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Securing Online Privacy: An Empirical Test on Internet Scam Victimization, Online Privacy Concerns, and Privacy Protection Behaviors

Article history:
Received 3 October 2016
Received in revised form 30 December
Accepted 1 January 2017
Available online xxx
Internet scam victimization
Privacy concerns
Privacy protection measures
Privacy knowledge
Routine Internet activities
Self-control abilities
The current study identified the antecedents of being an Internet scam victim and how it impacts online privacy concerns
and privacy protection behaviors. Structural equation modeling on data from a survey of 11,534 Internet users revealed
that one indicator of weak self-control (i.e., willingness of risky investments) and two indicators of routine Internet ac-
tivities (i.e., online shopping and opening emails from unknown sources) positively predicted being an Internet scam vic-
tim. Subsequently, being an Internet scam victim predicted increased online privacy concerns, which, in turn, predicted
elevated privacy protection behaviors. Moreover, we found that being an Internet scam victim mediated the effects of
routine Internet activities on privacy protection behaviors and that online privacy concerns mediated the effect of being
an Internet scam on privacy protection behaviors. Unlike most Internet privacy studies using protection motivation theory
only, the current study contributes to the understanding of the Internet scam victimization by incorporating three new the-
ories—extended parallel process model, self-control theory, and routine activity theory. The research findings provided
valuable implications for theory and practice related to Internet scam processes and prevention.
© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx
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Computers in Human Behavior
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Full length article
Securing online privacy: An empirical test on Internet scam victimization, online
privacy concerns, and privacy protection behaviors
Hongliang Chen a, , Christopher E. Beaudoin b, Traci Hong b
aDepartment of Communication, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
bCollege of Communication, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
The Internet is becoming a major avenue for the business trans-
actions of corporate users and other individuals. E-commerce retail
sales reached $236.9 billion in 2014 (STATISTA, 2015). A major-
ity of American Internet users search for online product information
and make online purchases on a daily basis (Flanagin, Metzger, Pure,
Markov, & Hartsell, 2014). The Internet also provides opportunities
for criminals to target and attack victims. Criminals can infiltrate vic-
tims' personal online accounts and then create tailored scam emails
to gain benefits from the victims (Chou, 2013). The anonymous on-
line environment makes it difficult for users to identify such fraud-
ulent probes (Bay, Cook, Grubisic, & Nikitkov, 2014). The reported
financial loss of Internet scams was more than $800 million in 2014
(Internet Crime Complaint Center, 2014).
Internet scams aim to defraud victims (Buchanan & Whitty, 2014),
with scammers applying different methods to steal victims' private
information and trick them into making financial payments (Pratt,
Holtfreter, & Reisig, 2010; Reyns, 2013; Salu, 2004; Vahdati &
Yasini, 2015; Zahedi, Abbasi, & Yan, 2015). One of the best-known
types of Internet scams is purchase fraud, in which scammers col-
lect Internet users' credit card information and PIN numbers, which
they then use to withdraw money from the victim's financial ac-
count (Yazdanifard, WanYusoff, Behora, & Sade, 2011). In another
type of fraud, criminals build fake websites to induce victims with
information intended to appear to be legitimate and reliable.
Corresponding author.
Email addresses: (H. Chen); (C.E.
Beaudoin); (T. Hong)
Criminals offer fake products at extremely cheap prices and provide
fake positive consumer comments to attract victims (Abbasi, Zhang,
Zimbra, Chen, & Nunamaker, 2010; Zahedi et al., 2015).
Research on such Internet privacy practices has been commonly
based in protection motivation theory (PMT). PMT holds that, be-
fore people engage in risk reduction behaviors, they undergo risk ap-
praisal and coping appraisal, which can spur the development of pro-
tection motivation and, in turn, actual protection behaviors (Rogers,
1983). With a basis in PMT, previous studies have yielded mixed
results. Some researchers found that individuals follow the logic of
PMT, in which privacy concerns do, indeed, mediate the effects of
risk appraisal and coping appraisal on the adoption of privacy pro-
tection strategies (Mohamed & Ahmad, 2012; Youn, 2009), whereas
other studies failed to support the three-stage model (Chen, Beaudoin,
& Hong, 2016a). The mixed support for PMT in the context of online
privacy concerns could be the function of limitations in measurement
or theory.
In light of these limitations, the current study tested seven an-
tecedents of the Internet scam victimization and addressed how vic-
tim experiences influence people's privacy concerns and subsequent
privacy protection behaviors. The current study contributes to the
study of Internet privacy in two novel ways. First, in addition to
PMT, we have incorporated extended parallel process model (EPPM)
into our development of theory. Derived from PMT, EPPM explains
why high perceived threat fails to predict behavioral changes under
certain conditions (Witte, 1994). EPPM provides theoretical refine-
ments to PMT, which we believe are instructive on online privacy
processes. Second, we introduce two theories that are new to research
0747-5632/© 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
2 Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx
on online privacy—self-control theory and routine activity theory—to
explore the antecedents of Internet scam victimization.
1. Literature Review1.1. Self-control theory
Self-control theory was originally developed to explain the de-
terminants of offending behaviors (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990).
Self-control refers to one's ability to regulate emotions, behaviors, and
desires (Beaver, Barnes, & Boutwell, 2014). People's general intelli-
gence and personal backgrounds, such as educational level and prior
experiences, determine one's ability of self-control (Halpern-Felsher
et al., 2001; Hare, Camerer, & Rangel, 2009; Ommundsen, 2003). The
theory proposes that criminal acts, which are unlawful (Wikström &
Treiber, 2007), tend to be short-lived, impulsive, and exciting and,
for these reasons, can satisfy a person's immediate gratifications
(Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990). People with low self-control, thus,
are most likely to engage in criminal activities without consider-
ing the consequences of offending other people (Blanco et al., 2008;
Bolin, 2004; Holtfreter, Reisig, Piquero, & Piquero, 2010; Martinez,
Rutledge, & Sher, 2007; Pratt & Cullen, 2000; Vowell & Chen, 2004).
Moreover, researchers found that low self-control people frequently
get involved in risk-taking activities given their limited capacity to as-
sess the severity and vulnerability of risks (Holtfreter et al., 2010).
When tempted by fraudsters, low self-control people tend to grat-
ify their immediate needs, including seeking out big discounts and
free trials of new products, but underestimate long-term consequences
(Holtfreter, Reisig, & Pratt, 2008). With such a limited appraisal of
risks, low self-control people tend to become the primary targets of
Internet scams (Van Wilsem, 2013). Related research has supported
the correlation between low self-control and victimization of crime.
For instance, scholars have confirmed the inverse association between
self-control and the possibility of being a victim of crime (Forde &
Kennedy, 1997), including in the contexts of violent crime (Schreck,
Stewart, & Osgood, 2008; Schreck, Wright, & Miller, 2002; Stewart,
Elifson, & Sterk, 2004) and homicide (Piquero, MacDonald, Dobrin,
Daigle, & Cullen, 2005).
With the emergence of Internet crime, research has begun to test
the association between low self-control and being a victim of Internet
fraud. Internet fraud requires some extent of trust between victims and
criminals (Holtfreter et al., 2010). In online scam attempts, criminals
intentionally induce victims to make payments for promised items and
services and invest in financial institutions (Titus, 2001), but, for the
attempts to be successful, victims must click on pop-up links, down-
load programs with malicious software, or engage in monetary trans-
actions with fraudsters. According to Holtfreter et al. (2008), people
with low self-control reported a higher frequency of engagement in
online purchases, which may increase their chance of experiencing
online fraud. Moreover, another study confirmed that irrational con-
sumers, who are financially impulsive, tend to engage in more online
purchases than rational consumers (Reisig, Pratt, & Holtfreter, 2009).
In the purchase-decision process, impulsive consumers tend to be less
concerned about marketers' guarantees and product reputations, which
make them ideal targets for fraudsters (Holtfreter et al., 2008). Once
targeted, low self-control people are less likely to scrutinize privacy
risks and are more likely to behave in ways that comply with scam-
The current study operationally defines people's self-control in
two ways: 1) willingness to make risky investments; and 2) knowl-
edge about Internet privacy. People's willingness to make risky invest-
ments reflects their desire for immediate gratifications (Holtfreter et
al., 2008). People who make risky investments value potential mon-
etary profits, but tend to be less concerned with the risks of mone-
tary losses. When confronting related offers from criminals, people
who favor risky investments are more likely to be deceived. Consis
tent with previous research (Van Wyk & Mason, 2001), we treat the
willingness to make risky financial investments as an indicator of low
self-control. Also consistent with prior research (Taylor, Davis, &
Jillapalli, 2009), we rely on people's knowledge about Internet privacy
to reflect high self-control. Knowledge about Internet privacy entails
a person's perceptions of the following: website privacy policies, un-
known collection of personal information online, and risks of disclos-
ing personal data online. We postulate that people with higher levels
of Internet privacy knowledge are more likely to recognize the sus-
picious offers of criminals. Thus, as shown in Fig. 1, we hypothesize
that knowledge about Internet privacy is negatively associated with
victimization of Internet scam, whereas willingness to make risky in-
vestments is positively associated with such victimization.
Willingness to make risky investments is positively associated
with the likelihood of being an Internet scam victim.
Knowledge about Internet privacy is inversely associated with
the likelihood of being an Internet scam victim.
1.2. Routine activity theory
Routine activity theory proposes that the possibility of being a
crime victim increases when motivated offenders and targeted vic-
tims are present in the same time and physical location (Cohen &
Felson, 1979). In criminology studies, a crime victim refers to an iden-
tifiable individual who has been harmed by criminals individually,
whereas victimization refers to the process of suffering the brunt of
crime (McShane & Williams, 1992). In traditional street crime stud-
ies, researchers have found a strong association between non-domes-
tic routine activities and being a crime victim. For instance, frequent
visits to night clubs (Mustaine & Tewksbury, 1998), participation in
sports activities, and visits to restaurants (Van Wilsem, 2011) were
found to increase the occurrence of victimization. Moreover, Cohen
and Felson (1979) noted that changes in communication technologies
may increase victims' exposure to criminals. Researchers argue that
the Internet can spur criminal activities given the anonymity of online
contacts, convenience of online search for others' personal informa-
tion, ease of distributing scam information, and absence of strong le-
gal regulation (Newman & Clarke, 2003).
The emergence of the Internet provides opportunities for offend-
ers to commit Internet scams. With the evolution of the Internet, peo-
ple's participation in routine activities is not limited to a certain phys-
ical location or time of a day (Reyns, 2013). For instance, searching
an e-library and shopping online do not require people's respective
physical presence in a library or a shopping mall, respectively (Eck &
Clarke, 2003). For this reason, crime patterns on the Internet are dra-
matically changing (Holt & Bossler, 2009), with the convergence of
time and physical location between criminals and victims being unim-
portant (Newman & Clarke, 2003). In particular, cyber criminals can
send messages online to target audiences at a distance and at any time
of the day.
Due to the threat of Internet scams, it is important to consider the
risks of routine Internet activities that could expose potential victims
to cyber criminals. Prior research has documented that individuals'
Internet routines are positive predictors of online crime. For exam-
ple, Pratt et al. (2010) found that the greater time spent on the Inter-
net, the greater exposure to perpetrators. The use of social network-
ing sites and online forums can especially increase people's visibility
and accessibility to potential offenders. Fraudsters may select targets
according to profile information disclosed online and develop appro-
priate strategies to induce specific individuals (Van Wilsem, 2013).
Online information disclosure can entail a person's sharing or making
Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx 3
Fig. 1. Four-Stage Conceptual Framework (with indication of effect valence and pertinent hypothesis).
public of demographic information, personal contacts, and personal
schedules online (Chen & Beaudoin, 2016). We, thus, expect that dis-
closing information online is positively associated with victimization
of Internet scams.
Research has demonstrated other online routines that predict vic-
timization of Internet scams, including online shopping (Reyns, 2013),
information search (Pratt et al., 2010), and downloading files
(Holtfreter et al., 2008). Online shopping allows users to purchase
products directly from a seller over the Internet (Mosteller, Donthu,
& Eroglu, 2014). The potential threat here is that online shopping
increases the risk of information theft and monetary loss
(Aghekyan-Simonian, Forsythe, Kwon, & Chattaraman, 2012). By
creating fake retail websites, criminals collect and record victims'
financial information when victims are making a transaction
(Yazdanifard et al., 2011). In the current study, we expect a posi-
tive association between online shopping and victimization of Internet
Downloading files is another pertinent online routine activity. It
refers to receiving textual, audio, video files, and software from web-
sites. Computers that download files from unreliable sources can be-
come infected with malicious software (Provos, Rajab, &
Mavrommatis, 2009). Hackers can make use of the malicious software
to attack users' computers and smartphones and steal private informa-
tion stored in the devices (Töyssy & Helenius, 2006). It is challenging
for Internet users to recognize malicious software given that it appears
to be credible (Jacob, Debar, & Filiol, 2008). In the current study, we
postulate a positive association between downloading files and victim-
ization of Internet scams.
We also examine two other types of routine Internet activities:
online information consumption and opening emails from unknown
sources. Online information consumption refers to viewing news,
health information, and product descriptions, as well as reading
emails and financial account information (Coiro & Dobler, 2007).
Once malware is installed on a user's computer, criminals can moni-
tor the user's online information consumption and design soliciting in-
formation accordingly. Moreover, opening emails from unknown re-
sources can lead users to unsafe websites and result in the installa-
tion of malicious software (Bergholz et al., 2010). Perpetrators use
such “phishing” emails to acquire individuals' sensitive information,
such as passwords and credit card information (Almomani et al.,
2012). Links on phishing emails can direct users to websites with mal-
ware and induce users to enter their personal information (Verma,
Shashidhar, & Hossain, 2012). The current study postulates that online
information consumption and opening emails from unknown sources
are positively associated with victimization of Internet scams. We set
forth a comprehensive hypothesis as depicted in Fig. 1.
Routine Internet activities (information disclosure, online
shopping, downloading files, online information consumption,
and opening emails from unknown sources) are positively associ-
ated with the likelihood of being an Internet scam victim.
1.3. Fear-based theories
Fear-oriented theories, such as PMT and EPPM, provide system-
atic explanations for people's selection of risk-reduction strategies.
Rogers (1975, 1983) developed PMT to explain the discrepancy in
people's adoption of risk-reduction behaviors. PMT holds that behav-
ior change is a function of people's undergoing cognitive appraisal
and, in turn, the development of motivation to adopt a new behavior.
Two parallel appraisal processes function simultaneously. Threat ap-
praisal comprises the outcomes of risk taking, including perceptions
4 Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx
of vulnerability, severity, and the rewards of a risky behavior (LaRose,
Rifon, & Enbody, 2008; Youn, 2009). Response appraisal encom-
passes response efficacy, self-efficacy, and the response cost (LaRose
et al., 2008; Prentice-Dunn, McMath, & Cramer, 2009). PMT sug-
gests that protection motivation consists of six cognitive appraisal fac-
tors, including severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, self-efficacy,
costs, and rewards, which lead to risk-reduction behaviors (Maddux &
Rogers, 1983).
In expanding upon PMT, EPPM argues that, in the primary ap-
praisal stage, people assess perceived severity and susceptibility of
a risk threat, as well as self-efficacy and response efficacy (Witte,
1994). Perceived severity refers to people's perception of how serious
a threat is, whereas perceived susceptibility reflects the likelihood that
a threat will impact oneself (Witte, 1992). Self-efficacy reflects indi-
viduals' beliefs in their ability to perform actions to control the risks,
whereas response efficacy refers to individuals' beliefs in the effec-
tiveness of the risk control strategies (Witte, 1992). In differing from
PMT, EPPM adds a secondary appraisal process in which individuals'
assessments of perceived threat and efficacy determine whether they
will engage in danger control or fear control. If perceived efficacy is
low and perceived threat is high, people tend to engage in fear con-
trol, which entails their believing that they are not competent to avoid
a risk. In fear control, individuals prefer to dismiss high-threat mes-
sages, avoid adaptive changes, and develop cognitive defensive avoid-
ance (McMahan, Witte, & Meyer, 1998). In contrast, if perceived ef-
ficacy and perceived threat are both high, people tend to engage in
danger control, which entails their being confident in taking miti-
gating adaptive actions (Witte, 1994). In danger control, people are
likely to develop protection motivation and adopt protective behav-
ioral changes. Finally, if perceived threat is low, people tend to disre-
gard a fear appeal message altogether (Witte, 1992).
1.4. Related works
Using PMT as a theoretical framework, multiple studies have in-
vestigated Internet users' privacy protection behaviors (Dinev & Hart,
2004; Rifon, LaRose, & Choi, 2005). Privacy protection motivation
and privacy protection behaviors are two concepts central to the lit-
erature on Internet privacy studies. Drawn from the definition of pro-
tection motivation and protection behaviors in PMT, privacy protec-
tion motivation reflects people's concerns about the misuse of online
private information by third-parties (Dinev & Hart, 2004), whereas
privacy protection behaviors entail behavioral efforts to prevent pri-
vacy loss (D. Lee, Larose, & Rifon, 2008; Mohamed & Ahmad, 2012).
In the Internet privacy literature, privacy protection behaviors have
been operationalized in various ways, including the installation of
anti-virus software (D. Lee et al., 2008), use of false personal informa-
tion (Chen, Beaudoin, & Hong, 2016b; Youn, 2005), avoidance of sus-
picious websites (Youn, 2009), deletion of unwanted online contacts
(Chen et al., 2016b), and seeking for help from others (Youn, 2005).
Privacy protection motivation has been operationalized as online pri-
vacy concerns (Chen et al., 2016b; Feng & Xie, 2014; Youn, 2009).
Online privacy concerns reflect people's worries about their capacity
to prevent the misuse of online personal information by others (Culnan
& Bies, 2003). Online privacy concerns develop from personal en-
counters, such as monetary loss due to the theft of financial account
information, and hearing from media reports, friends, and families
about online privacy risks (Brandimarte, Acquisti, & Loewenstein,
2013; Bryce & Fraser, 2014). Moreover, consistent with PMT's sug-
gestion that protection motivation leads to protection behaviors, In-
ternet privacy researchers documented positive associations between
online privacy concerns and privacy protection behaviors (LaRose &
Rifon, 2007; Rifon et al., 2005).
A growing body of survey research has used PMT as a basis for
exploring multistep processes on online privacy concerns. It is impor-
tant to review and synthesize these studies as a means to stressing two
areas of common divergence: 1) measurement; and 2) mediation test-
ing. Two studies have centered exclusively on the antecedents of pri-
vacy protection behaviors. In the first study, Youn (2005) analyzed the
antecedents of teen's online privacy protection behaviors. That prior
study's antecedents included perceived susceptibility and perceived
severity of online privacy risks, perceived benefits of Internet use, and
willingness to disclose information. The regression results suggested
that perceived susceptibility of privacy led to actual privacy protection
behaviors, whereas teen Internet users' willingness to provide infor-
mation online was found to be inversely associated with privacy pro-
tection behaviors. In the second study, Lee et al. (2008) tested seven
antecedents of adopting virus protection strategies online: perceived
severity of virus attacks, perceived vulnerability of virus attacks, per-
ceived response efficacy, self-efficacy, positive outcome expectations,
negative outcome expectations, and prior virus infection experiences.
The results suggested that self-efficacy, response efficacy, positive
outcome expectations, perceived vulnerability, and prior virus infec-
tion experiences were strong predictors of privacy protection behav-
iors. A third study independently considered the separate predictors of
online privacy concerns and of privacy protection behaviors. In that
study, Mohamed and Ahmad (2012) tested five antecedents of online
privacy concerns: self-efficacy, perceived severity, perceived vulnera-
bility, response efficacy, and perceived rewards of providing personal
information. Results suggested that perceived severity, perceived vul-
nerability, and self-efficacy were positive predictors of online privacy
concerns and that online privacy concerns predicted privacy protec-
tion behaviors. None of these three studies tested multistep media-
tion processes. In addition, in terms of variation in measurement, Lee
et al. (2008) and Mohamed and Ahmad (2012) employed compre-
hensive measurement of the four core constructs of PMT and EPPM
(i.e., severity, vulnerability, self-efficacy, response efficacy), whereas
Youn (2005) only measured two (i.e., severity and vulnerability).
Two more recent studies have advanced this research by building
multistep models that are generally as follows: 1) antecedents; 2) on-
line privacy concerns; and 3) protection behaviors. In the first study,
the three stages of a structural equation model were as follows: 1)
Internet use, persuasion knowledge, privacy knowledge, vulnerabil-
ity to risks, disclosure benefits, and privacy self-efficacy; 2) online
privacy concerns; and 3) privacy protection behaviors (Youn, 2009).
This study found that privacy concerns mediated the effects of per-
ceived risks and perceived benefits on privacy protection behaviors.
In the second study, scholars also used structural equation modeling
to test a multistep model on the online privacy processes of teen In-
ternet users (Chen et al., 2016b). The four stage-model was as fol-
lows: 1) cost/benefits appraisal, interpersonal trust, and parental influ-
ence; 2) privacy concerns; 3) protection behaviors; and 4) informa-
tion disclosure online. Results suggested that mediation effects were
quite rare, limited to only teen privacy concerns mediating the effects
of parental privacy concerns and parental interpersonal trust on teen
privacy protection behaviors. Only Youn (2009) has found strong sup-
port for how online privacy concerns can mediate the effects of an-
tecedents on protection behaviors—and both of these studies (Chen
et al., 2016b; Youn, 2009) employed quite limited measurement ap-
proaches to protection motivation via operational definition with on-
line privacy concerns.
Consistent with prior studies, in our conceptual model (see Fig.
1), privacy protection motivation is operationalized as online pri-
vacy concerns (Feng & Xie, 2014; Mohamed & Ahmad, 2012; Youn,
2009). One novel contribution of the current study is to test the as-
sociation between prior experiences of being an Internet scam victim
Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx 5
and online privacy concerns. Prior research suggested that people of-
ten use prior experiences to predict future online privacy decisions
(Cho, Lee, & Chung, 2010). The experience of online privacy loss
can help users understand that online privacy risks are relevant to
themselves (X. Li, 2008). Moreover, the victims of online privacy in-
vasion tend to understand the severe consequences of privacy loss.
People who have been victim to Internet scams are more likely to
build knowledge about related severity and vulnerability (Mohamed
& Ahmad, 2012). Consistent with PMT and EPPM, which hold that
severity and vulnerability appraisals are influential factors in deter-
mining people's protection motivation and subsequent protection be-
haviors (Rogers, 1975), the current study expects that being an Inter-
net scam victim positively predicts online privacy concerns (see Fig.
Being an Internet scam victim is positively associated with on-
line privacy concerns.
According to PMT and EPPM, protection motivation leads to ac-
tual risk-reducing behavioral changes (Rogers, 1975). The current
study examines three types of privacy protection behaviors: installing
antivirus software, updating antivirus software, and password chang-
ing frequency for email and financial accounts. Antivirus software
provides protection against online privacy invasion, helping monitor
such attacks, filter out spy software, and clean up suspicious computer
programs (Y. Lee & Kozar, 2008). As depicted in Fig. 1, we hypoth-
esize that people who are concerned about online privacy are likely to
install and update antivirus software for their computers.
Online privacy concerns are positively associated with in-
stalling antivirus software.
Online privacy concerns are positively associated with updat-
ing antivirus software.
The use of passwords is another popular strategy to protect one's
privacy online. Researchers recommend that Internet users construct
passwords with a combination of complex codes and avoid using
codes in association with personal information (Andrews, 2002;
Brown, Bracken, Zoccoli, & Douglas, 2004; Groves, 2002). With the
advances of technology, however, even strong passwords are unable
to resist the encroachment of hackers. To mitigate potential risks,
one of the most effective strategies is to change passwords frequently
(Inglesant & Sasse, 2010). In the current study, we measured password
changing frequency specific to financial and email accounts. It would
be expected that people with high privacy concerns are likely to un-
derstand passwords risks and change passwords frequently (see Fig.
Online privacy concerns are positively associated with pass-
word changing frequency.
Finally, we draft two hypotheses specific to potential mediation
paths in the theoretical model (see Fig. 1). Integral to the model are
two types of mediated effects. First, being an Internet scam victim is
expected to mediate the effects of the first-stage measures of self-con-
trol and routine Internet activities on online privacy concerns. Sec-
ond, online privacy concerns are expected to mediate the effects of
being an Internet scam victim on the fourth-stage privacy protec-
tion behavior variables (i.e., installing antivirus software, updating
antivirus software, password changing frequency). These mediated
paths are somewhat different from those examined in prior research,
which has tested how privacy concerns mediate the effects of risk ap-
praisals on privacy protection behaviors (Chen et al., 2016b; Youn,
2009) and how privacy protection behaviors mediate the effects of on-
line privacy concerns on information disclosure (Chen et al., 2016b).
In the current study, we tested a four-stage model with two types of
mediation processes. We posit two related hypotheses:
Being an Internet scam victim mediates the effects of self-con-
trol and routine Internet activities on online privacy concerns.
Online privacy concerns mediate the effects of being an Inter-
net scam victim on privacy protection behaviors.
2. Methods
The survey data (N = 11,741) were collected by GfK Knowledge
Networks from November 23 to December 30 in 2013. The online sur-
vey was conducted among adults aged 18 and older residing in the
United States. The respondents were sampled from the GfK panel,
which is a probability based panel that is representative of the Unite
States population. Because the current study focused on Internet
scams, we dropped non-Internet users, resulting in a final sample size
of 11,534. Such a large sample size poses some natural problems for
statistical inference. After all, with large samples, even small effects
can be statistically significant, which is consistent with Type I error
(Lin, Lucas Jr., & Shmueli, 2013). To address this issue, we present
effect sizes and, for determining significance, use 0.001 as the criti-
cal p-value. Finally, given that the missing data of various variables
were present in fewer than 5% of the cases (Tabachnick & Fidell,
2007), we recoded the missing values in continuous variables with the
grand mean and missing values in dichotomous variables with zero
(Eekhout, de Boer, Twisk, de Vet, & Heymans, 2012).
We completed a series of Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to identify
if the dependent variables had univariate normal distributions (Justel,
Peña, & Zamar, 1997). For the significantly skewed variables, we
used histograms to identify the direction of skewness. Consistent with
previous studies, we conducted square transformations for continuous
variables that were skewed left and log transformations for variables
that were skewed right (Manning & Mullahy, 2001; Osborne, 2005).
The transformed variables were used for SEM, whereas the untrans-
formed variables are presented for descriptive statistics.
2.1. Measurement
We treated age, education, gender, household income, ethnicity
(i.e., black, Hispanic, mixed race, and non-white other race), and hard-
ships in life as exogenous control variables(See Table 1). Most of
the respondents identified themselves as White (81%), followed by
African American (7%), Hispanic American (7%), Mixed Race (3%),
and other race (2%). Age was measured with seven categories: 18–24
(1), 25–34 (2), 35–44 (3), 45–54 (4), 55–64 (5), 65–74 (6), and above
75 years old (7). The average age of respondents was between 45 and
54 years old. Household income was measured on a 19-point scale
from “less than $5000” (1) to “$175,000 or more” (19). The mean
was about 11, which represented household income between $40,000
and $50,000. Education was measured on a 14-point scale from “no
formal education” (1) to “professional or doctoral degree” (14). The
mean was 10, which represented “some college, no degree.” In terms
of gender, 41.17% of respondents were male. Hardships in life was
measured with 10 dichotomous questions, asking about people's neg-
ative experiences in the past two years (i.e., loss of job, stress asso-
ciated with moving, divorce). The rest of the variables were endoge
6 Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx
nous. To reflect the reliability of measurements in the current study,
we reported Pearson correlation for 2-item scales with continuous
variables and Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20) for indexes with multiple
binary items.
2.1.1. Knowledge about Internet privacy
Much like prior research (Smit, Van Noort, & Voorveld, 2014),
knowledge about Internet privacy was measured using 11 true/false
statements. The questions tested respondents' understanding of web-
site privacy policies, use of personal information by websites, online
bank account security, privacy settings on social networking sites, and
third-party access to personal information. The total score ranged from
0 to 11 correct answers. The 11 items were added to create an index
(M = 5.23, SD = 2.60; KR-20 = 0.71).
2.1.2. Willingness to make risky investments
The measurement of willingness to make risky investments was
based in prior research (Van Wyk & Mason, 2001). The following two
items were used for willingness of risky investments: “I don't mind
taking chances with my money, as long as I think there's a change it
might pay off” and “I enjoy making risking financial investments now
and then” (M = 2.11, SD = 2.60; r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Responses were
on a 5-point scale from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (5).
2.1.3. Routine Internet activities
We assessed five types of routine Internet activities: online in-
formation disclosure, online shopping, downloading files, online in-
formation consumption, and opening emails from unknown sources.
Consistent with previous research (Chen & Beaudoin, 2016), we mea-
sured online information disclosure with nine dichotomous items,
including birthdate, home address, social security number, maiden
name, cell phone number, landline number, relationship status, names
of family members, and personal schedule. The nine items were added
to create an index (M = 1.93, SD = 1.80, KR-20 = 0.70).
Online shopping was measured with a single item, asking respon-
dents if they had purchased a product through electronic money pay-
ment in the past seven days. About 31.32% of respondents reported
online shopping behaviors within the past week.
We measured various types of downloading, including video, mu-
sic, games, and applications for social media and instant messaging.
Respondents reported if they conducted such online downloading in
the past seven days (yes = 1, no = 0). The six items were added to cre-
ate an index (M = 2.90, SD = 1.84, KR-20 = 0.71).
In line with previous research (Coiro & Dobler, 2007), the current
study measured online information consumption with eight items, in-
cluding reading email, news, health information, product descriptions,
weather information, and travel websites. The dichotomous answers
were added to create an index (M = 6.10, SD = 1.93, KR-20 = 0.74).
We measured opening emails from unknown sources with a sin-
gle item, asking respondents if they had opened emails from strangers.
About 17% of respondents reported the experience of opening emails
from unknown sources in the past seven days.
2.1.4. Being an Internet scam victim
With a basis in previous research (Holt & Bossler, 2009), we op-
erationally defined being an Internet scam victim in terms of los-
ing money to online scammers. The current study examined eight
types of Internet scams, including advance fee for debt relief, relative
in distress, sweepstakes offer, foreign lottery, secret shoppers, credit
cards, and general Internet scams. In total, 283 respondents claimed
to experience at least one of the Internet scams. We added the di
chotomous items to create an additive index (M = 0.02, SD = 0.20,
KR-20 = 0.59).
2.1.5. Online privacy concerns
Prior studies have measured online privacy concerns with a sin-
gle item, focusing on levels of concerns about online privacy safety
(Youn & Hall, 2008; Youn, 2009). We used a related measure, as
well as a second measure on concerns about being scammed (r = 0.68,
p < 0.001). Responses to each measure were on a 5-point scale from
“not at all concerned” (1) to “extremely concerned” (5) (M = 3.73,
SD = 0.96).
2.1.6. Privacy protection behaviors
Respondents were asked if they have antivirus programs loaded on
at least one computer, laptop, or other device with Internet access at
home. About 87% of respondents reported that they have installed pro-
tection software. Moreover, we measured people's frequency of up-
dating antivirus software. Respondents were asked to recall the most
recent updating of antivirus software from “never” (1) to “within the
past month” (5) (M = 4.28, SD = 1.00). We also measured the fre-
quency of changing passwords for financial and email accounts. Re-
spondents were asked to recall their frequency in changing these pass-
words, with responses ranging from “never” (1) to “at least once a
week” (5). This resulted in a two-item composite measure (M = 2.29,
SD = 0.93; r = 0.62, p < 0.001).
2.2. Analysis procedure
Using maximum likelihood estimation, we tested the multi-stage
model with structural equation modeling (SEM) with STATA 13.0.
The model consists of five stages: 1) exogenous control variables; 2)
routine Internet activities and indicators of self-control; 3) being an
Internet scam victim; 4) online privacy concerns; and 5) privacy pro-
tection behaviors. In particular, paths were positioned from stage 1
exogenous variables to all of the endogenous variables, from stage
2 variables to the stage 3 variable, from the stage 3 variable to the
stage 4 variable, and from the stage 4 variable to the stage 5 variable.
Moreover, we added 22 covariance paths between same-stage endoge-
nous variables. We reported the comparative fit index (CFI) and root
mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) to reflect the model fit.
For CFI, scholars have recommended different benchmarks, includ-
ing 0.90 or greater (Kline, 2005) and 0.95 or greater (Hu & Bentler,
1999). For RMSEA, Hu and Bentler (1999) recommended a bench-
mark of near or greater than 0.06, whereas Kline (2005) specified that
0.05 indicates good fit, 0.08 fair fit, and 0.10 marginal fit. Also, we
reported χ2statistics. Mediation was also closely tested with the prod-
uct of coefficients test (MacKinnon, Lockwood, Hoffman, West, &
Sheets, 2002).
3. Results
The fit of our model was good (χ2= 1372.349, p < 0.001; RM-
SEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.928). The effects of exogenous control vari-
ables and endogenous variables are depicted in Table 2 and Table 3,
respectively. The Bentler-Taykov squared multiple correlation coef-
ficients were as follows: knowledge about Internet privacy, 8.82%;
willingness to make risky investments, 6.54%; online information dis-
closure, 13.35%; online shopping, 1.37%; downloading files, 17.97%;
online information consumption, 14.80%; opening emails from un-
known sources, 2.24%; being an Internet scam victim, 2.37%; online
privacy concerns, 7.73%; installing antivirus software, 3.80%; updat-
ing antivirus software, 1.30%; frequency of password changes, 3.40%.
Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx 7
Table 1
Descriptive statistics of variables (N = 11,534).
Variables Mean SD Min Max
Exogenous Variables
18-24 6.17%
25-34 13.42%
35-44 13.25%
45-54 17.83%
55-64 4.07%
65-74 18.35%
75+ 6.92%
Education 10.77 1.67 1 14
Mixed Racea2.64%
Other Racea2.28%
Sex (Male)a41.17%
Household Income 11.32 4.26 1 19
Hardships in Life 1.56 1.54 0 10
Endogenous Variables
Knowledge about Internet Privacy 5.23 2.60 0 11
Willingness to Make Risky Investments 2.11 1.02 0 5
Online Information Disclosure 1.93 1.80 0 9
Online Shoppinga31.32%
Downloading Files 2.90 1.84 0 6
Online Information Consumption 6.10 1.93 0 8
Opening Emails from Unknown Sourcesa17.35%
Being an Internet Scam Victim 0.02 0.20 0 8
Online Privacy Concerns 3.74 0.96 1 5
Installing Antivirus Softwarea87.15%
Updating Antivirus Software 4.28 1.00 1 5
Password Changing Frequency 2.29 0.93 1 5
aRepresents the frequency of a dichotomous variable.
Results pertinent to hypotheses are depicted in Table 3 and Fig.
2. (For clarity of presentation, the effects of endogenous variables
are not depicted in Fig. 2.) Hypothesis 1a postulated that knowledge
about Internet privacy negatively predicts being an Internet scam vic-
tim. This hypothesis was not supported given the non-significant ef-
fect of knowledge about Internet privacy on online privacy concerns.
Hypothesis 1b postulated that willingness to make risky investments
positively predicts being an Internet scam victim. This path was posi-
tive and significant at the 0.001 level (β = 0.05), which provides sup-
port for this hypothesis.
Hypothesis 2 held that the routine Internet activities are positively
associated with being an Internet scam victim. The effects of online in-
formation disclosure (β = 0.06), online shopping (β = 0.04), and open-
ing emails from unknown sources (β = 0.08) were positive and sig-
nificant at the 0.001 level, whereas the effect of downloading files
was not significant. The effect of online information consumption
was inversely associated with being an Internet scam victim
(β = −0.04, p < 0.001), which is contrary to the hypothesis. Hence, H2
was supported in three of five cases.
Hypothesis 3 posited that being an Internet scam victim positively
predicts online privacy concerns. The effect was positive and signifi-
cant (β = 0.04, p < 0.001), providing support for H3.
Hypotheses 4a, 4b, and 4c held that online privacy concerns pos-
itively predict installing antivirus software, updating antivirus soft-
ware, and frequency of password changes. Online privacy concerns
were found to be positively correlated with password changing fre-
quency (β = 0.16, p < 0.001), which provides support for H4c. The ef-
fects on installing and updating antivirus software were not signifi-
cant, which provides no support for H4a and H4b.
Hypothesis 5a predicted that being an Internet scam victim medi-
ates the effects of self-control and routine Internet activities on online
privacy concerns. SEM suggested five relevant mediation path frame-
works: 1) willingness to make risky investments → being an Internet
scam victim → online privacy concerns; 2) online information dis-
closure → being an Internet scam victim → online privacy concerns;
3) online shopping → being an Internet scam victim → online pri-
vacy concerns; 4) online information consumption → being an Inter-
net scam victim → online privacy concerns; and 5) opening emails
from unknown sources → being an Internet scam victim → online pri-
vacy concerns. The relevant products of coefficients (MacKinnon et
al., 2002) are depicted in Table 4. The first five such z-score prod-
ucts involve this hypothesis, and each is significant at the 0.001 level
(Craig, 1936). Thus, Hypothesis 5a is supported in these five cases.
Hypothesis 5b posited that online privacy concerns mediate the ef-
fects of being an Internet scam victim on the privacy protection be-
haviors. SEM suggested general support for one such mediation path
framework: being an Internet scam victim → online privacy concerns
→ password changing frequency. The relevant product of coefficients
(MacKinnon et al., 2002) is depicted in Table 4. It is significant at the
0.001 level (Craig, 1936) and provides support for this hypothesis.
4. Discussion
Our conceptual model proposes a four-stage progression: 1) In-
ternet routine activities and self-control; 2) being an Internet scam
victim; 3) online privacy concerns; and 4) privacy protection behav-
iors. Unlike previous studies primarily based on PMT (Chen et al.,
2016b; LaRose et al., 2008; Mohamed & Ahmad, 2012; Youn, 2009),
the current study contributes to the Internet privacy literature by in-
corporating extended parallel process model, along with routine ac-
tivity theory and self-control theory to predict people's privacy con-
cerns and online privacy practices. Consistent with self-control theo-
ry's postulation that low self-control increases the likelihood of being a
Table 2
Standardized direct effects of exogenous variables on endogenous variables in structural equation model.
Age Edu-cation Black His-panic Mixed race Non-white other race Sex (Male) House-hold Income Hardships in Life
Knowledge about Internet Privacy −0.110.18−0.06−0.050.01 −0.01
Willingness to Make Risky Investments −0.150.02 0.03 0.040.02
Online Information Disclosure −0.280.01 −0.03−0.030.00 −0.01 −0.12−0.01 0.15
Online Shopping −0.070.04−0.03 −0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.060.05
Downloading Files −0.380.07−0.03 −0.01 0.01 0.00 −
Online Information Consumption −0.140.22−0.01 −0.01 −0.01 0.00 −
Opening Emails from Unknown Sources −0.050.03 0.02 −0.02 0.00 0.01 0.07−0.02 0.12
Being an Internet Scam Victim 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.030.01 0.02 0.00 −0.02 0.05
Online Privacy Concerns 0.20− 0.07−0.05−0.050.07
Installing Antivirus Software 0.120.06−0.05−0.060.00 −0.01 0.01 0.080.04
Updating of Antivirus Software 0.00 0.01 −0.07−0.03 0.01 −0.01 0.09−0.03 0.01
Password Changing Frequency −0.130.03 −0.04−0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 −0.01 0.02
p < 0.001.
8 Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx
Table 3
Standardized effects of endogenous variables on other endogenous variables in structural equation model.
about Internet
Willingness to
make risky
Opening emails
from unknown
Being an
Internet scam
Being an
Internet Scam
Direct −0.03 −0.040.08NA NA
Online Privacy
Direct NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.04NA
Indirect −0.00 −0.000.00NA NA
Direct NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.02
Indirect −0.00 −
Direct NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.01
Indirect −0.00 −
Direct NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.16
Indirect −0.00 −
p < 0.001.; NA means not applied.
Fig. 2. Four-Stage Structural Equation Model (with non-significant paths dotted).
Table 4
Test of two-step mediation.
Antecedent Mediator Outcome Antecedents → Mediators Mediators → Outcomes z-score product
Coefficients S.E. Coefficients S.E.
Willingness to Make Risky Investments Being an Internet Scam Victim Online Privacy Concerns 0.046 0.010 0.042 0.009 22.120
Online Information Disclosure Being an Internet Scam Victim Online Privacy Concerns 0.061 0.011 0.042 0.009 26.194
Online Shopping Being an Internet Scam Victim Online Privacy Concerns 0.040 0.010 0.042 0.009 19.108
Online Information Consumption Being an Internet Scam Victim Online Privacy Concerns −0.041 0.011 0.042 0.009 −16.637
Opening Emails from Unknown Sources Being an Internet Scam Victim Online Privacy Concerns 0.082 0.009 0.042 0.009 40.379
Being an Internet Scam Victim Online Privacy Concerns Password changing Frequency 0.042 0.009 0.157 0.009 77.382
p < 0.001.
Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx 9
crime victim (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990), our analysis documented
that one indicator of low self-control—willingness to make risky in-
vestments—was positively associated with being an Internet scam vic-
tim. This result may imply that financially impulsive individuals fail
to consider the risks of financial loss, with this latter ignorance in-
creasing one's chances of being the victim of an online scam. How-
ever, contrary to the hypothesis on self-control, knowledge about In-
ternet privacy did not predict being an Internet scam victim. This re-
sult may indicate a discrepancy between individuals' perceptions of
privacy risks and actual privacy protection behaviors. This non-signif-
icant relationship may be a function of how Internet users usually at-
tribute the risks of privacy loss to others and not to oneself, which, in
turn, renders people to have lower levels of interest in engaging in pri-
vacy protection behaviors (Debatin, Lovejoy, Horn, & Hughes, 2009).
Thus, people who are knowledgeable about Internet privacy may not
actually adopt protection behaviors but simply believe that they them-
selves are immune to privacy invasion.
Also involving the first two stages in our conceptual model and
consistent with routine activity theory (Cohen & Felson, 1979), be-
ing an Internet scam victim was positively predicted by three rou-
tine Internet activities: online information disclosure, online shopping,
and opening emails from unknown sources. These results are in line
with previous research that found that criminals design individual-
ized information to target and induce victims according to the per-
sonal information they disclose online (Van Wilsem, 2013). For in-
stance, if an individual discloses information about losing a job, cy-
ber criminals could disseminate employment-related solicitation infor-
mation accordingly. Moreover, online shopping and opening emails
from unknown sources could also result in victimization of Internet
scams. Criminals could, for example, acquire sensitive information
through online transactions with victims or installing malware on vic-
tims' computers. Finally, it is interesting that online information con-
sumption was inversely associated with being an Internet scam victim,
which is contrary to the hypothesis. One reasonable explanation is that
people's consumption of online information could include reports of
privacy invasion online, which would be expected to increase percep-
tions of online privacy risks. As a result, people with high levels of
online information consumption would be more alert to suspicious of-
Specific to the second and third stages in our conceptual model,
there was a significant association between being an Internet scam vic-
tim and online privacy concerns. Prior research centered only on on-
line privacy concerns to represent privacy protection motivation (Chen
et al., 2016b; Mohamed & Ahmad, 2012; Youn, 2009). Our finding
here, however, is generally consistent with other research that has doc-
umented that actual negative privacy experiences predict online pri-
vacy concerns (Chen et al., 2016a; H.; Li, Sarathy, & Xu, 2010). Our
demonstrating that online privacy concerns—an indicator of privacy
protection motivation—are predicted by being an Internet scam victim
suggests that people who experience monetary loss of Internet scams
are likely to recognize the severity and susceptibility of Internet pri-
vacy risks. Given that prevention of Internet scams is relatively easy
(e.g., detecting a fake offer and rejecting the offer), victims who ex-
perience monetary loss would tend to have higher levels of both per-
ceived efficacy and perceived threat. Following the logic of EPPM and
PMT, victim experiences would, thus, lead individuals into the danger
control process, which entailed the development of privacy concerns
and adoption of privacy protection methods.
Specific to the third and fourth stages in our conceptual model, the
current study found support for the association between online pri-
vacy concerns and one operational measure of privacy protection be-
havior, which is consistent with PMT and EPPM, as well as some
prior empirical findings. For instance, previous research detected that
online privacy concerns could lead individuals to fabricate personal
information for online registration, seek help for privacy settings, and
avoid visiting suspicious websites (Chen et al., 2016b; Youn, 2009).
The current study expands upon this prior research by implementing
three different types of privacy protection—installing and updating
anti-virus software and changing password frequency—and we found
support for the effect of online privacy concerns on changing pass-
word frequency.
Finally, it is important to consider this study's documented cases
of statistical mediation. Prior research has explored how online pri-
vacy concerns mediate the effects of antecedents on privacy protec-
tion behaviors, documenting a mix of strong support (Youn, 2009) and
limited support (Chen et al., 2016b). In our more complex four-stage
model, we tested the mediation roles of being an Internet scam victim
and online privacy concerns. In the first regard, SEM, as well as the
follow-up product of coefficients approach (MacKinnon et al., 2002),
demonstrated mediation in five cases: 1) willingness of risky invest-
ments → being an Internet scam victim → online privacy concerns;
2) online information disclosure → being an Internet scam victim →
online privacy concerns; 3) online shopping → being an Internet scam
victim → online privacy concerns; 4) online information consump-
tion → being an Internet scam victim → online privacy concerns;
and 5) opening emails from unknown sources → being an Internet
scam victim → online privacy concerns. This mediation role suggests
that self-control and frequent involvement in online routines influence
online privacy concerns through the experience of being an Internet
scam victim. According to PMT, the cognitive appraisal process is in-
fluenced by prior experiences (Rogers, 1983). Similarly, the current
study suggested that people with victim experiences tend to perceive
high severity and vulnerability of privacy risks online, which, in turn,
lead to high privacy concerns. Moreover, we extended upon the origi-
nal PMT model by testing the antecedents of prior victim experiences.
The results indicated that the antecedents of prior experiences—Inter-
net use habits and self-control ability—can influence online privacy
concerns through the mediation of prior victim experiences. In the sec-
ond regard, SEM, as well as the follow-up product of coefficients ap-
proach (MacKinnon et al., 2002), demonstrated mediation in one case:
being an Internet scam victim → online privacy concerns → password
changing frequency. Such a mediation effect suggests that, before en-
gaging in actual privacy protection behaviors, people tend to follow
the sequence of cognitive appraisal, protection motivation, and protec-
tion behaviors, which is consistent with PMT (Rogers, 1975). Thus,
being an Internet scam victim is not a sufficient basis for protection
behaviors, with the development of online privacy concerns also req-
uisite. Following the logic of EPPM, this finding suggests that people
with victim experiences tend to be high in both perceived threat and
perceived efficacy, which, in turn, lead to the danger control process.
4.1. Limitations
Four limitations should be noted. First, data used in this study
are cross-sectional, which does not permit the testing of causal re-
lationships. The ordering of variables in current study, however, is
consistent with previous online privacy studies using PMT (Chen et
al., 2016b, 2016a; Mohamed & Ahmad, 2012; Youn, 2009). Second,
our reliance on secondary survey data brought with it some limita-
tions in measurement. For example, we could not measure some core
concepts of EPPM and PMT, such as perceived susceptibility, per-
ceived severity, self-efficacy, and response efficacy. Third, in regards
to privacy protection behaviors, we only tested installing and updat-
ing anti-virus software and password changing frequency, which are
likely to be common practices of people with high Internet efficacy.
We did not measure other simple protection measures, such as avoid
10 Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2017) xxx-xxx
ing insecure web links or using fabricated personal information for
registration. Fourth, some respondents may refuse to report prior vic-
tim experiences because the disclosure of traumatic experiences could
be associated with shameful thoughts and painful feelings. In the cur-
rent study, we cannot identify related cases of response bias, which
can skew research findings.
5. Contributions and implications for future research
This study contributes to the Internet privacy literature in two
novel ways. First, the current study introduced new theories to explain
people's online privacy practices. Prior research with basis on PMT as-
sumed that individuals follow the logic of PMT to assess the privacy
risks, develop privacy concerns, and then make adaptive changes. The
findings of the current study suggested that Internet users tend to ig-
nore privacy risks until they encounter monetary loss online in per-
son. The complex psychological mechanism behind people's privacy
risk assessment requires other theoretical explanations, such as EPPM.
Second, this study systematically assessed two antecedents of the In-
ternet scam victimization—self-control ability and routine Internet ac-
tivities. This study revealed that privacy risk on the Internet is ubiqui-
tous and people with weak self-control ability appear to be the primary
targets of Internet scams. The findings suggested that, to avoid the
Internet scam, Internet users need to understand how Internet scams
work and resist the desire for immediate monetary benefits.
We conclude this paper with three recommendations for future re-
search. First, given that knowledge about Internet privacy did not de-
crease the likelihood of being an Internet scam victim, future research
should expand its operational definition of high self-control specific
to online privacy protection to include other factors, such as Internet
efficacy. Second, the current study tested only five types of Internet
routines. Future study should employ other common Internet routines
such as social media use and online gaming. Unlike reading news and
searching for information, social media use and online gaming involve
the frequent exchange of information between users, which could es-
pecially increase the risk of privacy invasion. Third, future research
should operationally define the core concepts of cognitive risk ap-
praisal in PMT and EPPM, which would permit the more refined study
of how the experiences of being an Internet victim influence people's
cognitive appraisal of online privacy risks and privacy protection be-
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... In 2016, the same authors analyzed different types of cybercrime (which included consumer fraud) and found that online shopping was a risk factor for victimization, as well as the frequency of Internet use, use of e-mail communication, MSN and Skype (Leukfeldt & Yar, 2016). On the other hand, Chen et al. (2017), studying 11,534 American users, concluded that the disclosure of personal information online, online shopping, and opening e-mails from unknown sources increases the probability of victimization of online fraud. ...
... The survey also included questions to measure different online activities that could explain increased levels of victimization. Drawing from previous studies (Bossler & Holt, 2009;Chen et al., 2017;Ngo et al., 2020), participants were asked how frequently they use online banking, send e-mails, read online newspapers, participate in chat rooms, make downloads, use social media, visit travelling and auction websites and, lastly, use the Internet to work or study. The response options varied from Never (1) to Ever (5). ...
... In turn, online purchasing was measured through one question ("how frequently do you purchase online products, goods, or services?") and the response categories ranged from 1 (never) to 5 (more than six times a month) (adapted from Chen et al., 2017;Mesch & Dodel, 2018). We hypothesized that individuals who shop online more often are more likely to be victims of online consumer fraud. ...
Online consumer fraud is one of the most fast-growing crimes. It corresponds to situations where, for instance, the products that are bought, but are not delivered. The present study (N = 1710) aimed at exploring, on the one hand, the predictors of online fraud victimization and, on the other hand, to examine the reporting to the police. Even though 223 were victims of online consumer fraud, only 20 reported to the police. Moreover, while individual variables were not predictors of victimization, online routines were relevant to its explanation. Finally, monetary loss was the most important predictor of reporting to the police.
... The current research on personal privacy disclosure of platforms mainly adopts the statistical methods of questionnaire survey and hypothesis test [8], and the survey targets the elderly. However, the supervision of smart aging platforms is not only related to the privacy concerns and income perception of the elderly, but also influenced by the willingness of the elderly to participate in supervision, the level of privacy protection of platform service providers and the degree of government supervision. ...
... Hypothesis of model parameters. To express the tripartite benefit matrix conveniently and ensure the objectivity of parameter setting as much as possible, after referring to relevant literature [8,26,38] and consulting experts' opinions, the parameters are set and defined from three angles of cost, benefit, and loss in combination with the actual privacy leakage situation, as shown in Table 1. ...
... From Equations (13), (14), and (15), the dynamical system is solved in conjunction to obtain the system equilibrium points 1 (0, 0,1) . In the dynamic replication system of multi-subject evolutionary game, strategy X is asymptotically stable in the dynamic replication system of the multi-group evolutionary game when and only when X is a strict Nash equilibrium [39], so only the asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of the system involving pure strategies need to be analyzed, and the equilibrium points of the system satisfying the condition include eight points from 1 A to 8 A . According to the Lyapunov system stability discriminant, when all the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix are less than zero, the equilibrium point is asymptotically stable [40]; when at least one eigenvalue in the Jacobi matrix is greater than zero, the equilibrium point is not asymptotically stable. ...
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Privacy and information protection are important issues in the era of big data. At present, China’s elderly care industry is gradually adopting the supply model of smart elderly care to alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand. However, the low level of regulation of smart aging platforms may lead to a low level of privacy protection on the platforms. Therefore, in this paper, based on the evolutionary game and Lyapunov theory, we discuss the willingness of elderly people to participate in regulation, the privacy protection status of platform service providers, and the degree of government regulation, as well as the key factors affecting the equilibrium of the three-party game system, and conduct simulation analysis and game system optimization using MATLAB. The simulation results show that A1(0,0,1) and A5(0,0,0) can be transformed to A8(1,1,0) by adjusting the parameters, i.e., the optimal ESS is participation, high-quality protection, and low investment supervision; the service income of the elderly, the loss of privacy leakage, the investment cost of service providers, and the amount of government rewards and punishments are the key factors affecting the tripartite game system. By analyzing the impact of factors, such as benefits and costs, on privacy protection and the regulation of smart senior care platforms, the level of privacy protection of smart senior care platforms can be improved and the process of the comprehensive regulation of domestic senior care services can be promoted.
... Privacy thus still poses a risk and could affect purchase intention due to the bad experiences of others. Accordingly, people who have been a victim of privacy issues tend to have a higher perception of severity and vulnerability of online privacy risk (Chen et al., 2017) and feel themselves under threat and hence, they regularly change their password because of privacy issues (Chen et al., 2017). Previous studies have found that privacy risk could affect intention to purchase (Kim et al., 2005;Zaiţ & Bertea, 2013). ...
... Privacy thus still poses a risk and could affect purchase intention due to the bad experiences of others. Accordingly, people who have been a victim of privacy issues tend to have a higher perception of severity and vulnerability of online privacy risk (Chen et al., 2017) and feel themselves under threat and hence, they regularly change their password because of privacy issues (Chen et al., 2017). Previous studies have found that privacy risk could affect intention to purchase (Kim et al., 2005;Zaiţ & Bertea, 2013). ...
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The online fashion market is the largest market segment in Ghana. This present study investigates what drives Ghanaian consumers to purchase fashion products online from perceived risk and perceived value for money perspectives. Moving away from the purely monetary perspective, this study opera-tionalizes value for money to include ease of use (qualitative perspective). Findings from this study highlight the fact that the average Ghanaian e-buyer is more influenced to shop for fashion products online by their perceived value for money than by their perceived risk and this insight is relevant in boosting e-commerce transactions significantly in the economy.
... Boyd and Hargittai (2010) notices "few gender differences in how young adults approach their Facebook privacy settings, which is notable given that gender differences exist in so many other domains online," and we did find some differences in the case of RS study as well. Hongliang et al. (2017) found that "being an Internet scam victim mediated the effects of routine Internet activities on privacy protection behaviors and that online privacy concerns mediated the effect of being an Internet scam victim on privacy protection behaviors." The study discovered that "Internet users tend to ignore privacy risks until they encounter monetary loss online in person" and suggested that to mitigate the threat "users need to understand how Internet scams work." ...
This work forms a part of a series of “on the ground” studies dealing with (post-)conflict situations, focusing on the iterative, participatory design of a tool, Cyberactivist, for protection for activists and the empirical research that led to it. Work on the development of privacy and security tools has not always recognized the fragile nature of the political processes in emerging democracies, frequent naivety about threat, nor the “occasioned” responses of activists because activism can be a “one time” endeavor, prompted by specific events. Researching political activism in Republika Srpska, we identified issues relating to the use of ICT and social media, leading to the redesign of our prototype which now raises awareness of privacy and security and supports activists by challenging ignorance, lowering exposure, and enabling remediation. We addressed “usable security” challenges to ensure simplicity of the tool and engaged with HCI researchers focused on international activism to assess the global applicability of the technical design.
This work analyzes the influence of privacy concerns and different dimensions of currency-related trust on individuals’ willingness to use Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), specifically a digital euro. A quantitative survey with 1034 respondents was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM). Empirical results indicate that multiple antecedents are associated with privacy concerns in the digital euro that in turn influence intention to adopt a digital euro. Especially soft trust factors such as credibility and image are found to influence both privacy concerns and the intention to adopt a digital euro. It contributes to the current literature by introducing trust as a second-order construct composed of hard and soft trust factors for digital currencies. The results provide valuable insights for researchers and practitioners aiming at designing and implementing CBDCs by demonstrating which factors need to be considered in order to achieve widespread adoption by citizens.
Purpose A research line has emerged that is concerned with investigating human factors in information systems and cyber-security in organizations using various behavioural and socio-cognitive theories. This study aims to explore human and contextual factors influencing cyber security behaviour in organizations while drawing implications for cyber-security in higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review has been implemented. The reviewed studies have revealed various human and contextual factors that influence cyber-security behaviour in organizations, notably higher education institutions. Research limitations/implications This review study offers practical implications for constructing and keeping a robust cyber-security organizational culture in higher education institutions for the sustainable development goals of cyber-security training and education. Originality/value The value of the current review arises in that it presents a comprehensive account of human factors affecting cyber-security in organizations, a topic that is rarely investigated in previous related literature. Furthermore, the current review sheds light on cyber-security in higher education from the weakest link perspective. Simultaneously, the study contributes to relevant literature by gaining insight into human factors and socio-technological controls related to cyber-security in higher education institutions.
Understanding how professors appraise and address risks of teaching controversial issues online is integral to quality online education. Our US-based survey (N = 208) revealed that mediated through concern for backlash, professors' perceived severity of personal attack and vulnerability to professional loss significantly affected their intentions to adopt four risk-coping strategies, i.e., skipping controversial issues, teaching with no change, advising students against sharing course content, and removing online access after the semester. Additionally, professors’ perceived professional reward increased their intentions to cover controversial issues. The results call for institutional, technological, and social supports for professors.
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This paper aims to analyze the protection behavior of employees while working remotely during the Covid-19 pandemic using online video chat software. This pandemic changed the way organizations work, managers meet with employees, and employees communicate. An e-mail-based survey among computer users who use video chat software for remote working is employed in this study. Using 306 responses, structural equation modeling explores the relationship between privacy concerns, protection behavior, and antecedents. The technological changes induced due to Covid-19 influence privacy concerns and protection behavior. Privacy efficacy increases privacy concerns and protection behavior. Perceived vulnerability increases privacy concerns. Perceived effectiveness of organization software affects privacy concerns but does not affect protection behavior. There is a positive relationship between privacy concerns and protection behavior; however, this positive relation is negatively moderated by a propensity to trust. A finding of threat severity measure using Covid-19 factors concludes that both privacy concerns and protection behavior increased for online video chat software users. The theoretical model explicates 75% of variances in privacy concerns and 57% of variances in protection behavior. Every one-unit increase in Covid-19 induced changes regarding the work environment increases the privacy concern by 35%, and every one-unit increase in perceived effectiveness of organization software increases privacy concern by 22%. Every one-unit increase in the privacy concern increases the protection behavior by 48%, and every one-unit increase in privacy efficacy increases protection behavior by 59%. AcknowledgmentThe assistance provided by Arun Thottath in reaching out to survey participants was greatly appreciated.
The diversification of the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology attracts a variety of consumers. Based on this social change, we examine the effect of IoT usage on users’ media privacy concerns, focusing on the use of wearable devices while considering cloud service usage. The data were derived from the Korea Media Panel Survey collected from 2018–2020 in South Korea. We extracted a final sample of 690 participants using the propensity score matching (PSM) method and applied logistic regression to analyze the data. We reveal the different perceptions of media privacy concerns between IoT service users and non-users. We found that greater use of wearable devices results in greater concern about media privacy. On the contrary, the concern is lower when cloud services are used. We propose that the use of physical IoT technology leads to an increase in anxiety about the risk of personal data leakage, whereas the use of non-physical IoT does not have a significant effect. Currently, the usage of IoT devices and services is on the rise, so this anxiety can also be expected to increase. We discuss the risks of privacy and data breaches and the need for countermeasures to balance the use of IoT technology.
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With a general basis in protection motivation theory, this study builds a three-stage model from online negative privacy experiences to online privacy protection motivation to online privacy protection behaviors. With 2013 survey data (N = 528), a well-fitting structural equation model was tested, indicating general support for the model’s progression. There was support in only one instance, however, for the mediation role of online privacy protection motivation. In that case, awareness of online information disclosure mediated the effects of information stolen on contact management. The other protection motivation—online privacy concerns—had stronger effects on the four online privacy protection behaviors.
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Clouds provide a powerful computingplatformthatenablesindividuals and organizationsto performvariety levelsoftasks such as:use of online storage space,adoption of business applications,development ofcustomizedcomputersoftware,andcreation of a“realistic” network environment.Inpreviousyears,the number of people using cloud serviceshasdramatically increased and lots of datahasbeenstoredin cloud computing environments.In the meantime, data breaches to cloud servicesarealsoincreasingevery yeardue tohackerswhoarealwaystrying to exploitthesecurity vulnerabilities of thearchitecture of cloud. In this paper,threecloud service modelswere compared;cloud securityrisks andthreatswereinvestigated based on the nature ofthecloudservice models.Real world cloud attackswereincludedto demonstratethe techniques thathackersused against cloud computing systems.In addition,countermeasures to cloud security breachesare presented
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Fake websites have become increasingly pervasive, generating billions of dollars in fraudulent revenue at the expense of unsuspecting Internet users. The design and appearance of these websites makes it difficult for users to manually identify them as fake. Automated detection systems have emerged as a mechanism for combating fake websites, however most are fairly simplistic in terms of their fraud cues and detection methods employed. Consequently, existing systems are susceptible to the myriad of obfuscation tactics used by fraudsters, resulting in highly ineffective fake website detection performance. In light of these deficiencies, we propose the development of a new class of fake website detection systems that are based on statistical learning theory (SLT). Using a design science approach, a prototype system was developed to demonstrate the potential utility of this class of systems. We conducted a series of experiments, comparing the proposed system against several existing fake website detection systems on a test bed encompassing 900 websites. The results indicate that systems grounded in SLT can more accurately detect various categories of fake websites by utilizing richer sets of fraud cues in combination with problem-specific knowledge. Given the hefty cost exacted by fake websites, the results have important implications for e-commerce and online security.
With a general basis in protection motivation theory, this study builds a threestage model from online negative privacy experiences to online privacy protection motivation to online privacy protection behaviors. With 2013 survey data (N = 528), a well-fitting structural equation model was tested, indicating general support for the model's progression. There was support in only one instance, however, for the mediation role of online privacy protection motivation. In that case, awareness of online information disclosure mediated the effects of information stolen on contact management. The other protection motivation - online privacy concerns - had stronger effects on the four online privacy protection behaviors.
The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology: On the Origins of Criminal Behavior and Criminality takes a contemporary approach to address the sociological and the biological positions of human behavior by allowing preeminent scholars in criminology to speak to the effects of each on a range of topics. The text aims to facilitate an open and honest debate between the more traditional criminologists who focus primarily on environmental factors and contemporary biosocial criminologists who examine the interplay between biology/genetics and environmental factors.