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Religious America, Secular Europe?: A Theme and Variations

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Abstract

Europe is a relatively secular part of the world in global terms. Why is this so? And why is the situation in Europe so different from that in the United States? The first chapter of this book - the theme - articulates this contrast. The remaining chapters - the variations - look in turn at the historical, philosophical, institutional and sociological dimensions of these differences. Key ideas are examined in detail, among them: constitutional issues; the Enlightenment; systems of law, education and welfare; questions of class, ethnicity, gender and generation. In each chapter both the similarities and differences between the European and the American cases are carefully scrutinized. The final chapter explores the ways in which these features translate into policy on both sides of the Atlantic. This book is highly topical and relates very directly to current misunderstandings between Europe and America.
... The cruder, unilinear versions of the classic secularisation thesis today look both empirically dubious, in some respects even in relation to Europe (Davie 2002;Berger, Davie andFokas 2008, Casanova, 2007), and, in view of the dramatic revivals in most of the major religious traditions in recent decades, blinkered and philosophically arrogant (Asad 2003). Although Charles Taylor constructs an ideal type of western secularity he makes clear, especially in A Secular Age (Taylor 2007), that there are many secularisation stories, even within Europe, with subtle and not-so-subtle differences in the relative influence of secular and religious forces. ...
... I am grateful to the editors for permission to reuse part of this text. What follows also draws extensively on Berger, P.,Davie, G. and Fokas, E. (2008). ...
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This book is about new forms of religiosity and religious activity emerging in the context of their dialectic relations with contemporary multicultural realities. World religions are effectively a major agent of the multiculturalization of contemporary societies. However, multiculturalism pushes them not only toward change and reforms, but also toward new conflicts between and within them. This process should remind us of the Jewish legend of the Golem – an animated being created by man which finally challenges the latter’s control over it - a dialectic relation, indeed. World religions today greatly contribute to a world (dis)order that is multicultural both when viewed as a whole, and from within most societies that compose it. It is a development that contrasts both with the assumption that globalization implies one-way homogenization and convergence to Western modernity, and the expectation that globalization would be bound to polarize homogeneous civilizations.
... turėjo viduramžių europos religinio ir socialinio paveldo, bet ir kūrėsi iš įvairių, daugiausia protestantiškų denominacijų, taip pat ir kitų religijų išpažinėjų bendruomenių. Be to, kaip rodo jau ne vienas empirinis tyrimas ir statistika, sekuliarizaciją suprantant pirmosios konotacijos prasme, ji bent jau jav nevyksta (Berger 1999;Berger, davie, Fokas 2008), nors yra palietusi tik vyraujančią (mainstream) protestantų grupę bei katalikus, tačiau pastarąjį dešimtmetį seminaristų skaičius mažesnėse jav katalikų seminarijose auga (Ziegler 2005;grossman 2013). ...
... Įvertinant vidurio-rytų europos socialinės raidos ir pokyčių savitumą, vakarų europos sekuliarizacijos modelio toms šalims besąlygiškai taikyti negalime. Kaip jau minėta, ilgai vyravusi neišvengiamos sekuliarizacijos visuomenės modernizacijos procese teorija jau kuris laikas daugelio sociologinių tyrimų pagrindu nebėra laikoma aksioma ne vakarų europos šalyse (Berger, 1999;Berger, davie, Fokas 2008;Karpov, 2010). o štai palyginamieji evs ir pasaulio vertybių (Wvs) tyrimai, pradėti 1981 m., buvo metodologiškai šia prielaida grindžiami. ...
... Even though, especially during the last two decades, secularisation theories have been subject to growing criticism and some have even suggested that we should abandon the term completely (e.g. Stark, 1999: 270), some social scientists still continue to formulate alternative (or new) conceptualisations of what secularisation is (Brown, 2009;Bruce, 2011;Chaves, 1994;Norris and Inglehart, 2011) and why and when it comes about (Berger, Davie and Fokas, 2008;Martin, 2005;Taylor, 2007). ...
... From the views of participants, it can be detected that majority of Turkish participants saw Turkish society as a religious society, though some described it as a 'fake' religiosity, while in England almost all participants acknowledged that there is secularisation in England, even though there is no consensus on how much secularisation there is. This is an important dissimilarity, which indicates that secularisation is manifested differently in different contexts (Berger, 1999;Berger, Davie and Fokas, 2008). ...
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It has long been recognised that education policy has been questioned, critiqued and reformed in response to a variety of supranational and national factors. In the field of religious education, there has been a growing argument for comparative works to study this relationship between wider factors and religious education policy. This research seeks to present a comparison of religious education policy in state schools in two strikingly different countries, Turkey and England, by interviewing various policy actors, to unravel some of the complexities and contestations around supranational and national factors and their influence on religious education policy. The research reveals that wider factors have explicitly and implicitly shaped religious education policy by constituting a significant milieu that has constrained and enabled policy actors. Yet, the research also suggests that religious education policy can be better understood through a conflict theory lens, because policy actors have responded to and interpreted wider factors and their influence on religious education policy widely and contradictorily, reflecting their deeply held worldviews and values. Furthermore, in the context of the collision of wider factors and rival policy actors, religious education has tended to converge on common problems such as confusion, marginalisation, accusations and on endless reform actions and discussion. The research suggests that there is a need for sensitising for plurality across and within societies and a need for more open and plural religious education policies. The findings of this research give insights into how different policy actors view and interpret supranational and national factors and their influence on religious education policy. The findings have relevance for debates about the role of religion in education within plural societies. Key words: religious education, policy actors, comparative religious education, Turkey, England, supranational factors, secularisation, pluralisation, conflict, compulsory consensus, plural religious education policy
... Comparative institutionalist accounts as well as qualitative studies, by contrast, have drawn attention to the case of the USA (Casanova, 2006) as well as emerging economies such as South Korea (Kern, 2001), Brazil (Lehmann, 1996), or Indonesia (Hefner, 2000), where economic growth has not been paralleled by religious decline. They have emphasised the particularities of European pathways to modernity arguing that, rather than a blueprint for developments elsewhere in the world, Europe is in fact the exceptional case (Berger et al., 2008). ...
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Intervening in debates on religion and social inequalities, this article advocates a shift from concerns with economic ethics to a focus on religious belonging as embodying class-based cultural distinctions. In the first part, I critically review the literature that draws inspiration from Weber’s concept of Protestant inner-worldly asceticism and advance two arguments: Pentecostal orientations toward this-worldly salvation thwart rationalising potentials and feed into magic, or “occult,” economies instead. Simultaneously, however, Pentecostalism promotes personal autonomy by emphasising the possibilities for radical personal change through conversion and becoming “born again.” In the second part, I draw on Bourdieu’s cultural sociology and show that personal autonomy and certain images of Pentecostal modernity are increasingly deployed within practices of cultural distinction between the modern Pentecostal and economically successful and the backward who remain locked in the past. The article is based on ethnographic research among Pentecostals in South Africa as well as a review of the literature on other African societies.
... There is a paucity of studies on how religions disband, dissolve, or die. Most of the research appears to be directed toward religious sustainability, growth, or cultural continuity (Robbins 2014;Stark 2012;Stark and Bainbridge 1985), or in the case of secularization theory, how religion in general has had a declining influence on institutions of power and authority in modern societies (Berger et al. 2008;Bruce 2011;Chaves 1994;Wilson 1987). Regarding the latter, how a particular religion declines or dissolves is analytically independent of secularization or modernization; one doesn't necessitate the other. ...
... In a text edited by P. Berger et al. (2008), the authors posed the question of whether Europe is really as secularized as people say and think, especially with reference to the United States of America considered as a religious nation.8 According to Lehmann, on the one hand, precisely for its development, secularization would seem to be a typically European process, therefore a sort of "exceptional" process of a portion of the world. ...
Chapter
Within an ample study on the role of religion in the migratory and integration processes, this chapter illustrates some of the results of an original research carried out in Italy and based on different sources, among those 20 in-depth interviews with migrants and asylum seekers who, regardless of the entry channel and of their current legal status, have been significantly influenced by their religious belongings, as for both their decision to migrate and the development of migration and insertion processes. In particular, the Chapter explores the “space” dedicated to the religious dimension and to the spiritual needs of migrants, also during the delicate phase of first reception and re-elaboration of the migratory distress. Thanks to the involvement of a sociologist of migration and of a theology scholar as co-author, the Chapter also investigates the “functions” and meanings that (forced) migrants for religious reasons attribute to religion and spirituality, seen both in their individual and communitarian declinations. Finally, through a de-instrumentalization of religion and the acknowledgement of migrants’ human subjectivity, the Authors discuss the results of the study through the concepts of identity, religious freedom, citizenship, and common good
... In a text edited by P. Berger et al. (2008), the authors posed the question of whether Europe is really as secularized as people say and think, especially with reference to the United States of America considered as a religious nation.8 According to Lehmann, on the one hand, precisely for its development, secularization would seem to be a typically European process, therefore a sort of "exceptional" process of a portion of the world. ...
Chapter
Within an ample study on the role of religion in the migratory and integration processes, this chapter illustrates some of the results of an original research carried out in Italy and based on different sources, among those 20 in-depth interviews with migrants and asylum seekers who, regardless of the entry channel and of their current legal status, have been significantly influenced by their religious belongings, as for both their decision to migrate and the development of migration and insertion processes. In particular, the Chapter is devoted to analysing the role of religion within the procedure for the scrutiny of asylum applications. Given the legislative framework in force in Italy, the Author discusses how the actual implementation of rules and procedures allows (or does not allow) for the emergence and the acknowledgement of those aspects variously connected with asylum seekers’ religious belongings. Here, religiosity has emerged as both an obscured and a sensitive issue.
... Peter Berger believes that, in traditional societies, religion is like an umbrella of symbols opened for the purpose of integrating different sectors (Berger, Davie, & Fokas, 2008). ...
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A House on Water; A Comprehensive Study on Sigheh Mahramiat and Temporary Marriage in Iran Download a free copy of the book through Amazon, Google book and Google play This fieldwork study supports the view that temporary marriage is a back door to sexual exploitation. According to the study’s findings, mut'ah is a practice that lacks redeeming values and positive functions. Rather, it causes harms such as child marriage, the collapse of the foundations of family life, and negative attitudes towards permanent marriage. In fact, child marriage is partly the result of the tradition of sigheh mahramiat which paves the road for an increase in child marriage in Iran. It is performed in some Iranian families when their sons and daughters are in early puberty, or even before then, to supervise the sexual behaviour of children, to prevent them from committing a sin, for fear that girls will remain unmarried when they are older, to fight against social and cultural pressures related to communication between young girls and boys, and to facilitate smoother relations between two families.
... (Finer, 2007: 73 (Gallup, 2017, 15 Mayıs). Dolayısıyla ABD'deki gündelik yaşam pratikleri ve tutumlarda görülen tüm bu değişimler, Amerikalıların dindarlaştığını ya da Hıristiyanlığın toplumsal gücünün arttığını iddia eden akademisyenlerin (Berger, Davie & Fokas, 2008;Finke & Stark 1988;Stark 1999) ortaya koyduğu fotoğrafın tekrar ele alınmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Bu metodolojik sorunu aşmak için, sekülerleşme kavramının tanımında da belirtildiği gibi "belli bir toplum" ifadesine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. ...
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Bu bölümün videosu için tıklayınız: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCLjVpHqNjI&t=651s Türkiye’de sekülerleşme teorisi ile ilgili iddia sahibi olanların önemli bir bölümü, derslerinde, akademik üretimlerinde, gazetelerin yorum sayfalarında, katıldıkları televizyon programlarında, davetli oldukları konferanslarda ve hatta sosyal medya hesaplarında ünlü din sosyoloğu Peter Berger’e atıfla sekülerleşme teorisinin çöktüğünü iddia etmektedir. Bahsi geçen bu kitle genellikle şu yaklaşımı benimsemektedir: “Daha önce sekülerleşme teorisini savunan Peter Berger artık fikrini değiştirmiştir, o nedenle sekülerleşme tezi çökmüştür ve dolayısıyla Türkiye’deki dönüşüm sekülerleşme teorisi ile açıklanamaz.” Bu iddia Türkiye’de sıklıkla kullanılmasına rağmen, detaylara inilmediği için Berger’in hangi verilere dayanarak fikrini değiştirdiğini ve modernleştiği halde dindarlaşan hangi toplumlardan bahsettiğini anlamak mümkün görünmemektedir. Bu makalenin yazılmasının sebebi de Berger’in geniş bir kitle tarafından kabul edilen fikirlerini/iddialarını sekülerleşme teorisi bağlamında değerlendirmek ve hem Berger’in hem de “teori çöktü” iddiası için onu referans gösterenlerin yaptıkları açık yöntemsel sorunları tartışmaktır. O nedenle, bu çalışma sekülerleşme kavramını ve sekülerleşme teorisinin ne olduğunu kısaca açıkladıktan sonra, Berger’in teorideki ve yöntemdeki açmazlarını yine Berger’in en çok atıf alan eserlerindeki 10 iddiası üzerinden okuyucuya sunmaktadır. Çalışmanın ulaştığı 4 ana sonuç şunlardır: 1. Berger, iddialarını kanıtlarla desteklememektedir. Türkiye’de en çok atıf alan 4 temel yazısında, herhangi bir kanıt ya da veri ortaya koymamaktadır. 2. Berger’in Türkiye, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, Latin Amerika, Avrupa ülkeleri ve İsrail ile ilgili iddialarının kısa bir araştırma yapılınca yanlışlandığı görülmektedir. 3. Berger bir toplumun sekülerleşip sekülerleşmediğini, olması gerektiği gibi o toplumu kendi tarihi ile kıyaslayarak değil, başka toplumlarla kıyaslayarak ölçmeye çalışmaktadır. Böylece Berger, sekülerleşme tartışmalarının üzerine oturduğu temel yöntemlerden birini yok saymayı seçmiş görünmektedir. 4. Berger, ömrünün son dönemlerinde, sebebi bu çalışmanın sınırlarının ötesinde olan, akademiden uzak bir üslubu benimsemiştir. Ancak ne yazık ki onun akademik hassasiyetlerinin azalması, onun iddialarını sorgulamaksızın kabul eden geniş bir akademisyen kitlesinin oluşmasını engelleyememiştir.
... This needs further exploration, because it would imply an unexpected and worth of exploration scenario: the effects of advanced scientific formation on religious and scientific views would differ between males and females, being the latter not especially affected by such formation. Religiosity has overall decreased over the last century in Europe (Berger et al. 2008; but see Reitsma et al. 2012), remained stable in the United States (Hirschman 2004) and Asian and Middle Eastern countries (Pew Research Center 2015), and even increased in ex-Soviet countries (Froese and Pfaff 2005). Scientific knowledge has clearly increased in all those regions during the last century. ...
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Relationships between degree/area of academic formation and religious and Darwinian views are controversial. This study aimed to compare the religious beliefs and acceptance of Darwinian evolution between two contrasting South American scientific communities (Chile and Colombia), accounting for different degrees and areas of academic formation. In 2018, 115 last year bachelor students (surveyed as freshmen in 2014 for a previous study) from Chile, and 283 first/last year bachelor students, graduate students, and professors from Colombia, all belonging to biology, chemistry, or physics, were surveyed. Chilean students/faculty were significantly more agnostic/atheist, more accepting of Darwinian evolution, and less creationist than their Colombian counterparts. Academic degree and area differently affected these views in both countries, as only in Chile there was a clear tendency among biologists and physicists with higher degrees to hold less religious and creationist views. Marked differences between the history, socioeconomic contexts, and especially in high school and university curricula of both countries might explain these results.
... For example, as Davie has more recently (2015, 135) observed, whereas the religious landscape of the United States 'is made up of tens of thousands of free-standing congregations that aggregate themselves into denominations, none of which has, or has had, a legally privileged position in the federal state', the 'increasing range of choices' currently available on the religious field in Europe is largely emerging 'over the top of a historically dominant church with (more or less) a comprehensive network of parishes across the country' (Davie 2015, 135). While the market-approach constitutes but one aspect of the much broader debate on European/American exceptionalism (e.g., Berger, Davie, and Fokas 2008), as Davie notes, it has nevertheless become 'increasingly present in analyses of religion in Europe' (Davie 2015, 135). ...
... The presence of popular religions in the world, however, seems to contradict some dichotomized interpretations of religion based on conceptssacred vs. secular- (Inglehart and Norris 2004)-or results of continental surveys which distinguish mainly between what happens in America, or the United States, and the dynamics of the situation in Europe (Berger et al. 2008). The fact is that such generalizations do not stand the test of empirical findings, which reveal far more complex situations. ...
... Zenbait soziologok (Durkheim, 1982: 387;Mardones, 1994 Bigarren korapiloari helduz, erlijioaren gaiak, oro har, arazoaren irudia dakar imajinario kolektiboan, gizartean nola kokatzen den eta erlijioak zer ekarpen egin dezakeen ez baita batere argi ikusten; zentzu horretan, eta munduko beste gizarte askorekin konparatuz, erlijioaren fenomenoan aukera onak eta ekarpen positiboak eskain ditzakeen faktorea ikusi baino gehiago, arazoa atzemateko joera dago, gizartearen bizitza atezuan (mehatxuan, agian) jartzen duen neurrian (Berger et al., 2008). El siguiente hito probablemente fue el programa de televisión, uno de los que quizás más ha marcado y ha lastrado al Consejo. ...
... an umbrella of symbols opened for the purpose of integrating different sectors(Berger, P. L., Davie, G., & Fokas, E., 2008). Religion has a structural norm and recognition which evokes feelings of solace, shelter and safety for mankind. ...
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Abstract Temporary and permanent marriages are the only legal and legitimate ways for regulating sexual relations of men and women based on official law of the country. However, unlike permanent marriage, temporary marriage is not that welcomed in Iranian culture facing agreements and disagreements throughout history. The advocates consider temporary marriage as a factor preventing prostitution and immorality in society, while the opponents deem the marriage as a way for men’s pleasure seeking and hedonism and a tool for violating rights of women and children. On the other hand, the religious traditional society of Iran has accepted temporary marriage in the framework of Sigheh Mahramiat and is loyal to it. There is no clear image of temporary marriage and Sigheh Mahramiat, regarding legal and religious ambiguity of these two topics and because of not studying the pertaining clear and hidden reasons and consequences. Moreover, the topic is not turned into a social issue for executive organizations and legislators of the country. The law has kept silent over the issue of Sigheh Mahamiat which is an introduction to early marriage and it has no supervision on wide social and psychological consequences of the problem especially for women. The research works conducted so far mainly approved temporary marriage and none of them has studied the social issue comprehensively. This study analyzed historical, religious, legal and social foundations of temporary marriage/Sigheh Mahramiat for the first time. Moreover the phenomenon was studied comprehensively in three metropolitans of Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan during 2016-17, applying qualitative and quantitative approach and field research method. The results indicate that temporary marriage/Sigheh Mahramiat is hedonism and facilitates child marriage, followed by consequences like stigmatization especially for women, and negative attitude in men over permanent marriage. We made an attempt in this study to analyze hidden and clear aspects of temporary marriage and Sigheh Mahramiat scientifically and impartially so that a meticulous attitude is formed in this regard and realistic substantial solutions are presented to legislators and executive officials. Based on these solutions, we hope that temporary marriage becomes organized socially and legally in Iran, so that rights of women and children are not violated and the family foundation and status of permanent marriage are protected accordingly. Keywords: temporary marriage, Sigheh Mahramiat, early marriage, children, women. Foreword Human sciences are among most vital necessities in human life, which can be heeded from different historical, social, philosophical, and verbal aspects. There is a major difference in social humanitarian sciences compared to experimental ones in the process of research. Supportive or opponent feelings are among factors which always cause serious problems for social humanitarian sciences. Regarding my university major and my personal interest in anthropology, I have been studying social empowerment for many years. Since the years of studying at university in England and cooperation with international and human rights organizations in African, Asian, and European countries, I always tried my best to conduct research on topics which result in decline of injustice and inequalities especially among women and children. Having scientific unbiased approach is an important principle in social research, but it is not observed in Iran appropriately. Topics like Sigheh Mahramiat and temporary marriage have always caused challenges, owing to various religious and cultural reasons. Given that public values are not set impartially and as there is cultural and religious concern over the topic of temporary marriage and Sigheh Mahramiat, a vague image has been created for this social issue. Former studies on female genital mutilation in Iran, which were conducted for planning a comprehensive program and regulation to eradicate the practice in the country, provoked me to study child marriage as a social issue. The issue was not heeded significantly till then. Child marriage triggers spiritual physical harms especially for girls, which are followed by social consequences like child widowhood, continuation of poverty cycle and promotion of prostitution. Child marriage is prevalent in both rural and urban areas, derived from traditional common values. Early marriage of children is not a new issue and has presently attracted the attention of researchers, groups supporting rights of children, non-governmental organizations, and many international organizations. UNICEF defines early child marriage as any marriage which is practiced before the age of 18. Main reasons and consequences of the marriage were introduced to scientific society and legislative entities through a comprehensive study with a scientific approach; given that the issue was not adequately taken into consideration and there was shortage of official statistics in this regard. According to the study, traditional religious beliefs in Iran including Sigheh Mahramiat are factors of promoting child marriage. Sighe Mahramiat or temporary marriage is among the traditional religious values with legal legitimacy in the country. Based on article 1075 and 1076 of the Islamic Republic of Iran Civil Code, Mut’ah or temporary marriage is a marriage with specified Mahr and duration. However, the silence of legislator over many issues like Nafaqa, legacy, and annulment of temporary marriage that leads to violation of women’s rights are taken into consideration here. Also, children are made to marry each other in the framework of Sigheh Mahramiat and child marriage is facilitated accordingly. Quitting education is the most important consequence of Sigheh Mahramiat, especially for girls. Regarding the rise of marriage age and promotion of unconditioned relations like white marriage in Iran, the issue of temporary marriage is brought up every now and then by authorities of the country and by the clerics at Friday Congregation Prayers or on TV; but a number of opponents disagree the issue strongly every time, advocating the rights of women and children. Legal gaps and providing the grounds for hedonism by the middlemen make opponents regard temporary marriage as a religious cover. This is while the fans consider temporary marriage as the reason of social health. Several studies have been conducted on temporary marriage, which mostly had a value based attitude towards the topic. The present study analyzes temporary marriage and Sigheh Mahramiat comprehensively with a scientific approach in four sections, impartially and without a value based attitude. Reasons and consequences of the problem are explained scientifically and solutions are presented according to the pertaining legal gaps and social defects. Legislative and executive organizations can organize temporary marriage as a social issue.
... Clark and Hoover emphasise that culture and religion cannot be separated because religion is the most crucial consideration in the theory of cultural and community relations (Clark & Hoover, 1997) through social communication. Furthermore, people tend to trust communication media produced by religious or cultural communities (Berger et al., 2008). On the other hand, religion uses communication media to convey religious messages effectively in the form of moral values (Martín- Barbero & Fox, 1993) and shapes religious culture in competition to gain more followers and territories (Croucher et al., 2017). ...
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Obedience has become an ethnic identity for Madurese, expressed in the communicative expression ‘Bhuppa’-Bhâbbu’-Ghuru-Rato.’ Thus, the meaning of hierarchical obedience has been structured firmly into daily communication routines and behaviour as a form of self-development. The pattern of patron-client communication is a strong stimulant in the tradition of obedience that forms hegemonic power through patron-client-dominating authority. Interestingly, in Madurese society, such a relationship can actually be classified as exploitative-mutualistic. The study of rationality perspective on the meaning of communication and obedience relations shows that not all Madurese actions follow rational rules in Weber’s perspective. Indeed, there has been a reconstruction of the meaning of obedience in Madurese so that the rationality of needs becomes a justification for irrational actions and the relatively long-standing patron-client communication bond in Madurese culture. The phenomenological approach was considered most suitable for this research because it could reveal the natural meaning of Madurese specific obedience behaviour through explanation of phenomena and causes.
... While modernity has spread around the world, its European links with secularization have not necessarily been followed by other countries. This has even led Berger, Davie and Fokas (2008) to claim that secularization in Europe has become the world exception, instead of the norm previously thought of last century. Instead of seeing the development of modernity leading to secularization, we should rather see some back and forth movements between religion and secularization that have been fluctuating in differ ent proportion in many parts of the world during these last three centuries. ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces this edited book as a study of exorcism within a social-scientific perspective in Western societies. Applying the sociological work of de Certeau, and the anthropological perspective of Malinowski, this chapter presents a collection of research papers which reexamines the relationship among magic, religion, and science within the context of secularization thesis. Modern practices of exorcism are considered within the Christian and global contexts with the focus on both early and late phases of modernity. The case studies presented in this volume touch on various geographical areas in Europe, North and South America, and Australia, and cover numerous Christian groups and denominations. We also emphasize the idea that exorcism is not an exclusively Christian practice and that it can be found as part of other religions, such as Buddhism, Islam, or Judaism. The study of modern practices of exorcism in non-Christian contexts is warranted to tackle understanding of this growing phenomenon around the world and to consider exorcism no longer as an atavistic ritual in conflict with science and modernity. A practical reason – a need to provide guidance and support for these victims or patients, through medicine, spiritual care, and community assistance – fosters this research project. Keywords Multiple modernity Supernatural Rationality Magic Religion Science
... The prevailing theory of inescapable secularization in the modernization process of contemporary societies in view of wide sociological studies is no longer considered axiomatic (Berger, 1999;Berger, Davie, 2008;Karpov, 2010), although the comparative European Values Study and World Values study launched in 1981 were methodologically based on this assumption. ...
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How former social experiences have influenced the social life of present formal believers and religious indifferent in Lithuania, who are represented by numerous vague Catholics as well as an indefinite group of religious indifferent formed during the Soviet regime and due to the peculiarities of their social and personal experiences. Two types of empirical research methods (quantitative and qualitative) are used for the research question, applying the development principle in a sequence with the ‘quantitative preliminary’ and ‘qualitative follow-up’ for elaboration, enhancement, illustration, and clarification of the results from one method with the results from the other one. Meanwhile the complementarity principle, where two methods of empirical research are used to assess different aspects in forming a new social group of vague Catholics and religious indifferent, gives possibility to analyze how the experiences of the Soviet regime manifest themselves in their personal lives of the post-Soviet situation with forming a specific phenomenon in the direction of religious identity and general social orientations. On the basis of oral life histories three types of religious indifference are distinguished.
... I have discussed several such issues in more detail in previous writings (Burity 2015a(Burity , 2017(Burity , 2018b and certainly admit that my arguments here demand further work. Other references that have stimulated and enriched my reflection on the challenges to laicidade as a concept and governmentality (among them, see Berger et al. 2008;Borradori and Derrida 2003;Casanova 2012;Connolly 2008;Derrida 2002;Laborde 2008;Levey and Modood 2009;Modood 2010;Montero 2016Montero , 2018Oro and Camurça 2018;Blancarte 2015;Cruz Esquivel 2017;Asad 2003;Mariano 2011;Brown 2006). religious organisation and free expression; preserve the autonomy of political institutions vis-à-vis religious authority (of individuals or institutions); and, more recently, mediate the various pathways of public religion? ...
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This article analyses the sociocultural and political transformations experienced during the process of Brazilian democratisation since the 1980s, in relation to a concomitant evangelical-Pentecostal political emergence. The proposed analysis situates the process of religious change amid the multidimensionality and contingency of demands for expanding democratisation, resulting in a reconfiguration of the political and cultural markers that defined the secular state in the Brazilian case. An effort is also made to understand this case in the light of similar (and increasingly disseminative) processes in Latin America and the North Atlantic part of the Northern Hemisphere. Different configurations of Brazilian Pentecostalism as public religion and its profound implications for the disputes for the secularity of the state in a pluralist key are highlighted. The approach is based on a critical dialogue with the contributions of William Connolly’s pluralist theory and Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s theory of political discourse and a series of Brazilian and Latin American academic interlocutors. The argument benefits from research carried out especially in the last seven years in Brazil, alongside comparative work carried out in Brazil, Argentina, the UK, and literature on other Latin American cases. The guiding threads of the analysis are the experience of evangelical minoritisation in national politics and the recent attempt by Pentecostals and conservative evangelicals to hegemonise society.
... Berger (1999) offers a more global perspective, arguing that the world is as 'furiously religious as it ever was' (p. 2) and this is evident in, for example, the rise of Islam and Pentecostal Christianity. This global perspective, also echoed in Berger et al. (2008), is helpful in alerting us to the dangers of generalising from small geographical contexts, to making claims across countries and continents; parts of Europe may be the exception to a global picture of religious flourishing. Others have made the case, particularly in relation to the 'American exception', that religion flourishes when it is marketized and commodified, adopting the competitive nous to survive within the dominant capitalist paradigm (Stark and Finke 2000;Dennett 2007;Gauthier 2017). ...
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This paper, based on 355 survey responses from secondary Religious Education (RE) teachers in England (n = 238) and Scotland (n = 117), explores the background of these educators in terms of qualifications, personal (a)theistic belief, and religion. This research seeks to establish the degree backgrounds of RE teachers, what religion they belong to (if any), and the range of theistic, agnostic, and atheistic teachers currently within the RE profession. This paper, acknowledging the similar and contrasting natures of England and Scotland in terms of the history, status and purpose(s) of the subject, demonstrates that RE teachers in these countries come from diverse academic backgrounds, and that most RE teachers in England and Scotland do not believe in God(s). Nearly half of RE teachers in England and more than half in Scotland have no religion. The granulation to England and Scotland allows us to make tentative links with national census and social attitudes research, and with literature, which posits nuanced secularisation trajectories. Furthermore, the data allow us to cross-tabulate (for example, between degree background and religious beliefs), as well as with the data in extant research about the risks of sanitised and essentialised approaches to teaching religion in schools.
... Whereas religious heterogamy in the West has been understood as an indicator of religion's generational decline, religious heterogamy in secular nations, such as China, is actually an indicator of religion's rise. This has important theoretical implication for the paradigmatic debate regarding religious decline and religious vitality (Berger, Davie, and Fokas 2008;Stark and Finke 2000;Voas and Chaves 2016;Warner 1993). ...
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Research has long established that parents who do not share the same religious tradition produce less religious children than parents who do. Therefore, religious heterogamy and its negative effects on religious socialization have been associated with the generational decline of religion in Western societies. How about China, where religion has been resurging in the last few decades? Existing studies suggest two opposing possibilities: the restrictive national context may diminish parental impact on religious socialization, or the family influence withstands contextual pressures. Using the 2007 Spiritual Life Survey of Chinese Residents and logistic regression models, we examine patterns of association between having one or two religious parents during childhood and current religious affiliation, beliefs, behavior, and salience of respondents in China. Analyses reveal that despite China’s atheist education system and strict religion policies, having at least one religiously affiliated parent is associated with increased religiosity compared to having two nonreligious parents. As the number of interreligious marriages rises in Chinese society, religious heterogamy contributes to the growth of religion among younger generations. Whereas religious heterogamy in the West has a secularizing effect on the next generation and contributes to religion’s decline, religious heterogamy in secular nations such as China has a religionizing effect and contributes to religion’s rise.
... It is important to state at the outset of this subsection that understandings of secularization and whether the theory is relevant both to the U.S. context (Berger et al. 2008;Voas and Chaves, 2016) and Judaism (Buckser 2011) remain highly contested. Nevertheless, two of the three elements famously identified by José Casanova (1994) as evidence of secularization should be regarded as applicable to the issues raised by the Jewish leaders in this study: privatization, pertaining to religion's marginalization as an increasingly private rather than public matter; and decline of religion, referring to a diminution in religious belief and/or practice, in this case the latter. ...
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Violent hate crimes at places of worship such as synagogues in recent years have engendered a distinctive dilemma for religious institutions: How can one ensure people’s safety and security without compromising the warm and welcoming environment that these communities seek to create? Drawing upon five interviews with Jewish leaders, this article explores how this dilemma is being negotiated by synagogues in Chicago. After presenting three key predicaments faced by synagogues as regards security, the article argues that securitization should be understood as a form of “white noise,” necessary to religious institutions’ functioning and yet necessarily invisible. Indeed, although security is now an essential feature of many synagogues, it is also at constant risk of undermining their cordial ambience through providing a reminder of one’s mortality, requiring that it be present, but in the background. Consequently, synagogues today are compelled to find a careful balance between hospitality and openness, with diverse and often paradoxical implications.
... For examples, religiosity in theological studies is regarded as a belief system (Adeyemo & Adeleye, 2008;Barnes, 2011;Groome & Corso, 1999), while in psychological studies it reflects a cognition, emotion, or behavioral element (Bergin, 1983;Ntalianis & Darr, 2005). Meanwhile, sociological studies view it as personal and social practices (Berger, Davie, & Fokas, 2008;Johnstone, 2016). As described by Adeyemo & Adeleye (2008), "religiosity includes having or showing belief in and reverence for God or a deity, as well as participation in activities about that faith, such as attending services or worship regularly and participating in other social activities with one's religious community". ...
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This study examines the relationship between religiosity, saving intention, and saving behavior among Muslim university students in Palembang, Indonesia. A quantitative research approach is employed for this study. We gather data from a total of 103 respondents aged between 18 and 22 years and apply the partial least square path modelling (PLS-PM) technique. We find religiosity to be significantly related to saving intention and behavior. In addition, saving intention and saving behavior are significantly and directly related. Meanwhile, according to Cohen’s convention, the effect size of the association between religiosity and saving intention and behavior is small.
... However, Christian churches are also the group that is expected to experience most switching out worldwide: during a five-year period between 2015-2020 a total of 13 million people are expected to leave Christianity, most of them ending up religiously unaffiliated, particularly in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand (Pew 2017). Following this development, rather than disappearing, the former state churches (Europe) and mainline denominations (US) are losing their positions of power, and becoming more equal advocates in the religious, social, and political markets (Berger et al. 2008). These developments may be challenged by cases such as restoration of Church status in Poland, and possible reinterpretations of nationalism and Christian roots, as seen, for example, in Russia. ...
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The body of research on leaving Christianity is expansive, ranging from the historical and social scientific study of religion to practical theology and religious education. Just as the array of Christian churches and their nature is wide, so too is the nature of leaving Christianity varied. This chapter presents an overview of key aspects regarding leaving Christianity and its major trends and debates in history. Leaving Christianity is closely entwined with definitions of membership and being a Christian, changing social norms, and codes of conduct of church officials, but also broad historical socio-cultural changes.
... Regarding research and psychological practice, differences between the USA, Europe, and other parts of the world must be considered, as well as differences within the USA and within Europe (Berger, Davie, & Fokas, 2008). Most research on R/S topics in psychotherapy originates from the USA, where religion and spirituality seem to have a much higher visibility than in western Europe. ...
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This article explores the significance of religious/spiritual approaches to existential issues in psychotherapy in Norway, with its secular, Western-European society. A content analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with psychologists who are experienced in the intersection of psychotherapy and religion/spirituality confirms the perceived therapeutic benefit of addressing religion/spirituality. Participants reported “sacred moments” in therapy and the significance of religion/spirituality for their therapeutic identities. Religious/spiritual self-disclosure and ethical borders emerged as challenging topics. As core competencies, the interviewees named existential sensitivity, self-reflection, and self-disclosure management. The article discusses what is needed to create safe spaces for existential/religious/existential issues in secular psychotherapy.
... The idea of a resurgence of religion in international affairs since the 1970s, and especially after 9/11, is commonly accepted (Berger, Davie, and Fokas 2008), even if it remains a secondary variable (Hassner 2011). Religion is re-established on the diplomatic agenda on two occasions: when dangerous religious forces escape the control of one country and require cooperation with other states; and in cases where religion can be mobilised to promote the common public international good (humanitarian and development projects, human rights campaigns, transitional justice efforts, etc.) (Shakman Hurd 2012). ...
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In the last decade, freedom of religion or belief (FoRB) emerged as part of the European Union’s (EU) agenda in two ways: first, through attempts of its institutionalisation as a full-fledged diplomatic issue by the European External Action Service; and, second, as a bone of contention in EU internal affairs through its instrumentalization by national leaders, such as Hungarian Prime Minister, Viktor Orbán, who advocated for ‘Christian religious freedom’ as a rallying cry for identity politics. Our research question is twofold: whether FoRB has turned from a legal principle to a value likely to shape political conflicts; and to what extent the developments around FoRB in the realms of law and external affairs are connected to its uses in domestic EU politics. Using various qualitative methods (discourse analysis; interviews, media analysis) and drawing on a selection of relevant data (case-law, policy reports and recommendations) we trace the manifestations of FoRB across different policy sectors. Our findings suggest that no cross-cutting ‘politics of religious freedom’ is likely to appear in the EU. Looking at the broader picture, this article contributes to the scholarship on the interactions between politics and religion in the EU and on the latter’s quest of legitimation.
... O foco do estado da arte na Europa patenteia o excecionalismo europeu (Berger, Davie & Fokas, 2008). Com efeito, a análise dos impactos das medidas governamentais torna-se mais relevante num continente onde persiste um padrão de separação com cooperação entre Estado e religiões e, por consequência, um espírito de diálogo, negociação e permanentes (re)definições do espaço público e simbólico de ambos. ...
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This paper analyses the impact of restrictions on religious freedom, caused by the state of a health emergency, related to the COVID-19 pandemic, during the first period of lockdown in Portugal. Against the theoretical backdrop of the secular age and secularism, this research allows for the interpretation of the place of religion in societies marked by cultures of secularity through a qualitative, hypothetical-deductive, analysis. It concludes that the normalization of the subordination of religious values and practices to those of the political sphere, highlighted by the hierarchization of essential and non-essential activities, and its promotion through selfsecularity empties the presence of religion in the public sphere and helps the development of a culture of secularity.
... While this study confines itself to British Catholicism, these findings suggest a number of implications that go beyond this geographical focus, including for the U.S. Sociologists of religion have, with good reason, historically viewed Britain and the U.S. as contrasts-with vigorous debates over which counts as 'the exceptional case' to the proper socio-religious ordering of things (e.g., Davie 2002;Greeley 2004, pp. 197-214;Berger et al. 2008). This ought not to obscure, however, a significant commonality: linguistically and culturally, for instance, Britain has far more in common with the U.S. than it does with the rest of Europe; and the U.S. is in many ways much 'nearer' to Britain than to most its nearest neighbours (Canada excepted). ...
Article
The attitudes of Catholics in Britain have undergone significant liberalisation on social moral issues across recent decades, whilst the reputation of the Catholic Church has suffered due to public opposition to its traditional teachings on such issues. But there has been comparatively little recent investigation into British Catholics’ views on these debates using surveys aimed at this religious community. This article examines the sources of attitudinal heterogeneity amongst Catholics in Britain on core debates affecting the Catholic Church. The aims are to examine, firstly, which groups within the British Catholic Community are more likely to conform to or to dissent from the Church’s teachings and, secondly, whether the socio-demographic and religious correlates of attitudes vary across different types of issue. This article uses a new, nationally representative survey of Catholic adults in Britain (n = 1823). The survey is used to examine the sources of variation in Catholics’ attitudes towards a range of issues relating to the Roman Catholic Church. These issues relate to the priesthood, personal morality, and sinful behaviours. OLS models are used to assesses the relative impact of socio-demographic, religious socialisation, and religious commitment variables. The findings show that women are consistently more liberal in their views than men. Greater religious commitment is always associated with support for the traditional teachings of the Church. Exploring the sources of attitudinal heterogeneity among Catholics, we provide new insights into the internal dynamics of ‘Britain’s largest minority’. We conclude by discussing the potential effects of increasing ‘nonversion’ for interpreting religious statistics—a topic of relevance beyond the denominational and geographical confines of this study’s explicit focus.
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“The existential” is a concept that many people use albeit associated with different meanings. In order to increase research-based insight into the meaning of “the existential,” we conducted a questionnaire study in Denmark in 2018 in which we asked 1.106 Danes of various age, gender, educational and geographical background about personal associations linked to “the existential.” Factor analysis of the answers resulted in three different groups of meaning: (1) essential meanings of life, (2) spirituality/religiosity and (3) existential thinking. The findings show that “the existential” serves well as an overarching construct potentially including secular, spiritual and religious meaning domains, at least within the European context.
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Secularization is a core concept in the sociology of religion. Using the United States as a case study, I demonstrate that one manifestation of seculariza-tion in the U.S. is rising disaffection from organized religion, particularly among the younger generation. Nevertheless, while religious denominations are losing members and influence, beliefs indicating that unmet demand for revitalized religious institutions are widespread among the citizenry. This paper describes how secularization in the United States has produced three crises afflicting contemporary organized religion. I then discuss how to ameliorate these crises and outline the parameters of a postsecular religious ethos that could recenter religion and religious institutions in public life. W hat are the prospects for religion in a postsecular society? In what ways can religion contribute to a just and equitable public sphere in pluralistic, globally connected nations? In this essay I address these questions from the standpoint of the sociology of religion, using the contemporary United States as a case study. I outline the current state of secularization, assert that contemporary, secularized society cannot adequately meet human existential needs, and theorize about the parameters of a possible postsecular religious worldview that both addresses these needs, and preserves other gains in human flourishing that have occurred alongside secularization. To understand the possibilities of postsecular religion, we must first outline how the process of secularization has circumscribed and compartmen-1 Rick Philips is Associate Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida. He has published widely in the sociology of religious movements, with papers appearing in such venues as Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Nova Religio, and Sociology of Religion. His research centers on the construction and maintenance of religious identity, and on factors contributing to denominational growth and decline.
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This article offers a sociology of religion approach to the study of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) religious freedoms jurisprudence. Specifically, it presents multidisciplinary research conducted on grassroots-level impact of that jurisprudence. That research maps onto the European context North American socio-legal theory which demonstrates that the direct effects of courts, in terms of prompting legal change, entail only a very small part of courts’ potential impact on society and which encourages instead attention to courts’ ‘indirect’ or ‘radiating’ effects, such as influence on how grassroots actors conceive of, talk about, and pursue their rights at the local and national level. Our relevant research in the European context shows how little attention grassroots social actors with a vested interest in religion-related rights are paying to the relevant ECtHR jurisprudence. The article discusses the broader importance of this finding for sociologists of religion.
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This article examines an emerging “community movement” in the national Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland. Emerging from the local level, with links to wider renewal networks across Protestant Churches, the movement consists of a variation of 30–40 worship communities that are based on strong roles for laymen, challenging the traditional models of church life. Many communities are expanding and drawing young adults, in contrast to general developments in the Church. This article asks: What kinds of patterns of participation exist among the members and how are they related to experiences of membership? The results of a quantitative survey (N=529), conducted 2017, revealed three types of participation: “traditional,” “community-oriented” and “experiential.” The main finding is the distinct community process typical to these communities, which is connected to a strong sense of membership, commitment, and contentment, and which is actualized through lay participation. The article sheds light on the developments in a specific Nordic majority church in response to a changing cultural environment.
Article
Este trabalho analisa o impacto das restrições à liberdade religiosa, provocadas pelo estado de emergência sanitária, ligado à pandemia da COVID-19, durante o primeiro período de confinamento em Portugal. Ao partir do marco teórico da era secular e secularidade, esta investigação permite interpretar, através de uma análise qualitativa, hipotético-dedutiva, o lugar da religião em sociedades marcadas por culturas de secularidade. Conclui-se que a normalização da subordinação de valores e práticas religiosas aos da esfera política, evidenciada pela hierarquização de atividades essenciais e não-essenciais, e a sua promoção através da auto-secularidade esvaziam a presença da religião no espaço público e ajudam no avanço de uma cultura de secularidade.
Article
Secularization has been studied for decades by sociologists of religion. Long-running surveys in the United States and Europe show steady generational decline in religious affiliation and participation, and yet this trend has largely been ignored by gerontologists and life course researchers. We examined data from the Health and Retirement Study, hypothesizing between-cohort declines in religious participation. Based on data from a sample stratified by 10-year birth cohorts, we identified variation in patterns of religious involvement from 2004 to 2016. Measures of attending religious services, feeling religion is very important, and having good friends in the congregation show age-graded patterns; older cohorts have a higher level of religiosity than those following them, with only minor exceptions. For all three measures, differences by cohort within waves of data are statistically significant. We confirm, with longitudinal data, the findings of repeated cross-sectional surveys in the United States showing a generational pattern of decline in religiousness. The consequences of this loss of a common social tie for future older cohorts are unknown, since current older cohorts still maintain a high level of religious participation. However, future generations of older adults are likely to be less familiar with social support from religious institutions, and those institutions may be less available to provide such support as the apparently inexorable processes of secularization continue.
Article
Objective In this article, we examine how religious accommodations for Muslim minorities impact subjective well‐being (SWB) among Christian and nonattendee respondents in Western European countries. Methods We apply hierarchal linear modeling and fixed effects regressions on data drawn from the European Social Survey (2002–2008). Results We find that religious accommodations at the country level are negatively associated with lower SWB among both Christian and nonattendee respondents. However, the effect is substantially greater for nonattendees. Conclusion Although the threat and coalition theses are often argued as competing positions, we posit they may be complementary perspectives.
Article
In Western societies, religious heterogamy and its effects on religious socialization outcomes have been interpreted through the lens of secularization. How about China, where religion has been resurging in recent decades? Using data from the 2007 Spiritual Life Survey of Chinese Residents, this study shows that despite China's atheist education system and strict religion policies, having at least one religiously affiliated parent is associated with increased religiosity compared to having two nonreligious parents. Whereas religious heterogamy in the West has a secularizing effect on the next generation, religious heterogamy in secular nations, such as China, has a religionizing effect and contributes to religion's rise.
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The European Court of Human Rights is arguably one of the most important human rights regimes in the world. Though rather slow to engage directly with issues of religion the Court has, in the last quarter century, evolved into an arena where some of the most challenging issues regarding religion are tackled. In the process the ECtHR has communicated powerful messages regarding tolerance and secularism. This contribution offers an exploration of the Court’s case law through which such powerful messages have been communicated and in so doing provides insight into the Court’s precarious navigation of the relationship between tolerance and secularism through its emphasis on the notion of pluralism.
Article
This article examines student engagement with chaplaincy services through a pilot survey administered at a private liberal arts college (n = 1043). Almost half of the respondents reported engagement with campus chaplains, which varied by religious tradition and race. Respondents who had engaged with chaplains were more likely to report integrating spirituality into daily life, feeling supported in wrestling with life’s big questions, and experiencing spiritual growth. They were not more likely to feel they were resilient or could manage stress. The authors encourage researchers to build on the model and findings presented here to identify empirically how chaplaincy services affect students.
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“Atheism and Atheists” In the this chapter, Lorkowski provides relevant data regarding contemporary atheism around the world and particularly in the United States. The author presents numbers and patterns within the population and provides a depiction of the Average American Atheist in profile. Lastly, Lorkowski presents some of the difficulties American atheists face, including their vilification and the Christian leanings of the governments of the United States.
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This book extends the growing body of literature around the role of Islam and Islamic education in the lives of Muslim youth, and the qualities and skills needed to facilitate effective religious education among young people. İt explores Muslim youth within their religious and cultural settings, and it also examines their subjects and problems to bring a critical approach and a new understanding. İt investigates the Muslim identity from different perspectives and considers whether this identity has its roots solely in religion or whether it also emanates from the interplay of a variety of social forces, such as secularism, modernism, and postmodernity. This book is one of the few studies that contributed to the field using Worldview Theory. The importance of this book is enhanced by the fact that in Turkish society most of the challenges in the life of religious individuals have usually been confronted with formal religious considerations such as whether they conform to Islamic proclamations or not. Thus, the findings of the study may contribute to the development of new pedagogy and curriculum in religious education, particularly in secondary schools. The book contributes to the literature about religious education, typology of youths’ worldviews, identity and culture, and advances knowledge that has the potential to create greater social cohesion in Turkey.
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Background While attitudes towards death and dying have attracted much scholarly attention, surprisingly little is known about the practice of visiting cemeteries. According to the secularization thesis, the fate of cemetery visits conforms with declining church attendance. A de-secularization theory suggests that, in the modern world, cemeteries increasingly became spaces for a society of families rather than for a religious community, suggesting that visiting the tombs of the dead might grow alongside secularization. Finally, a ‘civic community’ theory, inspired by Putnam's work, sees cemetery visits as an expression of a social obligation among and across generations rather than a religious activity. Purpose Analyzing one of the least secular countries in Europe, Italy, we attempt to respond to an apparent paradox: Why is the share of people paying tribute to their deceased loved ones at cemeteries in areas of greater secularization higher than in more religious areas? Methods We take advantage of a rich time use dataset from a representative sample of Italian families surveyed in 2013. To test our hypotheses, we run a series of nested logistic regressions for the probability of visiting the cemetery, jointly considering both individual and contextual features. Results Our results confirm that individual religiosity is a pivotal predictor of cemetery visits. Yet, even after controlling for religiosity, the probability of visiting a cemetery remains higher among people living in the more secularized part of the country. Our models show that one important reason for this divide is the different level of civicness, here measured at province level. Hence, net of individual religiosity, the frequency of cemetery visits increases with level of civicness in a community. Conclusions and Implications If religious people visit cemeteries in order to pray for the dead, our results also provide support for the hypothesis that the non-religious people living in civic societies visit cemeteries as way to connect with past generations and with their own communities. Our results are thus consistent with the civicness hypothesis, with the caveat that religion and civicness do not seem to cancel each other out.
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This Afterword focuses on the dynamism of the study of Islam and space in Europe. A comparison with Barbara Daly Metcalf’s Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe (1996) reveals how much has changed in terms of scholarly approach since its publication. In Metcalf’s volume, the frames were migration, mobility and transnational connections. Here, urban diversity, settlement, and secularism are highlighted. Despite a common anthropological focus, today’s authors pay greater attention to theoretical issues, drawing on ideas about space, governance and the everyday to deepen their ethnographies and engage across disciplines. They have the advantage of being able to examine the impact of time and change. Three final questions are raised, on the move from global to local, the role of academic research in societal problem solving, and the study of Islam as a resource for interrogating the “secular” public domain and everyday lived space in Europe.
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This article examines institutional approaches to multifaith chaplaincy across private institutions of higher education. Based on a pilot study of eight nonreligious colleges and universities, the authors identify a continuum of models for multifaith chaplaincy. At one end of this continuum, universities facilitate access for chaplaincy affiliates they do not pay; at the other end, universities employ staff chaplains. The authors find that smaller institutions and those historically affiliated with a religious group tend to employ more staff chaplains. Chaplaincy models affect how deeply chaplains and affiliates are involved on campus and the possibilities for interfaith engagement.
Book
The book "Hostility to religion. Warnings from the Supreme Court of the United States" contains legal analysis of SCOTUS jurisprudence of the First Amendment's religious freedom cases emphasizing the relation between concepts of hostility and neutrality toward religion
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Collective worship has been a compulsory part of the school day in England and Wales since the 1944 Education Act. This legal requirement states that all schools in England and Wales must perform daily acts of worship that are ‘wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character’ for all of the students in attendance (ERA 1988, s7). This requirement covers all community, voluntary and foundation schools in England and Wales, with Scotland and Northern Ireland also having their own legal requirements about worship and religious observance in school. This legal requirement has resulted in much confusion and controversy, with many questioning the suitability and appropriateness of worship in school. However, often missing from such debates are the voices and perspectives of children. Although the debates surrounding collective worship all circulate around the needs and rights of children, very rarely do we get a sense of their own experiences regarding such matters. This chapter draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted as part of a project investigating collective worship in schools and explores how children, both religious and non-religious, experience worship in schools. To begin with, I sketch out a brief history of the history of collective worship in UK law and demonstrate the issues and disputes that have long followed this legal requirement. Following on from this, I discuss some of the findings from my research and illustrate the interrelation between religion and non-religion across my field sites and how children experienced this during collective worship. Using data which foregrounds the agency of children, I then offer some thoughts on how we might rethink the nature of religion and non-religion in schools and suggest attending to children’s experiences so we might move beyond some of the adult-centric assumptions which dominate this area. Crucially, by attending to the perspectives of children, we can observe how children understand and encounter religion and belief in such spaces and how schools negotiate the tricky terrain of providing inclusive assemblies for children of all faiths and none while adhering to a legal requirement of collective worship.
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An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to find studies on mortality rates among clergy. A total of twelve studies, published between 1959 and 2000, were identified that examined mortality among American and European clergy. All but one of the reports found lower all-cause death rates for clergy compared to the people in general population of similar age. Protestant ministers consistently were found to have more than a 25% mortality advantage in various studies. Catholic nuns had a mortality advantage of roughly 20%–25%, whereas the mortality advantage of Catholic priests was just over 10%. Possible factors contributing to the lower death rates of clergy are discussed.
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Churches as essential components of European culture have major significance for European integration. A Europe, bound by common constitutional traditions, cultures and traditions of its Member States, their national identity and the principle of subsidiarity, will have to respect the deep-rooted systems of State and Church relationships in its Member States. The volume presents in its third edition a broad comparison of different systems of State and Church relationships in the Member States of the European Union. It includes the new Member States and gives an account of the new developments throughout Europe. The volume shows the implications of European integration on the position of the Churches. It is of interest to all working in the field of State-Church relationship as well as to public and church institutions. The volume has been produced in association with the European Consortium for State-Church Research. The authors are experts in the field from the different Member States of the European Union, presenting the relevant systems of their home countries. The editor is a former professor at the University of Trier.
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I An Overview of Congregations 1 Congregations in Society 2 The Historical Development of American Congregations II Congregations Involvement: Empirical Findings 3 The Congregations in Our Study 4 Congregational Involvement I: Areas of Involvement 5 Congregational Involvement II: Characteristics of Service and Financial Value 6 Which Congregations Tend to Get Involved 7 Comparing Neighbors: Canada and the U.S.A. III Congregations for Society: Additional Studies 8 Small-Town Congregations: The Case of Council Grove, Kansas 9 Mediating Structures: The Greater New Orleans Federation of Churches 10 Social Ministry in the Community: The Case of St. Gabriel's Episcopal Church and Urban Bridges IV Concluding Remarks 11 Volunteerism and Organized Religion 12 Why and How Congregations Get Involved in Service Delivery 13 The Congregational Norm of Community Involvement 14 The Broader Perspective: Congregations for Society and Beyond
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Cet ouvrage retrace l'histoire de la laïcité en France depuis la Révolution, en donnant des éléments de comparaison avec d'autres pays et en rectifiant les erreurs souvent commises quand on évoque le passé de la laïcité française.
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This volume represents an attempt in integrating a wide range of theoretically relevant issues into the identification and analysis of church-state patterns. Each chapter focuses on the analysis of a particular theme and its role in shaping, and/or being shaped by, church-state relations.
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This book examines the new religious pluralism and the challenges it poses for democratic societies on both sides of the Atlantic. What are the contours of this new religious pluralism? What are its implications for the theory and practice of democracy? Does increasing religious pluralism erode the cultural and social foundations of democracy? To what extent do different religious communities embrace similar - or at least compatible-ethical and political commitments? By seeking answers to these questions, this book offers a revealing look at the future of religion in democratic societies. The book offers a structured conversation about the social and political implications of the new religious pluralism.
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This chapter has three sections. The first discusses the conceptual difficulties arising from the study of religious pluralism and democracy, drawing on the work of James Beckford - particularly his discussion of religious pluralism as social construct. The second examines the study of new religious movements and the questions that such movements raise for democracy. The third section discusses the growing faith communities in Europe and the gradual process of accommodation, or otherwise, as these communities become part of their chosen societies. The British case is developed in some detail, with the French and Dutch cases offering points of comparison.
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For people living in U.S. cities, social services come not only from the government but increasingly also from local religious communities. Ever since the Clinton administration's welfare reform, faith-based institutions, and especially congregations, have been allowed to bid for federal funds for their programs. In The Other Philadelphia Story, drawing on the first-ever census of congregations in any American city, Ram Cnaan and his colleagues provide an authoritative account of the functioning of congregations, their involvement in social services, and their support of other charitable organizations. An in-depth study of 1,392 congregations in Philadelphia, the book illuminates how these groups function as community hubs where members and neighbors alike gather throughout the week. Cnaan's findings show that almost every assembly of parishioners emphasizes caring for others, even if the help is modest. Thus American congregations uphold an implicit but strong norm of social responsibility and work to improve the quality of life for members and nonmembers alike. Many of the problems associated with urban life persist in the face of governmental inaction, and the burden of responsibility cannot be shouldered entirely by congregations. However, in a city such as Philadelphia, where half the residents are regular attenders of religious congregations, hopes for urban improvement are largely to be found in these local groups. Special focus is given in the book to kinds of care that often go unnoticed: volunteerism, provision of refuge, and informal assistance to community members in need. All told, Cnaan asserts, congregations are an essential component of Philadelphia's civil society. Without them, the quality of life would deteriorate immeasurably.
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This chapter shows that one of the most significant consequences of the new global patterns of transnational migration has been a dramatic growth in religious diversity in the United States and Western Europe. The new immigrant religions, however, present significantly different challenges of integration in Christian/Secular Europe and in Judeo- Christian/Secular America due to the different histories of immigration and modes of immigrant incorporation, the different patterns of religious pluralism, and the different types of secularism in both regions. Religion in the United States constitutes a positive resource insofar as religious associations and religious collective identities constitute one of the accepted avenues for immigrant incorporation and for mutual group recognition in the public sphere of American civil society. In Europe, by contrast, secularist world views and various institutional patterns of public recognition through different forms of churchstate relations make the incorporation of immigrant religions in the public sphere of European civil societies a more contentious issue.
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One of the most consistent findings in the sociology of religion is that women tend to be more religious than men. Surprisingly, given its universality, there are relatively few attempts to explain this phenomenon empirically. This article examines the extent to which gender differences in religious orientation can be attributed to the structural location of women in society. Three explanations to account for gender variations in religion are tested: (1) the child-rearing role of females, (2) lower levels of female work force participation relative to males, and (3) differing attitudes toward work and its relationship to family values. The analysis uses the nationally representative data collected in Australia in 1983 to show that the child-rearing role and differing attitudes toward work do not account for the greater religiousness of women. By contrast, the lower rate of female work force participation is an important explanatory factor. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed.
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In western societies influenced by Christianity, women are more religious than men on virtually every measure. If religion is rooted (as Marx suggested) in economic vulnerability, can the religiosity of women be explained by economic or social circumstances? Or what about the vulnerability of the physical body - can women's religiosity be explained by their greater contact with birth and death? If modernity entails the progressive eradication of all kinds of vulnerability, what might this mean for the future of religion in general and of women's religiosity in particular? And what further twists to the story might postmodernity add? The article uses these questions as a frame for reviewing the literature on women's religiosity in the modern West.
Book
This book aims to provide new insights on the religious and spiritual lives of American teenagers. It presents the main findings of the National Study of Youth and Religion, a research project on the religious and spiritual lives of American adolescents conducted at the University of North Carolina from 2001 to 2005. The survey captured a broad range of differences among U.S. teens in religion, age, race, sex, socioeconomic status, rural-suburban-urban residence, region of the country, and language spoken. The book provides answers to questions about the character of teenage religion, the extent of spiritual seeking among youth, how religion affects adolescent moral reasoning and risk behaviors, and much more. It is hoped that by informing readers about the religious and spiritual lives of American teenagers, it will help foster discussions in families, religious congregations, community organizations, and beyond, not only about the general state of religion in the United States, but also about cultural and institutional practices that may better serve and care for American teens.
Book
As Western society becomes increasingly multicultural in character, schools must reassess the provision of religious education and look at how they might adapt in order to accommodate students' diverse experiences of plurality. This book offers a critical view of approaches to the treatment of different religions in contemporary education, in order to devise approaches to teaching and learning, and to formulate policies and procedures that are fair and just to all.
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This chapter examines the concept of vicarious religion, that is, the notion of religion performed by an active minority but on behalf of a much larger number, who (implicitly at least) not only understand but approve of what the minority is doing. The first part of the chapter offers multiple examples of vicarious religion in practice. The second part examines the sociological methodologies that are most likely to elicit data appropriate to this field. The chapter ends with a brief consideration of how vicarious religions might evolve in the foreseeable future and a short note on the American case. Following 9/11, this phenomenon of European religion may begin to resonate more widely.
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Two wise books by French authors take a critical look at France's tradition of America-bashing and try to explain its persistence.
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This paper examines the thesis that the lower participation of women in the workforce (cf. men) helps explain their greater commitment to institutional religion in America. (exemplified by their more regular church attendance). Using NORC data from 1972-80 this thesis is rejected. Rather it is the low church attendance of men not in the full time labor force that helps accentuate the sex related differences in church attendance.
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It has long been assumed in sociology that gender differences in religiousness are a product of differential socialization. Yet, there is little empirical support for this assumption. To address this gap in the literature, this study draws on an extensive investigation of the relationship between differential socialization and differential religiousness. Using the American General Social Surveys and the World Values Survey, this article analyzes the relationship between traditional gender attitudes and gender differences in religious beliefs and behavior. Surprisingly, these data show no relationship between the two. Therefore, a new set of hypotheses based on an alternative model involving risk preference is proposed. Results strongly support this new approach. Women are more religious than men to the extent that being irreligious constitutes risk-taking behavior. This model is able to predict differential religiousness in a wide variety of religious and cultural settings. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Religion is a costly human activity that has evolved over the millennia. Why does it exist and how does it foster such powerful allegiances? To undertake a serious scientific study of religious practices and attitudes we must set aside a traditional exemption from scrutiny which religions have enjoyed. Religious adherents may not welcome this attention, but we should press ahead with it, since if we don't come to understand religion as a natural phenomenon, our attempts to deal with the problems that loom in the twenty-first century will likely be counterproductive.
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Theorists of "secularization" have for two centuries been saying that religion must inevitably decline in the modern world. But today, much of the world is as religious as ever. This volume challenges the belief that the modern world is increasingly secular, showing instead that modernization more often strengthens religion. Seven leading cultural observers examine several regions and several religions and explain the resurgence of religion in world politics.Peter L. Bergeropens with a global overview. The other six writers deal with particular aspects of the religious scene: George Weigel, with Roman Catholicism;David Martin, with the evangelical Protestant upsurge not only in the Western world but also in Latin America, Africa, the Pacific rim, China, and Eastern Europe;Jonathan Sacks, with Jews and politics in the modern world;Abdullahi A. An-Na'im, with political Islam in national politics and international relations;Grace Davie, with Europe as perhaps the exception to the desecularization thesis; andTu Weiming, with religion in the People's Republic of China. "
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carefully protected from the methods of anthropology and sociology used in the study of modern religious movements. The question can be turned around. Why have methods applied to the study of ancient sources - Formgeschichte, Redaktionsgeschichte, Ueberlieferungsgeschichte, or just plain Geschichte-not been focused on contemporary scholarship? I recently had occasion to work through the transmissionhistory of one of the classical proof-texts of American civil religion, and found the territory remarkably like that of the Bible and church fathers where I usually roam. I had reached a point in writing an article at which President Eisenhower's famous/notorious remark about "wanting everybody to have faith but not caring what it was" would make a neat transition. I was tempted to leave it at that, since the general thrust of the remark was all I needed, and I had heard it referred to often enough to be confident that I had got its gist. But I decided that a footnote would lend a certain cachet to the article, so I went in search. The various dictionaries of quotations (Bartlett's 14th ed., Oxford 3rd ed., etc.) were no help. I remembered hearing a friend mention the Eisenhower remark and asked if he recalled where he had seen it. He thought it was probably in Ahlstrom, and sure enough it was. This is what we read in Ahlstrom: "In all of these modes, religion and Americanism were brought together to an unusual degree. This was especially true of the 1950s, when President Eisenhower served for