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Mine tailings influencing soil contamination by potentially toxic elements

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The potentially hazardous contents of mine tailings can pose a serious threat to the environment. Tailings dispersed around the abandoned Monica mine (Bustarviejo) in the Autonomous Region of Madrid (Central Spain) were studied to determine the concentration of several potential toxic elements and their geochemical impact in the surrounding soils. A total of 17 surface soil samples were collected from both mixed sulfide mine tailings sites and unmined soils, within a radius of 1900 m from the mine entrance. The processing of minerals (basically arsenopyrite, matildite and sphalerite) produced tailings with a pH as low as 2.9. Elements such as As, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, W, Ag, Fe were found in very high concentrations, contaminating the soil to varying degrees (these elements were sometimes 10- to 20-times higher in the tailings than in the unmined soils). Given its short distance and accessibility from such a large city as Madrid, it is of undeniable environmental and educational interest. Among other factors, there is a need for improvements to tailings management strategies.
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Mine tailings influencing soil contamination by potentially toxic
Rosario Garcı
Raimundo Jime
Received: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2016 / Published online: 2 January 2017
ÓSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016
Abstract The potentially hazardous contents of mine
tailings can pose a serious threat to the environment.
Tailings dispersed around the abandoned Monica mine
(Bustarviejo) in the Autonomous Region of Madrid (Cen-
tral Spain) were studied to determine the concentration of
several potential toxic elements and their geochemical
impact in the surrounding soils. A total of 17 surface soil
samples were collected from both mixed sulfide mine
tailings sites and unmined soils, within a radius of 1900 m
from the mine entrance. The processing of minerals (ba-
sically arsenopyrite, matildite and sphalerite) produced
tailings with a pH as low as 2.9. Elements such as As, Cu,
Zn, Cd, Pb, W, Ag, Fe were found in very high concen-
trations, contaminating the soil to varying degrees (these
elements were sometimes 10- to 20-times higher in the
tailings than in the unmined soils). Given its short distance
and accessibility from such a large city as Madrid, it is of
undeniable environmental and educational interest. Among
other factors, there is a need for improvements to tailings
management strategies.
Keywords Mine soils Trace elements Soil pollution
Enrichment factor Environment Madrid region
Mining operations produce waste material after the min-
erals of interest have been extracted. Such waste materials,
known as mine tailings, can often contain high concen-
trations of potentially toxic material.
As a result, changes in soil morphological, physical and
chemical properties can occur, leading to severe soil damage.
Moreover, the mining industry produces enormous quanti-
ties of fine-rock particles, ranging in size from a grain of sand
to a few micrometers (USEPA 1994). Vegetation can also be
affected with the destruction of extensive areas.
Different risks have been associated with mine tailings:
instability, visual impact, contamination of the water table,
acid-mine drainage (AMD) and secondary mineral sedi-
mentation (Grangeia et al. 2011; Bini 2012; He-rong et al.
2015;Muetal.2015). Potentially toxic trace elements
(PTEs) dumped in high concentrations nearby abandoned
mines represent long-term health hazards, as these mine-
waste materials percolate into nearby soils (Conde et al.
2008; Martı
´n Peinado et al. 2015; Abreu et al. 2016;
´n-Moreno et al. 2016). They can go on to contaminate
land, sub-soil and food crops, causing loss of biodiversity,
posing an important risk to human health (Lee et al. 2009;
Rodriguez et al. 2009; Ferna
´ndez-Caliani et al. 2009;
Conde et al. 2008), and even causing fatal diseases in
humans through crops and water (Lee et al. 2007).
Soils formed on landscapes altered by mining constitute
the mine soils and can be classified as either Entisols or
Inceptisols (Sencindiver and Ammons 2000; Angel et al.
2008), with few or no natural genetic horizons (Soil Survey
Staff 2006). Normally, these very young soils have their
origin in fragmented rock mixed with fine earthy material.
Their soil profiles are irregular and are mixed or substituted
by earthy materials from lower depths.
&Raimundo Jime
Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Universidad
´noma, Madrid, Spain
Environ Earth Sci (2017) 76:51
DOI 10.1007/s12665-016-6376-9
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Sulphidic tailings represent the majority of stored tailings in Europe that can pose serious environmental problems, from acid mining drainage (AMD) [1] to soil contamination [2], if not managed properly. At the same time, tailings still contain valuable metals and critical raw materials (CRMs) that are of importance to the European market of raw materials. ...
Conference Paper
Extraction of valuable metals from secondary resources, e.g. sulphidic mine tailings, has been studied extensively in the past decades. Tailings still contain significant amounts of valuable metals and, as primary resources are being depleted, recovery of these metals could contribute to a more sustainable mining sector. Aqueous leaching, often involving the use of strong acids, is commonly applied to extract metals from tailings. However, it often suffers from poor selectivity as both the valuable target metals and matrix elements, such as Fe, dissolve. The development of new extraction methods with improved leaching selectivity can minimise downstream processing. This study concerns the application of ethanolamine as an organic lixiviant to extract copper, zinc and lead from sulphidic tailings of the Neves-Corvo mine (Portugal). The presence of an amine and an hydroxyl group in ethanolamine is anticipated to drive leaching selectivity through formation of metal ammine and / or metal hydroxy complexes. Prior to extraction, the tailings were roasted in a microwave (MW) furnace at 500 °C for 1 h to convert the metal sulphides into the corresponding sulphates and / or oxides. Leaching with ethanolamine was performed at room temperature and 60 °C at a liquid to solid (L/S) ratio of 10. At mild reaction conditions (60 °C, 120 min), ethanolamine was capable to extract 74 % of Cu, 55 % of Zn and 39 % of Pb, together with no more than 2 % of Fe impurities. This result shows the potential of ethanolamine as a new lixiviant to extract valuable metals from low-grade secondary resources.
... Tailings are transported by wind, precipitation, and runoff water and deposited in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. As a result, areas near mining facilities could show elevated concentrations of toxic metals in topsoil (García-Giménez & Jiménez-Ballesta, 2017;Schuh et al., 2019), water (Kumar et al., 2021;Palmer et al., 2021;Shaw et al., 2011), and river sediments (Clark et al., 2021;Sánchez-Donoso et al., 2021;, raising concern about contaminating habitat and food webs (Nawab et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2021;Xiao et al., 2008). ...
Full-text available
Metal leachate from mine tailings has the potential to release toxic metals into the surrounding environment. A single-step extraction procedure mimicking rainwater and a three-step BCR sequential extraction procedure (acid, reducing and oxidizing conditions) were applied to gold (GMT) and silver (SMT) mine tailings. Major (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn) and trace metals were monitored to better understand the mobility and geochemistry of these metals when exposed to various environmental leaching conditions. Rainwater extraction released only small quantities of metals, while the three-step BCR extraction was more effective in mobilizing metals from the tailings. Under the acidic conditions of BCR step 1, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, and Mn were released in high concentrations. The dissolution of Fe, Ca, and Mg were dominant along with Pb in step 2 (reducing conditions). In step 3 (oxidizing conditions), Fe was the most dominant species together with Co, Cu, Ni, and Se. A high fraction of Al, Be, Cr, Li, Mo, Sb, Tl, and V remained in the residue. From SMT, larger quantities of As, Ca, Cd, and Zn were released compared to GMT. The BCR extraction could be applied to tailings to predict the potential release of toxic metals from mine wastes; however, excessive amounts of Ca and Fe in the tailings could cause carry-overs and incomplete extraction and carry-overs, resulting in a misinterpretation of results.
... Mine tailings are focal pollution points for surroundings, and often contain high levels of metals and metalloids, e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sb, Cd, Hg, Pb (Eisler and Wiemeyer, 2004;Shaw et al., 2006;Donato et al., 2007;Veiga et al., 2014;García-Lorenzo et al., 2019;BasriSakakibara and Sera, 2020). They are generally considered to be potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Hooda, 2010), and environmental factors like rain, wind and erosion lead to the mobilisation of metals and waste (Meeussen et al., 1992;Hilson and Murck, 2001;García-Giménez and Jiménez-Ballesta, 2017;Ramappa and Muniswamy, 2018). Soil and sediment properties, such as pH, texture, clay minerals, Fe and Al oxyhydroxides, among others, play a crucial role in the geochemical mobility of toxic metals in areas affected by gold mining (Palansooriya et al., 2020). ...
Mine tailings are a potential source of environmental pollution because they typically contain potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and the residue of chemical compounds used during extraction processes. The Remance gold mine (NW Panama) is a decommissioned mine with mining activity records dating from the 1800s and several periods of abandonment. Very little remediation work has been performed, and waste is exposed to climatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the PTEs and cyanide contents in mine waste after mining operations ceased some 20 years ago, and to evaluate the degree of pollution and the environmental risks they pose with the use of the Pollution Load Index (PLI) and the Ecological Risk Index (RI). Although the total cyanide (T-CN) concentration (1.4–1.9 mg kg⁻¹) found in most of the study area falls within the limits of gold mining tailing values for American sites (1.5–23 mg kg⁻¹), it is worth noting that the values of the tailings of the last used mining operation exceed it (25.2–518 mg kg⁻¹) and persist at the site. The PLI and RI suggest that the tailings from the mine and mine gallery sediments represent a source of pollution for soils and surrounding areas given their high content of PTEs (As, Cu, Sb, Hg) and T-CN, which pose serious ecological risks for biota. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up a remediation plan for this area.
... O'Kiep is affected by MSW that were left without rehabilitation. Different risks associated with such mining activity include ARD, contamination of the water table and secondary mineral sedimentation (García-Giménez and Jiménez-Ballesta, 2017;Coetzee et al., 2010). High concentrations of PTEs from the nearby CMM represent a continuing human health challenge and environmental hazard as the MSW, including by-products, can leach into soil and groundwater (Martín-Moreno et al., 2016;You et al., 2015). ...
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South Africa is faced with challenges related to potable water quality, which has periodically deteriorated, coupled with inconsistent supply of tap water to households. On the other hand, South Africa is an important mining region, and nearly every province has remnants of active and closed metalliferous mining sites. Metalliferous mines produce a large quantity of metalliferous solid waste (MSW), which should be effectively managed to minimise the negative effects as it has the potential to produce acid rock drainage (ARD). The mobility of drainage alters the scarce water resources and aquatic species. These challenges are a primary concern to the community in the arid O’Kiep region, which is located in the Namaqualand district, South Africa, whereby the community has few alternatives to groundwater as a source of drinking water. The aim of this study was to assess species dispersion from a closed Namaqualand metalliferous mine into water sources in O’Kiep, Northern Cape province, South Africa. This study aimed to determine the issues related to the deterioration of the surface water quality from the source to the point-of-use (POU) and contributing to the inadequate drinking water supply and shortages in O’Kiep. Quantitative and qualitative assessments of water quality parameters were taken; and the adverse human health outcomes experienced by the residents were surveyed. Furthermore, disease patterns were estimated based on administered questionnaires. Approximately 88% of community members indicated that the water supplied is often turbid, while a high number of people with teeth discolouration (72%) are living in the area and experience diarrhoea-like symptoms, which are likely associated with the ingestion of toxin-contaminated water. This was confirmed by some physicochemical parameters quantified from the drinking water supply system (DWSS), such as sulfate, that were not within the range prescribed for drinking water quality guidelines (SANS241-1, 2015; WHO, 2011). The statistical models did not suggest physicochemical properties as predictors of any of the health symptoms. However, regular monitoring and evaluation of the DWSS are essential for this vulnerable community. From this, it was recommended that a feasible way for water security in O’Kiep might be groundwater resources, as an alternative source to irregular surface water. The hydrogeochemical parameters of groundwater assessed indicated that the continuous consumption of the groundwater without pre-treatment might result in possible human health risks as the groundwater quality index (GWQI) confirmed that the groundwater quality could be classified as being of moderate concern. Furthermore, the hydrogeochemical indices and cationic exchange values indicated that the aquifer is of inland origin, whereas the piper trilinear diagram revealed that the groundwater type in the area is categorised as saline, which was confirmed by sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, the seasonal variation of the hydrogeochemical characteristic changes of an open-pit groundwater (OPGW) near a closed metalliferous mine (CMM) were investigated against standards for drinking and irrigation usage. Based on the results, it was evident that the OPGW quality varied seasonally. The PHREEQC model indicated that cation exchanges played a significant role in the groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristic. Furthermore, the seasonal fluctuation in the groundwater quality was attributed to the water-table-level fluctuations, resulting in some instances in a lack of compliance to the drinking water quality guidelines (SANS241-1, 2015; WHO, 2011). Overall, the groundwater was slightly acidic with permissible levels for irrigation purposes. Therefore, excessive usage of the OPGW may have undesirable effects on plant growth. The groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics of OPGW contamination suggested acid rock drainage formation potential (ARDP). The contamination of the groundwater by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from soils and MSW in the study area was a matter of concern requiring further investigation. Samples of the metalliferous soils and MSW were then evaluated for their ARDP using an integrated approach, combining geochemical characterisation, static tests and humidity cell tests (HCTs) assessing the balance between acidity potential (AP) and neutralisation potential (NP) of the slurry. Metalliferous soil leachates (MSL), stockpiled metalliferous waste leachates (SMWL) and metalliferous tailing leachates (MTL) were measured and quantified weekly for hydrogeochemical parameters. The static tests suggested that the metalliferous soils had a high acid-producing potential. This was confirmed by the results of the HCTs, which revealed signs of ARDP. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated weathering and production of ARD. The HCT results showed that the soils around the old mining town of O’Kiep are susceptible to ARDP and can release acid for elongated periods. Similarly, this study assessed ARDP from the stockpiled metalliferous waste (SMW) and metalliferous tailings (MTs) in O’Kiep. The static test results for the SMW were inconclusive, whereas the HCTs allowed the classification of the SMW as acid-producing material. In addition, the MTs were classified as acid-producing by the static tests and HCTs, with low mobility of PTEs when compared to SMW. Leaching of the SMW and MTs increases the risk of PTEs and acid contamination of surrounding soil and groundwater bodies in O’Kiep. Additionally, there are increasing concerns over significant potential environmental health effects of the SMW and MTs, including the mobility of PTEs.
... discharge of mine water and liquid waste, processing and tailing wallrock dump waste, when insufficiently treated effluents were discharged into water bodies; 4) application of outdated technologies and technological processes; 5) weakening of attention to environmental protection, reduction of the volume and efficiency of environmental protection activity by managers and nature protection services of mining enterprises operated in the last century; 6) imperfection of the environment legislation and the current system for environment pollution payments; 7) a touchy subject is the lack of demand for available scientific and technical developments, lack of incentives for their implementation and application in mining. [27,28] and there is always a probability of risks, including negative technogenic impact, leading to intensive pollution of environmental objects from tailing dumps wastes and increase of population morbidity rate. Thus, finely dispersed toxic dust rises from their surface to the air, forms vortexes and then precipitates on the soil. ...
Full-text available
The article presents the results of multi-year research within the limits of closed mining enterprises impact in the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). In the last century, here, a large amount of sulphidized toxic mineral processing wastes, stored in tailing dumps, negatively affecting the environment, was accumulated. Unfortunately, their conservation and reclamation have not been carried out; they pose a huge threat not only to the ecosphere, but also to public health. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the indicators and factors causing crisis phenomena related to environment hazard of accumulated toxic waste and to substantiate the possibility of reducing their negative impact on biosphere components and human health. Natural and mining technogenic systems formed in the last century by the activity of closed mining enterprises in the Amur River basin, having biosphere importance, were the object of the study. The following methods were used: systematization, scientific forecasting, physical and chemical, biological methods, as well as mathematical modeling, GIS-technologies, etc. The article substantiates the necessity of effective solution of the above problem. The present state of tailing dumps has been studied and it has been established that the waste is of the second class (high-hazard). It is revealed that the level of technogenic pollution of environment objects exceeds regional background indicators in dozens (up to 28-46) times, and MPC - in hundreds, up to 225 and more, times. It was shown that the surface of the tailing dumps has not overgrown naturally for 30 years. The results of the patent search and our own experimental research allowed us to develop technological solutions to ensure environment safety of mineral processing toxic wastes. The principles of ensuring environment safety of tailing dumps containing toxic wastes have been developed. New methods of their surface productivity replenishment using innovative approaches have been created, their novelty was confirmed by the Patents of the Russian Federation.
... Although sparsely distributed, with only 1% of terrestrial surface, due to their unique characteristics [high concentration of Fe, Mg, Ni, Cr, and Co, but also the lack of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) and generally low Ca/Mg ratio] they represent quite challenging environment for plant survival (van der Ent et al. 2013a;Echevarria 2018). Contrary to lithogenic, anthropogenic sources can be quite diverse (mining, smelting, intensive agriculture, fuel combustion, sewage sludge, industrial waste, etc.), with special emphasis on mining activities due to large quantities of waste material, rich in metal/metalloids (García-Giménez and Jiménez-Ballesta 2017). Soils that are characterized by phytotoxicity due to high heavy metal concentrations are designated as metalliferous soils and they represent very harsh and restrictive habitats for plant species (Antonovics et al. 1971;Brooks 1987;Kazakou et al. 2010), while the plants with the capacity to tolerate metal toxicities as well as survive and reproduce on metalliferous soils are called metallophytes ). ...
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to assess the metal concentrations in five species of the genus Viola L. (section Melanium) from 12 ultramafic outcrops and two non-ultramafic (prolluvium and dolomite) soils from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The concentrations of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb in soils and plant samples, as well as their shoot-to-root ratio, biological concentration and accumulation factors were determined. Five investigated Viola species growing on 14 different localities displayed considerable differences in concentration of potentially toxic elements in their roots and its accumulation in their shoots. Viola kopaonikensis and V. beckiana from ultramafic soils could be classified as strong Ni accumulators, since moderately high level of Ni was measured in their shoots (up to 266 mg kg−1 and 337 mg kg−1, respectively), while in V. tricolor high amount of the same element was accumulated in the roots (up to 395 mg kg−1). Population of V. beckiana from dolomitic site in Bosnia and Herzegovina accumulated high concentrations of Pb in the shoots (67.1 mg kg−1), as well as of Cd in both roots and shoots (81.1 mg kg−1 and 60.5 mg kg−1). The results also suggest that V. kopaonikensis populations from the ultramafic soils of Serbia emerge as Cr accumulators, which is quite rare trait within the genus Viola. It seems that species from Melanium section apply quite different strategies against toxic elements. Future studies should strive to explain what adaptive mechanisms are hidden behind it.
Intensive development of deposits in the Primorsky Territory has led to the accumulation of a large amount of waste from the processing of mineral raw materials, which has a negative impact on the environment. The environmental situation is aggravated by the fact that tailings, where processing waste is stored, located near settlements (for example, Dalnegorsk). The protection of the ecosphere is an urgent geoecological problem. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to study the mining and environmental problems of ensuring the environmental safety of the technogenic system. The methodological basis of the study was the teaching of Academician V.I. Vernadsky about the biosphere and noosphere and the main provisions of B.P. Kolesnikov and A.V. Motorin, set out in the program and methodology for the study of technogenic ecosystems. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the complex geoecological assessment of environmental objects using mathematical methods. The patterns of migration of heavy metal compounds and arsenic from tailings to the components of the ecosphere are revealed. Methods for reducing the negative impact of mountain systems on the environment are substantiated using the capabilities of biological systems, the novelty of which is confirmed by patents of the Russian Federation.
Society’s hunger for commodities is leading to an increased consumption of minerals considered critical or strategic. A range of minerals containing elements such as lithium (Li), cobalt (Co), rare earth elements (REEs) are considered critical and more important for strategic uses than others. In this paper we describe these as strategically important critical minerals (SICMs). However, their continuous depletion from primary sources coupled with supply risks due to geopolitical issues and geographical segregation is a major concern. As a consequence, recovering these valuable elements from non-conventional sources such as abandoned mine tailings has recently gained increased worldwide attention. In some part this is due to the fact that the potentially recoverable amount of these elements in abandoned mine tailings is often higher than the concentration in some primary ores. A review of the scientific literature reveals the use of modern recovery techniques such as tailored made hydrometallurgical and bio-hydrometallurgical processes can lead to effective recovery of these elements from low grade sources such as mine tailings. However, there remain some technical, economic and environmental challenges associated with recovering SICMs from mine tailings. This review critically analyzes these challenges and discusses the opportunities available for recovering SICMs from abandoned mine tailings using conventional hydrometallurgical techniques as well as bioleaching methods, which can offer significant advantages in reprocessing. This paper also concludes by providing an outlook of an integrated approach to the reprocessing of mine tailings where the recovery of SICMs as well as clean water production should be the combined overall reprocessing and recovery goal, helping to realize the full economic potential of the tailings.
The relevance. Soil-ecological potential of technogenic landscape among other components is determined by properties of lithogenic resource, which for mining areas are, primarily, heavy tonnage wastes – overburden rocks and mineral processing wastes. The purpose of this work is to assess the soil-ecological state of the natural-technical system of the tailings dump of the Kachkanarsky Ore Mining and Processing Plant and to identify prospects of ecosystems development and potential for their self-restoration. The research objectives included identification of soil formation features and determination of basic agrochemical and environmental characteristics of technogenic surface formations, assessment of their phytotoxicity, assessment of the vegetation cover condition, and identification of the need for reclamation. The object of the study is technogenic soils, which are part of the lithogenic basis of the natural and technical system of the tailings dump of the Kachkanarsky Ore Mining and Processing Plant. Methods. The study of technogenic surface formations was carried out in the areas of their removal outside the tailings dump. The field studies included general acquaintance with the area, field study of soils and technogenic surface formations, soil sampling, and study of vegetation cover of the area. Laboratory investigations were carried out in specialized laboratories using unified methods. The content of microelements was determined by ICP-MS method. Results. According to obtained results, natural and technogenic deposits represented by tailings of wet magnetic separation of sand fraction are identified as technogenic surface formations of artifact group, artiindustrates subgroup. Compared with the background soils, they are characterized by lower content of organic matter, total nitrogen, and less acidic reaction of the soil solution. They are non-saline in the content of water-soluble ions and are characterized by the admissible level of pollution by elements of hazard classes 1–2 and the absence of acute toxic effect on the studied biological test systems. Active reforestation processes on technogenic surface formations and satisfactory state of vegetation demonstrate the absence of negative effect of the mentioned deposits on the vegetation. Following revegetation of technogenic surface formations, signs of initial soil formation appear. These processes are identified by formation of forest floor, accumulation of organic matter in the upper layers, and initial differentiation of soil horizons. The soil-ecological state of the studied natural-technical system can be recognized as satisfactory. Currently, no special environmental protection measures are required to restore the soil and vegetation layer at the waste disposal sites outside the tailings management facility.
To explore the influence of bauxite tailings particle size and content on the hydration process of cement-tailings composite binder, the hydration kinetics of blended cement containing activated bauxite tailings was investigated. Hydration heat of cement-bauxite tailings composite binder was measured at 20 °C. The Krstulovic–Dabic kinetics model was used to explore the kinetics of blended cement containing bauxite tailings. The hydration process of blended cement was analyzed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results demonstrate that the induction period of the composite binder increased with increase in the bauxite tailings content. The hydration heat increased with increase in powder selection frequency of the tailings. The kinetics model could effectively simulate the hydration process of cement- bauxite tailings composite binder. With the increase of the tailings content, the value of α1 decreased and that of α2 increased. Calcined activated bauxite tailings could react with calcium hydroxide owing to the pozzolanic reaction. The calcium hydroxide content of the composite binder decreased compared with pure cement and decreased with increase in the bauxite tailings content, particularly for bauxite tailings incorporations exceeding 30%.
Trace elements occur naturally in soils and some are essential nutrients for plant growth as well as human and animal health. However, at elevated levels, all trace elements become potentially toxic. Anthropogenic input of trace elements into the natural environment therefore poses a range of ecological and health problems. As a result of their persistence and potential toxicity, trace elements continue to receive widespread scientific and legislative attention. Trace Elements in Soils reviews the latest research in the field, providing a comprehensive overview of the chemistry, analysis, fate and regulation of trace elements in soils, as well as remediation strategies for contaminated soil. The book is divided into four sections: • Basic principles, processes, sampling and analytical aspects: presents an overview including general soil chemistry, soil sampling, analysis, fractionation and speciation. • Long-term issues, impacts and predictive modelling: reviews major sources of metal inputs, the impact on soil ecology, trace element deficient soils and chemical speciation modelling. • Bioavailability, risk assessment and remediation: discusses bioavailability, regulatory limits and cleanup technology for contaminated soils including phytoremediation and trace element immobilization. • Characteristics and behaviour of individual elements. Written as an authoritative guide for scientists working in soil science, geochemistry, environmental science and analytical chemistry, the book is also a valuable resource for professionals involved in land management, environmental planning, protection and regulation.