Ductility of Cross-Sections

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Ductility of cross-sections, especially in flexure, is the key to good performance of structure for seismic effects. This chapter is focused on provision an understanding of the factors that lead to good ductility, especially those of reinforced concrete sections. The definition and development of action–deformation curves especially moment–curvature ( M−ϕ M − ϕ ) curve is extensively discussed. The procedure to generate the moment–curvature curve, using the general formulation of axial–flexural response developed in Chapter 3, Axial–Flexural Response of Cross-Sections, is demonstrated. Various factors such as confinement, rebar distribution, and axial load effect on the ductility are shown through examples. The ductility of concrete-filled tuber is presented as special case. The use of moment–curvature curve to compute various section response parameters is also explained through equations and examples.

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... It is well known that the load-deflection curve exhibits the entire behaviour of the structural member from initial loads to the final loads or initial deformation to final deformation. The shape of the load-deflection curve depends on many factors including cross-section geometry, material properties, slenderness and load application [44]. In this study the load-deflection response of particleboard after peak ultimate strength is different from other timber floorboards which can be attributed to relatively lower strength and stiffness properties of particleboard compared with other timber floorboards. ...
Lightweight flooring system made up of cold-formed steel joist, and timber floorboard is widespread but the benefits of composite action that arise due to the interaction of top flange of cold-formed steel joist and the bottom surface of timber floorboard as a result of mobilising the shear connection are not considered in their design. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was developed and validated against the experimental results for cold-formed steel and particle board flooring system. The validated numerical model was used for parametric studies to investigate the influence of various factors that affect the structural behaviour of the composite flooring system. The results from the parametric studies showed that higher strength and stiffness values of engineered timber product, as well as their increased thickness, enhances the moment capacity and stiffness of the flooring system. The reduction in the spacing of the cold-formed steel joist was found to increase the stiffness and hence the load-carrying capacity of the flooring system. The high strength to weight ratio of cold-formed steel flooring system is also demonstrated in this study. A simplified design method is proposed herein to predict flexural capacity of composite beams taking into account for the composite action. The finding in this study indicates that the design and construction of composite cold-formed steel and timber flooring system should be subjected to availability of the engineered timber product in the region, and the choice of timber floorboard thickness and joist spacing can be based on the ultimate strength and serviceability requirements of the flooring systems to make it cost-effective.
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