, patients in both groups demonstrated improvement, but the CC group patients and leaders viewed the intervention as more relevant. Follow-up data are needed to demonstrate whether subjects use the new coping skills in their lives outside the hospital.
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After patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), continuation-phase treatments may be applied to improve long-term outcomes. We clarified which CT responders experience remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence by testing baseline demographic, clinical, and personality variables. The sample of CT responders at higher risk of relapse (N = 241) was randomized to 8 months of continuation-phase CT, double-blinded fluoxetine, or pill placebo, and followed 24 months (Jarrett & Thase, 2010). Patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation at the end of acute-phase CT showed increased risk for relapse/recurrence of MDD. In addition, patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation, as well as higher residual depression (including emotional, cognitive, and social facets), showed decreased probability of remission (≥6 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Finally, patients with greater residual depression, as well as younger age and earlier MDD onset, showed decreased probability of recovery (≥35 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Moderator analyses did not reveal differential prediction across the continuation phase treatment arms. These results may help clinicians gauge the prognoses and need for continuation treatment among MDD patients who respond to acute-phase CT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Little is currently known about predictors of follow-up outcome of psychological treatment of agoraphobia. In this study, we wished to examine predictors of short- and long-term avoidance after inpatient group interventions for agoraphobia. Ninety-six (68%) of 141 agoraphobic patients (74% women) who had completed treatment in two open and one randomized controlled trial (RCT) were followed up 13 to 21 years after start of treatment. Major depression at pre-treatment predicted less short-term (up to one year after end of treatment) improvement in agoraphobic avoidance. Working and being married/cohabiting at pre-treatment predicted greater long-term (across one-year, two-year, and 13-21 years follow-up) improvement. In contrast, the duration of agoraphobia, amount of Axis I and II co-morbidity, being diagnosed with avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines the month before intake to treatment, were unrelated to short-term as well as long-term outcome. As many as 31.9% of the included patients did not attend long-term follow-up and the power of the study was limited. The long time period between the two and 13-21 year follow-ups is a limitation, in which it is difficult to assess what actually happened. Although all the patients received some form of CBT, there was variability among the treatments. The only short-term predictor identified represented a clinical feature, whereas the long-term predictors represented features of the patients׳ life situation. The limited power of the study precludes the inference that non-significant predictors are unrelated to follow-up outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
We examined symptom-level relations between the emotional disorders and general traits within the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism correlated strongly with the general distress/negative affectivity symptoms (depressed mood, anxious mood, worry) that are central to these disorders; more moderately with symptoms of social phobia, affective lability, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder, lassitude, checking, and obsessive intrusions; and more modestly with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and other symptoms of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Extraversion was negatively correlated with symptoms of social anxiety/social phobia and was positively related to scales assessing expansive positive mood and increased social engagement in bipolar disorder. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness showed weaker associations and generally added little to the prediction of these symptoms. It is noteworthy, moreover, that our key findings replicated well across (a) self-rated versus (b) interview-based symptom measures. We conclude by discussing the diagnostic and assessment implications of these data.
Article
This study attempted to evaluate the ability of an outpatient drug rehabilitation program to effect significant shifts on the five major dimensions of personality. A mostly African American sample of 82 men and 50 women entering a 6-week program were assessed at admission, and the 99 who completed were again measured at termination. Follow-up assessments were completed on 30 clients an average of 15 months later. Results indicated significant shifts on all five personality domains from pre- to posttreatment (mean Cohen's d = .38). Significant shifts on Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were maintained over follow-up (mean Cohen's d = .28). These results suggest that personality change may be possible in the context of treatment.
Article
Background: Dysfunctional cognitions can contribute to depression and its maintenance. They may be related to a higher relapse rate and a longer duration of the depressive episode. The relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for acute inpatient treatment of unipolar depression is examined in this study and its variability by cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods: 222 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were evaluated during their inpatient treatment by assessing admission and discharge depression scores and their relationship to dysfunctional cognitions, using the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). The relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and treatment outcome was examined. Primary outcome measures were the Hamilton-Rating-Scale (HRSD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Higher age, depression severity at admission, comorbid personality disorders and recurrent depressive disorders are related with higher DAS-scores at admission. DAS-Scores declined during treatment but to a lower extend than depressive symptom scales (effect size dDAS-G t1-t2 = .31; dHRSD t1-t2 = 2.88; dBDI t1-t2 = 1.38). Higher DAS-scores at admission correlated negatively with the improvement of depressive symptoms during treatment (HRSD: r = -.62; p < .01; BDI: r = -.54; p < .01) and remission rates (HRSD: r = -.65; p < .01; BDI: r = -.48; p < .01). CBT did not additionally reduce DAS-scores compared to pharmacotherapy only. Conclusion: Dysfunctional cognitions are relatively stable compared to other depressive symptoms and are associated with poorer treatment outcome even in combined treatment of antidepressant medication and CBT during inpatient treatment. Changes of dysfunctional cognitions seem to be a long-term treatment goal, especially because of their association with comorbid personality disorders and recurrent depressive disorders.
Article
Background: Evidence of an inverse relationship between central serotonergic (serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine]) system function and impulsive aggressive behavior has been accumulating for more than 2 decades. If so, pharmacological enhancement of serotonin activity should be expected to reduce impulsive aggressive behavior in subjects in whom this behavior is prominent.Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine hydrochloride was conducted in 40 nonmajor-depressed, nonbipolar or schizophrenic, DSM-III-R personality—disordered individuals with current histories of impulsive aggressive behavior and irritability. Measures included the Overt Aggression Scale—Modified for Outpatients, Clinical Global Impression Rating of Improvement, and several secondary measures of aggression, depression, and anxiety.Results: Fluoxetine, but not placebo, treatment resulted in a sustained reduction in scores on the lrritability and Aggression subscales of the Overt Aggression Scale—Modified for Outpatients that was first apparent during months 2 and 3 of treatment, respectively. Fluoxetine was superior to placebo in the proportion of "responders" on the Clinical Global Impression Rating of Improvement: first at the end of month 1, and then finally demonstrating a sustained drug-placebo difference from the end of month 2 through the end of month 3 of treatment. These results were not influenced by secondary measures of depression, anxiety, or alcohol use.Conclusion: Fluoxetine treatment has an antiaggressive effect on impulsive aggressive individuals with DSM-III-R personality disorder.
Article
The sensitivity of personality measurement to emotional state has been indicated in several studies. This study explored the effect of depressive state on personality assessment with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI-II). Posttreatment assessment showed significant decrease in scores on the schizoid, avoidant, self-defeating, and schizotypal personality scales when contrasted with pretreatment assessment. Reduction in scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was correlated with reduced scores on the schizoid and the self-defeating scales, and with increased scores on the narcissistic scale. These findings are discussed in respect to methodology, previous studies, and theoretical considerations.
Book
Rationale and overview of the book.- Complexities of primary research and meta-analysis.- Fixed, random, and mixed models.- Correlations.- Effect sizes.- Proportion/odds ratio data.- Dependence in primary research and meta-analysis.- Correlations.- Effect sizes (group comparisons and change measures).- Proportion/odds ratio data.- Bayesian approaches.- Missing data.- Combining across designs.- Qualitative studies in synthesis.- Quality assessments.- Studies on quality weighting.- Summary/Conclusions.
Article
A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move towards an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (i) normative trends in personality change, (ii) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (iii) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Personality Psychology
Article
This article reports on one of the largest outpatient group psychotherapy studies which investigated long-term psychodynamic groups in a naturalistic setting, i.e. the PAGE (Projekt für ambulante Gruppentherapie-Evaluation)-Study. More than 450 patients of 28 group analysts in private practices were included in the Study. The analytic and psychodynamically oriented long-term outpatient groups were accompanied by a university based research team without impacting the normal patient-therapist contact, treatment contract, and treatment itself, therefore all treatments took place in a naturalistic setting with very experienced group analysts (effectiveness-study). Results of this large study clearly demonstrate that the longer psychotherapeutic treatments take place the better the outcomes are. The average effect sizes are beyond 1.30. Statistical as well as clinical significance was reached on all levels of investigation: symptoms, interpersonal problems, treatment goals, and overall psychiatric functioning.