Response and Design of Column Cross-Sections

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This chapter is focused on response and design of column cross-sections. It starts with discussing some of the complexities involved in analysis and design of columns and provides a basic introduction of key concepts related to slenderness, buckling, and slenderness ratio. It discusses the role of boundary conditions on slenderness and provides guidelines about when and how second-order effects can be considered in design process for columns. It also provides an overview of column design approaches as prescribed in ACI and BS codes. Various practical design considerations and guidelines for proportioning and detailing of RC columns are also included.

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... Leonhard Euler [43] developed the theory of the critical buckling load in 1757, which defines the maximum load at which the straight columns retained their structural integrity without inducing a buckling response, i.e., without inducing any lateral forces. Euler's theory applies to the evolution of cross-sectional design, from dense-walled shapes to hollow-walled geometries. ...
... Both concepts equally apply to hollow-walled lattice struts and should be considered as an alternative to the aspect ratios discussed above. Euler's theory [43], represented by Eq. (23) to ...
... • Concerning theories that are expected to accurately quantify the influence of geometric parameters upon mechanical properties for hollow-walled lattices, the formulations of the Euler and Johnson models require further investigation [43,49]. These theories should be assessed in detail with experimental data in the hollow-walled lattice field to establish the optimum analysis technique. ...
The rapid growth of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has enabled the emergence of geometrically sophisticated materials or structures with tailored and/or enhanced mechanical responses. In addition to dense-walled lattice structures, innovation within the past decade has identified that hollow-walled lattice topologies exhibit the multifaceted potential of competitive strength and rigidity, whilst displaying unique deformation behaviours, indicating that they may be an important subsequent step in lattice evolution. Hollow-walled sections facilitate density and geometrical parameters well below what is achievable by dense-walled sections, providing additional hierarchies of architecture at micrometre to even nanoscale proportion. Their wall thickness can range from 20 nm to 800 µm while the relative density can span three orders of magnitude between 0.01% and 30%. Despite nearly a decade of research into hollow-walled lattice topologies, no meta-analysis exists to provide an informative overview of these structures. This research addresses this deficiency and provides a data-driven review of hollow-walled lattice materials. It elucidates how these hollow-walled lattices deviate from the current limitations of dense-walled lattices and the underlying mechanisms that dictate their performance, with data accumulated from an exhaustive collection of literature sources. A range of new insights into their design and manufacture is discussed for their future research and applications in different engineering fields.
... The traditional approach for designing the MCSRS is mainly based on the results of cross-section sampling. After the central location of the railway station is determined, cross-sections perpendicular to a baseline are inserted in the design according to distributions of railway facilities [5]. Based on these cross-sections, design work is conducted whose result is treated as the basis for further design and future construction of the railway station. ...
The BIM modeling of Multi-Component Subgrade in a Railway Station (MCSRS) suffers from an inefficient manual approach due to its specific features and absence of a data standard. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) has been widely used for describing various components in the building industry while its current version fails to depict an MCSRS. In this study, the IFC is extended to describe the geometric information and hierarchy for an MCSRS, based on which an automatic workflow for converting the original design data to the corresponding 3D BIM model complying with IFC standard is developed. To validate the methodology, a real-world case is used for testing the modeling result, in which several different modeling cases between two cross-sections are examined. The results show that the BIM modeling for an MCSRS is greatly accelerated compared with the manual modeling approach and can be used as a cross-platform tool.
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