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Stress: Concepts, Definition and History

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Abstract

Stress has a different meaning for different people under different conditions. The first and most generic definition of stress was that proposed by Hans Selye: “Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand.” Selye's generic definition is applicable to the stress response in all three phylogenetic domains of organisms ranging from bacteria to man. Other definitions have evolved to cater for different situations–for example, cognitive. This article explores the basis for these definitions and their validity, and outlines the neuroendocrine mechanisms that subserve the stress response. The concept of homeostasis, “stability through constancy” as the main mechanism by which the body copes with stress, has given way to allostasis, “stability through change” brought about by central neural regulation of the set points that adjust physiological parameters to meet the stressful challenge. Also reviewed briefly are relatively new stress concepts based on (1) genetic and epigenetic factors that may determine individual susceptibility to stress, and (2) the fact that fetal malnutrition may predispose individuals to the metabolic syndrome (obesity, hypertension, dislipidemia, and diabetes type 2) that has reached epidemic proportions.

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... Stress may be defined as a set of changes that occur in the body as a physical response to repeated stimuli. 1 These stimuli, also denominated stressors, can report all the external factors or situations that trigger stress. It has been corroborated that not all stress scenarios are necessarily harmful to the individual, since it is likely that a situation or condition that may be stressful for one subject does not have the same effect on another. ...
... In Tables 4-6, the different mean and standard deviation values are shown. It was decided to separate data in three intervals ( [1,10], (10,20] and (20,40] s) because the proper method makes this clustering after analyzing ANOVA differences. As explained before, the simplest values that increased the performance of the classifier and decreased the simulation time were selected. ...
... Let us interpret the results in terms of the F1score metric for each of the intervals. In the interval [1,10] s (see Table 4), there are sub-optimal results. For a linear kernel, the F1-score is around 59%. ...
Article
Early detection of stress condition is beneficial to prevent long-term mental illness like depression and anxiety. This paper introduces an accurate identification of stress/calm condition from electrodermal activity (EDA) signals. The acquisition of EDA signals from a commercial wearable as well as their storage and processing are presented. Several time-domain, frequency-domain and morphological features are extracted over the skin conductance response of the EDA signals. Afterwards, a classification is undergone by using several classical support vector machines (SVMs) and deep support vector machines (D-SVMs). In addition, several binary classifiers are also compared with SVMs in the stress/calm identification task. Moreover, a series of video clips evoking calm and stress conditions have been viewed by 147 volunteers in order to validate the classification results. The highest F1-score obtained for SVMs and D-SVMs are 83% and 92%, respectively. These results demonstrate that not only classical SVMs are appropriate for classification of biomarker signals, but D-SVMs are very competitive in comparison to other classification techniques. In addition, the results have enabled drawing useful considerations for the future use of SVMs and D-SVMs in the specific case of stress/calm identification.
... Stress was first defined by in 1936 by Hans Selye, a pioneering endocrinologist from Hungary (Rochette and Vergely, 2017), as: "the non-specific response of the body to any demand." (Fink, 2009). Selye's subsequent stress experiments started the conversation about stress and its effect on the body (Rochette and Vergely, 2017). ...
... Selye's definition was quite narrow, placing a clear emphasis on only the biological aspects of stress. This has led to different definitions being used depending on context -behavioral scientists define stress as the perception of threat with resulting anxiety or discomfort (Fink, 2009), while neuroendocrinologists define it as any stimulus that triggers the secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids (Miller and O'Callaghan, 2002). In the context of this manuscript, stress is defined as any event that disrupts homeostasis, resulting in the release of hormones to return the body to homeostasis. ...
... Stress is biologically associated with several disorders and related health problems. The industry standard for diagnosis of mental disorders (DSM-V) recognizes two stress-related disorders: Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Fink, 2009;Bakhshian et al., 2013). Biologically, ASD and PTSD are associated with increased levels of cortisol and abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis while being very different in their psychological severity (Bakhshian et al., 2013;Marin et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The stress response allows the body to overcome obstacles and prepare for threats, but sustained levels of stress can damage one’s health. Stress has long been measured through physical tests and questionnaires that rely primarily on user-inputted data, which can be subjective and inaccurate. To quantify the amount of stress that the body is experiencing biologically, analytical detection of biomarkers associated with the stress response recently have been developed. Novel stress sensing devices focus on cortisol sweat sensing as a part of wearable, flexible devices. These devices promise a real-time, continuous collection of stress data that can be used in clinical diagnoses or for personal stress monitoring and mediation.
... In the modern world, stress is believed to be a part of everyday life and might be regarded as a culprit for a great number of acute and chronic health disturbances [1]. There are numerous definitions of stress, and stress has a different meaning for different people under different conditions [2]. ...
... The first and broadest definition is the one given by Hans Selye, the "father of stress", who says "Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand". In behavioral sciences, stress is regarded as the "perception of threat, with resulting anxiety discomfort, emotional tension, and difficulty in adjustment," while in terms of neuroendocrinology, stress can be defined as any stimulus that provokes a release of cortisol [2]. Regardless of what the definition of stress is, no one can overlook the immense impact of stress on human health and daily functioning [1]. ...
... An integral part of the response to stress includes the activation of stress neural circuits, which link several brain regions involved in basic sensory and motor functions for perception and motor response to a stressful challenge, respectively, as well as more intricate autonomic, neuroendocrine, cognitive, and behavioral activities [4]. Major roles are played by the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenocortical axis (HPAA) which are acting as afferent and efferent signaling pathways connecting the stress impute with the rest of the body [2]. Initial exposure to stressor activates the alarm reaction resulting in sympathetic discharge and an increased secretion of glucocorticoids [2,5]. ...
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Both oxidative and psychological (mental) stress are the likely culprits for several acute and chronic health disturbances, and adequate tests mimicking that are needed. Herein, in controlled laboratory surroundings, a PEBL (Psychology Experiment Building Language) test battery was used to evoke stress-related biological responses followed by tracking changes in saliva parameters. The study objectives were to determine the impact of psychological stress on selected salivatory parameters and to assess the correlation between the determined oxidative and stress parameters. The study was conducted on 36 healthy young subjects, mainly females (n=24). Before and following the completion of a battery of four PEBL tests, subjects’ saliva samples were collected. Stress-evoking changes in total antioxidant capacity and nitrite/nitrate levels, as oxidative stress parameters, and cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA), as parameters of psychological stress, were established and mutually correlated by comparing the values of the evaluated parameters pre- and post-PEBL test. The results showed that there is no change in the total salivary antioxidant capacity (p>0.05); however, there was a significant increase in nitrites/nitrates levels after the PEBL test (p=0.007). On the other hand, the determined cortisol levels after the test battery were found to be statistically significantly increased (p=0.025) when compared to the values obtained before the test, while the levels of IgA were found to be statistically significantly decreased (p
... Stress itself has been dubbed the "health epidemic of the 21 st Century" by the world health organization. 1 The resident service committee of the association of program directors in internal medicine divided determinants of stress as situational, personal and professional. 2 The situational stress determinant include: (1) inordinate, inflexible time, fatigue, and sleep deprivation (2) excessive workload (3) burdensome clerical and administrative responsibilities (4) insufficient Department of Neurology, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia allied health personnel (5) too many difficult patients, and (6) inadequate learning environment. ...
... Personal determinant due to family problems can include: (1) Responsibilities between home, family, and work; conflict between family and work, and (2) conflict with spouse or families. ...
Article
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Stress/burnout on resident physicians is common. Various determinants can be related to resident stress. This systematic review was conducted to determine how situational, personal, or professional determinants influence resident stress. We identified an English and Indonesia articles using online database including PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Google Scholar, Garba Rujukan Digital (GARUDA), and manually searching bibliographies of the included studies from January 01, 2001 until April 30, 2021. Three main search terms included are resident physician, determinant, and stress/burnout. Study selection included was peer-reviewed literatures of observational studies that discuss about stress determinants on residents from various year of training and medical specialties. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adopted for cross-sectional studies. Data extraction conducted by 3 authors. All pooled synthesis were summarized based on narrative methods. Fifty-three cross-sectional, 1 prospective, and 1 combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies meet our inclusion criteria (n=29.031). Fifty-one percent are male, and the average age of the participants was 29 years old. The most stress/burnout validated tool used are Maslach Burnout Inventory. The average quality of study was moderate for cross-sectional studies. The main identified determinant was situational, the second was personal, and the latter was professional. The most stressor identified was ‘excessive working time per week, includes night shift, on-call, work on day off, and rotation more than 24 hours.’ Stress/burnout on residents closely related mainly to situational, followed by personal, and less by professional determinants. There was needed for an intervention to the educational program from institution in the future for better accomplishment.
... In his further work [2] Selye claimed that stress is an inseparable part of human daily life because it is associated with different types of issues people struggle with such as surgical trauma, burns, emotional arousal, mental or physical effort, fatigue, pain, fear, the need for concentration, the humiliation of frustration, the loss of blood, intoxication with drugs or environmental pollutants. This phenomenon can also accompanying life changing positive events as basically it can be considered as the mobilisation reaction of the organism to external (being fired or promoted) and internal (worrying about the loss of job or waiting for the promotion) threats and challenges [3]. During stress reaction nervous system releases stress hormones such as adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol. ...
... The main reasons given are employment and money [7]. Recently, World Health Organization (WHO) has named stress as the "Health Epidemic of the 21st Century" [3]. A first line treatment of excessive stress and its consequences is psychotherapy, which can be accompanied by bilateral stimulation for example in EMDR therapy. ...
Article
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The goal of this research is to integrate Virtual Reality (VR) with the bilateral stimulation used in EMDR as a tool to relieve stress. We created a 15 minutes relaxation training program for adults in a virtual, relaxing environment in form of a walk in the woods. The target platform for the tool is HTC Vive, however it can be easily ported to other VR platforms. An integral part of this tool is a set of sensors, which serves as physiological measures to evaluate the effectiveness of such system. What is more, the system integrate visual (passing sphere), auditory (surround sound) and tactile signals (vibration of controllers). A pilot treatment programme, incorporating the above mentioned VR system, was carried out. Experimental group consisting of 28 healthy adult volunteers (office workers), participated in three different sessions of relaxation training. Before starting, baseline features such as subjectively perceived stress, mood, heart rate, galvanic skin response and muscle response were registered. The monitoring of physiological indicators is continued during the training session and one minute after its completion. Before and after the session, volunteers were asked to re-fill questionnaires regarding the current stress level and mood. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of variability over time: before, during and after the session.
... O estresse tem sido referido pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) como uma epidemia do século XXI, sendo associado a efeitos devastadores na saúde física e emocional das pessoas ao redor do mundo (FINK, 2017). ...
... Se houver continuidade da exposição, e se a mesma for compatível com a adaptação, os recursos da reação de alarme desaparecem e desenvolve-se resistência. Contudo, a exposição prolongada ao estressor pode resultar em exaustão, com perda da capacidade adaptativa, deterioração e morte (FINK, 2017). ...
Article
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O cuidado intensivo e/ou emergencial condiciona a equipe de enfermagem a estresse associado a instabilidade clínica e imprevisibilidade da atuação. Burnout envolve esgotamento profissional. Entretanto, indivíduos hardy se comportam de forma mais saudável frente ao estresse. Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar a presença de estresse, burnout ou de hardiness em profissionais de enfermagem atuantes em cuidado intensivo e/ou emergencial. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por método descritivo e quantitativo, em que profissionais de enfermagem responderam a instrumentos validados de avaliação do nível de estresse no trabalho, presença de burnout e de perfil hardy. Os resultados evidenciaram baixo nível de estresse nos diferentes setores de atuação avaliados. Apesar disso, foram identificados Burnout e perfil não-hardy. Este estudo poderá contribuir para reflexões de gestores e profissionais envolvidos em educação continuada/permanente acerca de estratégias para o manejo do estresse entre os profissionais de enfermagem, condição particularmente relevante para o momento atual da pandemia da COVID-19, com intensificação de sobrecarga de trabalho e adoecimento dos profissionais de saúde.
... Stres, herhangi bir uyarana karşı vücudun göstermiş olduğu genel bir tepkidir (Selye, 1956 Stres, vücudun bilişsel, kimyasal ve bağışıklık işlevlerini olumsuz etkileyerek insanların biyolojik sisteminin dengesini bozabilen tehditkar bir uyarandır (Russell ve Lightman, 2019). Yoğun veya kronik stresin, insanların ruhsal ve fiziksel sağlığı üzerinde yıkıcı etkileri olabilmektedir (Fink, 2017). ...
... İşe bağlı stres, insanların bilgi ve yetenekleriyle eşleşmeyen ve başa çıkmakta zorlandıkları iş talep ve baskılarına verebilecekleri tepkidir (Dünya Sağlık Örgütü [DSÖ], 2019). İş taleplerini karşılamada yetersiz olduğunu hisseden çalışanların stres düzeyleri artmakta ve buna bağlı olarak çalışanlarda kalp krizi, hipertansiyon, obezite, bağımlılık, kaygı ve depresyon gibi sağlık sorunlarında da artış görülmektedir (Fink, 2017). ...
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Öz: Fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik risklerde olduğu gibi psikososyal riskler de çalışanların sağlığı için ciddi bir tehdittir. Hizmet sektörü çalışanları tarafından yoğun kullanılan duygusal emek, gerekli önlemler alınmadığında çalışanların ruh sağlığı için tehlike arz etmektedir. Araştırmalar, duygusal emeğin bir türü olan yüzeysel rol yapmanın yoğun kullanımının çalışanların psikolojik sağlığını bozduğunu ve çalışanları tükenmişliğe ittiğini göstermektedir. Duygusal emeğin diğer türleri olan derinlemesine rol yapma ve doğal duyguların ise çalışanların iyilik haline olumlu katkı sağladığını belirtmektedir. Ancak bu iki duygusal emek türü yoğun kullanıldığında, yoğun duygusal çabaların sonucunda strese bağlı çalışanların sağlığı olumsuz etkilenebilmekte ve çalışanlarda tükenmişlik sendromu gibi rahatsızlıklar yaşanabilmektedir. Bu araştırmada, derinlemesine rol yapma ve doğal duyguların kullanımı esnasında örgütsel desteğin önemi üzerinde durulmaktadır. Daha iyi bir çalışma ortamı yaratan ve iyilik halini artırabilen örgütsel desteğin çalışanlara sağlanması ile derinlemesine rol yapma ve doğal duyguların yoğun kullanımından kaynaklı gerçekleşebilecek ruhsal ve fiziksel sağlık sorunlarının önemli ölçüde önlenebileceği savunulmaktadır. Ayrıca yüzeysel rol yapmanın çalışanlarda yarattığı olumsuzluklar nedeniyle asgari düzeyde kullanılması gerektiği vurgulanmaktadır. Abstract: As with physical, chemical, and biological risks; psychosocial risks are a serious threat to employee health. Emotional labor, which is used extensively by service sector employees, poses a danger to their psychological health if necessary precautions are not taken. Studies show that the intense use of surface acting, which is a type of emotional labor, impairs the psychological health of employees and pushes them to burnout, whereas deep acting and natural emotions, which are other types of emotional labor, contribute positively to their well-being. However, when these two types of emotional labor are used intensively, the health of employees due to stress can be negatively affected as a result of intense emotional efforts and employees may experience diseases such as burnout syndrome. This research focuses on the importance of organizational support during in deep acting and the use of natural emotions. It is advocated that the mental and physical health problems caused from the intensive use of deep acting and natural emotions can be prevented by providing organizational support to employees that creates a better working environment and improves well-being. It is emphasized that surface acting should be used at a minimum level due to the negative effects of employees.
... Pekerjaan merupakan salah satu efek yang paling banyak menyebabkan stres pada kalangan dewasa. 1 Stresor adalah faktor-faktor yang mengakibatkan terjadinya respon stres dalam kehidupan manusia. Jenis stresor yang dialami para remaja dan anak-anak usia sekolah antara lain adalah stresor yang berasal dari tekanan di sekolah maupun di perkuliahan. ...
... 3 Penelitian lain di lampung meyebutkan prevalensi tingkat stres yang paling banyak pada mahasiswa tingkat awal adalah stress sedang 59,2%, dan pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir juga pada stres sedang 47%. 4 Stres dapat berdampak pada tubuh berupa peningkatan resiko serangan jantung, hipertensi, obesitas, ansietas, depresi dan gangguan lainnya karena adanya perubahan hormon selama stres berlangsung. 1 Hormon yang terstimulasi pada saat stres adalah adrenalin dan kortisol. Hormon-hormon tersebut memiliki efek metabolik terhadap karbohidrat, lipid dan protein dengan meningkatkkan mobilisasi simpanan energi tubuh. ...
... Notably, molecular omics characterization has been adopted in clinical settings to measure allostatic load, whereby multiple biomarkers indicative of physiological dysregulation are used in combination to represent the cumulative burden of stress (Fava et al., 2019). Similarly to exposure, there are multiple interpretations of stress in different disciplines (Fink, 2016;Mason, 1975;Selye, 1975). It was recently posited that the most generic definition (''stress is the non-specific response of the body to any demand'') (Selye, 1976) could be unassailable by disregarding ''non-specific'' (Fink, 2016). ...
... Similarly to exposure, there are multiple interpretations of stress in different disciplines (Fink, 2016;Mason, 1975;Selye, 1975). It was recently posited that the most generic definition (''stress is the non-specific response of the body to any demand'') (Selye, 1976) could be unassailable by disregarding ''non-specific'' (Fink, 2016). Therefore, the measurement of allostatic load (stress) can be viewed as a characterization of the (physiological) responses following contact between stressors (external factors) and a biological entity over a defined time-period. ...
Article
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The exposome concept encourages holistic consideration of the non-genetic factors (environmental exposures including lifestyle) that influence an individual’s health over their life course. However, disconnect between the concept and practical application has promoted divergent interpretations of the exposome across disciplines and reinforced separation of the environmental (emphasizing exposures) and biological (emphasizing responses) research communities. In particular, whilst knowledge of biological responses can help to distinguish actual (i.e. experienced) from potential exposures, the inclusion of endogenous processes has generated confusion about the position of the exposome in a multi-omics systems biology context. We propose a reattribution of ‘exposome’ to exclusively represent the totality of contact with external factors that a biological entity experiences, and introduce the term ’functional exposomics’ to denote the systematic study of exposure-phenotype interaction. This reoriented definition of the exposome allows a more readily integratable data set for multi-omics and systems biology research.
... Occupational work is inherently stressful, and workplace stress is more on the rise than ever. According to the world health organization, stress has been dubbed as the "Health Epidemic of the 21st Century" (Fink, 2017). A recent global survey commissioned by The Regus Group, which included 1,000 corporations across 15 countries, also shows similar indications. ...
Conference Paper
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The software industry is considered to be a growing industry worldwide but with a high propensity to cause stress reactions among employees due to its demanding and technology-driven nature. As a human capital-intensive industry, too much of stress on employees can also create a negative impact on the quality of work. Thus, organizations take numerous initiatives at both individual and organizational levels to address this problem. One area of concern is the use of ICT supported occupational stress management interventions. In Sri Lanka, the dominant ICT occupation today is software engineer, and there is a national awareness of mental health issues due to occupational stress. Thus this study aims to investigate current practices used to frame employees' well-being inside software organizations in Sri Lanka, and to understand Sri Lankan software companies' viewpoints of using ICT supported occupational stress management interventions through the lens of human resource (HR) managers. Ten HR managers were interviewed covering eight software companies. Through thematic analysis, we identified three main themes and multiple subthemes. Results revealed various types of individual level and organizational level strategies, policies and practices implemented to create a healthy work setting for the employees. Findings also show that the HR managers had limited knowledge and experiences of ICT supported occupational stress management interventions. Nevertheless, they appreciated the immediate possible benefits of ICT interventions and demonstrated the willingness to adopt them in their organizations. Moreover, they revealed several functional requirements and feature sets they would like to see in such applications to better support their employees. Therefore, this study can possibly provide insights for researchers and practitioners who are to design and develop ICT supported interventions to manage occupational stress, to promote well-being and healthy organizations.
... In fact, an individual's physiological and psychological response, assessed by different stress biomarkers or questionnaire items, could be correlated with several positively, as well as negatively, connoted stimuli. Koolhaas et al. [9] argued that the term "stress" should be restricted to situations of uncontrollability or unpredictability of stimuli which however, must be restricted to "psychological stress" and is not true for so called "physical stress" [10][11], which can be defined as a loss of homeostasis induced by physical not psychological conditions. Examples of such uncontrollable situations in school are examinations, testimonials, increased mental loads or prolonged social pressure [12][13]. ...
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Education outside the classroom (EOtC) can be beneficial for students. The relationship between biological stress markers and sedentary behavior (SB) plus physical activity (PA) is insufficiently evaluated in school settings. This exploratory study aims to evaluate the association between students' cortisol, plus circulating cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA) levels, and their SB, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) during outdoor and indoor classes in different seasons. We assessed data from an education outside the classroom (EOtC) program (n = 48; intervention group [IG], n = 37; control group [CG], n = 11). We sampled data on 3 school-days in three seasons (fall, spring, and summer) in normal teaching indoors (CG) and outdoor lessons (IG) in the forest. SB and PA were evaluated by accelerometry, and cortisol and cfDNA levels by saliva samples. The compositional data analysis approach analyzed SB and PA. Fitted Bayesian hierarchical linear models evaluated the association between cortisol and cfDNA, and SB/LPA/MVPA. A steady decline of cortisol in the outdoor setting is associated with relatively high levels of LPA. SB and MVPA tended to exhibit a similar effect in the indoor setting. CfDNA is positively associated with a relatively high amount of SB in the IG, the same association is likely for LPA and MVPA in both groups. LPA seems to support a healthy cortisol decrease in children during outdoor lessons. The relevance of SB/PA as a composition in relation to students stress response in school should be emphasized. This study facilitates the formulation of straightforward and directed hypotheses for further research.
... No significant association was observed between perceived stress levels and any other socio-demographic data (age, gender, residence status, financial status, the program of study, employment prospects) among the undergraduates (Table 2). Stress has been defined as the imbalance of physical, mental, and social well-being; thus, it can be considered to affect the health of a person (Fink, 2017). Further stress affects a person's productivity either by increasing it (eustress), resulting in optimal performance or decreasing it (distress), leading to poor performance and underachievement (Kumar, Sharma, Gupta, Vaish, & Misra, 2014). ...
Article
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Nearly 80% of students in higher education worldwide experience psychological stress during their university life due to various stressors. Stress among students can be viewed as the body’s reaction, both neurologically and physiologically, to adapt to new conditions. Stress can lead to poor academic performance and underachievement among students. The present study assessed the levels of perceived stress, general self-efficacy, and their association with socio-demographic factors among a selected group of undergraduates at a higher educational institute. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using stratified random sampling among 393 undergraduates. The data were collected through the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and a questionnaire to determine the socio-demographic factors. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23. The mean age of the sample (n=393) was 22.36±2.33 years. The results showed a mean perceived stress score of 20.72±4.96, indicating moderate perceived stress. The majority of the participants (79.4%) had moderate perceived stress, followed by high stress (12.7%) and low stress (7.4%). There was no significant difference between the stress levels of male and female students. No significant association was observed between perceived stress and socio-demographic factors assessed (age, gender, civil status, residence status, financial status, the program of study, employment prospects) using the chi-squared test. Spearman correlation showed a statistically significant negative correlation between perceived stress levels and general self-efficacy (p<0.001, r = -0.293). Intervention strategies to reduce perceived stress and to improve general self-efficacy should be implemented among the undergraduates. Further studies are needed to understand the factors contributing to stress and their interrelations among undergraduate students. Keywords: Perceived stress, General self-efficacy, Higher education
... It is a state of mind where an individual have faced unpredictable challenges and struggle to deal with such challenges that might linked with personal, job, financial crisis, environmental factors, cultural adaptation and so on, (Fink, 2016). ...
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Advanced education system and globalization are attractive towards the students to move a foreign country for achieving higher education. Indonesia is a multicultural and multi-linguistic country where every year hundreds of students coming to get higher education in Masters and PhD in various disciplines of education which are taught in Indonesian language. There are number of students joining Universitas Airlangga for the purpose of higher education on different programs. The current investigation defines the problem of language barrier is causing of stress in regard of academics among international students. There were 70 international students contributed in current study. The study finds 68% of participants suffering with the stress of language barrier in academics for international students. The findings of current study indicated the mainstream of international students experiencing in adopting the language barrier which is becoming the cause of stress for them. This study also suggested to the administrative stack-holders of Universitas Airlangga to pay attention this issue and need to overcome this major problem by organizing some events within the campus with local students. Such recommendations will help to cope this issue among international students by learning in a lenient and practical way.
... No significant association was observed between perceived stress levels and any other socio-demographic data (age, gender, residence status, financial status, the program of study, employment prospects) among the undergraduates (Table 2). Stress has been defined as the imbalance of physical, mental, and social well-being; thus, it can be considered to affect the health of a person (Fink, 2017). Further stress affects a person's productivity either by increasing it (eustress), resulting in optimal performance or decreasing it (distress), leading to poor performance and underachievement (Kumar, Sharma, Gupta, Vaish, & Misra, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly 80% of students in higher education worldwide experience psychological stress during their university life due to various stressors. Stress among students can be viewed as the body’s reaction, both neurologically and physiologically, to adapt to new conditions. Stress can lead to poor academic performance and underachievement among students. The present study assessed the levels of perceived stress, general self-efficacy, and their association with socio-demographic factors among a selected group of undergraduates at a higher educational institute. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using stratified random sampling among 393 undergraduates. The data were collected through the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and a questionnaire to determine the socio-demographic factors. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23. The mean age of the sample (n=393) was 22.36±2.33 years. The results showed a mean perceived stress score of 20.72±4.96, indicating moderate perceived stress. The majority of the participants (79.4%) had moderate perceived stress, followed by high stress (12.7%) and low stress (7.4%). There was no significant difference between the stress levels of male and female students. No significant association was observed between perceived stress and socio-demographic factors assessed (age, gender, civil status, residence status, financial status, the program of study, employment prospects) using the chi-squared test. Spearman correlation showed a statistically significant negative correlation between perceived stress levels and general self-efficacy (p<0.001, r = -0.293). Intervention strategies to reduce perceived stress and to improve general self-efficacy should be implemented among the undergraduates. Further studies are needed to understand the factors contributing to stress and their interrelations among undergraduate students.
... As such, the word stress is used liberally across scientific disciplines, albeit in varying contexts (Cohen et al. 2013). Stress, a nebulous concept prior to Selye's research, is such a ubiquitous reality in the twenty-first century that today the word is found in all languages (Fink 2017). ...
Chapter
Climate change affects people’s lives in a variety of ways, including psychological well-being, which is the mix of social and psychological conditions that contribute to human welfare. Climate changes can result in physical stress to socioemotional challenges, which affect this well-being. Physical challenges may arise as heat waves sweep across populations, causing discomfort and anxiety as people are unable to adapt. Socioemotional effects may surface as stress, anxiety, and depression as people suffer from environmental changes that are out of their control. Mental health is an aspect of health that needs to be better understood when it comes to climate change, as millions of people are likely to suffer from the consequences related to it. This is yet again another outcome related to climate change; this chapter seeks to comprehensively gather and understand how mental health and well-being will be affected by climate change and how best to support these changes in affected populations.
... Beside pain, stress is another global health problem [6]. The maladaptive responses of stress [7] result in bad mood, reduced sense of well-being, and negative health outcomes [8]. ...
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The pain- and stress-reducing effects of music are well-known, but the effects of visual art, and the combination of these two, are much less investigated. We aim to (1) investigate the pain- and (2) stress-reducing effects of multimodal (music + visual art) aesthetic experience as we expect this to have stronger effects than a single modal aesthetic experience (music/ visual art), and in an exploratory manner, (3) investigate the underlying mechanisms of aesthetic experience, and the (4) individual differences. In a repeated-measures design (music, visual art, multimodal aesthetic experience, control) participants bring self-selected “movingly beautiful” visual artworks and pieces of music to the lab, where pain and stress are induced by the cold pressor test. Activity of the pain and stress responsive systems are measured by subjective reports, autonomic (electrocardiography, electrodermal activity, salivary alpha-amylase) and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol).
... It is striking that SDH and SDMentH did not differ significantly in the consideration of stress. Because although stress is equivocally defined (99), it is widely agreed that stress is a phenomenon of appraisal and perception (100,101). The prominent role stress takes in the analysed SDH-literature therefore contrasts with findings regarding "perception and appraisal, " because perception-and appraisal-processes were not explicitly elucidated to play an important role in the SDH context. ...
Article
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Background Many health research policies invoke the construct of Social Determinants of Health, and more recently the construct of Social Determinants of Mental Health. While frequently referred to in the literature, it is unclear how these constructs relate to each other. Some commentators conceptualise the Determinants of Mental Health as a subgroup of the Determinants of general Health and others describe the Determinants of Mental Health as an autonomous construct. The current review investigates the relationship between both constructs. Methods Comprehensive literature searches were conducted for both constructs separately within seven electronic databases. A template analysis was conducted to compare the conceptualisations of the Social Determinants of Health and the Social Determinants of Mental Health. Results Of 4250 search results, 50 papers (25 for each construct) fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were incorporated into a narrative synthesis. Discussions of the Social Determinants of both general and Mental Health listed the same determinants. Both constructs were conceptualised on multiple levels and factors. Stress and health behaviour were also described as mediators for both constructs. The constructs differed, however, with respect to two components of their aetiologies and epistemologies. First, the causal mechanisms invoked for the Determinants of general Health followed predominantly direct pathways, in contrast to indirect pathways for the Social Determinants of Mental Health. Second, the Social Determinants of Mental Health were reported to influence mental health mediated through individuals’ perceptions and appraisal processes. Appraisal processes were considered of far less relevance in the construct of Social Determinants of Health. Conclusion The constructs of Social Determinants of Health and Social Determinants of Mental Health align in many respects but differ on important aetiological and epistemological grounds. Similar social factors are considered important, but whereas physical health conditions are primarily conceptualised to be driven by objective realities, mental health is explained mainly in terms of perception of these realities. This differentiation between physical and mental health is in line with a modern understanding of mind-body-dualism, the naturalistic dualism after Chalmers. Differentiating the Social Determinants of Mental Health from the Social Determinants of Health might bear relevance for policy making and research.
... Stress occurs when individuals are in circumstances that throw off their balance, causing disorders that impede one's ability to adapt healthily (Peters, McEwen, & Friston, 2017). Hugo Bruno "Hans" Selye, also known as the "father of stress," stated that "stress is the non-specific response of the body (or cell) to any demand would appear appropriate" (Fink, 2017). Stress can be related to physical, psychological, or sociocultural factors. ...
Article
Mental health is one of Indonesia’s public health development goals. The Pangandaran District Administration of West Java is an expanded district that actively carries out various development programs, including mental health programs. This study aimed to identify public knowledge about mental health in Pangandaran District using quantitative descriptive method. The research population comprised residents of the Pangandaran District, and a sample was collected via cluster multistage sampling technique. The sample was gradually determined in the order of subdistricts, villages, subvillages, community units, and neighborhood units. The total sample was composed of 113 respondents. The questionnaire was developed based on theories and concepts on public mental health and distributed to participants after validity and reliability tests were conducted. The construct validity test result was between 0.303 and 0.764, which meant that all items were valid. The Kuder-Richardson 20 formula was used to test reliability, and the reliability coefficient was 0.887. Mathematical calculations were used for data analysis; data are presented as frequency distributions. In this study, 61.10% of the respondents had “less” knowledge, 33.59% had “good” knowledge, and the remaining 5.30% had “enough” knowledge of mental health. The results suggest that the local government should provide mental health education for the residents. For educational institutions, mental health programs should be a fundamental offering in Indonesian society. Abstrak Pengetahuan Masyarakat tentang Kesehatan Jiwa Kabupaten Pangandaran, Jawa Barat, Indonesia. Sehat secara mental merupakan bagian dari tujuan pembangunan kesehatan masyarakat. Pemerintah Kabupaten Pangandaran merupakan kabupaten pemekaran yang sedang menggalakkan berbagai program pembangunan termasuk program kesehatan jiwa. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi pengetahuan masyarakat Kabupaten Pangandaran mengenai kesehatan jiwa. Metode penelitian menggunakan deskriptif kuantitatif. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh masyarakat Kabupaten Pangandaran dan sampel diambil menggunakan tehnik cluster multistage sampling. Tahapan penetapan sampel dilakukan bertahap mulai dari kecamatan, desa, dusun, rukun warga, sampai rukun tetangga dan didapat sebanyak 113 orang. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner dan dibagikan pada seluruh responden. Kuisioner dikembangkan dari teori dan konsep kesehatan jiwa masyarakat dan sudah dilakukan uji validitas dan reliabilitas. Uji validitas konstrak didapatkan hasil berkisar antara 0,303 sampai 0,764 sehingga semua item dinyatakan valid. Uji reliabilitas menggunakan uji Kuder Richardson 20 dan diperoleh koefisien reliabilitas KR-20 sebesar 0,887. Analisa data menggunakan perhitungan matematis dan ditampilkan dalam bentuk tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 61,10% responden kurang memiliki pengetahuan mengenai kesehatan jiwa, 33,59% responden memiliki pengetahuan mengenai kesehatan jiwa yang baik, dan sisanya 5,30% responden memiliki pengetahuan mengenai kesehatan jiwa yang cukup. Saran, bagi pemerintah setempat agar memberikan pendidikan kesehatan jiwa bagi masyarakat. Bagi instansi pendidikan, diharapkan menjadi data dasar dalam membuat program kesehatan jiwa di masyarakat. Kata kunci: Jawa Barat, kesehatan jiwa, kesehatan masyarakat, Pangandaran, pengetahuan masyarakat
... Most of the previous studies do not corroborate the results we have obtained insofar as they state that stress does not positively influence innovative behaviour (e.g., ref. [1,[98][99][100]. However, reference [28] refer that stress factors stimulate innovative behaviour as long as under specific and ideal conditions, which was also found in our study, and may be explained by the fact that we are studying nurses who, in themselves, are already usually innovative professionals even more so in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, in which it is necessary to innovate to overcome the difficulties experienced in the daily life of these professionals. ...
Article
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Since 2019, the world has been experiencing a pandemic period due to the COVID-19 virus, which has brought the need for organizations in general, healthcare organizations and their professionals in particular, to focus on innovation as a way to fight an utterly unknown virus. Thus, this study aims to understand how nurses and their personal factors (stress, anxiety, work engagement, organizational support) impact their innovative behaviour and innovation outputs, contributing to innovation in the current pandemic period through changes in thoughts, values, behaviours and relationships among healthcare professionals and their organizations. For this purpose, the Job Demands-Resources model was used as a reference, and the measurement instrument was applied to 738 nurses working in healthcare units in Portugal. Therefore, it was found that the nurses’ personal factors have a positive effect on the nurses’ innovative behaviour and innovation outputs, with the innovative behaviour having the most significant impact on innovation outputs, which will benefit healthcare organizations and the healthcare provided to patients during the pandemic, through innovative behaviours and products. It is also possible to understand how the available resources and the demands imposed on nurses interfere with their innovative behaviour (Job Demands-Resources model).
... Stress is a form of perceived threat JMIR Form Res 2021 | vol. 5 | iss. 9 | e25615 | p. 1 https://formative.jmir.org/2021/9/e25615 (page number not for citation purposes) with anxiety causing discomfort, emotional tension, and difficulty adjusting [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) was used on a study in China to understand the frequency of anxiety and depression. Individuals in the 18-30 years age group and over 60 years showed high CPDI rates. During the outbreak and impact of the virus, people were expected to maintain their mental health conditions especially stress, therefore the government actively published health promotion media to educate the public. One of the media developed by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia was a poster titled "Avoid Stress and Stay Optimistic by Doing Daily Activities and Keep Maintaining Distance". Objective: Conduct a test on the "Stress management recommendation" poster using pretesting communication theory. Methods: The study was carried out by conducting in-depth interviews. The number of key informants was 8 informants and 1 graphic design expert. Results: Pretesting can identify the strengths and weaknesses of a media. The large number of words and lack of illustrations made the poster less attractive to readers. There was a discrepancy between the title and content of the poster. The poster has not been able to persuade informants to change their behavior in the near future. Conclusions: The poster was understood and accepted by the informants, but there was still much to be improved considering the poster was a product of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. Clinicaltrial:
... Stress, the body's response to any demand, was labeled the "Health Epidemic of the 21st Century" and was estimated to cost Americans $300 billion annually (Fink, 2017). Stress is associated with travel. ...
Article
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Introduction Transportation is an integral part of our daily lives, giving us access to people, education, jobs, services, and goods. Our transportation choices and patterns are influenced by four interrelated factors: the land use and built environment, infrastructure, available modes, and emerging technologies/disruptors. These factors influence how we can or choose to move ourselves and goods. In turn, these factors impact various exposures, lifestyles and health outcomes. Aim and methods We developed a conceptual model to clarify the connections between transportation and health. We conducted a literature review focusing on publications from the past seven years. We complemented this with expert knowledge and synthesized information to summarize the health outcomes of transportation, along 14 identified pathways. Results The pathways linking transportation to health include those that are beneficial, such as when transportation serves as means for social connectivity, independence, physical activity, and access. Some pathways link transportation to detrimental health outcomes from air pollution, road travel injuries, noise, stress, urban heat islands, contamination, climate change, community severance, and restricted green space, blue space, and aesthetics. Other possible effects may come from electromagnetic fields, but this is not definitive. We define each pathway and summarize its health outcomes. We show that transportation-related exposures and associated health outcomes, and their severity, can be influenced by inequity and intrinsic and extrinsic effect modifiers. Conclusions While some pathways are widely discussed in the literature, others are new or under-researched. Our conceptual model can form the basis for future studies looking to explore the transportation-health nexus. We also propose the model as a tool to holistically assess the impact of transportation decisions on public health.
... Stress can cause a lot of things and the most it can do to a person is causing the person to commit suicide. Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had the highest score on the measures of suicide risk, anger, and impulsivity and the lowest scores on social support [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. This research is centered on how to handle stress to avoid this kind of repercussion. ...
Conference Paper
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The development of the interactive video based on motion graphic is to spread awareness to the people about the appropriate ways to handle stress. This is because many people face stress in daily life, but they do not know the correct way to manage and handling the stress. An interactive based on motion graphic used as the medium due to easy to understand and able to attract the patient’s attention. The model used to develop this product is Alessi and Trollip Model. The model contains 3 phases which are planning, design and development phase. Alpha test is conducted to test the effectiveness of the product and to make sure that the objectives of the project are achieved. The test is conducted by interviewing a multimedia expert, a content expert and 5 users which are students that reside at Kolej Kediaman Tuanku Fauziah (PFi2). The results obtained from conducting this test were positive as the feedback from the users suggests that the information given in this video is relevant and useful thus, help them to manage their stress. In this research, interactive multimedia learning based on motion graphic is effective toward the improvement of people to manage their stress in digital format.
... S tress is described as the 'epidemic of the 21st century' by the World Health Organization (Fink, 2017). Hans Selye defined stress as a 'non-specific response of the body to any demand for change' in the 1920s (Selye, 1936). ...
Article
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Research question Does chronic stress affect the key proteins and sperm parameters of the blood–testis barrier (BTB)? Design C57Bl/6 mice were divided into two groups: a non-treated control group and a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) applied group. The stress status of the animals was confirmed with behavioural tests. Histopathologic evaluation was conducted by haematoxylin and eosin staining and electron microscope. Malondialdehyde, corticosterone and testosterone levels were evaluated in peripheral blood. Expression levels of BTB proteins, namely zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-11 (CLDN11) and clathrin in Sertoli cells, were assessed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. Sperm samples were collected from cauda epididymis, and sperm parameters analysed. Results The stress model was confirmed by behavioural tests. Histopathological evaluation of the testes demonstrated a mild degeneration in seminiferous tubules. Malondialdehyde (P = 0.008) and corticosterone levels increased (P = 0.004) and testosterone levels decreased (P = 0.005) in the CUS group. Electron microscopic evaluation confirmed the damage in BTB integrity in the CUS group. Western blot analysis showed that ZO-1 and CLDN11 levels were significantly decreased, although clathrin levels were unchanged. Although sperm concentration and total motility rate were not significantly different between the groups, progressive motility (P = 0.03), normal sperm morphology (P = 0.04), chromatin integrity (toluidine blue) (P = 0.002) and the acrosomal reaction rate (P = 0.002) were significantly decreased, and acrosomal abnormality rate was dramatically increased (P = 0.04) in the CUS group. Conclusions In mice, CUS disrupted BTB integrity and impaired sperm parameters. A decrease in ZO-1 and CLDN11 expression levels may be proposed as the causative factor.
... Kenyataan yang dikeluarkan oleh Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO), masalah tekanan di tempat kerja menjadi antara kebimbangan utama kepada tahap kesihatan individu dan diklasifikasi sebagai epidemik kesihatan menjelang abad ke-21 (Fink, 2016). Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia turut menyuarakan kebimbangan terhadap fenomena yang berlaku dengan kemungkinan lebih ramai rakyat Malaysia akan berdepan dengan masalah kesihatan mental seperti kemurungan dan tekanan di tempat kerja disebabkan oleh pelbagai faktor persekitaran (Mallow, 2016). ...
Article
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Tekanan kerja merujuk kepada tindak balas atau reaksi fisiologi dan psikologi terhadap situasi atau keadaan persekitaran organisasi yang dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor dalaman dan luaran sehingga mewujudkan rangsangan negatif terhadap tahap kesihatan dan tingkah laku individu. Kajian ini dijalankan adalah bagi menentukan hubungan faktor tingkah laku pelajar, kekangan masa, beban tugas dengan tekanan kerja guru yang mengajar di kawasan bandar dan luar bandar di Sabah. Kajian juga bertujuan bagi mengenal pasti perbezaan tahap tekanan kerja berdasarkan ciri demografi iaitu lokasi sekolah dan jantina guru. Seramai 350 orang guru telah dipilih bagi mewakili populasi dengan menggunakan kaedah pensampelan rawak berstrata dan rawak mudah. Instrumen kajian diadaptasi daripada Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) yang dbina oleh Boyle, Borg, Falzon dan Baglioni (1995) dan Fimian (1988). Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa kesemua faktor pemboleh ubah yang dinyatakan mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan tekanan kerja. Selain itu, dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan guru yang mengajar di kawasan bandar dan luar bandar masing-masing mengalami tahap tekanan kerja yang rendah, manakala guru perempuan dilihat lebih berisiko mengalami tahap tekanan kerja yang tinggi berbanding guru lelaki.
... The 21st century has been popularly known as the "age of stress". Stress has also been dubbed the "Health Epidemic of the 21 st Century" by the World Health Organization and is estimated to cost American businesses up to $300 billion a year [3]. The effect of stress on our emotional and physical health can be devastating. ...
Article
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Stress has become a matter of concern in the present post-globalization world which has brought in enormous changes in the ways organizations work, the professionals’ work-style and pattern, extended working hours, meeting deadlines, added roles and responsibilities, role overload and ambiguities; and cultural and technological changes. Researchers have demonstrated a gender variation with respect to coping with role stressors or stressful life events. Golpelwar [1] finds that Indian women professionals suffer from a role stress typically termed as “Role boundedness”, a result of wanting “to be everything for everybody”. The present descriptive research work, probably one of the first on the issue, highlights the importance of “hardiness” - a stress resilient personality disposition [2] - in coping with “role boundedness” and shows a relationship between role boundedness and hardiness in women professionals indicative of the protective mechanism of hardiness in coping with role boundedness.
... Stress, the body's response to any demand, has been labeled the health epidemic of the 21st century and estimated to cost Americans $300 billion annually (Fink, 2017). Stress is associated with travel. ...
Technical Report
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Transportation has been linked to several adverse health impacts, with a large, but modifiable, burden of disease. In this work, researchers conceptualized and documented the linkages between transportation and health. Following that, the researchers quantified the impacts of transportation on health in a case study in Houston, Texas, that focused on premature mortality attributable to three pathways: air pollution, noise, and motor vehicle crashes. Researchers found that the pathways linking transportation to health include some that are beneficial, such as when transportation serves as means for social connectivity, independence, physical activity, and access. Some pathways link transportation to detrimental health outcomes from air pollution, road travel injuries, noise, stress, urban heat islands, contamination, climate change, community severance, and restricted green space, blue space, and aesthetics. Researchers defined each pathway and summarized its health outcomes as they occur in the literature and showed that transportation-related exposures and associated health outcomes, and their severity, can be influenced by inequity and intrinsic and extrinsic effect modifiers. In Houston, the researchers estimated 302 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 185–427) premature deaths were attributable to transportation-related noise, compared to 330 fatalities from motor vehicles, 631 (95 percent CI: 366–809) from PM2.5, and 159 (95 percent CI: 0–609) from NO2. Transportation-related noise and motor vehicle crashes were responsible for 1.7 percent and 1.9 percent of all-cause premature deaths in Houston, respectively. The estimated premature death rate attributable to transportation-related noise was comparable to the death rate caused by suicide, influenza, or pneumonia in the United States. PM2.5 was responsible for 7.3 percent of all-cause premature deaths, which is higher than the death rate associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, or motor vehicle crashes in the United States. Households with lower median income had a higher risk of adverse exposure and premature deaths. Researchers also showed a positive relationship between health impacts attributable to air pollution and road traffic passing through census tracts, which was more prominent for NO2. Although some of the pathways linking transportation and health are widely discussed in the literature, others are new or under-researched. This conceptual model can form the basis for future studies looking to explore the transportation-health nexus.
... Furthermore, biomarkers allow continuous monitoring of stress levels. Many different biological markers of stress have been identified such as heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, skin conductance, and many more (for an extensive overview, see : Fink, 2017;Shields & Slavich, 2017). Even though many of these methods are highly effective in determining one's stress levels, they are often costly, requiring the attachment of electrodes (e.g., electrocardiography; ECG) or the extraction of a blood or saliva sample, and demanding since they generally require interaction with a physician or expert and specialized apparatus to collect the data. ...
Article
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Recently, the possibilities of detecting psychosocial stress from speech have been discussed. Yet, there are mixed effects and a current lack of clarity in relations and directions for parameters derived from stressed speech. The aim of the current study is – in a controlled psychosocial stress induction experiment – to apply network modeling to (1) look into the unique associations between specific speech parameters, comparing speech networks containing fundamental frequency (F0), jitter, mean voiced segment length, and Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR) pre- and post-stress induction, and (2) examine how changes pre- versus post-stress induction (i.e., change network) in each of the parameters are related to changes in self-reported negative affect. Results show that the network of speech parameters is similar after versus before the stress induction, with a central role of HNR, which shows that the complex interplay and unique associations between each of the used speech parameters is not impacted by psychosocial stress (aim 1). Moreover, we found a change network (consisting of pre-post stress difference values) with changes in jitter being positively related to changes in self-reported negative affect (aim 2). These findings illustrate – for the first time in a well-controlled but ecologically valid setting – the complex relations between different speech parameters in the context of psychosocial stress. Longitudinal and experimental studies are required to further investigate these relationships and to test whether the identified paths in the networks are indicative of causal relationships.
... Psychological stress has been dubbed "the health epidemic of the 21st century" by the World Health Organization (Fink, 2017). Psychological stress is classically defined as "a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being" (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). ...
Article
Work is reported as a major source of psychological stress. Because of its role in the onset of burnout and its impact on economic and health systems, work stress (WS) has become an issue of great concern. Two categories of physical activity, namely leisure-time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (LTPA and MVPA), show promising evidence for reducing WS. Previous findings suggest that LTPA and MVPA allow adults to experience psychological detachment from job demands and to restore their depleted resources at work. However, doses of LTPA and MVPA associated with WS have not been established. This study aimed to address this gap using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 4200 workers. Generalized additive models indicated that one hour a day, on average, spent doing an LTPA of 8.5 metabolic equivalents-hour (METs-hour) was associated with the lowest WS level (p < 0.001, Adjusted R2 = 0.04) while the optimal daily dose of MVPA was around 90 min (p < 0.001, Adjusted R2 = 0.04). A reduction in WS occurs even with low doses of physical activity, aligning with the tenet that getting some physical activity is better than none. This study’s findings offer quantitative insights for guiding health policies as well as future longitudinal and experimental studies.
... The ''General Adaptation Syndrome'' proposed by Selye was a pioneer framework describing a uniform stress response characterized by three phases: a nonspecific mobilization phase, which promotes sympathetic nervous system activity; a resistance phase, during which the organism attempts to cope with the threat; and an exhaustion phase, which occurs if the organism fails to overcome the threat and depletes its physiological resources (Selye, 1936). While the mechanistic concept of neuroendocrine control of the pituitary-adrenal humoral axis proposed by Selye has been expanded and has been generally validated (Miller, 2018), his perception of the stress response as uniform has been disputed over the past decades (McEwen and Stellar, 1993;Fink, 2017). The idea behind the stress response has evolved from the notion of restoring the system to its original setting to the concept of allostasis, in which the stressful experience is incorporated to form a new homeostatic and dynamic set-point to generate a physiological equilibrium and development (McEwen and Stellar, 1993). ...
Article
Stress is an essential adaptive response that enables the organism to cope with challenges and restore homeostasis. Different stressors require distinctive corrective responses in which immune cells play a critical role. Hence, effects of stress on immunity may vary accordingly. Indeed, epidemiologically, stress can induce either inflammation or immune suppression in an organism. However, in the absence of a conceptual framework, these effects appear chaotic, leading to confusion. Here, we examine how stressor diversity is imbedded in the neuroimmune axis. Stressors differ in the brain patterns they induce, diversifying the neuronal and endocrine mediators dispatched to the periphery and generating a wide range of potential immune effects. Uncovering this complexity and diversity of the immune response to different stressors will allow us to understand the involvement of stress in pathological conditions, identify ways to modulate it, and even harness the therapeutic potential embedded in an adaptive response to stress.
... Stress is a form of perceived threat JMIR Form Res 2021 | vol. 5 | iss. 9 | e25615 | p. 1 https://formative.jmir.org/2021/9/e25615 (page number not for citation purposes) with anxiety causing discomfort, emotional tension, and difficulty adjusting [7]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) is a self-report questionnaire developed to evaluate the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms among individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. A recent study in China showed high CPDI scores among individuals in the 18-30 years age group and those over 60 years. During the COVID-19 outbreak, people were expected to maintain their mental health conditions, especially stress levels. Therefore, many national governments actively published health promotion media in an effort to educate the public. One such media developed by the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, was a poster titled “Hindari Stres dan Tetap Optimis dengan Melakukan Aktivitas Sehari-hari dan Tetap Menjaga Jarak.” OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to conduct a test on a stress management recommendation poster developed by the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, in response to the COVID-19 outbreak by using pretesting communication theory. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted among 8 key informants and 1 graphic design expert. RESULTS Pretesting can identify the strengths and weaknesses of media. The large amount of text and the lack of illustrations made the poster less attractive to readers. Moreover, there was a discrepancy between the title and contents of the poster. The poster was not able to persuade the informants to change their behavior in the near future. CONCLUSIONS The poster was understood and accepted by the informants, but there was still much to be improved considering the poster was a product of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia.
... Stress is a major risk factor for serious illness. With adverse effects on various bodily organs, stress can impact student's mental as well as physical and emotional well-being [15]. Since maintaining a balanced lifestyle is key to productivity and success, academic advising services often promote time management as an effective way to cope with stress [26]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students' mental health in higher education while capturing their perceptions and attitudes towards time management. The aim was to examine relationships between stress, anxiety, and specific time management related factors. Considering possible differences between genders and degree levels, we developed five structural equation models (SEMs) to delineate these relationships. Results of a large-scale study of 502 participants show that students suffered from stress and two types of COVID-19-related anxiety: disease and consequences. Students' preference for organization was the only factor that significantly promoted their perceived control over time, which contributes to reducing stress, hence, anxiety. However, female students reported higher stress and anxiety levels than male students. Graduate students reported higher anxiety levels related to the consequences of the pandemic compared to undergrads. To promote students' preference for organization, we map the three categories of organization to corresponding persuasive strategies which could be used in the design of persuasive interventions. This creates an opportunity for developing technological interventions to improve students' perceived control over time, thus, reduce stress and anxiety.
... The stress response may have a genetic and epigenetic origin, reflected in the efficiency of the GC receptor (GR)-mediated GC negative feedback in the brain and/or the pituitary gland that causes HPA axis hyperactivity [2,11,31]. To address whether and which changes produced the chronic presence of stressors, we decided to evaluate two main epigenetic marks: DNA methylation and histone acetylation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired glucocorticoid (GC) signaling is a significant factor in aging, stress, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, the study of GC-mediated stress responses to chronic moderately stressful situations, which occur in daily life, is of huge interest for the design of pharmacological strategies toward the prevention of neurodegeneration. To address this issue, SAMP8 mice were exposed to the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm for 4 weeks and treated with RL-118, an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitor. The inhibition of this enzyme is linked with a reduction in GC levels and cognitive improvement, while CMS exposure has been associated with reduced cognitive performance. The aim of this project was to assess whether RL-118 treatment could reverse the deleterious effects of CMS on cognition and behavioral abilities and to evaluate the molecular mechanisms that compromise healthy aging in SAMP8 mice. First, we confirmed the target engagement between RL-118 and 11β-HSD1. Additionally, we showed that DNA methylation, hydroxymethylation, and histone phosphorylation were decreased by CMS induction, and increased by RL-118 treatment. In addition, CMS exposure caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage and increased pro-oxidant enzymes—as well as pro-inflammatory mediators—through the NF-κB pathway and astrogliosis markers, such as GFAP. Of note, these modifications were reversed by 11β-HSD1 inhibition. Remarkably, although CMS altered mTORC1 signaling, autophagy was increased in the SAMP8 RL-118-treated mice. We also showed an increase in amyloidogenic processes and a decrease in synaptic plasticity and neuronal remodeling markers in mice under CMS, which were consequently modified by RL-118 treatment. In conclusion, 11β-HSD1 inhibition through RL-118 ameliorated the detrimental effects induced by CMS, including epigenetic and cognitive disturbances, indicating that GC-excess attenuation shows potential as a therapeutic strategy for age-related cognitive decline and AD.
... Waar het stress bij mens en dier betreft is de wetenschappelijke basis bij uitstek een biopsychologische (Selye, 1976;Lazarus & Folkman,1984). De basis van de meeste wetenschappelijke definities van stress is dat er door een stressor (meestal een gebeurtenis van buitenaf) een intern (biologisch en/of psychologisch) evenwicht wordt verstoord (Selye, 1976, in Fink, 2016. Stressreacties treden op om het evenwicht te herstellen of om een nieuw evenwicht in te stellen. ...
Book
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Module stressmeting bij het onderzoek Evaluatie pilot-maatregelen leefklimaat (projectnr. 2855). Het doel van dit aanvullende project is om te onderzoeken of gedetineerden en personeel onder het nieuwe pilotregime minder stress hebben dan onder het reguliere regime. De psychologisch ervaren stress wordt veelal bepaald aan de hand van zelf-rapportage vragenlijsten. Aanvullend daarop wordt in dit onderzoek de stresshormoonafgifte over een langere periode gemeten, dat is mogelijk via haar-cortisol. Op die manier wordt de mate van stress via een multidimensionaal perspectief in beeld gebracht.
... Stress is a major risk factor for serious illness. With adverse effects on various bodily organs, stress can impact students' mental as well as physical and emotional wellbeing [4]. During the pandemic, a relationship has been established between COVID-19 and mental health, in which young adults were more vulnerable to psychological issues [5]. ...
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... Various definitions of stress can be found in the literature (cf. Fink, 2017). One of the oldest definitions is the unspecific reaction to any demand posed on an individual (Selye, 1936). ...
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This chapter contributes to the body of knowledge about the value of stress-relieving practices such as positive psychology, journaling, meditation, and nature therapy for medical residents and practicing physicians as a part of their regular routine. Given the physical, cognitive, and emotional demands on physicians, adopting these creative and mindful applications may mitigate feelings of burnout, anxiety, and overwhelm, as well as promote a happier and healthier mental state in physicians’ personal and professional lives.
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The development of the interactive motion graphic is to spread awareness to the people about the correct ways to handle stress. This is because many people face stress in daily life, but they do not know the correct way to manage stress. An interactive motion graphic is used as the medium because it is easy to understand and can attract the viewers’ attention. The model used to help develop this product is Alessi and Trollip Model. The model contains 3 phases which are planning, design and development phase. Alpha test is conducted to test the effectiveness of the product and to make sure that the objectives of the project are achieved. The test is conducted by interviewing a multimedia expert, a content expert and 5 users which are students that reside at KolejKediamanTuankuFauziah (PFi2). The results obtained from conducting this test were positive as the feedback from the users suggests that the information given in this video is relevant and useful thus, help them to manage their stress. In conclusion, the development of this product can help people manage their stress.
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Background Stress has a significant influence on the development of depressive symptoms. An individual’s coping style and resilience may moderate the symptoms of depression. This study is aimed to investigate the role of coping styles and resilience to depressive symptoms when individuals are facing stress in life based on racial/ethnic and gender differences.Methods Enrolled individuals were assessed using the Unfairness Scale, City Stress Inventory, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).ResultsThree hundred ninety-six individuals completed the rating scales. There were significant interactions between race and unfairness, city stress (P = 0.006, P < 0.001), and between gender and city stress (P = 0.016). AAs and males suffer more stress than EAs and females. Hostile attitudes and affects act as mediators and significantly affect the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms (indirect effect: B = 0.812, P < 0.001; direct effect: B = 1.015, P < 0.001). Individuals with high resilience reported lower BDI scores. AAs with high stress and medium resilience had a buffer effect on depressive symptoms, while EAs did not.Conclusion The racial and gender effects of stress on depressive symptoms were significant. Individuals who have frequently experienced stress exhibited a more hostile attitude/affect compared to those who have experienced less stress. Furthermore, individuals who had a more hostile attitude/affect were more likely to be affected by depressive symptoms. Resilience has a protective factor for all participants, and medium resilience had a better buffer effect for AAs compared to EAs. There should be training for boosting resilience in schools and in vulnerable communities.
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The Routledge International Handbook of Global Therapeutic Cultures explores central lines of enquiry and seminal scholarship on therapeutic cultures, popular psychology, and the happiness industry. Bringing together studies of therapeutic cultures from sociology, anthropology, psychology, education, politics, law, history, social work, cultural studies, development studies, and American Indian studies, it adopts a consciously global focus, combining studies of the psychologisation of social life from across the world. Thematically organised, it offers historical accounts of the growing prominence of therapeutic discourses and practices in everyday life, before moving to consider the construction of self-identity in the context of the diffusion of therapeutic discourses in connection with the global spread of capitalism. With attention to the ways in which emotional language has brought new problematisations of the dichotomy between the normal and the pathological, as well as significant transformations of key institutions, such as work, family, education, and religion, it examines emergent trends in therapeutic culture and explores the manner in which the advent of new therapeutic technologies, the political interest in happiness, and the radical privatisation and financialisation of social life converge to remake self-identities and modes of everyday experience. Finally, the volume features the work of scholars who have foregrounded the historical and contemporary implication of psychotherapeutic practices in processes of globalisation and colonial and postcolonial modes of social organisation. Presenting agenda-setting research to encourage interdisciplinary and international dialogue and foster the development of a distinctive new field of social research, The Routledge International Handbook of Global Therapeutic Cultures will appeal to scholars across the social sciences with interests in the advance of therapeutic discourses and practices in an increasingly psychologised society.
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Background Occupational stress has huge financial as well as human costs. Application of crowdsourcing might be a way to strengthen the investigation of occupational mental health. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess Danish employees’ stress and cognition by relying on a crowdsourcing approach, as well as investigating the effect of a 30-day mindfulness and music intervention. Methods We translated well-validated neuropsychological laboratory- and task-based paradigms into an app-based platform using cognitive games measuring sustained attention and working memory and measuring stress via. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale. A total of 623 healthy volunteers from Danish companies participated in the study and were randomized into three groups, which consisted of a 30-day intervention of either mindfulness or music, or a non-intervention control group. Results Participants in the mindfulness group showed a significant improvement in the coefficient of sustained attention, working memory capacity and perceived stress ( p < .001). The music group showed a 38% decrease of self-perceived stress. The control group showed no difference from pre to post in the survey or cognitive outcome measures. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between usage of the mindfulness and music app and elevated score on both the cognitive games and the perceived stress scale. Conclusion The study supports the nascent field of crowdsourcing by being able to replicate data collected in previous well-controlled laboratory studies from a range of experimental cognitive tasks, making it an effective alternative. It also supports mindfulness as an effective intervention in improving mental health in the workplace.
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Stress as it relatesto infertility has become a global issue attracting public health concern. The present study examined the morphological changes in ovarian histology in response to oxidative stress-induced in female rats following exposure to different stressors. 92 rats of 12-14weeks old weighing between 120-160g were used for the study. Three (3) different stress models were utilized for stress induction at the rate of 1, 3, and 5hours per day for 1, 2, and 3weeks respectively. At the end of stress induction durations, bodyweights were obtained and the rats were euthanized via cervical dislocation while the ovary weights were carefully isolated and their weights recorded. The harvested ovary was sectioned, mounted on slides, stained, and observed under the microscope for histopathological investigations. Findings from this study established that exposure to restraint mirror or intruder stressor significantly (p<0.05) altered the body and/or ovary weights of the rats irrespective of the rate of exposure when compared to the control group. Cellular degeneration, infiltration, and atretic follicular changes were observed in the ovarian histology of rats in response to stress-inducedchanges caused by exposure to restraint or intruder stressors, whereas, equivalent exposure of the rats to mirror stressor did not result in any observed degenerative changes in the histology of the ovary studied. Our study revealed that exposure to restraint or intruder stressor points towards the existence of stress contributes towardsorgan/body weight changes and cellular damage inthe ovarian tissuespossiblycausing pathogenesis in reproductive capacity of females.
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Background Occupational stress has huge financial as well as human costs. Application of crowdsourcing might be a way to strengthen the investigation of occupational mental health. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess Danish employees’ stress and cognition by relying on a crowdsourcing approach, as well as investigating the effect of a 30-day mindfulness and music intervention. Methods We translated well-validated neuropsychological laboratory- and task-based paradigms into an app-based platform using cognitive games measuring mind wandering and working memory and measuring stress via. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale. A total of 623 healthy volunteers from Danish companies participated in the study and were randomized into three groups, which consisted of a 30-day intervention of either mindfulness or music, or a non-intervention control group. Results Participants in the mindfulness group showed a significant improvement in the coefficient of mind wandering, working memory capacity and perceived stress (p < .001). The music group showed a 38% decrease of self-perceived stress. The control group showed no difference from pre to post in the survey or cognitive outcome measures. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between usage of the mindfulness and music app and elevated score on both the cognitive games and the Perceived Stress Scale. Conclusion The study supports the nascent field of crowdsourcing by being able to replicate data collected in previous well-controlled laboratory studies from a range of experimental cognitive tasks, making it an effective alternative. It also supports mindfulness as an effective intervention in improving mental health in the workplace.
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Si notato che shocks di temperatura possono indurre una variazione di puffing pattern in ghiandole salivari di Drosophila. Tali puffing sono perfettamente reversibili e rappresentano zone di intensa sintesi di RNA. Si notato che DNP e Na salicilato portano a simili variazioni di puffing pattern.