Technical ReportPDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The Portable Water Purification System is designed to address the difficulty of accessing clean and safe water, especially for flood disaster victims and this is a challenge to get a clean water that free from contaminants such as bacteria and viruses. The aim of this project is to discover whether a portable water filter using human powered is a viable option for producing potable water at 0.5 liter per minute for flood disaster victims. The objectives of this study are to investigate which portable water system is suitable for human powered operation and to design a portable water system for flood disaster management, which capable to provide drinking water at 0.5 liter per minutes (LPM) using human powered. A device was designed to test the practicality of this concept through a numerical analysis. The device uses a drive train pedaling system to harness human motion to convert it into usable power to run reverse osmosis (RO) filtration system. The flow rate was determined according information from the RO manufacturer and it was used to calculate the power needed for the design system, and then compared with power from the human. As a result, it indicated that a human could easily provide enough power to run a reverse osmosis system. The flow rate is used to determine the power to consider the production of clean drinking water and daily usage for personal needed.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
LAPORAN AKHIR
PERSIDANGAN KAJIAN BENCANA BANJIR
2014
KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN TINGGI (KPT)
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA (UTM)
BAHAGIAN 2
Environmental & Physical Impact (EPI)
Governance & Capacity Building (GCB)
Health & Clinical Science (HCS)
Disusun oleh:
Prof Zulkifli Yusop (UTM)
Nurliyana Mahpof (UTM)
2
Table of Contents
ENVIRONMENTAL & PHYSICAL IMPACT (EPI)
Disaster Relief And Preparedness: Mechanism Of Membrane Fouling And Cleaning In Mobile
Ultrafiltration Plant For Water Treatment ...................................................................................................... 5
The Use Of Metagenomics Approach To Study The Spectrum Of Water Microbiodata Towards Ensuring
The Post-Flood Pathogen-Free Water Sources............................................................................................ 8
Simulation Of Pollutant Distribution During Flood In Johor River ............................................................... 12
Prevalence And Risk Factors Associated With Food Insecurity Among Post-Flood Victims In Pahang,
Malaysia ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
Determining Novel And Altered Pks Metabolic Pathway Genes In Actinomycetes Caused By Flood
Leading To New Bioactive Compound Discovery ....................................................................................... 25
Flood Impact Assessment For Sg. Perak River Basin For Future Disaster Risk Reduction ...................... 28
Portable Water Purification System ............................................................................................................ 35
Flood Waste Management And Remediation ............................................................................................. 40
The Effect Of Monsoon On Fish Larval (Ichthyoplankton Stages) Assemblage Changes In Kuantan River
.................................................................................................................................................................... 43
Characterization And Source Distribution Of Particulate Matter (Pm) In Kelantan State, Malaysia: Post-
Flood ........................................................................................................................................................... 47
Aftermath Of December 2014 East Coast States Of Malaysia Flood. A Study On Impact On Coral Reef
Ecosystems And Intertidal Benthos Population Eco-Sustainability The Management Time ................... 50
Repercussion Of 2014 Megaflood On Natural Food Web In Kelantan Delta: In View Of Stable Isotope
Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 54
Flood Resilient Bridge As A Sustainable Solution For Disaster Risk Reduction In Malaysia ..................... 57
Road Network Vulnerability Assessment Under Flooding Conditions Using A Revised Road Network
Vulnerability Index ....................................................................................................................................... 62
Impacts Assessment Of Flood On Nutrients, Micro-Communities And Fish Growth In The Kuantan River
For A Proper Management.......................................................................................................................... 66
Analisis Logam Berat, Unsur Radioaktif Tabii Dan Bakteria Dalam Air Perigi Tiub Yang Baru Dibina Di
Kawasan Banjir Di Negeri Kelantan Dan Pahang ....................................................................................... 71
Microbial Assesment On The Contamination In Drinking Water Wells Exposed To Different Degrees Of
Submergence During Flood ........................................................................................................................ 74
Membangunkan Rangka Kerja Takaful Harta Untuk Kelestarian Pks ........................................................ 78
Development Of A Disaster Action Plan For Hospitals In Malaysia Pertaining To Critical Engineering
Infrastructure Risk Analysis......................................................................................................................... 81
A Model To Determine The Degree Of Housing Damage For A Flood Affected Area In Kuala Krai,
Kelantan ...................................................................................................................................................... 87
GOVERNANCE & CAPACITY BUILDING (GCB)
Sustainable Reconstruction: Towards Guidelines Of Post-Disaster Vulnerability Reduction For Permanent
Informal Housing In Kelantan Due To Flooding .......................................................................................... 92
Improvement Of The Adaptive Capacity Of Primary Health Care Clinic And Patients With Chronic Disease
Towards Flood Preparedness Through Community Participation Approach ............................................ 100
Constitutional And Legal Aspects Of Disaster Response And Management ........................................... 103
A Livelihoods Approach To Food-Security Assessments In Sungai Pahang Basins Area ....................... 107
Post Disaster Waste Management Adaption Disaster Management Guidelines ...................................... 110
Knowledge Base Framework To Support Decision Making For Flood Disaster Relief ............................ 115
Consolidating Policy And Legal Framework For National Disaster Response ......................................... 119
3
Determination Safety Integrity Level (Sil) By Using Layerof Protection Analysis (Lopa) For Flood
Emergency Risk Management .................................................................................................................. 122
Performance Evaluation Of River Basin Organizations In Controlling The Occurrence Of Flood - A Case
Study Of Sungai Kelantan Basin ............................................................................................................... 130
Kesan Hakisan Tebing Dan Sisi Sungai Akibat Luruan Air Banjir 2014: Keperluan Garis Panduan
Pembangunan Zon Penampan Sungai Di Malaysia ................................................................................. 135
Preparedness Of Basic Sanitation Requirement At Relief Center During Flooding ................................. 140
A Holistic Flood Risk Management (Hfrm) System For Malaysia ............................................................. 145
Developing Charter School Model Curriculum For Disaster Affected Areas: Lessening The Moe
Expenditure And Addressing Educational Imbalance ............................................................................... 150
Developing Malaysian Psychological Debriefing (My-Psychd) Model For Disaster Debriefiing Team ..... 152
Kajian Pengalaman Berhadapan Dengan Bencana: Ke Arah Pembentukan Modul Psikologi Pengurusan
Psikososial Bencana Di Malaysia ............................................................................................................. 157
Investigating Older Persons And Ngos Flood Preparedness And To Improve Ngos Relief Programs By
Developing Effective Standard Operating Procedures (Sops) In Reducing Vulnerabilities Associated With
Ageing ....................................................................................................................................................... 159
Participatory Approach Of Training And Awareness Program To Develop Community-Based Preparation,
Response And Recovery Team To Build Resilient Communities ............................................................. 163
A Decision Aid Model For An Adaptive Emergency Evacuation Centre Management (Aeecm) .............. 171
National Study Of Nurses’ Disaster Preparedness In Flood Prone Areas In Malaysia: An Action Research
Approach ................................................................................................................................................... 177
The Flood Evacuees Perceived Quality And Satisfaction With Services At Evacuation Centers ............ 182
Modeling Crisis Communication Disaster Intervention From 2014 Flood In Malaysia ............................. 185
Land-Use And Land-Cover: Integration Of Ecosystem Services For Disaster Risk Reduction In Land-Use
Planning .................................................................................................................................................... 190
Developing A National Disaster Risk Reduction Framework (Drr) For Flood Risk Management ............. 193
A Development Of A Standard Policy To Utilize Online Flood Data Management System ..................... 203
Pembinaan Dan Pengujian Modul Pemerkasaan Pihak Berkuasa (Bomba,Jpam,Rela,Polis Dan Tentera),
Pemimpin Komuniti, Ketua Rumah Dan Individu Dalam Tindakan Bersepadu Menghadapi Bencana Banjir
Di Malaysia ................................................................................................................................................ 207
Socio Economic Well-Being: A Framework For Economic Recovery Plan Through Income Generating
Activities .................................................................................................................................................... 219
Keperluan Kit/Modul Intervensi Tindak Balas Psikologikal Serta Merta Dan Separuh Penggal (Mid-Term)
Pasca Banjir Terhadap Mangsa Banjir Di Negeri Sabah Dan Sarawak ................................................... 223
Enhancing Supply Chain Management System To Support Effective Flood Disaster Relief Operation .. 226
Developing Emergency Evacuation Kits In Response To Flood Disaster By Applying Dpsir Framework 229
Analysis Of River Plan Changes For Flood Impact Mapping And Determination For Flood Management In
Pahang River, Malaysia ............................................................................................................................ 236
New Criteria For Disaster Preparedness Management Based On Human Diversity Factors Using Crowd
Sources Information Platform.................................................................................................................... 240
Intervention Guidelines And Model Program For Strengthening Family Community Resilience In
Traumatic Loss And Major Disasters ........................................................................................................ 245
Kelantan Vs New Orleans. A Time To Learn From A Developed Nation ................................................. 250
Integrated Governance Approaches To Flood Disaster Management In Malaysia Using Risk Reduction
Tools Leading To Sustainable Development ............................................................................................ 258
Aplikasi Modul Rawatan Act Dalam Proses Tolong Bantu Mangsa Trauma Pasca Bencana ................. 263
Capacity Building For Response And Recovery On Solid Waste Management For Flood Disaster ........ 269
The Adaption of Australian Community Disaster Resilience Scorecard & Self-Assessment of Community
Disaster Resilience (CDR): Kelantan's Flood Affected Communities…………………………...Lampiran 1
4
Development of a Collaborative Decision Making Model for Flood Disaster Management using Structural
Equation Modeling…………………………………………………………………………………....Lampiran 2
HEALTH & CLINICAL SCIENCE (HCS)
Safe Food Preparation With Natural Eclipta Alba Leaf Antimicrobial Polyphenol: A Preventing Strategies
For Leptospira Infection During And After A Flood ................................................................................... 274
Bantuan Dan Persediaan Bencana: Penilaian Atribut Resilien Bagi Mempromosi Kesihatan Mental Dalam
Kalangan Remaja Dan Dewasa Mangsa Banjir Di Kelantan .................................................................... 282
Cognitive Distortion, Emotional Suppression And Religiosity Among Victims Of 2014/ 2015 Flood In
Malaysia: A Psycho-Spiritual Model Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Ptsd) Using
Electroencephalography (Eeg).................................................................................................................. 285
Nutrition Dense Ready-To-Eatmeal To Heal (M2h) As Energy And Immunity Booster For Flood Disaster
Victims ....................................................................................................................................................... 288
Detection Of Leptospira-Specific Antibodies In Flood Victims With Acute Febrile Illness Using
Recombinant Antigen Lipl32 ..................................................................................................................... 291
Development Of A Prototype Rapid Antigen Detection Test For Leptospirosis ....................................... 296
Real Time Detection Of Bukholderia Pseudomallei And Pathogenic Leptospira Spp Using A New Portable
Amplification Diagnostics System ............................................................................................................. 300
Protype Development Of Low Cost Water Filtration Unit For Small Scale Use In Emergency Situation . 302
Nutraceutical Kit For Flood Management ................................................................................................. 305
Development Of Portable Early Bacteria Monitoring System For Contaminated Flood Water ................ 307
New Method Of Preventive Maintenance For Public Buildings Based On Biological Factors .................. 312
The Use Of Pcr-Based Techniques To Determine Molecular Characteristics Changes In The Enteric
Pathogens For Effective Post-Flood Infection Control Strategies ............................................................ 315
Vulnerability Analysis To Flood-Related Communicable Diseases With Assessment Of Environmental
Health Preparedness, Response And Recovery Following The Severe Kelantan River Basin Flooding. 317
Metagenomic Analysis Of Kelantan River Post-Flood For Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Microbial
Identification .............................................................................................................................................. 323
Monitoring The Distribution Of Pathogenic Leptospira Sp In Water, Soil And Animals Particularly After
Flood Are The Key Factors For The Control And Prevention Of Leptospirosis ........................................ 326
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Is The Fundamental Mechanism For Development Of Abdominal
Discomforts From Poor Water, Sanitation And Hygiene (Wash) Practices After Flood Disaster ............. 328
Psychological Distress And Resilience Of Flood Victims In Kelantan: Towards The Development Of A
Trauma Treatment Module........................................................................................................................ 330
Genetic Relatedness Of Environmental Exposure Of Leptospiral Pre- And Post-Flood: Towards Strategic
Prevention Of Leptospirosis ...................................................................................................................... 333
A Gis-Based Approach On Factors Associated With Leptospirosis Infection Among Residents In Flood-
Prone Area, Pahang .................................................................................................................................. 337
35
PORTABLE WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEM
Project Information
Project Leader : Mohd Effendi Bin Muhammad Suandi
University : Universiti Malaysia Perlis
Address : Kampus Tetap UNIMAP Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis.
Contact number : 012-278 3453
Email : effendisuandi@unimap.edu.my
Project Members : Badrul Azmi Abdul Holed
: Dr. Mohd Sazli Saad
: Dr. Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
: Mohd Nasir Mat Saad
1.0 Introduction
Water purification can be defined as the act of processes for removal contaminants from untreated water
to produce the potable, safe and pure enough water for human consumption. During this process, an
appropriate membrane will be removed the contaminant substances such as suspended solids, bacteria,
algae, viruses, minerals such as iron, and other chemical pollutants like fertilizers. World Health
Organization (WHO) has issued several guidelines for drinking water quality requirement that are
generally can be followed in order to have an access to safe drinking water for consumers [1]. During the
late 1800s, scientists gained a greater understanding of the sources and effect of contaminants drinking
water. In 1855, epidemiologist Dr. John Snow proved that cholera was waterborne disease that linked
with a contaminant. In the 1880s, Louis Pasteur explained microscopic organisms could transmit disease
through media like water [2]. In 2014, unexpected severe flooding has been occurring in the East Coast
region such as Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang with the number of victims is more than 100,000
people. During or post disaster situation, the difficulty to get a clean and safe water will increase because
the water treatment plants are damaged and water cannot be supplied to the disaster area. Beside that
an electricity supply also will be lost if it was decided for safety purposes or infrastructure has been
destroyed [3]. In an emergency case, an active person needs to drink at least half gallons or 2 liter of
water each day. However, children and illness person will require even more. An estimation of clean
water usage at least 1 gallon or 3.8 liter per person, per day and the rest were for food preparation and
hygiene [4]. After the flood disaster occurs, people are too difficult to find a source of water supply and if
the condition persists, it will harmful to the public health. In other conditions, flood victim need to get water
from tanker and need have to wait for hours to get better water for survival [5].
2.0 Methodology
Human power is one of the energy suppliers, where the machine is using human motion but it has limited
output. The maximum power output for a fit and healthy adult is about 900 watts (W) but this can only be
sustained for a few second only. The continuous power output of 60 W pedaling at 50 revolutions per
minutes (RPM) for a long duration is reasonable. This is an ideal output for many activities such as water
pumping [8]. A healthy human can easily generate up to 75 W of mechanical power and the athletic
person can give double to this value [9]. Human Powered Vehicle Association Scientific Symposium,
which are presented in figure 1 shows the maximum duration of human effort for various steady power
levels. Healthy human can produce a steady 0.1 horsepower (HP) or 745 Watt (W) for a full eight hour
period. Each data point on the curves represents an exhausted human [10].
36
Source : (ohio.edu, 2011)
Figure 1: Time exhaustion vs Human power
Reverse Osmosis (RO) system as a main membrane is the suitable filter to use for this project because it
capability to separate the particle in the contaminated water with fast and low pressure required. The type
of filtration system is a sediment filter to removes sediment and particles to avoid RO membranes
damages, an active carbon filter removes chlorine and other chemical contaminant, 0.35 micron Ultra
filter to removes fine particles and some bacteria and RO membranes to removes fine particles 0.0005
microns were selected. The purpose of this filter usage is for easy to maintenance, low energy and
capability to fast produce drinking water appeal another technique filter water. The pressure relief valve is
used in order to limit the system pressure as set value shown in pressure gauge.
Figure 2: Schematic illustrating purification system circuit
Pressure at 120 Psi is a maximum indicator need to be handled and the use of relief valve is to prevent
the system from damage because the pressure will produce a large capacity during the pumping process.
Figure 2 is shown a complete purification system schematic.
The final drive train design has three stages. The stage is pedaling, middle sprocket and pump
drive. The system of sprocket used to increase rotational speed of pedaling to the pump drive. During
literature search, a human can produce the 50 RPM with 60 W of power output by pedaling for water
pumping. Other research a healthy human can generate with easily up to 75 Watts. By calculation, given
75 Watts can produce the 90 RPM of pedaling rotational.

   
Rotary vane pump is a positive displacement pump which is a device or component that moves fluid by
mechanical action. It is used to pump contaminated water to the filtration system. That means the output
of flow rate is approximately proportional to rotation speed. A rotary vane pump is well suitable to the
application when the system required relatively low flow and will operate at low RPM. To calculate the
flow rate of the pump, Qpump, from the design and the membrane recovery rates is taken to count.
   
  

37
3.0 Results and Discussion
Based on numerical analysis, the result for details specification is shown in table 1 as follow:
Table 1: Result of analysis for whole system
Result
Value
Max Flow Pressure
115 Psi
Pump Flow Rate
195 LPH
Sprocket Ratio
6:1
Water Production Output
0.5-0.7 LPM
Sustainable Human Power Output
20 Minutes
Max RPM Output
1080 RPM
The components of the final design have 3 main categories which are body frame design, drive train
system and the purification filtration system. The first and main component of this project is body frame
structure. To fulfill the objective about portability, the body structure should be designed to be easy to
fold, carry and storage. Figure 3 shows the Portable body frame and case design.
Figure 3: Portable body frame and case design.
The drive train system is the second component to ensure this design is fully function to drive the rotary
pump. Based on the calculation done, the drive train system is functioning properly and easily boost up
the water pressure into 115Psi is the maximum and enough capacity to ensure the filtration system are
not damaged. Figure 4 shows the drive train system.
Figure 4: Drive train system.
The purification filtration system is the component that has been chosen for each membrane and this
system are designed including with storage system to ensure the overall system can be safe and easy to
maintenance and also can be stored and carry to flood relief area. Figure 5 show the purification system
setup.
38
Figure 5: Purification system setup.
In this study, the water quality testing was evaluating 3 factors which are pH, nitrate and phosphate level.
Five water samples are taken from different areas to ensure the content of the substance are vary. Table
2 and 3 is to show the different level of the contaminant water before and after filtration process and the
results are:
Table 2: Raw Water Quality Data
Samples of Water
Nitrate Level
Phosphate Level
Kangar (River)
0 ppm
2 ppm
Arau (River)
0 ppm
2 ppm
Kuala Perlis (Trench)
0 ppm
2 ppm
Unimap Pauh (Lake)
0 ppm
1 ppm
Utan Aji (Trench)
0 ppm
2 ppm
Table 3: Clean Water Quality Data
Samples of Water
pH Level
Nitrate Level
Phosphate Level
Kangar (River)
7.5
0 ppm
1 ppm
Arau (River)
7
0 ppm
1 ppm
Kuala Perlis (Trench)
8
0 ppm
1 ppm
Unimap Pauh (Lake)
7
0 ppm
1 ppm
Utan Aji (Trench)
7
0 ppm
1 ppm
4.0 Conclusion
4.1 This project was focused on design & development of portable water filter using human
power and Reverse Osmosis filtration membrane.
4.2 The system capable to produce potable water at 0.5 until 0.7 liter per minute (LPM) and
the whole system is designed with a portable mechanism with folding body for use
elsewhere.
4.3 This system also operates without electrical source while the facility is damaged.
39
4.4 This system is using the drive train generate by pedaling system using human powered
source at 90 RPM, the water pump can be pumped with the sprocket ratio 6:1 at
maximum speed 1080 RPM.
4.5 The analysis proves that pressure at 115 Psi is acceptable to operate this system.
4.6 5 selected membranes are the most efficient due to the current issues.
References
Ahmad, H. F. (2015). Penduduk Jerantut Sudah 10 Hari Terputus Bekalan Air Bersih. Retrieved 20 Mei, 2015, from
http://www.utusan.com.my/berita/nahas-bencana/penduduk-jerantut-sudah-10-hari-terputus-bekalan-air-
bersih-1.43196
Au, K.-K. (2004). Water treatment and pathogen control: Process efficiency in achieving safe drinking-water: IWA
Publishing.
EPA. (2000). The history of drinking water treatment., 4. nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P1002SMN.TXT
FEMA. (2004). Food and Water in an Emergency. https://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/f&web.pdf
NewsDesk. (2015). Loji Rawatan Air Lubau Rosak. Retrieved 17 April, 2015, from
http://www.utusansarawakonline.com/news/22826/Loji-Rawatan-Air-Lubau-rosak/
Nicolaisen, B. (2003). Developments in membrane technology for water treatment. Desalination, 153(1), 355-360.
Water, A. (2014). Different Water Filtration Methods Explained. Reverse Osmosis. Retrieved 13 April, 2015, from
http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-filtration-method-page3.htm
Fuller, R., & Aye, L. (2012). Human and animal powerThe forgotten renewables. Renewable energy, 48, 326-332.
Jawahar, M., Venkanna, G., & Sandeep, B. Experimental Setup of Pedal Operated Centrifugal Pump for Low-lift
Applications. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), 1(4), 62-71.
Human Power Vehicles - 1 (Program: "hpv"). (2011). Retrieved 24 October, 2014, from
https://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming/hpv/hpv.html.
M. Jawahar, G. Venkanna, and B. Sandeep, “Experimental Setup of Pedal Operated Centrifugal Pump for Low-lift
Applications,” vol. 4, pp. 62–71, 2014.
E. W. S, A. Emmanuel, and O. Peter, “Fundamentals of Sprocket Design and Reverse Engineering of Rear Sprocket
of a Yamaha CY80 Motorcycle,” vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 170–179, 2014.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The sprocket is a very vital component in the transmission of power and motion in most motorcycle; there is always a pair (rear and front) in a motorcycle. The front sprocket drives the rear sprocket via chain connection. They exist in various dimensions, teeth number and are made of different materials. This study involves the fundamentals of sprocket design and manufacturing of a Yamaha CY80 motorcycle rear sprocket through reverse engineering approach. It discusses dimensioning, drafting, chemical composition, material selection, choice of manufacturing process, heat treatment, surface finish and packaging as the eight steps that need to be followed sequentially in this reverse engineering approach. In this work, universal milling machine was used to produce the sprocket from the blanked medium carbon steel (AISI 1045) with chemical composition of C=0.45%, Mn=0.75%, P=0.03% max, S=0.04%. Induction heat treatment was applied to move the material hardness from 13 HRC to 45 HRC as shown by hardness test.
Article
Membrane technology is widely accepted as a means of producing various qualities of water from surface water, well water, brackish water and seawater. Membrane technology is also used in industrial processes and in industrial wastewater treatment, and lately membrane technology has moved into the area of treating secondary and tertiary municipal wastewater and oil field produced water. In many cases one membrane process is followed by another with the purpose of producing water of increasing purity and quality for various purposes. One type of membrane may thus enhance the function of another to meet goals ranging from disposal of wastewater to production of drinking water from unexpected sources. In this way membrane technology offers the possibility of managing the total water resources in a region, which is of special interest in geographical areas where the natural water resources are scarce. The spiral wound membrane element configuration is the most widely used due to its high packing density and relatively low price. This paper will describe some technological advance in the area of innovative new membranes and application concepts for spiral wound membrane elements. Spiral wound elements span the four commonly defined membrane technologies, which are microfiltration (0.01-0 microns), ultrafiltration (500–100,000 Da), nanofiltration (100–500 Da), and reverse osmosis (up to 100 Da). A sandwich consisting of two membrane sheets with an inserted permeate carrier is glued together and to complete the membrane package a feed spacer is inserted between the opposing membrane surfaces. The membrane package is wound around a perforated central tube through which the permeate exits the element. The physical shape of a membrane element is secured by applying a suitable outer wrap. The physical and chemical properties of the various materials, including the membrane, are chosen according to the operating parameters. The typical reverse osmosis elements have limitations with respect to temperature (45°C), pH value (2–10), silt density index (less than 3 SDI), chlorine (dechlorination mandatory) and several other parameters. This is acceptable for conventional pure water applications, but for more complex membrane applications these limitations must be diminished or removed. Advanced materials and material science have been applied to the membranes, materials and construction of spiral wound elements. This effort has resulted in elements with improved operating parameters and wider areas of applications. A host of new membrane applications have been made possible and there is no limit in sight, except that new applications must rest on a profitable foundation for the user. Scarcity of water, environmental requirements and the simple logic of reusing water instead of discharging it are conditions, which call for increased use of membrane technology in a multitude of applications.
Article
Globally, there is still widespread dependence on traditional forms of energy, and human and animal power still contribute a significant proportion of the energy used in the rural areas of developing countries. After biomass, they are the most important energy sources for their populations. On a global scale, the energy contributed by human and animal power is estimated to be twice that of wind power and 13% of hydro, the largest single contributor of the renewable energy sources. This paper therefore argues that human and animal power should be included in the ‘family’ of renewable energy sources of solar, wind, hydro and biomass. There are numerous opportunities to improve the efficiency (and output) of hand, foot and animal-powered equipment. Improvements in these technologies will help to reduce the drudgery and hardship of everyday life of those who do not have access to modern forms of energy.
Water treatment and pathogen control: Process efficiency in achieving safe drinking-water
  • K.-K Au
Au, K.-K. (2004). Water treatment and pathogen control: Process efficiency in achieving safe drinking-water: IWA Publishing.
Different Water Filtration Methods Explained Reverse Osmosis from http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-filtration-method-page3 Human and animal power–The forgotten renewables. Renewable energy
  • A R Water
  • L Aye
Water, A. (2014). Different Water Filtration Methods Explained. Reverse Osmosis. Retrieved 13 April, 2015, from http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-filtration-method-page3.htm Fuller, R., & Aye, L. (2012). Human and animal power–The forgotten renewables. Renewable energy, 48, 326-332.
193 A Development Of A Standard Policy To Utilize Online Flood Data Management System
  • For Flood
  • Risk Management
Developing A National Disaster Risk Reduction Framework (Drr) For Flood Risk Management............. 193 A Development Of A Standard Policy To Utilize Online Flood Data Management System..................... 203
Experimental Setup of Pedal Operated Centrifugal Pump for Low-lift Applications
  • M Jawahar
  • G Venkanna
  • B Sandeep
M. Jawahar, G. Venkanna, and B. Sandeep, "Experimental Setup of Pedal Operated Centrifugal Pump for Low-lift Applications," vol. 4, pp. 62-71, 2014.
Penduduk Jerantut Sudah 10 Hari Terputus Bekalan Air Bersih
  • H F Ahmad
Ahmad, H. F. (2015). Penduduk Jerantut Sudah 10 Hari Terputus Bekalan Air Bersih. Retrieved 20 Mei, 2015, from http://www.utusan.com.my/berita/nahas-bencana/penduduk-jerantut-sudah-10-hari-terputus-bekalan-airbersih-1.43196
Different Water Filtration Methods Explained. Reverse Osmosis
  • A Water
Water, A. (2014). Different Water Filtration Methods Explained. Reverse Osmosis. Retrieved 13 April, 2015, from http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-filtration-method-page3.htm
The history of drinking water treatment., 4. nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P1002SMN.TXT FEMA
  • Epa
EPA. (2000). The history of drinking water treatment., 4. nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P1002SMN.TXT FEMA. (2004). Food and Water in an Emergency. https://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/f&web.pdf NewsDesk. (2015). Loji Rawatan Air Lubau Rosak. Retrieved 17 April, 2015, from http://www.utusansarawakonline.com/news/22826/Loji-Rawatan-Air-Lubau-rosak/