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A Framework for Information Systems Architecture

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  • Zachman International
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... In enterprise modeling, context is often considered as different viewpoints in an enterprise architecture [18] or as enterprise context which covers the models presenting the complete picture of the enterprise/organization [19]. In our case study, we explore context-aware business processes, which deal with the notion of context on a lower and more operational level. ...
... Enterprise modeling covers several viewpoints represented in models [11,18]. Depending on the purpose of the enterprise modeling job, the models used and the level of detail included in the models should change [11]. ...
... There are other models used in enterprise modeling, for instance, actor/resource models and business rule models [11], organization and network models [18]. However, we have not used such models since they do not provide useful information for our modeling purpose. ...
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Due to their unique characteristics, knowledge-intensive processes (KiPs) are difficult to capture with conventional modeling and management approaches. One such KiP is the advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) development process. ATMPs are highly innovative medicinal products that are based on biomedical technology. ATMP development processes need to comply with complex regulatory frameworks. Currently, biomedical scientists that develop ATMPs manage the regulatory aspects of the ATMP development processes in an ad hoc fashion, resulting in inefficiencies such as reworks or even withdrawal of ATMPs from the market. This paper presents an explorative case study in which we use Enterprise Modeling and Context-aware Business Processes to support ATMP scientists in managing the regulatory aspects of ATMP development processes more efficiently and effectively. In our explorative case study, we use enterprise models to describe the important concepts and views in ATMP development processes. By introducing context-awareness to the models, we support ATMP scientists in performing relevant tasks to address the regulatory requirements efficiently and effectively under different contexts. We introduce the novel concept of execution-dependent dynamic context to properly define the context in ATMP development processes. Additionally, this paper takes a broader perspective on the case study by discussing the relevance of the solutions derived for the case study for other KiPs. Thereby this paper aims to present an exemplary approach for context-aware modeling of KiPs. The practical contribution of this paper are the models realized in a real-life ATMP development project. The scientific contribution of this paper is providing an exemplary approach for supporting knowledge workers who perform flexible, KiPs under dynamic contexts and introducing the notion of execution-dependent dynamic context.
... Performed recursively, the concept development process logically decomposes stakeholder expectation into functional requirements, operational behaviors, and data/time flows for assessing tentative design approaches based on engineering analysis and trade study [6]. A logical expression describes the "what" interrogative of a system [6] [7]. Educating a systems engineer to perform the task of translating need to design has proven challenging [8] leaving organizations to foster mentorship and experiential training opportunity to grow the necessary experience [9]. ...
... Enterprise Architecture provides an ontology for a discussion of architecture [7] [11] by providing a schema for describing a system or enterprise according to differing perspectives [12]. The architectural perspective is concerned with aesthetics including the abstract notions of proportion, function, and behavior [13]. ...
... Using the method of Leitner [27], an initial list of pattern candidates is generated using intrinsic design knowledge. Each candidate is assigned a hierarchial category based on the architecture, design, and solution perspectives of the Enterprise Architecture ontology [7] [12]. Graphically arranging the candidates according to the hieracrchy related candidates are connected using straight and non-directional lines to create a network diagram. ...
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Globalization, powered by digitization, is increasing technology growth and knowledge transfer rates to levels not seen in the previous 3500 years, obscuring absolute truth and accelerating rates of innovation and production. Competing, or remaining competitive, in this global marketplace requires a learning organization adopt a method of capture, retention, and reuse for demonstrated tacit knowledge to accelerate the development of increasingly complex systems of high quality at a reasonable cost. The architectural theory of Patterns and Pattern Language is a validated methodology for mining tacit domain knowledge from a proven system. This work applies architectural theory to a multi-year development experiment and captures exposed knowledge as a design pattern in a model based systems engineering tool, demonstrating applicability of digital engineering initiatives in the description and reuse of expert design knowledge. By creating and archiving model based expressions of expert knowledge, a learning organization can improve practical decision making and avoid uninformed concept phase decision making.
... These descriptions aimed to increase insight into the organization's core structures (or architectures) and its IT/IS. Furthermore, these descriptions directed the execution of architectural changes (Zachman, 1987). ...
... Extant literature suggests that EA/EAM is of interest to larger organizations, assuming these types of organizations demonstrate more complex organizational structures, processes, and IT/ IS systems (Ahlemann et al., 2020;Jonkers et al., 2006;Schmidt & Buxmann, 2011). These organizational properties and the need to manage their complexity are the basis of the origination of EA (Zachman, 1987). ...
... First, EA documentation is present in most empirical important configurations for the outcomes technical IT capabilities and strategic IT alignment. This aligns with the document-driven origin of EA to manage organizational complexity (Zachman, 1987). However, other empirical important configurations for the outcomes technical IT capabilities and strategic IT alignment imply that EA documentation is irrelevant to demonstrating the outcomes. ...
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The rapid development of novel, innovative digital technologies significantly impact organizations and their business ecosystem. Organizations must stay abreast of the latest developments and respond to them continuously to remain competitive. Many organizations make significant investments in enterprise architecture management (EAM) to manage the transformation of their complex information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) landscape and to guide their digital transformation. However, empirical research on EAM benefit realization is limited. This research conceptualized EAM as a particular type of dynamic managerial capability. Survey data (N = 110) was used in a set-theoretic approach (fsQCA) to identify EAM configurations that lead to a presence of technical IT capabilities and strategic IT alignment. The results indicate the importance of system changes induced by the EAM function itself to improve technical IT capabilities. Furthermore, setting up clear standards and rules, and developing and planning the migration to target architectures is particularly important to align business and IT in larger organizations. This research contributes to the academic knowledge base on EAM benefit realization and supports the needed reconceptualization and evolution of EA and EAM to better support organizations' digital transformations. Furthermore, the outcomes can help decision-makers justify and guide their EA investments while implementing a digital strategy.
... This said, while either r T 1 construct can express the notion of 'task in a process,' and the R1 SNOMED term can express the notion of 'taking patient vitals,' neither language allows relating the two notions, i.e., to express that the goal of the task, if executed when/ how expected, is to lead to the successful occurrence of clinical activity of that type. This construct deficit can be solved in several ways, all involving an extension of either language or the use of a third language, such as FHIR:ActivityDefinition [79,91]. ...
... In addition, similarly to other frameworks like Zachman [91], Boxwala's L1-L4, and the Unified Architecture Framework Modeling Language (UAFML) [92], M*R/K by design does not articulate a methodology. Future research, guidance, and tooling development may promote the use and uptake of M*R/K. ...
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Introduction The use and interoperability of clinical knowledge starts with the quality of the formalism utilized to express medical expertise. However, a crucial challenge is that existing formalisms are often suboptimal, lacking the fidelity to represent complex knowledge thoroughly and concisely. Often this leads to difficulties when seeking to unambiguously capture, share, and implement the knowledge for care improvement in clinical information systems used by providers and patients. Objectives To provide a systematic method to address some of the complexities of knowledge composition and interoperability related to standards-based representational formalisms of medical knowledge. Methods Several cross-industry (Healthcare, Linguistics, System Engineering, Standards Development, and Knowledge Engineering) frameworks were synthesized into a proposed reference knowledge framework. The framework utilizes IEEE 42010, the MetaObject Facility, the Semantic Triangle, an Ontology Framework, and the Domain and Comprehensibility Appropriateness criteria. The steps taken were: 1) identify foundational cross-industry frameworks, 2) select architecture description method, 3) define life cycle viewpoints, 4) define representation and knowledge viewpoints, 5) define relationships between neighboring viewpoints, and 6) establish characteristic definitions of the relationships between components. System engineering principles applied included separation of concerns, cohesion, and loose coupling. Results A “Multilayer Metamodel for Representation and Knowledge“ (M*R/K) reference framework was defined. It provides a standard vocabulary for organizing and articulating medical knowledge curation perspectives, concepts, and relationships across the artifacts created during the life cycle of language creation, authoring medical knowledge, and knowledge implementation in clinical information systems such as electronic health records (EHR). Conclusion M*R/K provides a systematic means to address some of the complexities of knowledge composition and interoperability related to medical knowledge representations used in diverse standards. The framework may be used to guide the development, assessment, and coordinated use of knowledge representation formalisms. M*R/K could promote the alignment and aggregated use of distinct domain-specific languages in composite knowledge artifacts such as clinical practice guidelines (CPGs).
... One perspective that researchers often use is information processing. In this context, the input-process-output model [40] is commonly utilised but with various meanings of its elements [41]. For example, one model implementation could be with the process as the application structure flow [41], with inputs being data that flows into the application and outputs being data that flows out of the application. ...
... In this context, the input-process-output model [40] is commonly utilised but with various meanings of its elements [41]. For example, one model implementation could be with the process as the application structure flow [41], with inputs being data that flows into the application and outputs being data that flows out of the application. The DR application in this model would have inputs such as CAD models or user actions, while the outputs would be engineering information represented to the user. ...
Article
The development of immersive virtual reality (IVR) applications for design reviews is a major trend in the design field. While many different applications have been developed, there is little consensus on the functionalities necessary for these applications. This paper proposes a classification scheme for IVR functionalities related to design reviews (DRs), combining conceptual-to-empirical and empirical-to-conceptual strategies. The classification scheme consists of eight class categories (Input, Representation, Navigation, Manipulation, Collaboration, Edit, Creation, and Output), 22 class subcategories, and 55 classes. The classification scheme has been validated by analysing several commercial IVR applications for DRs. As part of the classification scheme development, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was utilised to review 70 articles that develop IVR applications for DRs. The results from systematic literature reviews suggest the development of solutions that integrate several class categories, are better connected to current design workflows, include various design information, support a DR planning cycle, and support distributed work. The proposed classification scheme helps to orient the future development of IVR applications for DRs and provides a framework to systematically accumulate evidence on the effect of such applications on DRs.
... Each location in the ZFEA is a normalized (or simple) reality so that no separate particular fact can come from the plural cell. According to Zachman (1987), a full matrix is certainly a total collection of descriptive representations relevant to describing a company. In particular, in developing a suitable model of an enterprise, it is necessary to combine primitive elements. ...
... In TOGAF's see, E.A. (Endeavors Design) is partitioned into four: building spaces: commerce, Information, application, and innovation. These spaces depict the framework design that bolsters the venture and adjust to the "How, What, Who, Where, and When" column of the Zachman system (Zachman, 1987). In turn, they don't cover the components that spur suitable plan and operation with Zachman's "Why" Column. ...
Conference Paper
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Several strategic plans, management performance, tools, and measurements provide an overview of the business intelligence as a standard and how many standards have been achieved in organizational goals. This consideration cannot be separated from the desire to improve the quality of existing management performance and improve business skills to win in local and global business competition. Several elements of vital achievement have been indicated since the start of the business. As time goes by, the number of vital achievement factors has also increased, but it remains an important concern for business players now and in the future. This research seeks to explore and study the development of several methods of measuring performance management, strategic planning, business relationship activities, value-flow improvements, business process maturity, manufacturing control and improvement, critical success factors, enterprise architecture and components, business skills and procedures, business information and technology, value chain, etc. Keywords
... FEAF was created for the federal governments [6]. Zachman Framework represents the 12 perspectives of different stakeholders [7]. Alternatively, TOGAF acts as an iterative framework that provides methods to assist the production, use, and maintenance of EA [8]. ...
... However, the formulas(6)(7)(8) illustrate the measurement results of individual/group of ICT applications penetration levels of the entire Bahraini sector as follows: For x = Number of rows; y = Number of columns; N = (0 or 1); M = A, B, ..., K; ...
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Building on a coincided in progress paper, this paper constructs and evaluate an information systems architecture (ISA) model for the Bahraini AEC/Construction sector, from the lens of enterprise architecture (EA). This model acts as an ICT barometer tool to identify and benchmark the ICT's gaps, duplicative levels, and future investments. Following the design science research, this paper and throughout a utilization of a tailored version of the open group architectural framework (TOGAF), embedded into a rigorous case study approach, the construction, testing, and evaluation of the conceptual ISA model is approached to benchmark the ICT measurement. Empirically, the study revealed the appropriateness of the model and the ability to identify the availability of 28 groups of 38 individual ICT applications in the Bahraini AEC/Construction sector and benchmark them to score an average of 18.5% against 17 countries that scored an average of 18.6%.
... Existen varios modelos, o frameworks, que prescriben qué describir de una arquitectura y cómo hacerlo. Algunos de estos frameworks han sido desarrollados dentro de una empresa como IBM [27,28], otros por organizaciones estatales como el Departamento de Defensa de los Estados Unidos [29], y otros por consorcios de organizaciones como el Open Group [30]. Los diferentes frameworks pueden tener diferencias de objetivos, enfoques y niveles de abstracción, han surgido en diferentes momentos, algunos han sido influenciados por otros y algunos de ellos mantienen una evolución hasta hoy. ...
... Estos autores pronosticaban en 1992 que la década del 90 sería la de la arquitectura de software, y efectivamente se propusieron varios frameworks en esa década, algunos de los cuales aún hoy se utilizan. Un antecedente temprano es el Zachman Framework presentado en 1987 y extendido en 1992 [27,28], y posteriormente se propusieron otros como Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) en 1993 [32], The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) en 1995 [30], Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM) en 1996 [26], Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) en 1997 [29], o Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) en 1999 [33]. Esta enumeración no es taxativa, y solo tiene el espíritu de demostrar el interés por la arquitectura existente en esa década. ...
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Multi-tier architectures have been the de facto standard for web applications, leaving little room for alternative architectures. In the industry there is a product to develop and run web applications that follows a different architecture, centered on the RDBMS to the extreme of not needing any other component to function. There are not many papers in academia that addresses RDBMS-centric architectures in general, and this extreme architecture in particular has not been considered. In this work, the state of the art of database-centric architectures is analyzed, and an example of extreme database-centric architecture is analyzed. The general case of the architecture that I have called RDBMS-only is described, and the guidelines of this architecture are followed in the development of a functional prototype. Based on the implementation of that prototype, the feasibility of the architecture for a class of applications is shown, and a critical analysis of the architecture is carried out.
... In the last thirty years, the more general EA approach has been proposed, [5,29,37,38,39,42], each of which has its advantages and disadvantages, and they are complementary to each other, [35]. It turned out that the existing EA approaches are not sufficient to cover the domain of companies providing ICT services. ...
... At first, it only applied to application development but after that, it became a framework for modeling the entire enterprise. In his paper [42], the author has presented challenges ISSN 2250-3153 www.ijsrp.org and vision for enterprise architecture for the next twenty years. ...
Article
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The relationship between business and IT is a constant theme in both academic and industrial circles for more than 30 years. Aligning Business and Information Technology (IT) is generally seen as an important component of the foundation to optimize business performance. Due to constant changes in both the IT world and in modern business, working on an alignment of business and IT is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this paper is to offer an approach to solving the alignment problem of IT and business complex in the company, with particular emphasis on applications in the field of insurance industry. The cause of alignment problem lays primarily in different abstraction levels of business and IT concepts [9]. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes the construction of Enterprise Architecture (EA) [25], which connects models of the organization and its business processes to software architecture models and an implementation environment. The first layer of this architecture is a Business architecture that is defined here as the map of comprised business processes, and is a concretization of contemporary business models in the field of enterprise architecture. Concretization is done here in the context of the insurance company, and is the basis for the definition of the other layers of the architecture.
... Based on the Zachman EA framework, strategic alignment and governance is an integral part of security in developing an enterprise security framework, and all security needs for data, application, and technology dimensions need to derive from business (Fumy & Sauerbrey, 2006;Sherwood, 2005;Zachman, 1987). ...
... Modelling of business changes involves normally management and execution of business activities based upon which business services are provided. A widely adopted modelling framework is the Enterprise Architecture (EA) (Zachman, 1987). EA provides a comprehensive approach to the design of structure and operations of an enterprise. ...
... Zachman's Framework. Zachman's framework (Zachman, 1987) was developed for Business Systems Planning, and IBM's widely used information planning methodology in the 1970s, as well as Intensive Planning, the basis for IBM's team planning techniques. The framework provides the necessary detailed, complete, and robust view o f the enterprise information architecture (see Table 3.5). ...
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The incorporation o f concepts and methods for understanding user needs in a user study and the use o f them in product development are critical factors in an increasingly complex market and technological environment. The problem can be identified in three parts. First, user data from user studies cannot be effectively used in product development. Second, user knowledge is not recognized in product development. Third, the complexities o f designing products for individual needs do not align well with the expectation o f use. This research introduces the knowledge lifecycle interplay between the user study and product development phases. The goal o f this research is to introduce a method, concept and model for the entire design process. The three proposed solutions are Object-Mediated User Knowledge Elicitation - OMUKE method, Pattern o f User Knowledge - PUK, and Use Process Based Product Architecture - UPPA. OMUKE is a method proposed for capturing user knowledge. The method is built from an empirical research o f existing methods (Convergent Perspective Approach), and an experimental study with the OMUKE software. Pattern o f User Knowledge is a documenting tool used for transforming user knowledge into product architecture. The tool is based on the existing literature o f knowledge transformation, such as Pattern Language. UPPA is a concept for mapping the use process to product architecture to match the users’ expectation on operational pattern. UPPA derives from the analysis o f an existing architectural framework. The results of the findings and evaluation by user-study experts indicated that the OMUKE method is consistent and effective in its identification o f user knowledge. These experts recognize that user knowledge is a source for developing innovative products. The evaluation o f patterns o f user knowledge is evidence that function is a major factor in transforming user knowledge into product solutions. The evaluation o f UPPA suggests that the concept is a means to define products that meets user needs based on user behavior. In conclusion, the method can be effectively used to capture user knowledge and use it to form the product architecture in knowledge lifecycle processes.
... Previous studies have leveraged mapping framework as integration platform for IS architecture Zachman, 1987). Similarly, The researcher applied mapping framework as recommended by Similarly Strauss and Corbin (1990) grounded theory analysis proffers integration framework for mapping categories to core categories. ...
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ABSTRACT The introduction of consumer MHealth technology is highly extolled for its potential to facilitate access to health, alleviate the shortage of health care resources, reduce hospitalization of patients, and mitigate health cost. The overwhelming endorsement shows the use of MHealth to complement existing healthcare infrastructure by targeting heterogeneous audience for specific health need. However, consumer MHealth innovation is traditionally considered for measures of coverage, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness with little discussion of the unintended consequences of escalating inequalities for underserved consumers of low socioeconomic populations. Furthermore, MHealth studies show that inequalities are fundamentally addressed as derivative of socioeconomic phenomenon without further explanation of how social and technology factors reinforce and aggravate its patterns. Therefore, the proliferation of consumer MHealth innovation and its concomitant health inequalities have important consequences. Researchers, managers, and other health information systems’ stakeholders increasingly face the dilemma of reconciling the perplexing, and often contradictory rise in health inequalities in their commitment to implement MHealth innovation. Existing studies reveal the paucity of empirical research and methodological limitation, including the lack of relevant theories to describe, explain or predict how sociotechnical mechanisms reinforce and aggravate inequalities in MHealth. Thus, the study of inequalities in consumer MHealth presents fundamental challenges relating to its substantive nature, its origin, and scope; as well as the methodological concern of how to address the anomalies. It is therefore the objective of this research to address these gaps by exploring the antecedents of inequalities in consumer MHealth, and to resolve the following challenges: (1) the lack of consensus on the theoretical concepts of the relevant factors, (2) the elaboration of the relationship between the antecedent factors, and (3) to develop IS framework which can be used to mitigate inequalities in consumer MHealth innovation for PAB. To achieve the above objective, the researcher adopted the interpretivist paradigm and qualitative approach as a reflective method to capture the emergent complexity of human sense making in a natural sociotechnical interaction between information technology, the people, and the context. Multiple case study and purposive sampling were also adopted to enable comparative selection of cases, and to intensify comprehensive data gathering that captures the richness of the cases. Accordingly, the prerequisite technology artefact was operationalised with MHealth for physical activity and fitness (PAF). Essentially, the aim was to document in xiv detail the conduct of everyday events in the implementation and use of MHealth for PAF and to identify the meaning assigned to these experiences by participants. The research study was conducted in the Republic of Ireland (ROI); and the data collection occurred in the period between July 2019 and March 2020. Twenty-four individuals from twelve households of ethnic minority people of African background (PAB) participated individually in the data collection which involved demographic survey, observational data with think-aloud protocol (TAP), and role-play demonstration (RPD), as well as in-depth interviews. The lack of pre-existing notion of the MHealth phenomenon and the originality of this study necessitated the use of TAP and RPD, which were devised as templates to apprehend the true nature of the emerging phenomenon. The TAP and RPD are direct observational tools designed to illuminate human interactions which are situated in practice, to grasp knowledge that are mainly observed but absent from other documentation. The researcher reasoned that unless research participants are extremely insightful, they might not know or remember all the rationale for their behaviour. Thus, the researcher prepared and collected quantitative and qualitative data from each participant for eight weeks. Thereafter, the researcher organised all data with NVivo QDAS and concurrently conducted grounded theoretical analysis. The qualitative analysis resulted to categories and core categories which have explanatory and predictive powers and provide understanding of the inequalities in consumer MHealth. Thus, this research study has immense contribution to IS theory and practice, especially for its novel methodology which uncovers the nine antecedents for examining inequalities in MHealth. Similarly, the discovery of the formative factors of inequalities in MHealth provides useful taxonomy, and clearly reveals that socioeconomic factor is one part of the nine antecedents that impact MHealth. Furthermore, the researcher developed the MHES model, and a framework to mitigate inequalities in consumer MHealth innovation. Consequently, the IS stakeholders, the PAB and underserved populations can leverage the MHESF at individual, social or organisational level to mitigate inequalities in consumer MHealth innovation. However, the transdisciplinary nature of sociotechnical research such as this requires complementary representation from relevant IS reference disciplines, as well as greater involvement of MHealth stakeholders for richer insight. Furthermore, qualitative studies of this type are subjective, idiographic, and emic, with emphasis on relevance. Notwithstanding, this study paves way for mixed method research that combines relevance and theory verification.
... The presented reference models visualize different views or models. Relating to the Zachman Framework [38], IMSMF mainly covers system model (row 3) and technology model (row 4). The deployment (row 5) can be based on IMSMF, while functioning enterprise (row 6) is at least partly helped by the added tools. ...
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Each person on the Internet typically has several digital accounts, which are associated with different identity information. During the last years, various identity and access management (I&AM) approaches were established to help manage all these digital identities and operate online services within an organization and beyond. This development has led to heterogeneity, making it hard to differentiate between, comply with, and combine these approaches. In this paper, we describe a reference service model framework for different I&AM flavors by utilizing modern Enterprise Architecture Management using the framework ArchiMate. The proposed identity management service model framework (IMSMF) consists, on the one hand, of a meta-model and several models for various protocols and implementations, and, on the other hand, models, which were designed in a generic service-oriented way. These models lead to a universal model to indicate additional components for an enhanced I&AM. IMSMF has been evaluated through several rounds of expert interviews. IMSMF helps to establish, enhance, and change I&AM systems while also being a base for profound further research.
... In 1987, the first edition of the Zachman Framework was published [45], followed by a revised version in 1993 and 1999 [46]. Zachman defines architecture as a collection of relevant design artifacts or descriptive representations that explain an entity that will be built in accordance with quality standards and maintained over its expected lifetime (change). ...
Conference Paper
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Enterprise Architecture (EA) has become a necessity for organizations to address their business, data, infrastructure, and information systems. EA deployment in the government sector (e-government) is seen crucial for enhancing the effectiveness of electronic-based service delivery. Unfortunately, there are some crucial challenges to the fundamental requirements of EA in the e-Government sector. There are still partially implemented, lack understanding of technological advances, lack of understanding architectural framework usability, does not have good documentation, and slow service. There is no certainty of normative standardization for operating procedures. Several studies have been conducted to solve these problems. However, its steps are not articulated systematically, nor are the requirements for designing an enterprise architecture for e-government described. This study aims to employ EA for Smart Regency, the unique characteristics of suburban areas in Indonesia. This research conducted Zachman Framework (ZF) as Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) methodology. This research has produced the Mapping of EA Model, EA List and Classification of Critical Success Factor, EA Model of Hierarchy Enabling factors, EA Value Chain, and EA Business Process Modeling from Smart Regency Development. This research contributes to exploring and selecting the appropriate e-Government EA framework for Smart Regency service architecture in Indonesia. It helps local government and stakeholders to attend to more crucial factors in developing Smart Regency EA.
... One particular concern usually comprises both static and dynamic aspects. Conventional system analysis and design methods separate various dimensions of enterprise architecture [16]. Therefore, these methods used have the problem of bridging static and dynamic aspects of different concerns. ...
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One of the problems with conventional conceptual modelling methods is that they do not take into account certain important semantic interdependency types between the static and dynamic aspects. Integrity of dimensions is crucial for successful reasoning and solving problems that occur in conceptual modelling. Typically , conceptual modelling methods project various aspects of information systems using different graphical representations. Therefore, to reach semantic integration of various architectural aspects is very difficult. This paper presents semantically integrated conceptual modelling method. This method enables stability and flexibility of the diagrams that are very important for managing constant changes of organizational and technical requirements. It shows how alternative actions introduced into different scenarios. This is also important for controlling semantic integrity and for maintaining holistic representations of different aspects. Holistic modelling approach enables reasoning about system architecture across organizational and technical system boundaries. On a simple hotel reservation system scenario, it is demonstrated how different actions can be decomposed into more primitive underlying interaction loops. Integrated conceptual modelling method is important for evaluation of expressive power of conceptual modelling languages.
... Архітектурна модель організації (enterprise architecture, EA) широко використовується для опису різноманітних КОС і зазвичай асоціюється з популярними еталонними моделями (фреймворками) EA (Zachman [8], TOGAF [9], FEAF [10], NAF [11] тощо). Аналіз артефактів EA, які використовуються в успішній практиці EA, показує, що поняття EA можна краще пояснити за допомогою вдосконаленої таксономії, яка визначає шість загальних типів артефактів EA на основі того, що описують артефакти EA та як артефакти описують EA: міркування, стандарти, бачення, ландшафти, контури та проєкти [12]. ...
Article
Targeted activity in all spheres of modern society is carried out within the framework of organ-izational systems of various types and for various purposes using situational management methods. Cybernetic organizational systems are represented as ordered sets of interacting com-ponents (artifacts, system components), united by the performance of a specified function based on information exchange. The ontological approach to the design of any class of complex sys-tems makes it possible to carry out a clear and hierarchical decomposition of the design pro-cesses of any system of a given purpose into certain design actions, many of which can be per-formed concurrently and each of which – in the context of a local component system. The mod-el of the subject area of knowledge is determined by the architectural model of the cybernetic organizational system and its context of interaction with the environment. The architecture of the cybernetic organizational system ensures the implementation of the process of situational management as a composition of motivations, knowledge, opportunities, resources, and limita-tions. The idea of a target cybernetic organizational system is presented in the form of a list of needs and models on the basis of the analysis of which requirements are formalized in accord-ance with needs. The construction of the architecture of the cybernetic organizational system is specified by the formalized system requirements from the knowledge base of the cybernetic or-ganizational system and confirmed by the results of the analysis based on system models and test operational tasks. Relationships between artifacts form an architectural model of the system which combines activity regulations, activity structure, activity directions, technological stand-ards, structures, and solutions. The proposed ontological model of knowledge of the architecture of the cybernetic organizational system combines technological, organizational and project concepts.
... John A. Zachman (1987) przedstawił model opisujący artefakty procesu wytwarzania oprogramowania. Wnioskował, że system informatyczny powinien wspierać cele biznesowe korporacji. ...
Article
The aim of the article is to present a case study for creating the business architecture of an organization in a selected enterprise and to indicate the importance of developing an organization’s business architecture for functioning in the economy and society: the Third Wave by Alvin Toffler. The author points to the need to introduce business architecture standards into organizations, not only to enterprises, but also to local governments and non-governmental organizations. The article presents practical solutions of business architecture in the layer: business, data, software, application and technical requirements for a selected process.
... Zachman Architecture Framework (ZAF) System Ontology Matrix for Project-Management Performance Measures[26]. ...
Article
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Measuring project management performance is complex and requires tools to capture the dynamic nature of the processes involved. Since the conception of system dynamics in the 1950s, the method has been used to solve complex projects. Project management possesses dynamic characteristics that involve planning, human resources, implementation, and control elements; thereby, using system dynamics to measure project management performance is a realistic approach. A research study was conducted using system dynamics to develop project management performance measures to capture the complexity of the process in local government agencies. The research approach considers measuring project engineering management performance as a holistic system influenced by leadership involvement, project management processes, and project engineering manager’s ability. The Zachman architectural framework was used to develop the project-management performance system’s ontology as the system dynamics model’s foundation. A case study was conducted for three cities with local government agencies to better understand the model components and factors that influence performance. Leadership involvement, project management processes, and project manager abilities were identified as critical factors that influence the project management performance level. To validate the results of the case study, the project management performance was further studied for the City of El Paso in terms of capability, capacity, and maturity level. The research study concluded that system dynamics is a feasible method and effective tool to measure management performance for engineering projects at local government agencies.
... The requirement is that the data that is produced by ERP systems is to be Information Technology Drivers in Smart Farming Management Systems DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.106320 A mapping schematically between Zachman architecture and components of Data Lakes[62]. ...
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The chapter describes the possibilities of collecting digital data on crop and livestock production and their use in "smart farming" systems. Earth drone and spectral mobile mapping technologies can provide plant production-related measures with high temporal and spatial resolution. Remote sensing helps better understand farming patterns and crop management. Improving understanding of the link between remotely sensed data and risk assessment and management in "smart farming" is very important. Controlled-environment agriculture takes advantage of light recipes, related to spectral light-emitting diode (LEDs) and sensors. In livestock farming, analyzing a database of digital data on the environment and livestock individuals can help farmers make decisions better. The heterogeneous digital data from plant and livestock production are collected into a Data Lake. Then the data are processed to transform the data into the proper format for data analytics. Data Warehouse should be integrated into an ERP system that is dedicated to the agricultural environment.
... A framework is thus needed to help provide the cascading explanation from the top holistic view down into a more granular implementation translation. Several frameworks typically aim to provide certain abstractions or dimensions of an enterprise information system and capabilities, such as Zachman Framework by Zachman (1987), GERAM by IFIP-IFAC (1999), and TOGAF by Desfray and Raymond (2014). To the best of the author's knowledge, little has been observed on the Framework that governs the pattern on how to deliver solutions in a big data environment specifically. ...
Article
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Notwithstanding the perceived global potentiality, how big data enhances decision-making quality prompts an intriguing inquiry, especially in an increasingly competitive banking environment in developing economies. Building on an industry data-driven framework, this study strives to understand the state of implementing big data in the Indonesian banking sector. A deductively organized descriptive method employing in-depth interviews was conducted with subject matter experts representing Indonesian banking-related areas. The result and the following analysis show the modest status of big data implementation across three major banks and two complementary companies, as indicated by many elements of the framework phases that were found during the early adoption stage. This denotes a steady buy-in across banking business processes as particularly reflected in the framework’s four phases – continuing push to meet the variety aspect (intelligence), structured data architecture domination (design), limited choice of performance indicator for big data value (choice), and customer–corporate vision decoupling (implementation). While Indonesian banks have evidently initiated the big data implementation, further improvement remains imperative for the decision-making process. Accordingly, big data should be tightly coupled with a strong data-driven vision that drives decision-making across intra-firm actors. Handling data omnipresence shall be viewed as the embodiment of a data-driven vision.
... In 1987, John Zachman of IBM published information architecture framework, which started the framework standard of enterprise architecture. Zachman became the first reference model of enterprise architecture [4]. Over the past 30 years, enterprise architecture standards from different organizations and experts have been put forward. ...
Conference Paper
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Enterprise IT strategy is an important tool for the success of enterprise digitization and informatization. Enterprise application architecture is the core of enterprise IT strategy. Aiming at the shortcomings of traditional enterprise application architecture methodology, this paper proposes a high-level planning methodology, which starts from enterprise business architecture, integrates application status analysis and application solution survey results, and uses suitable application architecture principles to complete the high-level planning of enterprise application architecture. This methodology has been successfully used in many enterprise IT strategy projects, and this article illustrates it with examples.
... The open standards of IT strategy are based on Enterprise Architecture (EA). John Zachman proposed the Information Architecture Framework in 1987, which opened the door to EA. Zachman became the first reference model of EA (Zachman 1987). In addition to Zachman, the mainstream standards also include TOGAF, FEA, DoDAF, etc. Recognized and promoted by international mainstream IT manufacturers, TOGAF has become the most widely used mainstream open standard of EA. ...
Conference Paper
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The success of enterprise digitalization requires the application of enterprise IT strategy methodology. Aiming at the deficiencies of traditional methodology, this paper proposes a practical methodology for enterprise IT strategy. This methodology emphasizes starting from enterprise strategy, focusing on high-level planning of enterprise business architecture and enterprise application architecture, and formulating roadmaps through IT program design and IT budgeting. This paper illustrates the application of this methodology through examples, hoping to provide a useful reference for enterprise digital practitioners.
... • Zachman Framework is an enterprise ontology based on identification, definition, representation, specification, configuration, and instantiation. It presents a set of rules (Zachman, 1987) that are simplified in Figure 85 (Zuech, 2002) with the key objective of providing an organizational scheme for artifacts and systems. ...
Thesis
This thesis explores new systems engineering design needs for evolutive systemarchitectures (eSAR), which are a subset of a new generation of complex hardware-basedsystems, within a context defined by global design stressors such as resource scarcity, andcomplexity. These evolutive system are highly adaptable, aiming towards resourceregeneration, and presenting a highly intelligent baseline. Based upon an extensive literaturereview highlighting key gaps on state-of-the-art design engineering and system engineeringtechniques, a full cycle evolutive development methodology (eSARD) is presented inspiredby natural evolution mechanisms while addressing heritage, and better systemperformances. The holistic eSARD method tackles design, implementation, systemoperations, and overall system optimization of an eSAR.
... To deal with issues such as the complexity associated in ICT system cities now employ enterprise architectures frameworks (Jnr et al., 2020a, b). These enterprise architectures frameworks such as Zachman (Zachman, 1987), TOGAF, etc. comprises of aligned and structured collections of design plans for the integrated deployment of business and IS landscape of the city, in its past, present, and future states (Lange et al., 2016;Anthony Jnr, 2020). EAF also captures the city`s data dictionary and data model providing a common conceptual model to be used by practitioners that provide digital services in smart city. ...
Article
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Presently cities are undergoing changes and transformations due to the adoption of information and communications technology. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is one of the approaches adopted by practitioners and researchers to facilitate smart city development as it can enhance the effectiveness of cities’ digital resources and sustainability capabilities. But, despite several literature on EA, studies on the adoption of EA to improve the sustainability of cities are still at the early stage. Besides, there are fewer studies that provided evidence on the adoption of EA to make cities sustainable grounded on established theoretical models and quantitative data. Therefore, this study aims to provide an understanding on the adoption of EA by different practitioners involved in a smart city project. Knowledge transfer and support services are integrated as new external variables needed to improve practitioners’ behavior intention and actual adoption of EA in making cities smarter. A model is developed grounded on an extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and data was collected via a cross-country survey. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the data. Findings from this study offer implications for research and practice and provides opportunities for future research.
... The second dimension of the Zachman's Framework deals with the six basic questions: what, how, where, who, when and why. The framework does not provide guidance on a sequence, process, or implementation, but rather focusses on ensuring that all views are well established, ensuring a complete system regardless of the order in which they were established [22]. ...
Article
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Organisations all over the world are going through the process of digital transformation (DT). Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a method and an organising principle that aligns the business's objectives and strategies with the Information Technology strategy and execution plan. EA provides a guide to direct the evolution and transformation of enterprises with technology. The EA principles are one of the key concepts in the definition of EA; they assist in recognizing the organization vision and validating the outcomes. However, the lack of adequate instruments for assessing the current state and identifying opportunities for EA management procedures improvement often leave organisations unsure of where to begin improving their procedures. The aim of this paper is to help organisations identify these improvement opportunities. To do so, a decision model was developed to evaluate the influence DT technologies have on the EA principles proposed by The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF). A literature review was conducted, and five main DT Technologies applied in the EA scope were identified. With that, a decisional model was created based on two decision‐making methods called Decision‐Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory and PROMETHEE. The 21 architecture principles proposed by TOGAF were evaluated and the influence the technologies exercised on the principles were identified. As a result, Big Data and Cloud Computing technologies were indicated as having the greatest effect over the analysed principles, therefore concluding that when applied in the EA scope, these technologies can help organisations improve their EA procedures.
... Zachman framework was first introduced by John Zachman [4]. Zachman Framework does not determine where application development activities begin. ...
Article
Ma'had Sunan Ampel Al'aly is an educational institution under the auspices of the State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang which aimsto create an academic culture to improve the religious knowledge of new students at the Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang. So far, there is no blueprint at MSAA, so it is necessary to make a blueprint as a guideline for designing the ma'Ahad system design. With the bueprint, ma'had will have system design guidelines. So that when there is a new policy it will be easier to re-plan. To create a blueprint you can use the enterprise architecture framework with the Zachman Frameworkmethod. Zachman Framework is one of the best known and used enterprise architecture frameworks. In this study the Zachman Framework was used to design the blueprint in Ma'had Sunan Ampel Al'aly.
... This visual artifact is notable in showing the articulation between the cycles of design, rigor and relevance, which underlies the design science research paradigm. Hevner's et al. (2004) visual artifact enacts our interpretations and discussions about design science, as much as other notable visual artifacts enact interpretations in other fields, such as Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) SECI model in knowledge management, and Zachman's (1987) framework in software development. All in all, even though the common saying is that "the map is not the territory", in fact, our interpretation of reality is recursively shaped by visual artifacts (Siegert, 2011). ...
Article
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Design science is a recognized information systems research paradigm, which is fundamentally centered on problem solving through technology design. The design process involves reflexive thinking and exploration and is usually supported by a variety of visual artifacts, which facilitate structuring, combining, and communicating design knowledge. Visual artifacts are among possible main contributions of a design science endeavor. In this study, we analyze the nature and purpose of such visual artifacts. We adopt semiotics and a theory of visualization of thought, in combination with a literature review, to elaborate a framework of design science visual artifacts. We consider three domains of analysis: intentionality, form-and-function, and visual scheme. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework using two examples. Finally, we define a set of properties that researchers should consider when creating and using visual artifacts in design science: transparency of the relationship between representation and object, self-sufficiency of the visual artifact, and consistency of knowledge communication. The proposed framework helps researchers understand what properties should be focused on when developing their visual artifacts.
... q tests (third column): function objects gather the necessary information out of the business model and put this information in the appropriate form for handling by an 'external' software application, or the function objects themselves perform a test upon the business model and present the output to the user. q More information on the different stages in the development of an information system (IS) can be found in the article by Zachman[7], where this process is even explicitly compared with the architectural design process! The reframing of Zachman's Information System Architecture Framework by Maes and Dedene[8] lays the foundation of the M.E.R.O.DE methodology.The M.E.R.O.DE methodology was considered a firm base in order to start the research on the construction of the central object for architectural design in the early design phase. ...
... To support the implementation of digital engineering and strengthen the growth of the research field, a comprehensive methodology needs to be developed to foster the implementation of digital engineering. In this respect, the Enterprise Architecture framework (Lankhorst et al., 2010;Lapalme et al., 2016;Zachman, 1987) realized in the ArchiMate language (The Open Group, 2019) seems to be beneficial. The Enterprise Architecture framework enables a model-driven approach to ensure the IT applications are compatible with the related business processes, and the infrastructure is satisfying. ...
Article
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Digital Engineering is an emerging trend and aims to support engineering design by integrating computational technologies like design automation, data science, digital twins, and product lifecycle management. To enable alignment of industrial practice with state of the art, an industrial survey is conducted to capture the status and identify obstacles that hinder implementation in the industry. The results show companies struggle with missing know-how and available experts. Future work should elaborate on methods that facilitate the integration of Digital Engineering in design practice.
... Também foram definidos os seguintes critérios para realizar a revisão da literatura: ser artigo publicado nas bases relacionadas acima e abordar os temas centrais desta pesquisa, incluídos em um recorte temporal de 2003 a 2021 para BPM, de 1987 a 2021 para Arquitetura Corporativa e de 2009 a 2021 para Mineração de Processos e que se aplique a Mapeamento e Redesenho Inteligente de Processos de forma conjunta. Justifica-se esse recorte uma vez que as principais publicações sobre o tema Business Process Management iniciaram a partir de 2003, com a constituição oficial do BPM, a partir de 1987, com o surgimento da Arquitetura Corporativa em 1987 e Mineração de Processos em 2009, pois foi quando surgiu o método(ZACHMAN, 1987;AALST et al., 2014, CBOK, 2019. ...
Article
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O processo de transformação digital consiste na forma em que uma empresa emprega tecnologias para desenvolver um novo modelo de negócio, o que exige redesenho inteligente de processos. Diversos são os métodos aplicados no redesenho inteligente como: Business Process Management (BPM), Arquitetura Corporativa (AC) e Mineração de Processos (MP). Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo por meio de revisão de literatura analisar a aplicação do BPM, da AC e da MP no redesenho inteligente de processos. Para a revisão da literatura foram utilizadas as bases de dados: CAPES, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, SciELO, ScienceDirect e Spell. Foram selecionados 272 artigos. A análise dos resultados identificou como os métodos foram aplicados no redesenho inteligente de processos e evidenciou que apesar de certas desvantagens continuam sendo aplicados, o que pode gerar soluções híbridas para suprir as desvantagens de cada método.
... In carrying out its activities, Islamic banking collaborates with the information technology sector to build a sharia banking information system by creating a special application that can simplify all transaction processes in Islamic banking. A good application must meet several important and interrelated requirements, namely product operation, product revision, product transition, (Zachman, 1999). This has become something very relative when it is said that an application of Islamic banking technology is good or better than other applications. ...
Research
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This research examines customer satisfaction and loyalty in Islamic banking in the use of internet banking. The research was conducted based on the increase in e-banking users in Islamic banking in Indonesia. E-banking is one of the banking information system services needed today. The research method was carried out using the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through AMOS and SPSS software. Meanwhile, data collection is carried out through an online survey via a google form. The online survey found 154 respondents of which 27% were from Central Java Province and 47% from the Special Region of Yogyakarta with simple random analysis sample analysis. This study shows that internet banking adoption has a significant effect on customers in Islamic banking, while satisfaction is very large in mediating the relationship between internet banking use and customer loyalty in Islamic banking. Theoretically, this study implies that the banking information system, especially in internet banking, plays an important role in providing service and satisfaction and has a significant effect on customer loyalty.
... IEEE presents architecture in IT as "fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements, relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution" (Drews and Schirmer 2014). Since Zachman identified the need for architecture in IS (Zachman 1987), multitudes of subgenres emerged to specifically focus on various aspects of the enterprise and its IT assets. Enterprise Architecture (EA) could be defined as a precise and unambiguous future-oriented practice for conducting fundamental analysis, design, planning, implementation, and governance of an enterprise's present and target IT landscapes; and optimizing and integrating its processes, while specifically accounting for fragmented and legacy processes (Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professional Organizations 2013; Kotusev and Storey 2015; Niemann 2006;Winter and Fischer 2006). ...
Chapter
The concept of smart grids affects both the topology of the grid and the IT infrastructure, leading to various heterogeneous systems, data models, protocols, and interfaces on different enterprise architecture levels.
Chapter
Any study or project within the framework of system design has chosen to start the modeling phase with the model-based systems engineering approach (MBSE), it will encounter decision-making difficulties with the approach. to adopt. During the last two decades, many MBSE methodologies have been developed, but the majority of them present an incomplete or abstract architectural framework for organizing the modeling work. The MBSE Grid-based Systems Modeling Language (SysML) approach has made the modeling task easier for system engineers. Indeed, SysML constitutes a powerful tool, using its diagrams, to model the points of view according to the principle of development of requirement, behavior, or structure of the system. This paper summarizes the MBSE methodologies most used in research work and development projects. In the context of our study, the MBSE Grid approach is adopted with slight modifications concerning the names of the domains of the grid. By combining with Bombardier Transport SysMM's MBSE methodology, which consists of three main phases, the proposed MBSE grid presents a modeling approach by analysis: the operational, functional, and technical of the system. The purpose of this work is to conduct an operational analysis, for the implementation of a Health Monitoring and Management Unit (HMMU) of a hydropower group.
Thesis
Les grandes entreprises évoluent dans un environnement social, climatique, économique et désormais sanitaire, complexe et incertain qui remet en cause le déterminisme mécanique et la logique cartésienne. A cela, s’ajoute une 4ème révolution industrielle. Pour survivre, elles doivent donc évoluer et accroitre leur capacité d’innovation. La majorité des études existantes se sont alors concentrées sur l’innovation technologique, négligeant la dimension non technologique de l’innovation, couramment nommée : « innovation organisationnelle ». Pourtant, cette dernière permet aux grandes entreprises de prendre en compte un ensemble de facteurs qui favorisent leur capacité d’innovation et l’ancre dans leurs routines. L’objectif est alors, grâce à une approche systémique et transdisciplinaire, d’identifier ces facteurs, que nous nommons « capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle ». Elles regroupent les capacités dynamiques de l’entreprise ainsi que les antécédents de l’innovation organisationnelle. En effet, bien souvent l’innovation non technologique est perçue comme un concept flou et hétéroclite. Il apparait donc nécessaire de doter les entreprises de modèles, méthodes et d’outils qui permettent de rendre le concept concret et opérationnel. Néanmoins, de nos jours, la modélisation d’entreprise présente des limites pour d’une part, la représentation d’une grande entreprise que nous assimilons à un système« Organique » sociotechnique complexe et ouvert et d’autre part pour la représentation et pilotage des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle. Ainsi, dans le cadre d’une convention CIFRE avec l’entreprise SNCF Réseau, le laboratoire IMS de l’Université de Bordeaux et le laboratoire Icube de l’Université de Strasbourg, nous proposons un cadre conceptuel de la grande entreprise, de l’innovation organisationnelle ainsi qu’une démarche d’analyse et de préconisation des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle, basée sur notre propre modèle de l’innovation organisationnelle pour une grande entreprise.Ce travail de thèse a donc abouti à l’élaboration d’un méta-modèle qui permet à la grande entreprise d’avoir une vision systémique d’elle-même dans le but d’améliorer sa capacité d’innovation. Le modèle se compose de trois systèmes « Organisation-Territoire- Réseau d’acteurs, » et permet de mettre en évidence les capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle au sein des systèmes dans une logique de caractérisation et de pilotage de celles-ci notamment grâce à l’évaluation de leurs impacts et de leurs priorités. Notre démarche repose sur une étude de cas basée sur une méthodologie quantitative multicritères.Au final, cette thèse est à l’origine de plusieurs contributions. Tout d’abord, le décloisonnement des sciences nous permet d’étudier les antécédents de l’innovation organisationnelle liées au territoire, et aux réseaux d’acteurs, au-delà des approches classiques qui privilégient en général les antécédents internes à l’organisation. Ensuite, nous concédons une place centrale aux dimensions humaines et sociales qui s’avèrent essentielles tout comme l’est une meilleure compréhension de leurs interactions à la fois formelles et informelles (ex : culture d’entreprise, climat social, connaissances, leadership…). Enfin, l’étude de l’impact des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle que nous proposons n’a jamais été réalisée auparavant pour une grande entreprise (des travaux sur les PME existent). Ainsi, la capacité d’innovation d’une grande entreprise est dépendante des interactions entre le territoire, les systèmes qui le composent, ses réseaux d’acteurs et les systèmes socio technique de l’organisation. Ces résultats débouchent sur des recommandations pour un meilleur pilotage des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle favorisant la capacité d’Innovation qui s’ancre dans la culture de l’entreprise.
Thesis
Der Energiesektor in Deutschland erlebt seit einigen Jahren eine tiefgreifende Transformation, die eine Modifikation des Marktgefüges und eine Veränderung der Geschäftsmodelle beinhaltet. Für die Wirtschaftsinformatik erhält die Energiewende durch die dynamische Entwicklung der Geschäftsmodelle, der verbundenen Unternehmensarchitekturen und Informationssystemen eine besondere Relevanz. Daher wird in dieser Forschungsarbeit die aktuelle Situation deskriptiv aufgearbeitet und die Verbindung zwischen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerken, Geschäftsmodellen und Unternehmensarchitekturen beleuchtet. Ausgehend von domänen-spezifischen Fallstudien wird eine morphologische Referenzarchitektur gestaltet.
Book
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This book of proceedings contains peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 29th ISTE International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering (TE2022), organized by System Design and Management (SDM) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA, United States from July 5–8, 2022. TE2022 brought together a diverse global community of scholars and practitioners in dialogue and reflection on engineering itself. Engineering is changing rapidly. The connectedness of the world’s most critical systems along with rapid advancement of methods push us to ask “How will we teach, research, and practice engineering?”
Conference Paper
Currently, in many industries, innovation has become the most important driver for achieving competitive advantage. The increasing importance of innovation is partly due to the globalization of markets. Global competition has put pressure on companies in various industries to produce differentiated products and services and continuously innovate. Bringing new products to the market helps companies to maintain their profit margins, and also investing in process innovation helps companies to keep their costs down. In fact, due to the intense competitive environment in the world, innovation can be seen as a prerequisite for survival in any market, and its prerequisite is acceptance of the principle of competition. In general, nowadays, experts believe that different industries have no choice but to improve their business performance and gain a sustainable competitive advantage in order to stay safe from the waves of environmental changes and adapt to the competitive requirements. Paying attention to the research done, the main factor affecting business performance and sustainable competitive advantage is innovation; Therefore, planning for innovation in different industries should be taken into consideration, which is a reflection of the impact of innovation on improving business performance and gaining competitive advantage in different industries. With a comparative look at the indicators of organizational performance and innovation performance, it can be seen that these two have a necessary relationship with each other.
Article
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An introduction to the Open Knowledge Reference Model
Article
Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks have justified their efficiency to improve the enterprise functioning by providing a whole vision of an organization aligned to its strategy. However, these frameworks are often heavy and are not used integrally as they are not completely suitable for the situation at hand. To tackle this problem, we suggest using a component-based vision of EA frameworks. Our goal is to identify a set of EA components that could be used independently from each other and to use them depending on the context. This approach could be used to implement the whole EA method in an organization, to provide a progressive integration of different components, or to improve an existing EA by adding the lacking components. We called our proposal the SEA (Situational Enterprise Architecture) approach. In this paper, we propose a model to formalize EA components and illustrate this model with the TOGAF framework.
Chapter
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of Enterprise Architecture Management. It addresses questions like: What does EAM mean, what is the history of EAM, why do enterprises need EAM, what are its goals, and how is it related to digitalization? Further topics include the consequences of a laissez-faire approach in a complex enterprise-wide digital ecosystem, which is not steered but emerges “organically.” We also address the related question: if there is a middle ground between unmanaged chaos and exuberant, all-controlling central steering and planning of the digital ecosystem landscape. The chapter concludes with a short overview of essential EAM standards and literature.
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span>Building on a coincided in progress paper, this paper constructs and evaluate an information systems architecture (ISA) model for the Bahraini architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector, from the lens of enterprise architecture (EA). This model acts as an information and communication technology (ICT) barometer tool to identify and benchmark the ICT’s gaps, duplicative levels, and future investments. Following the design science research, this paper and throughout a utilization of a tailored version of the open group architectural framework (TOGAF), embedded into a rigorous case study approach, the construction, testing, and evaluation of the conceptual ISA model is approached to benchmark the ICT measurement. Empirically, the study revealed the appropriateness of the model and the ability to identify the availability of 28 groups of 38 individual ICT applications in the Bahraini AEC sector and benchmark them to score an average of 18.5% against 17 countries that scored an average of 18.6%.</span
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