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Trait psychopathy, task performance, and counterproductive work behavior directed toward the organization

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Abstract

On the basis of Lykken’s (1995) two-factor theory of trait psychopathy, we examined how self-centered impulsivity and fearless domi¬nance were related to the achievement (or lack of achievement) of organizational goals (i.e., task performance and counterproductive work behavior directed toward the organization). We expected that self-centered impulsivity, characterized by behavioral impulsivity and disregard for responsibilities, would be positively related to counterproductive work behavior directed toward the organization. We further expected that fearless dominance would be positively associated with counterproductive work behavior directed toward the organization for individuals with low levels of education and low levels of a specific social skill called interpersonal influence and positively associated with task performance for individuals with high levels of education. The results provided support for the differential relations between the psychopathic personality factors and the criteria of interest as well as for the moderating role of education and the skill of interpersonal influence in the behavioral expressions of the fearless dominance factor.

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... Building on previous research and extending research on FD in the vocational context (Blickle & Schütte, 2017), we aimed to test Lykken's (1995) intelligence-based socialization hypothesis and its work-related consequences in a large and diverse longitudinal sample (N = 4,012) over a 4-year time interval. This research has the potential to contribute to critical gains in the theoretical knowledge on personnel selection and change in counseling practices. ...
... This finding supports the contention that high intelligence supports the socialization of those high in FD. Finally, in a recent cross-sectional study, Blickle and Schütte (2017) used level of education as a proxy for socialization that is based on intelligence. They found that FD and low levels of education were positively associated with counterproductive work behavior, whereas FD and high levels of education were positively associated with high task performance. ...
... Poorly socialized persons may become delinquent and then criminal. Specifically, being emotionally resilient, fearless, and self-confident has an energizing effect (Hogan & Shelton, 1998), which may produce socially desirable or undesirable behavioral outcomes (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). The behavior eventually shown is guided by socialization (Lykken, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
We tested Lykken’s (1995) theory that the personality trait of fearless dominance (FD) can result in positive or negative life outcomes depending on whether the socialization process was successful or not. We tested FD’s predictive and moderated relations with vocational success over a time interval of 4 years. We found that the relations between FD and change in income were moderated by level of education. When educational level was high (low), there was a positive (negative) relation between FD and change in income. Change in income mediated the relation between FD and vocational satisfaction. Finally, FD directly predicted vocational satisfaction after 4 years. Implications and limitations are discussed.
... Building on previous research and extending research on FD in the vocational context (Blickle & Schütte, 2017), we aimed to test Lykken's (1995) intelligence-based socialization hypothesis and its work-related consequences in a large and diverse longitudinal sample (N = 4012) over a 4-year time interval. This research has the potential to contribute to critical gains in the theoretical knowledge on personnel selection and change in counseling practices. ...
... This finding supports the contention that high intelligence supports the socialization of those high in FD. Finally, in a recent cross-sectional study, Blickle and Schütte (2017) used level of education as a proxy for socialization that is based on intelligence. They found that FD and low levels of education were positively associated with counterproductive work behavior, whereas FD and high levels of education were positively associated with high task performance. ...
... Poorly socialized persons may become delinquent and then criminal. Specifically, being emotionally resilient, fearless, and selfconfident has an energizing effect (Hogan & Shelton, 1998), which may produce socially desirable or undesirable behavioral outcomes (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). The behavior eventually shown is guided by socialization (Lykken, 1995). ...
Article
We tested Lykken's (1995) theory that the personality trait of fearless dominance (FD) can result in positive or negative life outcomes depending on whether the socialization process was successful or not. We tested FD's predictive and moderated relations with vocational success over a time interval of 4 years. We found that the relations between FD and change in income were moderated by level of education. When educational level was high (low), there was a positive (negative) relation between FD and change in income. Change in income mediated the relation between FA and vocational satisfaction. Finally, FD directly predicted vocational satisfaction after 4 years. Implications and limitations are discussed.
... Aufbauend auf dieser theoretischen Basis werden im Folgenden zwei Arbeiten vorgestellt (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Schütte et al., 2015), die die Fruchtbarkeit dieses neuen Ansatzes, d.h. einer differentiellen Betrachtung von Furchtloser Dominanz und Egozentrischer Impulsivität zur Vorhersage von Leistungs-und Arbeitsverhalten im Berufsleben, aufzeigen sollen. ...
... Aufbauend auf dieser Bestätigung der Hypothesen führten die Autoren die Ergebnisse der ersten (Schütte et al., 2015) und zweiten (Blickle & Schütte, 2017) ...
... Die Orthogonalität der beiden Faktoren Furchtlose Dominanz und Egozentrische Impulsivität (Blickle & Schütte, 2017) ermöglicht allerdings auch das Vorhandensein einer hohen Ausprägung auf beiden Traits, was Ergebnisse erklärt, die Individuen als aggressiv, impulsiv und ungehemmt, aber gleichzeitig auch als charmant, selbstbewusst und talentiert im Impression Management beschreiben. Solche Personen mit einer derartigen Ambiguität von Charakterzügen zeigen wahrscheinlicher zugleich adaptives sowie antisoziales und kriminelles Verhalten (Lilienfeld, Patrick et al., 2012) und ziehen aufgrund dieser scheinbar paradoxen Persönlichkeitsstruktur (Lilienfeld, Patrick et al., 2012) die Aufmerksamkeit der Medien auf sich . ...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between organizational career management and career satisfaction, as well as three mediating resources based on the social cognitive career theory. Using an employee survey, 165 employees of a municipal utility company were questioned. In line with the theory, bootstrap confidence interval results show that the positive relationship between organizational career management and career satisfaction is mediated by individual career planning and perceived organizational support. Occupational self-efficacy was partly confirmed as a mediator. Findings illustrate the importance of organizational career management and provide practical implications regarding its implementation.
... Building on previous research and extending research on FD in the vocational context (Blickle & Schütte, 2017), we aimed to test Lykken's (1995) intelligence-based socialization hypothesis and its work-related consequences in a large and diverse longitudinal sample (N = 4,012) over a 4-year time interval. This research has the potential to contribute to critical gains in the theoretical knowledge on personnel selection and change in counseling practices. ...
... This finding supports the contention that high intelligence supports the socialization of those high in FD. Finally, in a recent cross-sectional study, Blickle and Schütte (2017) used level of education as a proxy for socialization that is based on intelligence. They found that FD and low levels of education were positively associated with counterproductive work behavior, whereas FD and high levels of education were positively associated with high task performance. ...
... Poorly socialized persons may become delinquent and then criminal. Specifically, being emotionally resilient, fearless, and self-confident has an energizing effect (Hogan & Shelton, 1998), which may produce socially desirable or undesirable behavioral outcomes (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). The behavior eventually shown is guided by socialization (Lykken, 1995). ...
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We tested Lykken’s (1995) theory that the personality trait of fearless dominance (FD) can result in positive or negative life outcomes depending on whether the socialization process was successful or not. We tested FD’s predictive and moderated relations with vocational success over a time interval of 4 years. We found that the relations between FD and change in income were moderated by level of education. When educational level was high (low), there was a positive (negative) relation between FD and change in income. Change in income mediated the relation between FD and vocational satisfaction. Finally, FD directly predicted vocational satisfaction after 4 years. Implications and limitations are discussed.
... Relatedly, a small but burgeoning literature has focused on psychopaths as professionals. This literature has indicated that psychopathic traits are more prevalent in the corporate world than in community samples (Babiak, Neumann, & Hare, 2010), that psychopathic leaders are viewed as high on charisma or self-presentation (creativity, strategic thinking, communication skills) but low on responsibility or performance (teamwork, management ability, accomplishments;Babiak et al., 2010), and that psychopathic leaders infringe negatively upon their employees' motivation, job satisfaction, and wellbeing (Almeida et al., 2015;Tassy, Deruelle, Mancini, Leistedt, & Wicker, 2013) while compounding counterproductive workplace behavior (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Scherer, Baysinger, Zolynsky, & LeBreton, 2013). These negative outcomes pertain PROFESSIONAL CAREER AND PSYCHOPATHIC TRAITS 5 to the psychopaths' social environment. ...
... In our study, we use the PPI-R (S. O. Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005), as it affords distinction among three key aspects of psychopathic traits (FD, SCI, CO) that appear to contribute differentially to professional outcomes (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Schutte et al., 2016). Further, related personality traits such as narcissism and Machiavellianism have been previously linked with questionable behavior at work (O'Boyle, Forsyth, Banks, & McDaniel, 2012;Sedikides & Campbell, 2017). ...
... Prior work distinguished less commonly between components of psychopathic traits, like SCI and FD, when examining professional success. Such a distinction is important and has been implemented in research on counterproductive work behavior (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Scherer et al., 2013). Overall psychopathic traits are, by and large, negatively linked to life success or professional success (Hassall et al., 2015;Ullrich et al., 2008). ...
Article
Does psychopathy predict professional success? Psychopathy and professional success are multidimensional constructs, and thus certain elements of psychopathy may be related more strongly to certain elements of professional success. Also, psychopathic traits, comprising self-centered impulsivity, fearless dominance, and coldheartedness, may not predict professional success above and beyond the Big Five. We investigated whether self-centered impulsivity, fearless dominance, and coldheartedness predicted professional satisfaction (satisfaction with salary, with promotion, and with career) as well as material success (annual salary, number of promotions, and professional standing) in an occupational sample (N = 439). Self-centered impulsivity was inversely related to professional satisfaction, whereas fearless dominance was positively related to professional satisfaction and material success. Coldheartedness was related to neither of them. Adding the Big Five, as well as participant gender and time in job, as predictors revealed that extraversion and self-centered impulsivity predicted professional satisfaction, whereas only extraversion predicted material success; fearless dominance was no longer a significant predictor of material success. Taken together, self-centered impulsivity was negatively linked, whereas fearless dominance was positively linked, to professional success. The findings highlight the differential contribution of impulsiveness- versus fearlessness-related elements of psychopathic traits to professional satisfaction.
... Thus, individuals exhibiting psychopathic tendencies represent a substantial part of our workforce, striving for power and control, potentially willing to engage in unethical behaviour to attain their goals (Jonason & Ferrell, 2016;Semenyna & Honey, 2015). Empirical research highlights the detrimental effects psychopathic tendencies may have via extreme work behaviours, such as manipulation, intimidation or coercion causing conflicts, impaired wellbeing among co-workers, and decreased organizational productivity (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Boddy et al., 2015;Walker & Jackson, 2017). The financial damages in the United States associated with such behaviours are estimated at several hundred billion dollars every year (McGee & Fillon, 1995;Murphy, 1993) not taking into account the vast negative impact on psychological well-being of individuals who have fallen victim to psychopathic schemes. ...
... A recently conducted study however highlighted the pivotal role of disinhibition, a hallmark feature of secondary psychopathy in positively predicting CWB (Neo et al., 2018). Fittingly, Blickle and Schütte (2017) as well as Schütte et al. (2018) show that secondary psychopathy positively relates to CWB while primary psychopathy only relates to CWB if education or political skills were low. Consequently, the present study attempts to derive an explanatory mechanism linking secondary psychopathy, the seemingly more predictive psychopathy dimension for deviant workplace behaviour, to CWB. ...
... The present study contributes to the growing body of research suggesting secondary psychopathy to be of high relevance in predicting CWB (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Neo et al., 2018;Schütte et al., 2018). Taking appraisal and emotional processes into account, our study provides an explanatory mechanism as to why secondary psychopathy traits may translate into deviant workplace behaviour. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine possible explanatory mechanisms linking employee secondary psychopathy to counterproductive workplace behaviour (CWB). Based on the emotion-centred model of voluntary work behaviour we argue that secondary psychopathy is characterized by unfavourable cognitive appraisal tendencies, which in turn positively relate to negative affectivity. We further assume that this cognitive-affective process enhances CWB. We also include primary psychopathy into our research model to test if the presumed mechanism applies to both psychopathy dimensions. We collected daily-survey data from 470 employees (1670 days) and analysed these data using multilevel structured equation modelling. We found strong support for the hypothesized serial mediation model, indicating that secondary psychopathy triggers dysfunctional cognitive-affective tendencies and consequently increases the likelihood of CWB. The proposed model did not hold up for primary psychopathy. Our study outlines the presence of distorted cognition-affective patterns in employee secondary psychopathy only. These patterns seem to play a key role in explaining the link between employee secondary psychopathy and deviant workplace behaviour. Based on this procedural knowledge relevant implications for theory and practice are provided.
... Aufbauend auf dieser theoretischen Basis werden im Folgenden zwei Arbeiten vorgestellt (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Schütte et al., 2015), die die Fruchtbarkeit dieses neuen Ansatzes, d.h. einer differentiellen Betrachtung von Furchtloser Dominanz und Egozentrischer Impulsivität zur Vorhersage von Leistungs-und Arbeitsverhalten im Berufsleben, aufzeigen sollen. ...
... Aufbauend auf dieser Bestätigung der Hypothesen führten die Autoren die Ergebnisse der ersten (Schütte et al., 2015) und zweiten (Blickle & Schütte, 2017) ...
... Die Orthogonalität der beiden Faktoren Furchtlose Dominanz und Egozentrische Impulsivität (Blickle & Schütte, 2017) ermöglicht allerdings auch das Vorhandensein einer hohen Ausprägung auf beiden Traits, was Ergebnisse erklärt, die Individuen als aggressiv, impulsiv und ungehemmt, aber gleichzeitig auch als charmant, selbstbewusst und talentiert im Impression Management beschreiben. Solche Personen mit einer derartigen Ambiguität von Charakterzügen zeigen wahrscheinlicher zugleich adaptives sowie antisoziales und kriminelles Verhalten (Lilienfeld, Patrick et al., 2012) und ziehen aufgrund dieser scheinbar paradoxen Persönlichkeitsstruktur (Lilienfeld, Patrick et al., 2012) die Aufmerksamkeit der Medien auf sich . ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathie am Arbeitsplatz ist ein Thema, das in den letzten Jahren in diversen Managementfibeln, Printmedien, Onlinezeitschriften, Blogs und Ratgeberseiten viel Beachtung gefunden hat. Dabei beschreiben viele dieser populärwissenschaftlichen Publikationen den „Psychopathen“ als raffiniert, herzlos und ohne Hemmungen sowie als belastend und schädlich für das soziale Umfeld am Arbeitsplatz bzw. für die Firma oder Organisation, für die der „Psychopath“ tätig ist. Manche Autoren gehen sogar soweit, Individuen mit angeblich hohen Psychopathieausprägungen im Banken- und Finanzsektor die Schuld für die letzte globale Finanzkrise zuzuschreiben. Derartig grelle Aussagen ziehen viel Aufmerksamkeit auf sich und heizen unkontrollierte Spekulationen an. Ihr Wert für die tatsächliche Praxis im Berufsalltag ist allerdings mit Vorsicht zu genießen, denn es besteht eine gravierende Lücke zwischen den vielfach verbreiteten (Teil-)Informationen über „Psychopathen“ und der diesbezüglich empirisch abgesicherten Ergebnislage.
... Research on psychopathy in the workplace has focused largely on problematic workplace behaviors, such as bullying or manipulation . Recently, investigators have turned their attention to possible adaptive outcomes associated with selected psychopathic traits on the job, such as constructive leadership behaviors (Lilienfeld et al., 2012a(Lilienfeld et al., , 2012bNeo et al., 2016), and sampled employed participants from the community to attain representation of individuals in more typical workplace settings (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Neo et al., 2016;Smith, 2013). These studies point to implications of psychopathic traits for a host of adaptive and maladaptive workplace behaviors, including adaptive and passive leadership strategies, decision-making, task performance, and counterproductive workplace behaviors (CWB). ...
... Nevertheless, exclusive reliance on psychopathy total scores, as seen in numerous studies and some meta-analyses (e.g., O'Boyle et al., 2011), may mask divergent relations with external criteria (e.g., Blonigen et al., 2010;Latzman et al., 2019). Impulsive-antisocial traits evince consistently positive relations with both interpersonal and organizational CWB, whereas interpersonal-affective traits evince more mixed relations with CWB depending on the conceptualization of psychopathy (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Scherer et al., 2013;Smith, 2013). For instance, Smith (2013) found that Fearless Dominance -a dimension that is highly imbued with boldness-related features -was not significantly related to CWB among community members, whereas other interpersonal-affective traits assessed by psychopathy measures were positively related to both types of CWB. ...
... Although Boldness' relations with CWB are generally modest at best, some research suggests that they may become more pronounced in the presence of other constructs, including socioeconomic factors and other psychopathy subdimensions. Within an employed German sample, Fearless Dominance was positively related to organizational CWB, but only at low levels of education (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). Psychopathic traits may also interact with each other to predict workplace outcomes, although the evidence supporting this possibility remains provisional (e.g., Neo et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Relatively little is known about the relations between psychopathic traits and interpersonally-directed versus organizationally-directed workplace behaviors despite the implications of these traits for maladaptive (e.g., bullying, harassing, white-collar crime, slacking) and adaptive (e.g., improving the workplace, supporting others) workplace behaviors. In a sample of employed US-based community members (N = 352), we investigated the relations between the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) and an expanded version of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (E-LSRP), on the one hand, and interpersonal and organizational counterproductive behaviors and citizenship behaviors directed towards co-workers and the organization, on the other. As predicted, we found stronger positive associations between impulsive-antisocial traits (Disinhibition, Antisocial) and both interpersonal and organizational workplace deviance; however, these traits did not relate significantly to citizenship behaviors. We further found that interpersonal traits (Boldness, Egocentric) may play an adaptive role in the workplace, as demonstrated by increased citizenship behaviors. Affective traits (Callous, Meanness) were related to lesser engagement in citizenship behaviors and higher engagement in some interpersonally-directed counterproductive behaviors. In several analyses, statistical interactions among triarchic psychopathy traits, but not E-LSRP traits, predicted adaptive and maladaptive workplace behaviors. Our results suggest that employees’ psychopathic traits bear differential implications for both adaptive and maladaptive workplace behavior, and that these traits may operate in concert to increase the likelihood of such behavior.
... A specific outlet for aggression in everyday life can be counterproductive work behavior directed towards individuals (CWB-I), which refers to employee behaviors that violate interpersonal norms at work and threaten other employees' wellbeing (Bennett & Robinson, 2000;Marcus et al., 2016). Not surprisingly, psychopathy is empirically linked to increased CWB (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Scherer et al., 2013). While some research has already examined the mechanisms explaining the link between psychopathy and counterproductive behaviors (Schilbach et al., 2020), less research has shed light on dispositional moderators that could alleviate those negative consequences. ...
... Their actions are then more likely to meet normative expectations in social interactions. Therefore, we propose that high levels of nonlinguistic ERA will mitigate the positive relation between psychopathy facets representing disinhibition or meanness and CWB-I because these psychopathy facets capture aggression more than boldness (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). ...
... The FEMT does not exhibit any significant relations with either global or facet-level psychopathy scores. Neither boldness nor fearless dominance is associated with CWB-I (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). Table 2 shows the results of the regression analyses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on emotion recognition ability (ERA) and psychopathy produces divergent outcomes: While some studies find ERA deficits in persons with psychopathy, others find heightened emotional abilities. In this study, we seek to disentangle these inconclusive findings by employing different measures of psychopathy, analyzing them globally as well as on a facet level, and drawing on a newly developed non-linguistic measure of ERA. We hypothesize that ERA moderates the relation between psychopathy facets representing disinhibition and meanness and counterproductive work behavior directed towards individuals (CWB-I). In a multi-source design with a sample of 477 working adults with at least one coworker rating, we found no relations between the psychopathy facets and nonlinguistic ERA. We did find a moderation effect indicating that individuals high in psychopathy with lower ERA exhibited more CWB-I. Our results suggest that psychopathy does not inherently affect ERA; rather, further cognitive and affective processes need to be taken into account. ERA’s mitigating effect might help explain why not all individuals high in psychopathy behave aggressively.
... For example, Kosson (1996) reported no differences on attention task accuracy between those who score high or low in psychopathy. Blickle and Schütte (2017) reported that higher psychopathy combined with a high educational level predicts task performance, whereas when combined with a low educational level it predicts counterproductive work behaviours. ...
... This aligns to the power motive whereby facets such as aggression, fearlessness, risk-taking and other central tenets of psychopathy seem to facilitate performance (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). ...
... Second, to determine whether competitive orientations mediated this relationship. The findings supported our expectations and align to previous work examining the relationships between the Dark Triad, competitiveness and performance (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Guekes et al., 2012;Jonason et al., 2010;Roberts et al., 2018;Smith & Webster, 2017). All Dark Triad traits positively predicted task performance and these relationships were mediated by hypercompetitive and self-developmental competitive orientations. ...
Article
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The Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) are prevalent in athletes. However, currently, we do not know whether the Dark Triad confers any competitive advantages in sport. To address this issue, the present study had two aims. First, to examine whether the Dark Triad predicted task performance in a basketball free throw task. Second, to examine whether competitive orientations explained (i.e., mediated) this relationship. A sample of 189 athletes (mean age = 19.11 years) completed measures of the Dark Triad, competitive orientations, and task performance (basketball free throw task). Regression analyses indicated that the Dark Triad predicted better task performance. In addition, mediation analyses indicated that the Dark Triad-performance relationship was explained by both hypercompetitive and self-developmental competitive orientations. The present study provides the first evidence that the Dark Triad may lead to better task performance in sport, and that this effect may be driven by athletes' competitive orientations.
... In addition, research found that successful psychopaths differ from unsuccessful psychopaths in various protective variables. Successful psychopaths tend to possess higher levels of executive functioning (Ishikawa, Raine, Lencz, Bihrle, & Lacasse, 2001), intelligence (Wall, Sellbom, & Goodwin, 2013), education, and political skill (Blickle & Schütte, 2017) than unsuccessful ones. Similarly, Lilienfeld et al. (2015) hypothesized that boldness is an important protective factor which may buffer individuals with elevated levels of psychopathy against maladaptive outcomes. ...
... This significant finding lends support to the moderated-expression model of successful psychopathy (Lilienfeld et al., 2015). While previous studies which corroborated the moderated-expression model had examined protective factors such as intelligence (Watts et al., 2016), education, and political skill (Blickle & Schütte, 2017), none had explored the role of boldness in tempering the negative impact of psychopathy traits. Therefore, to our knowledge, this study is the first one to show that boldness acts as a protective factor which 21 buffers mean individuals against maladaptive well-being outcomes. ...
Article
Please refer to the revised and published full version of this paper: Du, Y.Y.L. & Templer, K.J. (2021). The happy subclinical psychopath: The protective role of boldness in successful psychopathy. Journal of Happiness Studies. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00444-8
... Secondary psychopathy, on the other hand, was positively related to counterproductive behaviors and negatively related to citizenship behaviors (Schütte et al. 2015). A subsequent study found that primary psychopathy was positively related to task performance and was unrelated to organizational deviance for individuals who possessed higher levels of education and interpersonal influence, whereas secondary psychopathy was positively related to organizational deviance (Blickle and Schütte 2017). Thus, it seems that primary psychopathy can be personally and organizationally advantageous in organizations, but that unearthing those effects depends on looking specifically at primary psychopathy and considering features of the work context. ...
... High levels of the primary psychopathy facet may uniquely position individuals for success in areas that are stressful, but important to societal functioning. Combined with evidence that primary psychopathy is unrelated to deviant behavior among people in positions of authority (Blickle and Schütte 2017;O'Boyle et al. 2012) and is related positively to heroism ), our findings suggest that primary psychopathy is more complex, and perhaps more adaptive, than prior research-mostly among samples of incarcerated people-has treated it. ...
Article
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Psychopathy is typically seen as a trait that is undesirable in any context, including the workplace. But several authors have suggested that people high in psychopathy might possess resources that preserve their ability to perform well in stressful contexts. We consider the possibility that primary psychopathy is adaptive—for the employee, if not for the organization—under conditions of abusive supervision. In particular, we draw from the multimotive model of interpersonal threat (Smart Richman and Leary in Psychol Rev 116:365–383, 2009) and the theory of purposeful work behavior (Barrick et al. in Acad Manag Rev 38:132–153, 2013) to argue that high primary psychopathy individuals possess characteristics that enable them to experience higher levels of well-being and lower levels of anger than their peers under abusive supervisors. Based on a scenario study and a time-lagged field study, we found support for a model in which abusive supervision moderates the relationships between primary psychopathy and positive work-related outcomes (positive affect and engagement), such that these relationships are positive under conditions of abusive supervision and either diminished or negative under conditions of low abusive supervision. Abusive supervision also affected the relationship between primary psychopathy and anger in the field study such that high primary psychopathy individuals were less angry under more abusive supervisors. Thus, there appears to be some credence to the notion of a “psychopathic advantage” in that primary psychopaths do have access to greater psychological resources than their peers under abusive supervision. However, these findings also suggest that abusive supervisors may empower employees with characteristics that hold strong potential to damage the organization and its stakeholders.
... Their data showed that some aspects of psychopathy (interpersonal and affective sphere) correlate positively with individuals' fitness, leading to more offspring in the future, while other aspects such as impulsivity and recklessness were negatively correlated with reproductive success, suggesting a disadvantage for future survival and procreation. On a cross-sectional level, there is evidence that some aspects of psychopathy, namely the fearless-dominant ones, are related to higher professional success [33][34][35]. ...
... However, an individual could express generous attitudes and at the same time be prone to engage in risky actions. By modelling each behavioural component separately, it would be possible to observe whether it is the combination of selfish and risk-seeking behaviours (that has been strongly correlated with psychopathy) that is evolutionarily adaptive or whether the evolution is driven by the dynamics of individual traits, similar to cross-sectional findings on professional success [33]. Could other combinations of the two traits invade the community? ...
Article
Full-text available
While cooperation and risk aversion are considered to be evolutionarily advantageous in many circumstances, and selfish or risky behaviour can bring negative consequences for individuals and the community at large, selfish and risk-seeking behaviour is still often observed in human societies. In this paper we consider whether there are environmental and social conditions that favour selfish risk-seeking individuals within a community and whether tolerating such individuals may provide benefits to the community itself in some circumstances. We built an agent-based model including two types of agent—selfish risk-seeking and generous risk-averse—that harvest resources from the environment and share them (or not) with their community. We found that selfish risk-seekers can outperform generous risk-averse agents in conditions where their survival is moderately challenged, supporting the theory that selfish and risk-seeking traits combined are not dysfunctional but rather can be evolutionarily advantageous for agents. The benefit for communities is less clear, but when generous agents are unconditionally cooperative communities with a greater proportion of selfish risk-seeking agents grow to a larger population size suggesting some advantage to the community overall.
... Successful psychopaths differ from unsuccessful psychopaths in various protective variables. They possess higher levels of executive functioning (Ishikawa et al., 2001), intelligence (Wall et al., 2013), education, and political skill (Blickle & Schütte, 2017). This led Lilienfeld et al. (2015) to propose the moderated-expression model. ...
... The findings from our moderator analyses, in which we tested the interaction effect of boldness and meanness on subjective well-being, lend support to both the differential-configuration and moderated-expression models of successful psychopathy (Lilienfeld et al., 2015). While previous studies which corroborated the moderated-expression model had examined protective factors external to psychopathy, such as intelligence (Wall et al., 2013;Watts et al., 2016) or education and political skill (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Schütte et al., 2018), the role of boldness in tempering the negative impact of meanness is relatively unexplored. As an important theoretical basis for successful psychopathy, Lilienfeld et al. (2015) suggested an integration of the differential-configuration and moderated-expression models, rather than treating them as mutually exclusive. ...
Article
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Drawing from models of successful psychopathy, self-determination theory, and personality theory, we investigated how the facets of the triarchic model of psychopathy are related to subjective well-being. We hypothesized that boldness was positively while meanness and disinhibition were negatively related to subjective well-being. We further hypothesized boldness as a protective factor that tempers negative effects of meanness. Participants, enrolled in part-time university courses for working adults in Singapore, provided self-ratings on the psychopathy facets (at Time 1) and on their job satisfaction, life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect (at Time 2). Hierarchical moderated regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Findings generally supported the hypotheses, demonstrating the differential contribution of the psychopathy facets to subjective well-being and highlighting the role of boldness as a protective factor in successful psychopathy. Practical implications for counselors and organizational decision makers are discussed.
... The lack of significant relationships between psychopathy and either the appropriateness or frequency of observation of academic incivilities may be explained by the Dark Triad's treatment of psychopathy as a unitary construct. Research suggests that there are multiple factors of psychopathy, which may be differentially related to behavior and under some circumstances, could have positive influences (see Blickle & Schütte, 2017). Thus, treating psychopathy as a unitary construct in the present study may have masked its relationships with perceptions of academic incivility. ...
... This finding is also supported by Olsen, Bjaalid, and Mikkelsen (2017), Rahim and Cosby (2016), Appelbaum et al. (2007), and Dunlop and Lee (2004), to the fact that the employees' workplace incivility such as aggression, intentional slowing down of the work, keeping busy with non-scheduled task, passing idle time, gossiping with peers, and so forth, contributes to the bottleneck and ineffectiveness in the organizational performance (Bureau et al., In Press;Sun & Wang, 2017). The consistent findings with the previously tested results (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Rahim & Cosby, 2016;Zheng et al., 2017) also contended that DWB has a significant negative influence on JP in Bangladesh. ...
Article
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This paper studies the moderating effect of transformational leadership (TL) on the relationship between deviant workplace behavior (DWB) and job performance (JP). Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 288 (n=288) respondents using quota sampling approach. The analysis shows that employees’ DWB negates JP and there is a moderating effect of TL behavior on the relationships of DWB and JP. TL can moderate the behavior of deviant employees which, in turn, contributes to accelerating JP. This study brings forth implications both for academics and professionals. It encourages more researchers from academics on it and robust applications of these findings for professionals for the effective utilization of their talents. It also proposes that the punitive approach of dealing deviant employees requires replacement with appropriate leadership styles.
... Looking into previous literature, despotic leadership and counterproductive work behavior have become the research focus in the field of behavioral management and psychology (Brender-Ilan and Sheaffer 2019; Erkutlu and Chafra 2018b). Counterproductive work behavior is defined as voluntary action that violates the organizational norms and values and threatens the well-being of an organization and its members (Blickle and Schütte 2017). Moreover, despotic leadership is also defined as aggressive behavior toward subordinates and the exploitation that creates fear and stress between subordinates regarding their job position in the organization (Jabeen and Rahim 2020). ...
Article
This article aimed to investigate the dark side of leadership behavior on counterproductive work behavior with the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and moderating effect of organizational cynicism. This study applied a PLS-SEM partial least square structural equation modeling technique to test the hypotheses on a sample of 345 police personnel of Pakistan. The results of this study indicate a positive and strong association between the despotic leadership and counterproductive work behavior. The findings show a positive and significant influence of despotic leadership on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the results show an important and significant influence of the despotic leadership and counterproductive work behavior when the mediation role of emotional exhaustion is included. Furthermore, this study found an insignificant moderating influence of organizational cynicism in the relationship between despotic leadership and emotional exhaustion. Implications and limitations are also discussed in this article.
... In line with this, scholars have shown that narcissistic leaders have bad relationships with their subordinates, which adversely effects job satisfaction and other work outcomes (Shurden and Shurden, 2019). On the other hand, psychopaths feel detached from the environment and seek self-enrichment (Blickle and Schütte, 2017). As stated by Kowalski et al. (2018), leaders with psychopathic tendencies do not hesitate manipulating the employees to their advantage. ...
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Generally, it is difficult to work efficiently in a toxic environment. Surprisingly, leaders are found to be liable for such toxic atmosphere because they possess certain traits that employees perceive as victimization. This research assesses the relationship between the dark triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) and perceived victimization with a focus on the mediating effect of abusive supervision and the moderating effect of mindfulness. For this purpose, we surveyed 274 employees in the healthcare sector of Pakistan by using random sampling technique in three waves. To analyze the data, the structural equation model with partial least squares and PROCESS were used. The findings suggest that abusive supervision plays a mediating role in the association between the dark triad and perceived victimization. The results did not support the mediating role of abusive supervision in the association between narcissism and perceived victimization, however, the mediated moderation model was supported. Further, the findings suggest that mindfulness weakens the effect of abusive supervision on perceived victimization. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the results are also discussed.
... Numerous theories have been used to articulate the relationships between workplace deviance and its dispositional predictors, including general perspectives on personality (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;, and motivational approaches (e.g., Mount et al., 2006;Schütte et al., 2018). However, social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) has been especially popular in workplace deviance research (Mackey et al., in press). ...
... Employees create the material wealth and spiritual wealth of an organization and are its most precious resource. However, the current employee-organization relationships are not so optimistic (Katsikea et al., 2015;Blickle, 2017;Day et al., 2017), exemplified by quitting, job burnout, counterproductive work behavior, and so on. Job burnout is an integrated state of physical and mental exhaustion and fatigue characterized by emotional breakdown, depersonalization and an attenuated sense of achievement (Maslach et al., 2001). ...
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It is of great significance to grasp and control the relationship between organizations and employees for the healthy development of an organization. This paper measured the closeness and distance of the employee–organization relationship. The results were based on an investigation of 554 employees. (1) The mean value of the employee–organization psychological distance (EOPD) was 3.51, indicating that the relationship between the employee and organization was not optimistic. (2) 48.79% of the 554 interviewees maintained “existence” relationships with their organizations, 28.13% of people maintained “exclude” relationships with their organizations, 20.44% had a “loyalty” relationship, while only 2.64% had an “integrated” relationship with their organization. (3) EOPD showed significant differences in terms of age, marital status, education, career, position and area of residence. (4) Detailed analysis was undertaken to explore the distribution characteristics of four relationships, and specific rules were found. Our research provided a new perspective and related references for the further study of organizational management.
... team work in companies or educational environments. On an individual level, psychopathy has been found to be related to counterproductive work behaviour [26] and negative impact on employees [27]. Our results therefore align with negative effects of psychopathic personality traits on individuals in the work context, but extend those findings to less cooperative behaviour in team settings. ...
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Static networks have been shown to foster cooperation for specific cost-benefit ratios and numbers of connections across a series of interactions. At the same time, psychopathic traits have been discovered to predict defective behaviours in game theory scenarios. This experiment combines these two aspects to investigate how group cooperation can emerge when changing group compositions based on psychopathic traits. We implemented a modified version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game which has been demonstrated theoretically and empirically to sustain a constant level of cooperation over rounds. A sample of 190 undergraduate students played in small groups where the percentage of psychopathic traits in each group was manipulated.Groups entirely composed of low psychopathic individuals were compared to communities with 50% high and 50% low psychopathic players, to observe the behavioural differences at the group level. Results showed a significant divergence of the mean cooperation of the two conditions, regardless of the small range of participants’ psychopathy scores.Groups with a large density of high psychopathic subjects cooperated significantly less than groups entirely composed of low psychopathic players,confirming our hypothesis that psychopathic traits affect not only individuals’ decisions but also the group behaviour. This experiment highlights how differences in group composition with respect to psychopathic traits can have a significant impact on group dynamics, and it emphasizes the importance of individual characteristics when investigating group behaviours.
... However, recently fearless dominance, a facet of psychopathy, was analyzed with reference to job performance and potential career success. After having found support in a cross-sectional study (Blickle & Schütte, 2017), these hypotheses were successfully tested in a longitudinal design (Blickle & Genau, 2019). Future research on the toxic career model should also follow this path from cross-sectional to longitudinal designs. ...
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Low honesty-humility is a broad indicator of the common core of dark personality traits. The toxic career model specified by Templer (2018) explains how dark personalities successfully climb the organizational ladder. It suggests that dark personalities can get ahead at work via self- and other-rated political skill, which results in improved job performance ratings by supervisors. We extended this mediation model by adding targets’ hierarchical organizational position. Additionally, we specified two moderating conditions that can explain how individuals with low and high honesty-humility can get ahead. First, enterprising job characteristics facilitate higher self-other agreement regarding political skill, thereby promoting the rise of individuals low in honesty-humility. Second, high honesty-humility compensates for low other-perceived political skill. We tested the moderated-mediation hypotheses from the extended toxic career model in a multi-source design with 203 target-peer-supervisor triplets. The data supported the hypotheses. Additionally, supervisors’ ratings of task but not team performance mediated getting ahead.
... Behavioral researchers outline many observable phenomena tied to the traits of a psychopath including weak skin conductance responses to aversive events (Hare, 1978), and poor passive avoidance learning (Blair et al., 2004). While research into those afflicted with such inner demons is relevant and valuable to understanding criminal behavior and mental illness, recent research branches outside of the institutionalized setting and now focuses on people who are not involved in crime or exerting extreme negative behaviors (Blickle & Schütte, 2017;Falkenbach, Glackin, & McKinley, 2018;Smith, Lilienfeld, Coffey, & Dabbs, 2013;Volmer, Koch, & Göritz, 2016). ...
Article
In this paper, the current research on psychopathy and its effect on other psychological issues, such as impulse control and suicide, will be reviewed. These psychological problems, specifically the latter, are particularly problematic amongst the police population. With the recent spike in police suicide making headlines globally, it is essential to understand the possible precursors to suicide. In doing so, much can be gleaned from a focus on understanding the specific psychopathic traits that can be developed as a result of exposure to stressful experiences and traumas over time. It is particularly intriguing to consider how these traits are developed as a way for the mind to deal with and protect against depression, anxiety disorders, and PTSD, which are often resultant of traumatic and stressful experiences and can lead to mental health issues and suicide. This gap and a deep dive into available research on the matter revealed a potentially new theory, called Positive Psychopathy. The present paper provides a framework for Positive Psychopathy and calls for further research to determine its voracity and applicability to trauma survivors.
... Similarly, future research should strive to further clarify when and under what circumstances interpersonal communication dominance could be perceived as a negative communicative behavior with the potential to undermine trust and facilitate counterproductive work behaviors (cf. Blickle & Schütte, 2017). Finally, future research could also seek to extend the results of the current study using an experimental design. ...
Article
Perceptions of trustworthiness are an established antecedent of interpersonal trust. However, the trust and communication literatures provide fewer insights into possible proactive tools for positively influencing trustworthiness. Interpersonal communication dominance is a skill used to influence another individual in an interpersonal relationship. Using social information processing theory, we hypothesize and test a parallel mediation model specifying that the three dimensions of trustworthiness (i.e., perceived ability, perceived benevolence, and perceived integrity) mediate the relationship between interpersonal communication dominance and interpersonal trust. The results show significant indirect effects for interpersonal communication dominance on interpersonal trust through perceived benevolence and perceived integrity but not through perceived ability. Our findings suggest that using interpersonal communication dominance to increase perceptions of benevolence and integrity may be an important communicative tool for positively influencing interpersonal trust.
... The lack of significant relationships between psychopathy and either the appropriateness or frequency of observation of academic incivilities may be explained by the Dark Triad's treatment of psychopathy as a unitary construct. Research suggests that there are multiple factors of psychopathy, which may be differentially related to behavior and under some circumstances, could have positive influences (see Blickle & Schütte, 2017). Thus, treating psychopathy as a unitary construct in the present study may have masked its relationships with perceptions of academic incivility. ...
Article
Academic incivility is defined as behavior incongruent with the welfare of the classroom community and may take a number of forms and levels of intensity. This study seeks to determine the relationship between the Dark Triad personalities (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and perceptions of appropriateness and frequency of academic incivilities. A sample of 519 university students indicated the degree to which each of 20 uncivil academic behaviors was perceived appropriate and how often students perceived those behaviors in the classroom. Factor analysis of the academic incivilities produced six factors: Low Class Engagement, Poor Class Presence, Student Retaliation, Cheating, Class Disruption, and Attempted Domination. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that Machiavellianism, and to a lesser extent, narcissism, predicted both perceptions that academic incivilities were appropriate and the frequency of observations of incivilities. Psychopathy had no relationship with either perceptions of appropriateness or frequency of observation.
Chapter
Personalauswahl besteht darin, dass für einen Arbeitsplatz mehrere Personen zur Verfügung stehen und dabei im Sinne der Interessen und Ziele der Organisation zu entscheiden ist, welche Person ein Stellenangebot erhält. Das Ziel der Personalauswahl sollte es sein, eine sog. Passung zu erreichen. Hierbei sind die qualifikatorische, die bedürfnisbezogene und die potenzialbezogene Passung zu unterscheiden. Die Verfahren der Personalauswahl sind konstrukt-, simulations- oder biografieorientiert konzipiert. Ihre Entwicklung und Anwendung sollte nach den Kriterien der Dokumentation, Objektivität, Reliabilität, Validität, Fairness, Normierung, Ökonomie, Einsatzbreite, Nützlichkeit und Akzeptanz beurteilt werden. In jüngerer Zeit spielen bei der Personalauswahl auch sog. dunkle Persönlichkeitsmerkmale wie Psychopathie, Narzissmus und Machiavellismus eine Rolle.
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The present study proposes to investigate the impact of transactional leadership style (TLS) and entrepreneur's passion (ETP) for employee performance (EP) and mediating role of passion between TLS and EP in Pakistan. The study is a quantitative approach and based on cross-sectional data. In total, 356 cases are applied for the final analysis. The results demonstrated a positive and significant effect of TLS and ETP on EP. Thus, the ETP recognized as a mediator between the TLS and the EP. The study's findings would offer significant contributions and implications for executives, entrepreneurs, and managers. The leadership style perception of the employees has a considerable contribution to generating a higher level of job performance. Hence, the study would provide the smoothness in enhancing EP with leadership behaviours' development. However, the mediation investigation of ETP between TLS and EP among the employees of Pakistan would give further guidelines for the policymakers of developing nation to observe the role of ETP.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dark triad construct of personality on the job performance indicators of human resources, including task performance and contextual performance. In terms of method and purpose, this study is a descriptive-correlational and applied research, mainly based on linear regression. The statistical population includes the employees of Lorestan University, out of which a sample of 152 people were selected using simple random sampling. The data gathering tool was Jonasson and Webster's (2010) Dark Personality and Paterson's Career Performance Questionnaire (1989). The research hypotheses were tested using linear regression analysis through the Enter method. Results showed a negative and significant effect by the construct of the dark triad of personality on the task and contextual performance indicators.
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Ein Merkmal, das als Facette einer psychopathischen Persönlichkeit gilt, weckt möglicherweise erstmal Misstrauen. Schaut man sich jedoch neuste Ergebnisse zur Persönlichkeitseigenschaft der furchtlosen Dominanz an, so ergibt sich ein ganz anderes Bild. Individuen mit einer hohen Merkmalsausprägung können für Organisationen von Vorteil sein – unter einer Voraussetzung: sie sind in ihrer Kindheit und Jugend gut sozialisiert worden.
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Applying belongingness and attachment theories, we explore the association between employees' perception of psychological contract breach and counterproductive work behaviors, while also considering the mediating effect of workplace ostracism and the moderating role of attachment styles (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance). Time‐lagged data from full‐time personnel working in telecommunications and transportation sectors in North America were collected at three different time points with an interval of 3 weeks between each wave. A total of 272 responses from the three measurement points were retained for our analysis. In support of what was hypothesized, our study's findings show that perception of contract breach fueled workplace deviance through the anticipated effect of workplace ostracism. Furthermore, and in line with what we assumed, the mediating effect of workplace ostracism was reinforced by employees' fear of rejection and abandonment in relationships (i.e., attachment anxiety). The role of attachment avoidance, however, was not found to moderate the indirect effect, contrary to our expectations. In conclusion, embedded in belongingness and attachment theorizing, this study offers empirical evidence of how workplace ostracism is a crucial mechanism that helps to explain the indirect effect through which psychological contract breach triggers counterproductive work behaviors. Furthermore, our findings illustrate how this relationship is conditional on attachment anxiety observed in employees.
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This study empirically tests the impact of the Dark Triad personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and co-worker competitiveness on knowledge sabotage. A model was constructed and tested by means of Partial Least Squares with data from 150 participants recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. The individual personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy are significant predictors of individual knowledge sabotage behavior, whereas co-worker Machiavellianism and psychopathy trigger co-worker knowledge sabotage. Out of the three Dark Triad traits, individual and co-worker psychopathy emerged as the strongest knowledge sabotage predictor. Co-worker competitiveness has a positive effect on co-workers' knowledge sabotage behavior. There is a relatively strong relationship between co-worker and individual knowledge sabotage which suggests that knowledge sabotage is a form of contagious workplace behavior. Individuals underestimate their negative behavior and traits and/or overestimate those of their fellow co-workers. Managers should realize that the Dark Triad personality traits could predispose certain individuals to engage in extremely harmful counterproductive knowledge behavior. They need to ensure that individuals with these traits are not hired or are identified during their probation periods. It is recommended that organizations include knowledge sabotage measures in their periodic employee surveys. Organizations should help their employees objectively re-evaluate their own traits and knowledge behavior as well as those of their colleagues to ensure that their reciprocating knowledge behavior is more aligned with the reality in their organization. This study offers a reliable and valid quantitative survey instrument to measure the presence of knowledge sabotage.
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Does psychopathy have an upside in vocational contexts? Applying the triarchic model of psychopathy, we propose that the dimensions of boldness, disinhibition, and meanness have different relations to workplace outcomes. Focusing on boldness and in line with socioanalytic personality theory, we propose that political skill moderates the relation between boldness and job performance. Using a sample of 477 target-coworker pairings, we found interaction effects of boldness and political skill on contextual and task performance and the buffering of counterproductive work behavior. Furthermore, political skill moderated the relation between boldness and adaptive performance. Disinhibition and meanness were positively correlated with counterproductive work behaviors, thereby reflecting the dark core of psychopathy. In sum, boldness is a trait linked to career success in the absence of the other traits that make up psychopathy as a whole. Furthermore, we encourage the use of the triarchic model as an overarching framework in vocational contexts.
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Research on seafarers' personality traits is sparse, and little is known about the influence of personality traits on seafarers' behaviour on board. An important aspect of seafarer behaviour on board is effective communication and coordination with other crew members. Since previous research has associated Dark Triad traits with ineffective team performance, the study aimed to examine the relationship between these traits and attitudes toward communication and coordination on board in a sample of 318 seafarers from Croatia. The results of the study show that psychopathy has a negative relationship with seafarers' attitudes toward communication and coordination on board, while narcissism has a positive relationship with the same construct. Practical implications are given.
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Objective The present research explores the path between work-related curiosity and positive affect. To justify this relationship, we rely on the conservation of resources theory (COR) and include performance as a mediator of the curiosity-positive affect path, such that curiosity was expected to stimulate performance, resulting in higher positive affect. We also aimed to explore whether the Dark Triad personality would moderate this mediating path. Methodology Three studies were conducted. Study 1 analyzed the indirect path of curiosity on positive affect through performance (n = 241). Study 2 resorted to two samples, one with participants in telework (n = 406), and the other one with participants in face-to-face work (n = 240), to explore the mediated link. Study 3 (n = 653) explored the moderating role of the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) on the mediated relationship. Findings Study 1 demonstrated that curiosity boosted positive affect through performance. Study 2 showed that, when workers were in telework, the mediated relationship occurred, however the same did not happen in face-to-face work. Study 3 showed that Machiavellianism and psychopathy moderated the indirect effect of curiosity on positive affect through performance, in a way that it was present for individuals low on these traits, but not for individuals high on such traits. Narcissism did not moderate the mediated relationship. Implications We discuss the impact that curiosity may have on behavioral and affective consequences (performance and affect), and the role that personality may have on this relationship.
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The present chapter aims to expand the trait-based approach to psychopathy by distinguishing between potentially adaptive and maladaptive features of psychopathic personality in the workplace. Answering the calls for a facet-level approach to psychopathy, we hypothesized that fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity would exhibit differential relations with organizationally important criteria. Moreover, we addressed suggestions to investigate moderating variables. To do so, we explored (mal)adaptive effects on job performance and extrinsic career success. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a multidimensional assessment of psychopathy and used a multisource business sample of 184 manager-superior dyads. Our results supported the differential relations of both factors: self-centered impulsivity had maladaptive effects on job performance, whereas fearless dominance possessed adaptive potential – but only under specific conditions, namely, high enterprising job characteristics or the combination of low self-centered impulsivity and high educational level. Further, fearless dominance was positively associated with extrinsic career success when educational level was high, indicating successful intelligence-based socialization into society. We discuss the results of our more nuanced approach to psychopathy by demonstrating that the (mal)adaptive effects of the different traits offer an intriguing new perspective for understanding job performance and career success.
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This study examined the extent to which workplace deviant behaviour relates to performance in tertiary institutions in Edo State. The objective of this study is to examine the extent of relationship that exists between workplace deviant behaviour and performance in tertiary institutions in Edo State. A total number of 386 copies of structured questionnaire were administered to the respondents domicile in the selected tertiary institutions under study using purposive sampling technique and 300 copies of questionnaire were retrieved from the respondents. This study was guided by one research question and one hypothesis, and the descriptive research design was adopted. The data used was primary data collected through a structured questionnaire. The data collected was prepared using descriptive statistics and the hypothesis was tested using spearman Ranking Correlation with the aid of SPSS version 21. The findings revealed that political deviance has a negative but significant relationship with job satisfaction. The researcher recommends that organizational leaders should ensure that negative political deviant behaviours are reduced to the barest minimum for better performance because political deviance hampers efficient performance, and need to be discouraged in order to ensure job satisfaction in tertiary institutions because negative political deviant behaviours has an inverse relationship with performance.
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Workplace aggression is clearly a pressing issue for modern organizations. However, the manner in which workplace aggression is measured by researchers is much less clear. Among the multitude of aggression constructs the two most common enacted workplace aggression constructs, counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and workplace deviance behaviors (WDBs), are of unique concern. Within the literature on enacted workplace aggression, researchers have adopted a common practice of treating CWBs and WDBs as interchangeable in both their operationalization and measurement. The current meta-analysis advances the literature on enacted workplace aggression by evaluating the distinctness of these two focal constructs through the lens of a social-psychological perspective. We do this by comparing the interpersonal and organizational dimensions of CWBs and WDBs across relationships with individual difference and social-situational predictors. Results demonstrate that while there is some overlap between the two constructs in terms of their antecedents, concerning differences arise in the dimensionality of the two constructs when social-situational factors are considered. We also find that the interpersonal and organizational dimensions are more distinct within WDBs than CWBs. We conclude by making recommendations for future research as well as human resource practices aimed at decreasing the frequency and effects of workplace aggression.
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The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12-item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7-item scale of interpersonal deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to other individuals within the organization). These scales were found to have internal reliabilities of .81 and .78, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a 2-factor structure had acceptable fit. Preliminary evidence of construct validity is also provided. The implications of this instrument for future empirical research on workplace deviance are discussed.
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Often overlooked in management theory and education, how leaders function in an intrapersonal sense - the "inner game" of leadership - is pivotal. We develop this idea in a specific application by describing how psychological wounds sensitize executives to be anxious about getting hurt again. These vigilant and unconscious concerns distort perceptions of organizational reality and lead to unnecessarily intense emotional reactions such as anger, fear, and panic. In turn, this kind of emotional perturbation can cloud judgment and hamper performance. We present a practical psychology of the inner world of distorted beliefs, anachronistic assumptions, and misplaced fears that often lurk beneath counterproductive behavior. Considerable attention is given to what management educators can do to work at this deeper level by helping leaders become aware of, manage, and, ultimately, outgrow being hypersensitive to failure, inadequacy, rejection, dependency, and the like.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of two facets of psychopathic personality (i.e., self-centered impulsivity, fearless dominance) with counterproductive work behavior (CWB-I) and contextual performance (CP). Consistent with research on psychopathy, we suggested that self-centered impulsivity (i.e., behavioral impulsivity characterized by disregard for rules and responsibilities) would be positively related to CWB-I and negatively related to CP. Underpinned by socioanalytic theory, we further suggested that fearless dominance (i.e., an egotistical personal style characterized by self-promotion and prioritization of one’s own needs before those of others) would only be negatively associated with interpersonal performance (i.e., high CWB-I and low CP) when individuals indicated low levels of interpersonal influence (i.e., a dimension of political skill reflecting an ability to adapt one’s behavior in subtle, sophisticated, and situationally effective ways). Results provided strong support for the differential relations of the psychopathic personality dimensions with the criteria of interest. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are provided in light of a number of notable strengths and limitations.
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Humans use a variety of deceptive tactics to extract resources from unsuspecting others. In this article, I suggest that much can be learned about patterns of human deception from predatory nonhuman animal behavior and parasitic infections. Nonhuman animals and parasitic infections utilize deceptive tactics to extract resources through two overarching strategies: (a) complex deception, slow resource extraction, heavy integration into a host or community, and low risk of detection, or (b) superficial deception, immediate resource extraction, little host or community specificity, and increased risk of detection. Predatory and parasitic human personalities may operate in analogous ways. Guided by analogies derived from nonhuman animal mimicry (such as color or behavioral deception) and micro-organismic infections, I have developed a theoretical framework to better understand deceptive and parasitic human behaviors as well as the characteristics defining them. Although applicable to areas of predatory and parasitic human behavior, two specific traits (psychopathy and Machiavellianism) are highlighted that have dire consequences for financial fraud, interpersonal harm, and organizational misbehavior. © The Author(s) 2014.
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Individual risk attitudes are frequently used to predict decisions regarding education. However, using risk attitudes as a control variable for decisions about education has been criticized because of the potential for reverse causality. Causality between risk aversion and education is unclear, and disentangling the different directions it may run is difficult. In this study, we make the first attempt to investigate the causal effects of education on risk aversion by examining the British education reform of 1972, which increased the duration of compulsory schooling from age 15 to age 16. Using regression discontinuity design, we find that this additional year of schooling increases the level of risk aversion, which is contrary to previous findings in the literature, and we also find that this result is particularly strong for individuals with less education. This positive causal effect of education on risk aversion might alleviate concerns regarding the endogeneity/reverse causality issue when using risk aversion as an explanatory variable for decisions about education; the sign would remain credible because the coefficients are underestimated.
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We measure the effects of motivation and ability on the early career success of a sample of Master's of Business Administration (MBA) graduates in the early years of their careers. We argue that performance is a joint effect of two important individual characteristics: general cognitive ability and motivation. General cognitive ability, which is representative of the general population, refers to individual differences in tasks or pursuits that demand mental effort, such as abstraction, rule inference, generalization, and manipulating or transforming problems. Motivation is conceptualized as a stable mental state that energizes human behavior. Results show that the combination of high general cognitive ability and motivation is significantly associated with more early career success. MBAs who were both smarter and worked harder were more successful in their job search upon graduation, were earning higher salaries, had more rapid pay increases, and received more promotions in their early careers. These findings add to the mounting evidence that studying enduring individual characteristics is critical to predicting behavior.
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This research expands the study of political skill, a construct developed in North America, to other cultures. We examine the psychometric properties of the Political Skill Inventory (PSI) and test the measurement equivalence of the scale in a non-American context. Respondents were 1511 employees from China, Germany, Russia, Turkey, and the United States. The cross-cultural generalizability of the construct is established through consistent evidence of multi-group invariance in an increasingly stringent series of analyses of mean and covariance structures. Overall, the study provides systematic evidence that political skill can be treated as a stable construct among diverse cultural groups. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that translated PSI measures operationalize the construct similarly. With some exceptions, the item loadings and intercepts are invariant for the US and non-US responses, suggesting partial measurement equivalence. After verifying the accuracy of item translation, we conclude that any differences can be explained by variation in the cultural value of uncertainly avoidance and cultural differences on a low-to-high context continuum. Detected dissimilarities are addressed, and some suggestions regarding the correct use across borders of the instrument by managers and researchers are provided.
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This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in nonforensic populations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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In this study, dark-side traits are conceptualised as extreme extensions of the “bright-side” traits of the Five-Factor Model that often have counterproductive effects. We predict which dark-side traits will be related to ratings of “too little” and “too much” of four leader behaviors and how low levels of Emotional Stability may accentuate the relationship between dark-side traits and excessive leader behavior. Analyses in a sample of 320 American and European managers and executives rated by 4,906 co-workers provided support for most predicted relationships, with medium-sized overall multivariate effects. Support for a moderating effect for Emotional Stability was also found. Scores near the normative mean on the dark-side traits were associated with optimal levels of the leader behaviors, whereas both high scores and, unexpectedly, low scores were associated with extreme, ineffective leader behaviors. Implications are considered for future research on the role of the dark side in leadership, re-conceptualising the interpretation of low scores on dark-side personality scales, and the coaching and development of managers.
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The present research was developed to examine the conceptualization and measurement of the political skill construct and to provide validation evidence for the Political Skill Inventory (PSI). The results of three investigations, involving seven samples, are reported that demonstrate consistency of the factor structure across studies, construct validity, and criterion-related validity of the PSI. As hypothesized, political skill was positively related to self-monitoring, political savvy, and emotional intelligence; negatively related to trait anxiety; and not correlated with general mental ability. Also, the PSI predicted performance ratings of managers in two samples. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are provided.
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As a psychological construct, psychopathy has undergone recent change, and there is still disagreement as to its fundamental character. Nevertheless, it can be reliably and validly measured with such behaviors as callousness, impulsivity, sensation seeking, dishonesty, emotional detachment, extreme selfishness, antisociality, belligerence, juvenile delinquency, and sexual promiscuity. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised is the best available assessment. Psychopathy exists in women, men, children, and in all racial and ethnic groups examined. No one knows whether some psychopaths function successfully without committing serious offenses. Among institutionalized offender samples, psychopathy is the strongest predictor of violent recidivism and differential response to treatment yet discovered. Although psychopaths can exhibit subtle neurological, physiological, and cognitive differences compared with other people, it is unclear whether these differences constitute defective brain function or the execution of a viable life strategy.
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This paper studies the causal effect of educational attainment on conviction and incarceration using Sweden's compulsory schooling reform as an instrument for years of schooling and a 25 percent random sample from Sweden's Multigenerational Register matched with more than 30 years of administrative crime records. The first stage of the analysis employs a differences-in-differences design to account for the non-random implementation of the reform across municipalities, and finds that exposure to the reform increased average educational attainment by 0.28 years for males and 0.16 years for females. Our 2SLS estimates indicate that more schooling has a significant negative effect on convictions and incarceration at both the extensive and intensive margins. These effects are generally seen for both males and females. Specifically, one additional year of schooling decreases the likelihood of incarceration by 16 percent for males and the likelihood of conviction by 7.5 and 11 percent for males and females, respectively. In addition, we find that the effect of education on crime persists across birth cohorts, throughout the life cycle, and across crime categories.
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This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000 + English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's g from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational achievement (GCSE scores) was 0.81. General intelligence contributed to success on all 25 subjects. Variance accounted for ranged from 58.6% in Mathematics and 48% in English to 18.1% in Art and Design. Girls showed no advantage in g, but performed significantly better on all subjects except Physics. This was not due to their better verbal ability. At age 16, obtaining five or more GCSEs at grades A⁎–C is an important criterion. 61% of girls and 50% of boys achieved this. For those at the mean level of g at age 11, 58% achieved this; a standard deviation increase or decrease in g altered the values to 91% and 16%, respectively.
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Since its publication, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory and its revision (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005) have become increasingly popular such that it is now among the most frequently used self-report inventories for the assessment of psychopathy. The current meta-analysis examined the relations between the two PPI factors (factor 1: Fearless Dominance; factor 2: Self-Centered Impulsivity), as well as their relations with other validated measures of psychopathy, internalizing and externalizing forms of psychopathology, general personality traits, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Across 61 samples reported in 49 publications, we found support for the convergent and criterion validity of both PPI factor 2 and the PPI total score. Much weaker validation was found for PPI factor 1, which manifested limited convergent validity and a pattern of correlations with central criterion variables that was inconsistent with many conceptualizations of psychopathy.
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The psychological construct of general mental ability (GMA), introduced by C. Spearman (1904) nearly 100 years ago, has enjoyed a resurgence of interest and attention in recent decades. This article presents the research evidence that GMA predicts both occupational level attained and performance within one's chosen occupation and does so better than any other ability, trait, or disposition and better than job experience. The sizes of these relationships with GMA are also larger than most found in psychological research. Evidence is presented that weighted combinations of specific aptitudes tailored to individual jobs do not predict job performance better than GMA alone, disconfirming specific aptitude theory. A theory of job performance is described that explicates the central role of GMA in the world of work. These findings support Spearman's proposition that GMA is of critical importance in human affairs.
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Long the stuff of clinical lore, successful psychopathy has recently become the focus of research. Although numerous authors have conjectured that psychopathic traits are sometimes associated with occupational or interpersonal success, rigorous evidence for this assertion has thus far been minimal. We provide a status report on successful-psychopathy research, address controversies surrounding successful psychopathy, examine evidence for competing models of this construct, and offer desiderata for future research.
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It is often observed that individuals with higher education levels tend to be more environmentally friendly. Yet, the causal evidence is lacking because there may well be omitted variables that cause individuals to attain more education and also cause individuals to be environmentally conscious. We implement a regression discontinuity design to estimate the increase in educational attainment due to changes in compulsory education laws in 20th century Europe. This allows us to overcome the identification problem of endogenous educational attainment. Using two waves of Eurobarometer surveys, we find a positive local average treatment effect for 7 of the 8 pro-environmental behaviors. An analysis of related questions on the survey supports the notion that education causes individuals to be more concerned with social welfare and to accordingly behave in a more environmentally friendly manner.
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This study integrates the emotion and social influence literatures to examine how emotion recognition ability (ERA) relates to annual income. In a sample of 142 employee–peer–supervisor triads from a broad range of jobs and organizations, we find that people's level of ERA indirectly relates to how much they earn per year. The relationship between ERA and annual income is mediated sequentially through political skill and interpersonal facilitation. The results imply that emotional abilities allow people not only to process affect-laden information effectively but also to use this information to successfully navigate the social world of organizations in the pursuit of prosperity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The influx of attention regarding psychopathy in the workplace by media and scholars alike has increased dramatically over the last two decades. Nevertheless, this attention has greatly outstripped the scientific evidence, and strong claims regarding the toxic effects of workplace psychopathy in the absence of research continue unabated. The present article for the first time brings together the diverse and growing scientific literature on the implications of business psychopathy for (a) occupational and academic differences, (b) workplace aggression and counterproductive behavior, (c) ethical decision-making in the corporate world, (d) white-color crime, and (e) leadership. Across these domains, there is preliminary evidence that psychopathy is tied to at least some negative outcomes in the workplace, although there are also scattered suggestions of some positive outcomes. Nevertheless, because of numerous methodological limitations, definitive statements regarding the adverse and adaptive correlates of psychopathy in the workplace are premature. We conclude with 10 recommendations for future scholarship in the budding field of business psychopathy.
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Person–situation interactions have attracted researchers' attention for decades. Likewise, the current work focuses on the interaction of honesty–humility and situational conditions in bringing about counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). As such, we introduce perceptions of organizational politics as a situational construct representing an opportunity for CWB. In a sample of N = 148 employees we found that particularly individuals low in honesty–humility were affected by situational circumstances. By contrast, those high in honesty–humility reported practically the same (lower) amount of CWB independent of the level of perceptions of organizational politics. In other words, employees low in honesty–humility were especially likely to condition their behaviour on environmental factors, a result that mirrors previous findings. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Reviews the relationship between schooling, IQ, and the cognitive processes presumed to underpin IQ. The data suggest that much of the causal pathway between IQ and schooling points in the direction of the importance of the quantity of schooling one attains (highest grade successfully completed). Schooling fosters the development of cognitive processes that underpin performance on most IQ tests. In Western nations, schooling conveys this influence on IQ and cognition through practices that appear unrelated to systematic variation in quality of schools. If correct, this could have implications for the meaning one attaches to IQ screening and prediction as well as for efforts to influence the development of IQ through changes in schooling practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim of this chapter is to review the existing literature concerning noncriminal psychopathy in an effort to clarify some of these issues. Specifically, the authors address three basic approaches to the conceptualization of the noncriminal psychopath and review both adaptive and maladaptive aspects of psychopathic personality. The authors then turn to a review of key methodological issues related to the study of psychopathy in noninstitutional settings. Special emphasis is placed on evaluating existing psychopathy assessment instruments with regard to their validity and appropriateness for use with nonincarcerated samples. This chapter also critically reviews the existing research literature on noncriminal psychopathy and concludes with recommendations for future research. First, however, the authors consider some key conceptual issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Political skill is the capacity to understand others in working life effectively, and to apply such knowledge to induce others to act in ways that add to one's personal or organizational goals. The present investigation reported the results of 2 studies designed to examine the job performance prediction effectiveness of political skill when investigated in conjunction with general mental ability (GMA) and personality characteristics. The results demonstrated that political skill accounted for a significant proportion of job performance variance beyond GMA and personality variables cross-sectionally in Study 1, and predictively (i.e., using a 1-year timeframe) in Study 2 examining effects on multiple dimensions of job performance. The implications of these results, strengths, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
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Recent research reported that general mental ability (GMA) predicted counterproductive work behavior (CWB), whereas some previous studies failed to find such a relationship. We tested occupational homogeneity of the sample and criterion measurement as two potential explanations for these inconsistencies. Study 1 replicated major design features of one previous study, which found no GMA–CWB relation in a heterogeneous sample, with occupationally homogeneous groups. Results confirmed previous null findings, indicating no effect of sample homogeneity. In Study 2, using a controlled laboratory setting, GMA was again unrelated to self-reported CWB, but partially predicted observed CWB negatively. Combined findings suggest that GMA is consistently unrelated to CWB self-reports but may predict objectively measured CWB independently of the likelihood of being caught. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Although psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is marked largely by maladaptive traits (e.g., poor impulse control, lack of guilt), some authors have conjectured that some features of this condition (e.g., fearlessness, interpersonal dominance) are adaptive in certain occupations, including leadership positions. We tested this hypothesis in the 42 U.S. presidents up to and including George W. Bush using (a) psychopathy trait estimates derived from personality data completed by historical experts on each president, (b) independent historical surveys of presidential leadership, and (c) largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance. Fearless Dominance, which reflects the boldness associated with psychopathy, was associated with better rated presidential performance, leadership, persuasiveness, crisis management, Congressional relations, and allied variables; it was also associated with several largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance, such as initiating new projects and being viewed as a world figure. Most of these associations survived statistical control for covariates, including intellectual brilliance, five factor model personality traits, and need for power. In contrast, Impulsive Antisociality and related traits of psychopathy were generally unassociated with rated presidential performance, although they were linked to some largely or entirely objective indicators of negative job performance, including Congressional impeachment resolutions, tolerating unethical behavior in subordinates, and negative character. These findings indicate that the boldness associated with psychopathy is an important but heretofore neglected predictor of presidential performance, and suggest that certain features of psychopathy are tied to successful interpersonal behavior.
Article
This study looks at the effects of education level on job performance in 2 ways. First, it provides a meta-analysis on the relationships between education level and 9 dimensions of job behaviors representing task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance. Results here show that, in addition to positively influencing core task performance, education level is also positively related to creativity and citizenship behaviors and negatively related to on-the-job substance use and absenteeism. Second, we investigate the moderating effects of sample and research design characteristics on the relationships between education and job performance. Significant results were found for gender, race, job level, and job complexity. The article concludes with implications for future research and the management of an increasingly educated workforce.
Article
In two studies, we investigate the effects of individuals’ power motivation on decision-making. We distinguish between two types of power motivation [McClelland, D. C. (1970). The two faces of power. Journal of International Affairs, 24, 29–47; Winter, D. G. (1973). The power motive. New York: The Free Press] and demonstrate that both types of power motivation facilitate influential decision-making but that each type plays a different role in different contexts. In a conflict context (Study 1), individuals’ personalized (self-serving) power motivation was associated with antisocial decisions, and in a healthcare context (Study 2), individuals socialized (other-serving) power motivation was associated with prosocial decisions. Furthermore, the type of power motivation elicited in each context was associated with less perceived need to deliberate over the relevant policy decision. In separating out the independent effects of each type of power motivation, we are able to explain more variance in decision-making behavior across various contexts than in models using aggregate power motivation (personalized plus socialized).
N = 161 target–coworker triads. Control variables, moderators, and predictors were centered
  • Note
Note. N = 161 target–coworker triads. Control variables, moderators, and predictors were centered. †p <.10;
08 -.27 (.11) -.18* FD x EL
  • Ii Fd
FD x II .14 (.16) .08 -.27 (.11) -.18* FD x EL .20 (.08) .21* -.06 (.06) -.08
PPI-R. Psychopathic personality inventory-revised
  • G W Alpers
  • H Eisenbarth
Alpers, G.W., & Eisenbarth, H. (2008). PPI-R. Psychopathic personality inventory-revised.