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Purpose: To identify the effects of 2 different grades of compression garment on recovery indices after strenuous exercise. Methods: Forty-five recreationally active participants (n = 26 male and n = 19 female) completed an eccentric-exercise protocol consisting of 100 drop jumps, after which they were matched for body mass and randomly but equally assigned to a high-compression pressure (HI) group, a low-compression pressure (LOW) group, or a sham ultrasound group (SHAM). Participants in the HI and LOW groups wore the garments for 72 h postexercise; participants in the SHAM group received a single treatment of 10-min sham ultrasound. Measures of perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), countermovement-jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and myoglobin (Mb) were assessed before the exercise protocol and again at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h postexercise. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Recovery of MVC and CMJ was significantly improved with the HI compression garment (P < .05). A significant time-by-treatment interaction was also observed for jump height at 24 h postexercise (P < .05). No significant differences were observed for parameters of soreness and plasma CK, CRP, and Mb. Conclusions: The pressures exerted by a compression garment affect recovery after exercise-induced muscle damage, with higher pressure improving recovery of muscle function.
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The effects of compression garment pressure on recovery from strenuous exercise 1"
Jessica Hill,1 Glyn Howatson,2,5 Ken van Someren,3 David Gaze4, Hayley Legg1, Jack 3"
Lineham1, and Charles Pedlar1
1 School of Sport, Health and Applied Science, St. Mary’s University, Twickenham, UK. 2 6"
Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life of Sciences, 7"
Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK. 3 GSK Human Performance Lab, 8"
GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, Brentford, UK. 4Chemical Pathology, Clinical 9"
Blood Sciences, St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. 5Water Research Group, 10"
School of Biological Sciences, North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. 11"
Corresponding author: Jessica Hill, School of Sport, Health and Applied Science, St. Mary’s 14"
University, Twickenham, TW1 4SX UK. Tel: +00 44 0 208 240 4000, Fax: +00 44 0 208 240 15"
4212, Email 16"
Submission Type – Original Investigation 18"
Running Head – Compression garment pressure and recovery 20"
Word Count – 3494 22"
Number of Tables – 3 24"
Number of Figures - 3 26"
Compression garments are frequently used to facilitate recovery from strenuous exercise. 31"
Purpose: To identify the effects of two different grades of compression garment on recovery 32"
indices following strenuous exercise. Methods: Forty five recreationally active participants 33"
(n=26 males and n=19 females) completed an eccentric exercise protocol consisting of 100 34"
drop jumps. Following the exercise protocol participants were matched for body mass and 35"
randomly but equally assigned to either a high (HI) compression pressure group, a low 36"
(LOW) compression pressure group, or a sham ultrasound group (SHAM). Participants in 37"
the high (HI) and low (LOW) compression groups wore the garments for 72 h post-exercise; 38"
participants in the SHAM group received a single treatment of 10 minutes sham ultrasound. 39"
Measures of perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), counter 40"
movement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP) and 41"
myoglobin (Mb) were assessed before the exercise protocol and again at 1, 24, 48 and 72 h 42"
post exercise. Data were analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Recovery of 43"
MVC and CMJ was significantly improved with the HI compression garment (p < 0.05). A 44"
significant time by treatment interaction was also observed for jump height at 24 h post 45"
exercise (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for parameters of soreness and 46"
plasma CK, CRP and Mb. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that the pressures 47"
exerted by a compression garment affect recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage 48"
(EIMD), with a higher pressure improving recovery of muscle function. 49"
Key Words: Sport, external pressure, stockings, muscle function, muscle damage 51"
Exercise that is unaccustomed or unfamiliar in nature can lead to the experience of exercise-62"
induced muscle damage (EIMD) (1,2). Symptoms associated with EIMD include decreased 63"
force production, decreased range of motion (ROM) and the experience of muscle soreness, 64"
all of which can negatively affect performance (3). Consequently, there is a growing interest 65"
in strategies that can minimise the experience of EIMD and accelerate recovery. 66"
Compression garments are often used to aid recovery following strenuous exercise. The use 68"
of compression originates from clinical settings where limb compression is used to treat a 69"
range of inflammatory conditions including lymphedema (4), deep vein thrombosis (5) and 70"
chronic venous insufficiency (6). Research investigating the use of compression as a 71"
recovery modality in an athletic setting remains equivocal, with some research indicating 72"
favourable effects (7-10) and other research reporting no benefits (11-12). Whilst the exact 73"
mechanism for the benefit of compression garments remains unclear it is thought that 74"
application of compression can positively affect haemodynamics and attenuates swelling by 75"
facilitating lymphatic drainage and reducing the increase in osmotic pressure experienced as a 76"
result of tissue damage (13). In addition, compression is thought to provide mechanical 77"
support to the injured limb which may in turn prevent force decrements (13). 78"
One methodological disparity between studies is the level of compression exerted by the 80"
garment. It is likely that the effects of a compression garment depend on the amount of 81"
compression applied (14), however if the degree of compression exerted by the garment is 82"
insufficient or too high, a beneficial effect is unlikely (15-16). Low levels of compression 83"
may be insufficient to modulate blood flow or osmotic pressure, and levels of compression 84"
that are too high may have a restrictive effect on blood flow. Optimal levels of compression 85"
beneficial to performance and recovery have yet to be determined, with current 86"
recommendations based upon clinical guidelines (17). However, pressures that are effective 87"
in a clinical population may not be effective in an athletic population. 88"
Improved venous return has been observed at pressures of 20-25 mmHg at the calf and thigh 90"
respectively, with the authors of this study proposing pressures of 15.2-17.3 mmHg as the 91"
minimum required in order to achieve elevations in venous return (18). However it should be 92"
noted that these minimum pressures are estimations, calculated by assessing the cardiac 93"
output response to three different levels of compression garments (10-8, 15-12 and 20-16 94"
mmHg at the calf and thigh respectively). Sperlich et al. (19) investigated the effects of knee-95"
high socks that applied compression pressures of 0, 10, 20, 20 and 40 mmHg and observed no 96"
effect at any pressure on cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters during submaximal 97"
running. In contrast to this, another study indicated that compression garments exerting 98"
pressures of 20 and 40 mmHg may improve alpine skiing performance by enabling a deeper 99"
tuck position with attenuated perceived exertion; however the authors indicated that the 100"
garment exerting 40 mmHg may reduce blood flow (20). 101"
A variety of compression pressures have been used in current research ranging from 10-12 103"
mmHg (21) up to 40 mmHg (19). A major limitation with current research investigating the 104"
efficacy of compression is that a large number of studies have failed to measure exact 105"
interface pressures applied by the garments (4, 22-25). Previous research has highlighted 106"
large variations in the degree of pressure exerted by compression garments across a 107"
population, with a number of individuals receiving low levels of compression (26). This 108"
variation is likely due to differences in limb size and tissue structure within a particular size 109"
category of garment (22). Thus it is possible the degree of compression exerted was 110"
insufficient to enhance recovery in several studies that have observed no benefit (2). 111"
Knowledge of the pressures applied by compression garments is fundamental to developing 112"
understanding on how a garment affects parameters of performance and recovery. Without 113"
knowledge on the precise pressures applied in research studies we cannot accurately interpret 114"
or compare findings (15). Therefore the aim of this investigation was to assess whether 115"
garments exerting a higher degree of pressure are more effective in facilitating recovery 116"
compared to garments exerting a lower pressure. 117"
Participants 121"
Forty five recreationally active participants from any sport or training background (n=26 122"
male, n=19 female) volunteered to participate in this study. Following ethical approval all 123"
participants completed a health screening questionnaire and gave written informed consent. 124"
Individuals with a history of musculoskeletal injury and inflammatory disorders were 125"
excluded from participating in this study. All participants were asked to arrive at the 126"
laboratory in a rested state and refrain from heavy exercise in the 48 h preceding the study 127"
and for 72 h following the muscle damaging protocol; in addition, participants were required 128"
to refrain from using any recovery strategy for the duration of the investigation. Participant 129"
characteristics are presented in table 1. 130"
Experimental overview 132"
Participants were matched for weight and randomly, but equally assigned, to either a low 133"
(LOW, n=15), or high (HI, n=15) compression treatment group, or a sham-ultrasound group 134"
(SHAM, n=15). Participants reported to the laboratory for familiarisation and baseline 135"
testing 1 h prior to the muscle damaging protocol. During the familiarisation participants 136"
were given a full verbal explanation of how each variable was to be measured and were 137"
required to undertake practice attempts of the muscle function tests until performance in each 138"
of the tests reached a plateau. Following the familiarisation participants sat with their feet up 139"
for 20minutes before the collection of baseline data commenced. Base line data was collected 140"
for the dependent variables creatine kinase (CK), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), 141"
myoglobin (Mb), global lower limb muscle soreness and quadriceps soreness, counter 142"
movement jump (CMJ), and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors. 143"
These variables were analysed again 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post muscle damaging protocol. 144"
Participants were required to attend the laboratory for post testing at the same time of day and 145"
variables were always collected in the same order. 146"
Muscle damage procedure 148"
The muscle damaging protocol consisted of 100 drop jumps from a 0.6 m platform. 149"
Participants performed 5 sets of 20 drop jumps, with 10 seconds between each jump and a 2 150"
minute rest period between sets. Participants were instructed to jump maximally upon landing 151"
each jump. 152"
Treatment groups 154"
Participants in the LOW compression group were fitted with a full length, lower limb, 155"
commercially available compression garment (MA1551b men’s compression tights, 2XU, or 156"
WA1552b women’s compression tights, 2XU, Melbourne, Australia) fitted according to 157"
manufacturer’s guidelines based upon participants’ height and weight. Pressure exerted by 158"
the compression garment was measured using a pressure-measuring device (Kikuhime, TT 159"
Medi Trade, Søleddet, Denmark), validated for use in this setting (6). Pressure was measured 160"
at the front thigh at the mid-point between the superior aspect of the patella and the inguinal 161"
crease and at the medial aspect of the calf at the site of maximal girth. Measurements were 162"
taken at each site whilst the subject was standing in the anatomical position. Measurements 163"
were repeated three times with the mean value recorded. Average pressures exerted by the 164"
garments were reported as 8.1 ± 1.3 mmHg at the thigh and 14.8 ± 2.1 mmHg at the calf. 165"
Participants in the HI compression group wore a full length lower limb clinical medical grade 167"
II compression garment (Alleviant clinical class II medical stockings, Jobskin, Nottingham, 168"
UK) fitted according to manufacturer’s guidelines based upon leg circumference measured at 169"
7 locations on the leg. These garments exerted an average pressure of 14.8 ± 2.2 mmHg at 170"
the thigh and 24.3 ± 3.7 mmHg at the calf. All garments were worn for 72 h post exercise, 171"
participants were only allowed to remove them to shower. Participants were each given two 172"
pairs of the same garments to allow rotation when washing. 173"
Participants in SHAM received 10 min of sham ultrasound comprised of 5 minutes each thigh 175"
(Combined therapy ultrasound/inferential, Shrewsbury Medical, Shropshire, UK). A water 176"
soluble ultrasound gel (Aquasonic 100 ultrasound transmission gel, Parker Laboratries, 177"
Fairfield, USA) was applied to the thigh, using the ultrasound head the gel was spread across 178"
the skin using circular movements. Throughout the duration of the ultrasound treatment the 179"
unit was turned off and obscured from view of the participants. All treatments were applied 180"
immediately following the muscle damaging protocol. 181"
Dependent variables 183"
Muscle soreness: Global lower limb muscle soreness and localised soreness in the 184"
quadriceps muscle group was analysed using a 200 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) with ‘no 185"
pain’ at 0 mm and ‘unbearable pain’ at 200 mm. Participants stood with their feet shoulder 186"
width apart with hands on hips and were asked to perform a squat to 90°, return to standing 187"
and mark their subjective feelings of pain on the scale. 188"
Muscle function: Maximal voluntary contraction was assessed using a strain gauge (MIE 190"
Medical Research Ltd., Leeds, UK). Participants were seated on a platform in a standardised 191"
position, with their hip and knee joints flexed at 90°. The strain gauge was attached 2 cm 192"
above the malleoli of the left ankle and participants were required to maximally extend the 193"
knee against the device for 3 s, verbal encouragement was given for the duration. Participants 194"
performed three repetitions, each separated by 1 min, with the greatest value recorded as 195"
MVC. Measurements were recorded in newtons. 196"
Counter movement jump height was assessed using a force plate (Kistler 9287BA force 198"
platform, Kistler Instruments Ltd, Hamshire, UK). Participants were instructed to stand with 199"
their hands on their hips and perform a maximal jump on command. Participants performed 200"
three jumps the best of which was taken for analysis. Data from 5 participants (n=2 LOW, 201"
n=1 HI and N=2 SHAM) were not included in the jump data analysis due to technical issues 202"
with the equipment. 203"
Blood measures: CK, high sensitivity CRP, and Mb were analysed from plasma blood 205"
samples. Approximately 8.5 mL of blood was collected from the antecubital vein into 206"
lithium heparin vacutainers. Following collection, the sample was immediately placed in a 207"
refrigerated centrifuge and spun at 3500 rpm, a relative centrifugal force of 3000 g, for 20 208"
minutes at 4°C to enable the separation of plasma. The plasma was immediately frozen at -209"
80°C for later analysis. Plasma CK and CRP Mb were measured using an automated 210"
analyser (Advia 2400, Chemistry System, Siemens Health Care Diagnostics, USA). 211"
Manufacturer’s report an intra-sample CV for the analyser of <3% at high and low 212"
concentrations and expected baseline sample ranges of 32-294 IU.L-1 and < 3 pg.mL-1 for CK 213"
and CRP, respectively. Plasma Mb was analysed using an electrochemiluminescence immuno 214"
assay (ECLIA) (Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Germany). Manufacturer’s report 215"
an intra-sample CV for the analyser of <4% and expected values of 216"
Statistical Analysis 218"
All data analyses was carried out using SPSS for Windows version 21, and values are 219"
reported as mean ± SD. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify any differences in 220"
group characteristics at baseline. All dependent variables were assessed using a treatment by 221"
time repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Where a significant effect was 222"
observed, interaction effects were further examined using a Bonferroni post hoc analysis. A 223"
significance level of p 0.05 was applied throughout. Effect sizes, using Cohen’s d, and 224"
90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess magnitude of effect on the change 225"
from baseline at 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post exercise. Threshold values were set at 0.2, small; 0.5, 226"
moderate; and 0.8, large. 227"
Effect sizes and 90% CI comparing change from baseline with 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post 231"
exercise can be seen for each variable in table 2. A significant time effect was observed for 232"
global lower limb muscle soreness (F2.639,1=31.509, p < 0.001) and soreness of the quadriceps 233"
(F2.988,1=45.865, p < 0.001) indicating that there was a change in muscle soreness over time. 234"
Further post hoc Bonferroni tests indicated significant differences from baseline occurred at 235"
all time points in both global and quadriceps soreness (p < 0.05). No significant group (F2, 42 236"
=1.081, p = 0.325) or interaction effects (F5.278,2=0.861, p = 0.515) were observed for global 237"
lower limb soreness. This was consistent with the group (F2,42=0.972, p = 0.387) and 238"
interaction effects observed for quadriceps soreness (F5.976, 2 =0.855, p = 0.530) (Figures 1a 239"
and 1b). 240"
Significant time effects were observed for MVC (F3.084, 1=49.760, p < 0.001), Bonferroni post 242"
hoc tests indicated that a significant difference from baseline occurred at all time points (p < 243"
0.05). Values reduced to 81.6 ± 9.0, 84.3 ± 6.3 and 81.4 ± 9.2 % of baseline 1 h after the 244"
damaging protocol and returning to 90.6 ± 11.6, 99.9 ± 9.9 and 91.2 ± 9.7% of baseline at 72 245"
h post in the LOW, HI and SHAM groups respectively. A significant treatment effect was 246"
observed for MVC (F2,42 = 3.832, p = 0.030), however there was no significant time by 247"
treatment interaction (F6.169,2 = 1.824, p = 0.097). Further post hoc analysis indicated the 248"
significant difference occurred between the HI and SHAM groups (p = 0.036) (figure 2). 249"
Significant time effects were observed for Jump height (F4,1 = 11.202, p < 0.001), further post 251"
hoc analysis indicated that significant differences from baseline occurred at all time points (p 252"
< 0.05) figure 3. A significant time by treatment effect (F8,2 = 2.99, p = 0.004) and a 253"
significant treatment effect (F2,37 = 3.741, p = 0.33) was observed for jump height. Further, 254"
post hoc analysis indicated the significant treatment effect occurred between the HI and LOW 255"
compression groups (p = 0.032) and the time by treatment interaction occurred at 24 h post 256"
exercise between the HI and LOW compression groups (p = 0.002) (figure 3). 257"
Whilst an overall significant time effect was observed for CK (F2.353,1 = 2.980, p = 0.021), 259"
further post hoc analysis failed to indicate a significant effect at any time point (p > 0.05). 260"
Post exercise plasma CK values were elevated 1 h post exercise in all experimental groups 261"
and remained raised for the duration of the study. No significant group (F2,42 = 0.174, p = 262"
0.841) or interaction effects were observed for CK (F4.706,2 = 1.383, p = 0.240), data is 263"
presented in table 3. 264"
There was no significant time effect (F4,1 = 0.615, p = 0.570), group effect (F2,11 = 0.511, p = 266"
0.558) or time by group effect (F8,2 = 0.217, p = 0.858) for CRP. This was also consistent 267"
with Mb where there was also no significant time (F4,1 = 1.915, p = 0.110), group (F2,11 = 268"
0.387, p = 0.681) or time by group effect (F8,2 = 1.016, p = 0.462) (table 3). 269"
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different compression pressures on 273"
indices of recovery following EIMD in a recreationally active population. The main finding 274"
was that a garment exerting higher levels of compression is more effective in modulating 275"
muscle function following exercise that induces muscle damage when compared to a garment 276"
exerting lower levels of compression and a sham treatment group. 277"
In this study muscle function decreased following the damaging protocol, this was evidenced 279"
by a significant time effect for both MVC and jump height (p<0.05). Recovery of strength 280"
was greatest in the HI compression group with participants recovering to 99.9 ± 9.9% of 281"
baseline MVC values at 72 h post exercise compared to 90.6 ± 11.6 and 91.2 ± 9.7% in the 282"
LOW and SHAM group. A significant difference between treatment groups was observed for 283"
MVC with the difference occurring between the HI compression group and the SHAM group 284"
This observation is supported by the large effect sizes observed between the HI and SHAM 285"
group between 24 – 72 h post exercise and the moderate to large effect sizes observed 286"
between the LOW and HI group at the same time points. These observations suggest that 287"
strength recovered at an accelerated rate over 72 h in the HI compression group. 288"
Additionally Jump height was significantly higher 24 h post exercise in the HI group 290"
compared to the LOW group, indicating that compression garments exerting higher levels of 291"
compression may be beneficial in improving recovery of muscle function. The failure to 292"
observe a significant treatment effect between the HI and SHAM group was unexpected, 293"
however a large effect size was seen at 24h post exercise. Although this study attempted to 294"
control for a placebo effect by using sham ultrasound, it is possible that the observation of 295"
improved recovery in the HI group may be linked to the participant’s belief that tighter 296"
compression garments have a positive response on recovery; this is a limitation of the study. 297"
Improved recovery of muscle function has been observed in previous research (9,13,27), and 299"
has been attributed to an enhanced repair of the contractile elements of the muscle (13). 300"
Furthermore the application of compression may provide mechanical support to the limb 301"
resulting in reduced movement of the tissues and offering ‘dynamic immobilisation’, whilst 302"
still enabling use of the limb, this has been proposed to increase motor unit activation during 303"
tissue injury (13, 28). However, the exact mechanism responsible for this is unclear. Several 304"
studies have failed to observe improved muscle function with the use of a compression 305"
garment (11,21-22). However as the exact level of compression exerted by the garments was 306"
not measured in these studies it is possible the garments used did not exert enough pressure to 307"
be of benefit. 308"
No significant between group differences were observed for global lower limb soreness and 310"
soreness in the quadriceps, this is similar to previous findings (11-12,21). However, moderate 311"
effect sizes were observed at 48 h post exercise between the HI and SHAM group for global 312"
muscle soreness and at 24 h post exercise between the LOW and HI group for quadriceps 313"
muscle soreness, indicating soreness was lower in the HI group. 314"
The experience of DOMS arises as a result of damage to the soft tissue leading to an 316"
inflammatory response which causes localised oedema in the affected limb. The presence of 317"
oedema can stimulate pain afferents bringing about the experience of soreness (28). The 318"
application of compression may reduce the level of oedema by attenuating the magnitude of 319"
the inflammatory response thus reducing the severity of the soreness experienced (21,27). 320"
Whilst a large body of research has observed reductions in perceived muscle soreness with 321"
the use of compression garments (13,24,27), these studies failed to control for placebo effect, 322"
this needs to be considered when interpreting findings. 323"
Creatine kinase and Mb are released from the muscle during the experience of muscle 325"
damage and as such are frequently used as markers of EIMD (21-22). Given the absence of a 326"
significant time effect for Mb and a non-significant post hoc results for the time effect in CK 327"
it is likely that the muscle damage protocol in this study did not cause sufficient enough 328"
muscle damage for a large CK and Mb response. Previous investigations have observed 329"
reductions in concentrations of CK with the application of compression (2,22). It is worth 330"
noting the peak concentrations of CK observed within the control group of this study (586 331"
IU.L-1), is much smaller than the values observed in other studies (2194 IU.L-1(7) and ~1750 332"
IU.L-1 (13)) all of whom found beneficial effects of compression. It is possible compression is 333"
not effective at modulating clearance of CK at lower concentrations. 334"
A number of investigations have observed reduced inflammation with the use of a 336"
compression garment (9,13,21), however this study failed to observe any significant group 337"
differences for the inflammatory marker CRP. Furthermore no significant time effect was 338"
observed for this marker, it is possible that muscle damage was not severe enough to cause a 339"
large inflammatory response. Regardless of the magnitude of the inflammatory response it 340"
appears the exercise protocol was severe enough to cause pronounced performance 341"
decrements and elevations in muscle soreness. 342"
Whether compression garments exert sufficient pressure to be effective has been raised by a 346"
number of investigators (21-22). This study provides evidence for the importance of 347"
compression pressure in modulating parameters of recovery. The majority of previous 348"
research has failed to measure exact pressures exerted by compression garments, until the 349"
reporting of interface pressure occurs in research on compression it is difficult to identify 350"
optimal levels of compression necessary for improving recovery. More knowledge is needed 351"
on the effects of different compression pressures in order to assist practitioners in the 352"
selection of a garment for a particular role. 353"
In conclusion, a compression garment exerting higher compression pressures (14.8 ± 2.2 and 357"
24.3 ± 3.7 mmHg at the thigh and calf respectively) is more effective at improving muscle 358"
function than a compression garment exerting lower pressures (8.1 ± 1.3 mmHg at the thigh 359"
and 14.8 ± 2.1 mmHg at the calf) and a SHAM treatment group. Furthermore, no treatment 360"
group was superior in aiding the removal of plasma markers of muscle damage or 361"
inflammation. The degree of pressure exerted by the garment is an important factor in 362"
determining the efficacy of compression garments in recovery. These findings highlight the 363"
importance of wearing a correctly fitting garment when using compression as a recovery 364"
modality. 365"
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physiological and performance measures in a simulated game-specific circuit for 430"
netball. J Sci Med Sport 2009;12:223–226. 431"
26. Hill JA, Howatson G, van Someren K, et al. The variation in pressures exerted by 432"
commercially available compression garments. Sports Eng 2015;18:115121. 433"
27. Jakeman JR, Byrne C, Eston RG. Lower limb compression garment improves recovery 434"
from exercise-induced muscle damage in young, active females. Eur J Appl Physiol 435"
2010;109:1137–1144. 436"
28. Kraemer WJ, French DN, Spiering BA. Compression in the treatment of acute muscle 437"
injuries in sport: review article. Int Sport Med J 2004;5:200–208. 438"
Figure 1. Perceived ratings of global lower limb soreness (A) and quadriceps soreness (B) 442"
for the LOW, HI and SHAM treatment groups. Values are presented as mean ± SD. No 443"
significant differences were observed between treatment groups. denotes significant time 444"
effect compared to baseline. 445"
Figure 2. Percentage change in MVC for the LOW, HI and SHAM treatment groups. The HI 447"
compression group was significantly different from the SHAM treatment group. Values are 448"
presented as mean ± SD, data was recorded in newtons and converted to a percentage change. 449"
* denotes a significant difference from the HI group. denotes significant time effect 450"
compared to baseline. 451"
Figure 3. Percentage change in CMJ for the LOW, HI and SHAM treatment groups. The HI 453"
compression group was significantly different from the LOW compression group at 24 h post 454"
exercise. Values are presented as mean ± SD. * denotes a significant difference from HI 455"
group. denotes significant time effect compared to baseline. α denotes significant 456"
interaction between HI and LOW compression groups. 457"
Table 1. Participant characteristics for the low compression pressure group (LOW), high 459"
compression pressure group (HI) and sham ultrasound treatment group (SHAM). Values are 460"
presented as mean ± SD. 461"
Table 2. Effect sizes ± 90% CI of the application of treatment on markers of exercise-induced 463"
muscle damage. 464"
Table 3. Plasma markers of CK, MB and CRP for the LOW, HI and SHAM treatment 466"
groups. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups. Values are 467"
presented as mean ± SD. * denotes significant time effect was observed. 468"
Table 1. Participant characteristics for the low compression pressure group (LOW), high compression pressure 470"
group (HI) and sham ultrasound treatment group (SHAM). Values are presented as mean ± SD. 471"
Age (yrs)
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
" "473"
Table 2. Effect sizes ± 90% CI of the application of treatment on markers of exercise-induced 474"
muscle damage. 475"
Change from baseline
Global soreness
-0.47±13.6 a
Quadriceps soreness
Mean effect refers to the first names group minus the second named group, a indicates a small effect 478"
size, b indicates a medium effect size, c indicates a large effect size. 479"
Table 3. Plasma markers of CK, MB and CRP for the LOW, HI and SHAM treatment groups. Values are 481"
presented as mean ± SD. 482"
24 h
48 h
72 h
CK (IU.L-1)
Mb (
CRP (pg.mL-1)
... The majority of reports did not find any significant change to CMJ height or force when CGs were used for recovery after repeated sprint protocols [121,126], resistance exercise protocols [127,128], a cross-country skiing competition [129], or a simulated rugby union match-play [123]. However, it appears that CGs (in particular, waist-to-ankle tights) may improve functional recovery in recreationally active individuals after fatiguing drop jump protocols, as indicated by a smaller decrement in CMJ height compared to control groups [130,131]. The minimum time period for which CGs were worn in these studies was 12 h, with improvements in CMJ height reported at 24, 42 and 72 h following the exercise session [131]. ...
... The minimum time period for which CGs were worn in these studies was 12 h, with improvements in CMJ height reported at 24, 42 and 72 h following the exercise session [131]. Additionally, Hill et al. [130] demonstrated that CMJ performance improved after 72 h wearing 'high' pressure tights compared to 'low' pressure tights ('high': 24.3 ± 3.7 mm Hg at the calf; 'low': 14.8 ± 2.1 mm Hg at the calf). While the authors postulated that this might be due to the enhanced repair of muscle contractile elements with the greater applied pressure, it is equally likely that a placebo effect was at play, given there was no standalone control group used, only a 'sham' ultrasound for comparison [130]. ...
... Additionally, Hill et al. [130] demonstrated that CMJ performance improved after 72 h wearing 'high' pressure tights compared to 'low' pressure tights ('high': 24.3 ± 3.7 mm Hg at the calf; 'low': 14.8 ± 2.1 mm Hg at the calf). While the authors postulated that this might be due to the enhanced repair of muscle contractile elements with the greater applied pressure, it is equally likely that a placebo effect was at play, given there was no standalone control group used, only a 'sham' ultrasound for comparison [130]. ...
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Background: Compression garments (CGs) are a popular tool that may act on physiological, physical, neuromuscular, biomechanical, and/or perceptual domains during exercise and recovery from exercise, with varying levels of efficacy. While previous reviews have focused on the effects of CGs during running, high-intensity exercise, and exercise recovery, a comprehensive systematic review that assesses the effectiveness of garment use both during and after exercise has not been recently conducted. Methods: A systematic search of the literature from the earliest record until May 2022 was performed based on the PRISMA-P guidelines for systematic reviews, using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar. Results: 160 articles with 2530 total participants were included for analysis in the systematic review, comprised of 103 ‘during exercise’ studies, 42 ‘during recovery’ studies, and 15 combined design studies. Conclusions: During exercise, CGs have a limited effect on global measures of endurance performance but may improve some sport-specific variables (e.g., countermovement jump height). Most muscle proteins/metabolites are unchanged with the use of CGs during exercise, though measures of blood lactate tend to be lowered. CGs for recovery appear to have a positive benefit on subsequent bouts of endurance (e.g., cycling time trials) and resistance exercise (e.g., isokinetic dynamometry). CGs are associated with reductions in lactate dehydrogenase during recovery and are consistently associated with decreases in perceived muscle soreness following fatiguing exercise. This review may provide a useful point of reference for practitioners and researchers interested in the effect of CGs on particular outcome variables or exercise types.
... In addition to exercise type, it is of interest to examine whether other factors may contribute to the efficacy of CGs. For instance, the preponderance of the previous studies using lower-limb CGs [33,[61][62][63][64][65][66] showed reduced exerciseinduced decrements in maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVIC) after different types of exercise modalities. In contrast, studies applying upper-body [67] or whole-body [68] garments revealed zero or even detrimental effects on muscle strength recovery, respectively. ...
... Moreover, a previous metaanalysis [5] detected large, likely beneficial effects of CGs 24 h following physical exercise, indicating that the timing and duration of CG application may also contribute to the efficacy of CG. That is, lower-limb CG compared with upper-limb or combined application of the garment might be more effective to reduce exercise-induced decrements in muscle strength [33,[61][62][63][64][65][66], especially 24 h following physical exercise [5]. Although some researchers suggested that experimentally induced muscle fatigue affects the generation of mechanical work and power in lower-limb joints even during gait [69,70], a previous study found no effects of hundreds of sit-to-stand trials on knee MVIC in healthy younger and older adults [71]. ...
... From the remaining 115 records, 95 were excluded during the eligibility check based on the a priori defined exclusion criteria (Table 2). Two additional studies [81,86] were identified through reference list searches; therefore, a total of 22 studies were included, from which 13 were parallel RCTs (n = 283 participants) [8,9,28,33,61,66,81,[87][88][89][90][91][92], while the remaining nine were crossover RCTs (n = 117) [62,65,67,68,73,80,86,93,94]. Three studies (n = 50) [73,89,93] were excluded from the metaanalysis due to insufficient data reporting. ...
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Background: The use of compression garments (CGs) during or after training and competition has gained popularity in the last few decades. However, the data concerning CGs’ beneficial effects on muscle strength-related outcomes after physical exercise remain inconclusive. Objective: The aim was to determine whether wearing CGs during or after physical exercise would facilitate the recovery of muscle strength-related outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted across five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost). Data from 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 350 healthy participants were extracted and meta-analytically computed. Weighted between-study standardized mean differences (SMDs) with respect to their standard errors (SEs) were aggregated and corrected for sample size to compute overall SMDs. The type of physical exercise, the body area and timing of CG application, and the time interval between the end of the exercise and subsequent testing were assessed. Results: CGs produced no strength-sparing effects (SMD [95% confidence interval]) at the following time points (t) after physical exercise: immediately ≤ t < 24 h: − 0.02 (− 0.22 to 0.19), p = 0.87; 24 ≤ t < 48 h: − 0.00 (− 0.22 to 0.21), p = 0.98; 48 ≤ t < 72 h: − 0.03 (− 0.43 to 0.37), p = 0.87; 72 ≤ t < 96 h: 0.14 (− 0.21 to 0.49), p = 0.43; 96 h ≤ t: 0.26 (− 0.33 to 0.85), p = 0.38. The body area where the CG was applied had no strength-sparing effects. CGs revealed weak strength-sparing effects after plyometric exercise. Conclusion: Meta-analytical evidence suggests that wearing a CG during or after training does not seem to facilitate the recovery of muscle strength following physical exercise. Practitioners, athletes, coaches, and trainers should reconsider the use of CG as a tool to reduce the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength.
... In the present study, the use of sport compression tights during recovery did not affect CK or LDH at any time point, in line with previous studies 32,56,57 . However, apart from a small increase in LDH concentrations during the 4-h recovery period, there were no significant increases in the measured blood parameters following exercise in all three groups. ...
... Damage to the contractile elements of muscle following resistance exercise leads to oedema formation, resulting in muscle soreness and decrements in exercise performance 4,5 . The improved recovery of CMJ variables with COMP, observed in this study and consistent with previous research 59, 64 , has been attributed to the enhanced repair of the muscle contractile elements 32 . In support of this, improved ratings of muscle soreness and exercise performance recovery were evident with COMP. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of compression tights on blood flow following exercise and to assess if the placebo effect is responsible for any acute performance or psychological benefits. Twenty-two resistance-trained participants completed a lower-body resistance exercise session followed by a 4 h recovery period. Participants were assigned a post-exercise recovery intervention of either compression tights applied for 4 h (COMP), placebo tablet consumed every hour for 4 h (PLA) or control (CON). Physiological (markers of venous return, muscle blood flow, blood metabolites, thigh girth), performance (countermovement jump, isometric mid-thigh pull), and psychological measures (perceived muscle soreness, total quality of recovery) were collected pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, at 30 (markers of venous return and muscle blood flow) and 60 min (blood metabolites, thigh girth and psychological measures) intervals during 4 h of recovery, and at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h post-exercise. No significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed between interventions. However, effect size analysis revealed COMP enhanced markers of venous return, muscle blood flow, recovery of performance measures, psychological measures and reduced thigh girth compared to PLA and CON. There were no group differences in blood metabolites. These findings suggest compression tights worn after resistance exercise enhance blood flow and indices of exercise recovery, and that these benefits were not due to a placebo effect.
... Considering that the range of the tension exerted by compression tights is 175~350 N/m [55], Laplace's law predicts the range of the garment pressure applied to the thigh and calf as 15~30 mmHg and 24~48 mmHg, respectively [56]. However, prior studies have reported that a single-pressure level for compression garments is most beneficial for enhancing exercise performance [57,58]. Therefore, a similar pressure level might exist for compression tights that reduce foot rotation angles. ...
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Out-toeing gait may cause alterations in lower limb biomechanics that could lead to an increased risk of overuse injuries. Surgery and physical therapy are conventional methods for mitigating such gait, but they are costly and time-consuming. Wearable devices like braces and orthoses are used as affordable alternatives, but they apply non-negligible stress on the skin. Haptic feedback-delivering shoes were also recently developed, but they require actuators and power sources. The purpose of our study is to develop compression tights with inward directing taping lines that apply compression to lower limb muscles and segments to facilitate inward rotation of the foot, overcoming the drawbacks of previous methods. These compression tights were manufactured to fit the average height, leg length, hip girth, and waist girth of South Korean females in their twenties. The efficacy of these compression tights was evaluated by comparing walking kinematics and user satisfaction of 12 female dancers with an out-toeing gait under three conditions: wearing tights with taping lines, tights without taping lines, and basic bicycle shorts. The foot rotation angles and joint kinematics were recorded using a pressure-pad treadmill and motion capture system, respectively. Multiple pairwise comparisons revealed that the compression tights with inward-directing lines significantly reduced foot rotation angles (up to an average of 20.1%) compared with the bicycle shorts (p = 0.002 and 0.001 for dominant and non-dominant foot, respectively) or the compression tights without taping lines (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001 for dominant and non-dominant foot, respectively). Statistical parametric mapping revealed significant main effects of the tight type on joint kinematics. Also, t-tests revealed that the participants reported significantly higher ratings of perceived functionality and usability on the compression tights with inward-directing taping lines. In conclusion, we developed a comfortable and practical apparel-type wearable and demonstrated its short-term efficacy in mitigating out-toeing gait.
... The use of SCG during exercise has been reported to improve numerous performance metrics, including jump height [3][4][5][6], cycling power [7][8][9][10], repeated sprint ability [8,11] and running performance [12][13][14]. When worn during the post-exercise recovery period, compression garments are reported to reduce ratings of muscle soreness [15][16][17][18][19][20], decrements in subsequent exercise performance [17,[20][21][22] and muscle swelling [16,20,23], as well as enhance the clearance of muscle damage markers [16,[23][24][25]. Collectively, it has been hypothesised that the ergogenic effects of SCG during and following exercise are largely associated with compression-induced increases in peripheral blood flow (i.e. ...
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Background One of the proposed mechanisms underlying the benefits of sports compression garments may be alterations in peripheral blood flow.Objective We aimed to determine if sports compression garments alter measures of peripheral blood flow at rest, as well as during, immediately after and in recovery from a physiological challenge (i.e. exercise or an orthostatic challenge).Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of databases including Scopus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed/MEDLINE. The criteria for inclusion of studies were: (1) original papers in English and a peer-reviewed journal; (2) assessed effect of compression garments on a measure of peripheral blood flow at rest and/or before, during or after a physiological challenge; (3) participants were healthy and without cardiovascular or metabolic disorders; and (4) a study population including athletes and physically active or healthy participants. The PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used. Changes in blood flow were quantified by standardised mean difference (SMD) [± 95% confidence interval (CI)].ResultsOf the 899 articles identified, 22 studies were included for the meta-analysis. The results indicated sports compression garments improve overall peripheral blood flow (SMD = 0.32, 95% CI 0.13, 0.51, p = 0.001), venous blood flow (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14, 0.60, p = 0.002) and arterial blood flow (SMD = 0.30, 95% CI 0.01, 0.59, p = 0.04). At rest, sports compression garments did not improve peripheral blood flow (SMD = 0.18, 95% CI − 0.02, 0.39, p = 0.08). However, subgroup analyses revealed sports compression garments enhance venous (SMD = 0.31 95% CI 0.02, 0.60, p = 0.03), but not arterial (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI − 0.16, 0.40, p = 0.16), blood flow. During a physiological challenge, peripheral blood flow was improved (SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, p = 0.0007), with subgroup analyses revealing sports compression garments enhance venous (SMD = 0.48, 95% CI 0.11, 0.85, p = 0.01) and arterial blood flow (SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.03, 0.86, p = 0.04). At immediately after a physiological challenge, there were no changes in peripheral blood flow (SMD = − 0.04, 95% CI − 0.43, 0.34, p = 0.82) or subgroup analyses of venous (SMD = − 0.41, 95% CI − 1.32, 0.47, p = 0.35) and arterial (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI − 0.26, 0.51, p = 0.53) blood flow. In recovery, sports compression garments did not improve peripheral blood flow (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI − 0.45, 0.95, p = 0.49). The subgroup analyses showed enhanced venous (SMD = 0.67, 95% CI 0.17, 1.17, p = 0.009), but not arterial blood flow (SMD = 0.02, 95% CI − 1.06, 1.09, p = 0.98).Conclusions Use of sports compression garments enhances venous blood flow at rest, during and in recovery from, but not immediately after, a physiological challenge. Compression-induced changes in arterial blood flow were only evident during a physiological challenge.
... The effects of compression load to the trunk on lipid metabolism in an inactive phase suggesting that the body girdle as a compression load to the trunk influences metabolic function. However, several studies reported that differences in degree of compression load value and compression period induced several different effects on cognitive function, motor function, and immune response [12,[14][15][16][17]. These reports suggest that the control of compression load value is an important factor in evaluating effects of compression load. ...
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The effects of compression load to a specific body part, e.g. leg, arm, or trunk, evoke many functions and are applied in various fields including clinical medicine, sports, and general health care. Nevertheless, little is known about the functional mechanism of compression load, especially regarding its effects on metabolic function. We investigated the effects of compression load to the trunk on the metabolism. We designed adjustable compression clothes for mice and attached them to ten-week-old C57BL/6N male mice in a controlled environment. The mice were divided into compression and no-compression groups, the latter only wearing the clothes without added compression. The evoked metabolic changes were evaluated using indirect calorimetry and transcriptomics with liver tissue to investigate the mechanism of the metabolic changes induced by the compression load. The results indicated decreases in body weight gain, food intake, and respiratory exchange ratio in the compression group compared to the no-compression group, but these effects were limited in the "light period" which was an inactive phase for mice. As a result of the transcriptome analysis after eight hours of compression load to the trunk, several DEGs, e.g., Cpt1A, Hmgcr, were classified into functional categories relating to carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, or immune response. Lipid metabolism impacts included suppression of fatty acid synthesis and activation of lipolysis and cholesterol synthesis in the compression group. Taken together, our results showed that activation of lipid metabolism processes in an inactive phase was induced by the compression load to the trunk.
... edema, and improve recovery from muscle damage. 15,19 Since TSS is caused by musculotendinous inflammation, 12 compression therapy may help to decrease the swelling associated with inflammation and, thereby, reduce symptoms of TSS. We monitored TSSrelated symptoms using a VAS for perceptions of pain and TSS score. ...
Context: Tibial stress syndrome (TSS) is an overuse injury of the lower extremities. There is a high incidence rate of TSS among military recruits. Compression therapy is used to treat a wide array of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of compression therapy as a treatment for TSS in military service members. Design: A parallel randomized study design was utilized. Methods: Military members diagnosed with TSS were assigned to either a relative rest group or compression garment group. Both groups started the study with 2 weeks of lower extremity rest followed by a graduated running program during the next 6 weeks. The compression garment group additionally wore a shin splints compression wrap during the waking hours of the first 2 weeks and during activity only for the next 6 weeks. Feelings of pain, TSS symptoms, and the ability to run 2 miles pain free were assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks into the study. Results: Feelings of pain and TSS symptoms decreased during the 8-week study in both groups (P < .05), but these changes were not significantly different between groups (P > .05). The proportion of participants who were able to run 2 miles pain free was significantly different (P < .05) between the 2 groups at the 8-week time point with the compression garment group having a significantly increased ability to complete the run without pain. Conclusions: Although perceptions of pain at rest were not different between groups, the functional ability of running 2 miles pain free was significantly improved in the compression garment group. These findings suggest that there is a moderate benefit to using compression therapy as an adjunct treatment for TSS, promoting a return to training for military service members.
The inward displacement perpendicular to the human body produced by external pressure is a key point to evaluate the pressure comfort and optimize the design of compression garment. However, it is hard to obtain the accurate displacement value using the existing instrument and equipment. In order to find a simple and feasible method to obtain displacement data after the human body wearing compression clothing, the waist cross-section model of human body was obtained by computerized tomography scanning and Mimics modeling, and then the displacement distribution was simulated after wearing four sample elastic pantyhose (A1, A2, B1, B2) using finite element method in this article. Finally, the functional relationship between pressure/displacement ratio and angle was obtained through quadratic curve fitting. Research indicated that the four fitting curves showed almost the same tendency, and we can approximate that the functional relationship between pressure/displacement ratio and angle remains almost unchanged no matter what kind of elastic pantyhose the human body wearing, and no matter what state the human body was in (static or dynamic). As a result, when the human body was under clothing pressure, the corresponding displacement value on the body can be calculated on the premise of the known pressure value at any point of the waist cross section using the quadratic equation. The conclusion provides an important reference for evaluating clothing pressure comfort and optimizing clothing structure. This method is also applicable to other types of compression garment.
A adoção de métodos de recuperação tem sido comum no futebol mas a literatura é escassa no que respeita à frequência de utilização, à eficácia na recuperação, ao modo de implementação após o jogo e às recomendações metodológicas. A presente tese teve como objetivos: i) desenvolver e validar um questionário em língua portuguesa sobre os métodos de recuperação utilizados no futebol; ii) caracterizar as práticas de recuperação adotadas nas 72 horas seguintes ao jogo de futebol; iii) examinar a eficácia dos métodos de recuperação em parâmetros físicos, fisiológicos e percetivos; iv) identificar os modos de aplicação dos métodos de recuperação no final do jogo de futebol, no dia após e dois dias após o jogo. Para estes propósitos, foram realizados quatro estudos. O ESTUDO 1 consistiu na conceção e validação de um questionário sobre os métodos de recuperação no futebol de elite. O ESTUDO 2 consistiu na aplicação do questionário a equipas de futebol de elite em Portugal. O ESTUDO 3 reviu de forma sistemática a literatura, atribuindo graus de recomendação aos cinco métodos de recuperação mais utilizados no futebol. O ESTUDO 4 apresentou um modelo de priorização, periodização e individualização dos métodos de recuperação após o jogo. Concluiu-se que a frequência de utilização dos métodos de recuperação varia em função do período de recuperação e do local do jogo. Apenas a imersão em água fria, a massagem e o vestuário de compressão apresentam eficácia na recuperação de parâmetros percetivos, sendo que a recuperação dos parâmetros físicos e fisiológicos carece de evidência científica. Desenvolveu-se então um modelo de aplicação prática dos métodos de recuperação após o jogo. Futuras propostas de recuperação assim como estudos com maior qualidade metodológica são necessários de forma a aumentar a eficácia da recuperação após o jogo de futebol, em particular a nível físico e fisiológico.
Whilst much research has been carried out on the use of compression garments for muscular recovery, reliability data on muscular performance and compression pressure measurements are lacking in non-resistance-trained populations. Therefore, the between-day and within-session reliability of garment interface pressure measurements and lower-limb maximal voluntary contraction forces was assessed in non-resistance-trained males and compared between groups testing on consecutive (CONSEC, n = 12), or non-consecutive days (≥ 48 h; REC, n = 12). Interface pressures were measured with a pneumatic sensor, before knee extension performance of the dominant leg (isometric, 60° s−1, 120° s−1 and 180° s−1) and 6 s cycle sprint performance were assessed. Peak isometric and isokinetic forces at 60° s−1 and 120° s−1 declined between days in CONSEC (p < 0.05; CV 5.1—6.6%), but not in REC (p > 0.05; CV 3.5–9.4%). Cycling peak power increased between days, regardless of group (p = 0.014; CV 4–4.8%). Interface pressures were similar between days and groups, but highly variable (p > 0.05; CV 6.8–17%). Familiarization with isometric and isokinetic testing may be unnecessary in non-resistance-trained males. Strength losses resulting from performance tests should be considered when assessing recovery on consecutive days. Conversely, 6 s sprint cycle testing required at least one familiarization session. Interface pressure measurements should be reported alongside reliability coefficients, while further research is needed to quantify the deterioration of interface pressures in relation to the reliability of these measurements when compression garments are worn for multiple days’ recovery.
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Commercially available compression garments (CGs) demonstrate the enhanced recovery from exercise in some, but not all studies. It is possible that in some cases the degree of compression pressure (ComP) exerted is not sufficient to produce any physiological benefit. The aim of this investigation was to identify the levels of ComP exerted by commercially available CGs. This study was composed of two parts. In part A 50 healthy, physically active individuals (n = 26 male, n = 24 female) were fitted with CGs according to manufacturer’s guidelines. ComP was measured in participants standing in the anatomical position with a pressure measurement device inserted between the skin and the garment. Data were compared to ‘ideal’ pressure values proposed in the literature. In part B, ComP in three different brands of CG was compared in a population of 29 men who all wore a medium-sized garment. A one-way ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference (P 0.05) between observed and ideal pressures in the calf of the male population. No significant differences in pressure (P > 0.05) were observed between CG brands at the quadriceps or calf. In conclusion, a large number of individuals may not be experiencing an adequate ComP from CG, and this is true for all the three major brands of CGs tested in this investigation.
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Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to measure the interface pressure exerted by lower body sports compression garments, in order to assess the effect of garment type, size and posture in athletes. Twelve national-level boxers were fitted with sports compression garments (tights and leggings), each in three different sizes (undersized, recommended size and oversized). Interface pressure was assessed across six landmarks on the lower limb (ranging from medial malleolus to upper thigh) as athletes assumed sitting, standing and supine postures. Sports compression leggings exerted a significantly higher mean pressure than sports compression tights (P < 0.001). Oversized tights applied significantly less pressure than manufacturer-recommended size or undersized tights (P < 0.001), yet no significant differences were apparent between different-sized leggings. Standing posture resulted in significantly higher mean pressure application than a seated posture for both tights and leggings (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Pressure was different across landmarks, with analyses revealing a pressure profile that was neither strictly graduated nor progressive in nature. The pressure applied by sports compression garments is significantly affected by garment type, size and posture assumed by the wearer.
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Strenuous physical activity can result in exercise induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a lower limb compression garment in accelerating recovery from a marathon run. Twenty four subjects (female n= 7, male n= 17) completed a marathon run before being assigned to a treatment group or a sham treatment group. The treatment group wore lower limb compression tights for 72 h following the marathon run, the sham treatment group received a single treatment of 15 min of sham ultrasound following the marathon run. Perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and serum markers of Creatine Kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (C-RP) were assessed before, immediately after and 24, 48 and 72 h post marathon. Perceived muscle soreness was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the compression group at 24 h post marathon when compared to the sham group. There were no significant group effects for MVIC, CK and C-RP (p > 0.05). The use of a lower limb compression garment improved subjective perceptions of recovery, however there was no significant improvement in muscular strength, nor was there a significant attenuation in markers of exercise induced muscle damage and inflammation.
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This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position METHODS: Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. The knee angle (-10[degree sign]) and oscillatory movement (-20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P < 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance. Accordingly, our results indicate that the use of lower leg compression in the range of 20-40 mmHg may improve alpine skiing performance by allowing a deeper tuck position and lowering perceived exertion.
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The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of compression garments on recovery following damaging exercise. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using studies that evaluated the efficacy of compression garments on measures of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscular strength, muscular power and creatine kinase (CK). Studies were extracted from a literature search of online databases. Data were extracted from 12 studies, where variables were measured at baseline and at 24 or 48 or 72 h postexercise. Analysis of pooled data indicated that the use of compression garments had a moderate effect in reducing the severity of DOMS (Hedges' g=0.403, 95% CI 0.236 to 0.569, p<0.001), muscle strength (Hedges' g=0.462, 95% CI 0.221 to 0.703, p<0.001), muscle power (Hedges' g=0.487, 95% CI 0.267 to 0.707, p<0.001) and CK (Hedges' g=0.439, 95% CI 0.171 to 0.706, p<0.001). These results indicate that compression garments are effective in enhancing recovery from muscle damage.
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To examine whether wearing various size lower-body compression garments improves physiological and performance parameters related to endurance running in well-trained athletes. Eleven well-trained middle-distance runners and triathletes (age: 28.4 ± 10.0 y; height: 177.3 ± 4.7 cm; body mass: 72.6 ± 8.0 kg; VO2max: 59.0 ± 6.7 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed repeat progressive maximal tests (PMT) and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) tests at 90% VO2max wearing either manufacturer-recommended LBCG (rLBCG), undersized LBCG (uLBCG), or loose running shorts (CONT). During all exercise testing, several systemic and peripheral physiological measures were taken. The results indicated similar effects of wearing rLBCG and uLBCG compared with the control. Across the PMT, wearing either LBCG resulted in significantly (P < .05) increased oxygen consumption, O2 pulse, and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) and decreased running economy, oxyhemoglobin, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) at low-intensity speeds (8-10 km·h-1). At higher speeds (12-18 km·h-1), wearing LBCG increased regional blood flow (nTHI) and HHb values, but significantly lowered heart rate and TOI. During the TTE, wearing either LBCG significantly (P < .05) increased HHb concentration, whereas wearing uLBCG also significantly (P < .05) increased nTHI. No improvement in endurance running performance was observed in either compression condition. The results suggest that wearing LBCG facilitated a small number of cardiorespiratory and peripheral physiological benefits that appeared mostly related to improvements in venous flow. However, these improvements appear trivial to athletes, as they did not correspond to any improvement in endurance running performance.
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The effects of knee-high socks that applied different levels of compression (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg) on various cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters during submaximal running were analysed. Fifteen well-trained, male endurance athletes (age: 22.2 ± 1.3 years; peak oxygen uptake: 57.2 ± 4.0 mL/minute/kg) performed a ramp test to determine peak oxygen uptake. Thereafter, all athletes carried out five periods of submaximal running (at approximately 70% of peak oxygen uptake) with and without compression socks that applied the different levels of pressure. Cardiac output and index, stroke volume, arterio-venous difference in oxygen saturation, oxygen uptake, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood lactate were monitored before and during all of these tests. Cardiac output (P = 0.29) and index (P = 0.27), stroke volume (P = 0.50), arterio-venous difference in oxygen saturation (P = 0.11), oxygen uptake (P = 1.00), arterial oxygen saturation (P = 1.00), heart rate (P = 1.00) and arterial lactate concentration (P = 1.00) were unaffected by compression (effect sizes = 0.00-0.65). This first evaluation of the potential effects of increasing levels of compression on cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters during submaximal exercise revealed no effects whatsoever.
BACKGROUND Lymphedema is a relatively frequent complication following the management of breast carcinoma. Numerous therapeutic interventions have been offered to treat this potentially disabling and disfiguring condition. Consensus has not been attained among oncologists, surgeons, psychiatrists, and physical therapists concerning the appropriate treatment of lymphedema.METHODS This review provides an overview of those treatment regimens that have been used in the past and, in some instances, have gone on to provide the foundation for the most widely prescribed interventions currently employed for the management of upper extremity lymphedema following breast carcinoma treatment. The use of intermittent pneumatic compression pumps as a part of an integrated multidisciplinary treatment approach incorporating garments, exercises, and massage also is discussed.RESULTSA review of available literature suggests that a variety of traditional and commonly available techniques, when used appropriately in a multidisciplinary fashion, may lessen the cosmetic and physical impairments associated with acquired lymphedema. The role of surgery is unclear. Pharmacotherapies are a promising adjunct to manual and mechanical therapies.CONCLUSIONS The appropriate use of readily available treatment approaches may lessen the severity of acquired lymphedema following breast carcinoma therapy. A comprehensive therapeutic approach should be employed in the management of lymphedema, including attention to the functional, cosmetic, and emotional sequelae of this potentially disabling condition. To that end, a recommendation for a comprehensive treatment regimen is provided. Cancer 1998;83:2821-2827. © 1998 American Cancer Society.
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a sensation of soreness that develops 24–48 hr after intense unaccustomed exercise. Clinical characteristics of DOMS include local tissue edema, decreased muscle strength, and decreased range of motion. Although controversial, some research has implicated swelling as a cause or contributor to soreness. We designed this study to determine the effects of continuous external compression on swelling resulting from eccentric contraction and the accompanying clinical characteristics of DOMS. Twenty-three healthy college students (16 females, 7 males; X age=26.0 years) completed 70 maximal eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors to induce soreness and then received random assignment to either a control or a compression sleeve group. The compression sleeve group wore an elastic compression sleeve on the exercised arm, extending from the deltoid insertion to the wrist, throughout the study. We obtained measures of subjective soreness, range of motion (ROM), circumference, arm volume, and isokinetic peak torque for both groups immediately before exercise and 10 min and 24, 48, and 72 hr after exercise. No significant differences were present between groups at any time reference for any of the dependent variables. Soreness peaked at 48 hr and then began to decline. Circumference and volume measurements increased over time with the greatest difference occurring 72 hr postexercise. Subject's ROM and peak torque decreased immediately following exercise and continued to be lower than baseline during the next 72 hr. Continuous external compression, which prior research has shown to be an effective treatment of edema resulting from a variety of acute injuries, was not effective in reducing the edema associated with DOMS, nor was it effective in reducing soreness, strength loss, or ROM loss as a result of DOMS in elbow flexors. Therefore, the clinical use of compression garments in treating DOMS in upper extremities is questionable.