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Examining the Acute Effects of Hatha Yoga and Mindfulness Meditation on Executive Function and Mood

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The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of hatha yoga and mindfulness meditation on executive function and mood. Using a within-subjects experimental design, 31 moderately experienced hatha yoga practitioners (mean age 27.71 ± 8.32) completed three counterbalanced sessions: hatha yoga (conscious movement and meditation), meditation (mindfulness of breath, emotions, thoughts, and body sensations), and a reading control task. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop task at baseline and at two follow-up points (5 and 10 min post-session). Self-reported mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) at baseline and immediately following each session. Findings indicated that hatha yoga (p = .002) and meditation (p = .044) both resulted in significantly improved Stroop performance, though the two conditions did not differ significantly from each other (p = .728). The cognitive benefits in both cases were evident at the 10-min post-session delay but not at the 5-min post-session delay. With respect to mood outcomes, hatha yoga (p < .001) and meditation (p = .050) both resulted in significantly improved POMS total mood scores. Hatha yoga and meditation did not differ significantly from each other in regard to POMS total mood (p = .079), though hatha yoga showed significantly greater benefits on the vigor-activity subscale (p = .006). Overall, findings suggest that acute bouts of hatha yoga and mindfulness meditation benefit executive function and mood to a similar degree.
Examining the Acute Effects of Hatha Yoga and Mindfulness
Meditation on Executive Function and Mood
Kimberley Luu
&Peter A. Hall
Published online: 26 December 2016
#Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016
Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the
acute effects of hatha yoga and mindfulness meditation on
executive function and mood. Using a within-subjects exper-
imental design, 31 moderately experienced hatha yoga practi-
tioners (mean age 27.71 ± 8.32) completed three
counterbalanced sessions: hatha yoga (conscious movement
and meditation), meditation (mindfulness of breath, emotions,
thoughts, and body sensations), and a reading control task.
Executive function was assessed using the Stroop task at base-
line and at two follow-up points (5 and 10 min post-session).
Self-reported mood was measured using the Profile of Mood
States (POMS) at baseline and immediately following each
session. Findings indicated that hatha yoga (p= .002) and
meditation (p= .044) both resulted in significantly improved
Stroop performance, though the two conditions did not differ
significantly from each other (p= .728). The cognitive bene-
fits in both cases were evident at the 10-min post-session delay
but not at the 5-min post-session delay. With respect to mood
outcomes, hatha yoga (p<.001)andmeditation(p=.050)
both resulted in significantly improved POMS total mood
scores. Hatha yoga and meditation did not differ significantly
from each other in regard to POMS total mood (p=.079),
though hatha yoga showed significantly greater benefits on
the vigor-activity subscale (p=.006).Overall,findingssug-
gest that acute bouts of hatha yoga and mindfulness medita-
tion benefit executive function and mood to a similar degree.
Keywords Yog a .Mindfulness meditation .Exercise .
Cognition .Executive function .Mood
Yoga is an ancient Indian practice which traditionally aims to
cultivate mind-body awareness and higher states of conscious-
ness (Bryant 2009). Hatha yoga is the most common style of
yoga practiced in Western societies, and involves mindful
physical posturing, breathing exercises, and meditation
(Muktibodhananda 2012). A survey of a nationally represen-
tative sample estimated that approximately 21 million US cit-
izens practiced hatha yoga in 2012 (Cramer et al. 2016); this
represents a tripling of the number of hatha yoga practitioners
in a 15-year span (19982012; Saper et al. 2004). These sta-
tistics suggest that hatha yoga is becoming an increasingly
popular modality of exercise in North America.
Meditation is another common complementary practice
in Western societies (Clarke et al. 2015), and can be defined
as mental training which engages attentional and emotion-
regulation abilities through (self- or other-) guided focus on
specific objects, intentions, or internal and external envi-
ronments (Raffone and Srinivasan 2010;Tangetal.
2015). Mindfulness meditation specifically has been oper-
ationalized as the practice of non-judgemental observation
of present moment thoughts, emotions, and body sensations
with openness and acceptance (Bishop et al. 2004).
Mindfulness meditation can be practiced on its own or as
integrated with physical posturing, as is the case with hatha
yoga (Shelov et al. 2009).
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
(doi:10.1007/s12671-016-0661-2) contains supplementary material,
which is available to authorized users.
*Kimberley Luu
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, BMH 1013, 200
University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
Mindfulness (2017) 8:873880
DOI 10.1007/s12671-016-0661-2
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Although some prior research has compared exercise and mindfulness mediation, only a few studies have evaluated the relative contributions of exercise and mindfulness meditation in supporting executive functioning and alleviating ADHD symptomology. However, these studies have either been systematic reviews with no direct empirical comparison of the two interventions (Herbert and Esparham, 2017), or have been conducted exclusively in neurotypical younger adults (Van Der Zwan et al., 2015;de Bruin et al., 2016;Luu and Hall, 2017;Edwards et al., 2018) or neurotypical older adults (Håkansson et al., 2017). Prior research has also primarily involved chronic engagement in interventions and programs, especially in the area of mindfulness meditation, but there has been minimal work investigating the impact of acute bouts. ...
... A sample size calculation was performed using G * Power (version 3.1.9. 6 Faul et al., 2009) with a large effect size Cohens d = 1.09 (Pontifex et al., 2013;Drollette et al., 2014;Luu and Hall, 2017), power of 0.80, alpha of 0.05, with primary outcome variables as changes in executive functioning and mood, indicating 16 participants were needed. All participants were between 10 and 14 years old (M = 11.38; ...
... A 10min delay was selected based on a prior meta-analysis involving acute exercise, which reported that the highest cognitive benefits appear to happen 11-20 min post-exercise (Chang et al., 2012). Further, Luu and Hall (2017) found that the cognitive benefits of mindfulness meditation were not observed at 5 min postintervention, but were seen at 10 min post-intervention. Figure 1 provides a diagram of the study design. ...
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This study investigated how acute exercise and mindfulness meditation impacts executive functioning and psycho-emotional well-being in 16 children and youth with ADHD aged 10–14 (male = 11; White = 80%). Participants completed three interventions: 10 min of exercise, 10 min of mindfulness meditation, and 10 min of reading (control). Before and after each intervention, executive functioning (inhibitory control, working memory, task-switching) and psycho-emotional well-being (mood, self-efficacy) were assessed. Mindfulness meditation increased performance on all executive functioning tasks whereas the other interventions did not (d = 0.55–0.86). Exercise enhanced positive mood and self-efficacy whereas the other interventions did not (d = 0.22–0.35). This work provides preliminary evidence for how acute exercise and mindfulness meditation can support differential aspects of executive and psycho-emotional functioning among children and youth with ADHD.
... In a general view, meta-analytic studies have concluded that mindfulness is moderately effective in reducing anxiety and depression (16). In recent years, many studies have examined the effect of mindfulness on neuropsychological functions of the mind (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22), and many studies in clinical works used various meditation such as (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), etc ) on cognitive functions (19,20,(23)(24)(25). ...
... 2. Objective: Although meta-analytic studies on the effects of mindfulness on cognition are controversial and generally still under investigation (21), the aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize the effects of mindfulness on cognitive functions. ...
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Background: The experience of cognitive deficits is common among patients with degenerative and psychiatric disorders. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the empirical literature of mindfulness intervention on cognitive functions. Methods: This study was conducted in June 2020 by using the scientific records were retrieved by a systematic search of several bibliographic databases on the Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Sciences, Google scholar database from 2000 to 2020 for testing the effect of mindfulness intervention on cognitive functions. For data analysis CMA2 software were used. Heterogeneity assessed by Cochran’s Q statistics test. Publication Bias assessed by Orwin fail safe N, Begg’s method kendall’s Tau, Egger’s method intercept and funnel plot. Results: from 17 initial studies, 28 effect sizes were calculated. Among the 28 effect sizes, 6 indicators were negative and 22 indicators were positive. key results from the meta-analysis, Compared to healthy controls showed that people were receive mindfulness intervention significantly improved in working memory and attention function, with this enhance medium magnitude (Hedges’ g = 0.32, 0.35 respectively, see Figure 2). There was no significant improve by use mindfulness intervention on executive function. Conclusions: The results prove the initial evidence that mindfulness intervention can improve some neurocognitive processing such as attention function and working memory
... Meditation is defined as a form of mental training designed to improve an individual's core mental abilities, such as selfregulation of attention and emotion (Tang et al., 2015). It has been shown to improve various parts of executive function (Tang et al., 2015;Luu and Hall, 2017). A study conducted by Sankar et al. (2020) found that cognitive abilities were enhanced in people who practiced meditation. ...
... It takes blood volume and blood oxygen in brain tissue as the information carrier, and monitor brain activity by measuring changes in oxygen-containing hemoglobin in the cognitive process of the brain, so as to study the neural mechanism of cognitive activities (Hoshi, 2003). It is worth noting that most of the studies about the effects of YoMed on the behavioral performance of individual executive function exist Luu and Hall, 2017), while the cerebral neural mechanism of how YoMed intervention improves individual cognitive function still need to be investigated. As a non-invasive technique, fNIRS is suitable to measure the cerebral blood oxygen mechanism, however, few studies have used it to measure the PFC of young adults to find the cognitive benefits of YoMed practice. ...
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Objectives: The present study aimed to test the effect of yoga meditation (YoMed) practice on inhibitory control of young adults. Methods: A total of 50 participants (23 male, 21–28 years old) from a university in Jinan, Shandong Province were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to a YoMed group or a Control group. Participants’ basic information, physical activity, and inhibitory control were measured. A multi-channel continuous-wave near-infrared spectrometer was used to monitor the brain’s hemodynamic responses. Results: After the intervention, we found significant differences in Flanker tasks between the YoMed group and Control group. The accuracy in the YoMed group was higher than those in the Control group ( p < 0.05). Analysis of fNIRS data showed that oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increased in the YoMed group during the Flanker tasks after the YoMed intervention. Conclusion: YoMed has a temporarily promoting effect on the brain activation of young adults. It is an effective and appropriate exercise to improve the inhibitory control of young adults.
... Similar studies showed that meditation and yoga intervention for a long time reduces stress and improves mental health [40][41][42][43][44]. For example, one study found that 15 minutes of hatha yoga significantly reduces employees' psychological and physiological markers of stress [45]. ...
Islamic praying (Namaz) can be considered a mental, spiritual, and physical practice. The study aimed to investigate the early effect of Namaz on stress-related hormones and the expression of stress-induced genes such as IL6 and BDNF. Eighty-three healthy women and men who continually practice Namaz participated in the study. The saliva samples were taken before and after Namaz to measure cortisol and alpha-amylase hormone levels. Also, to evaluate the expression of BDNF and IL6 genes, 11 specimens were selected randomly. Based on baseline sampling, the participants were classified into three groups: cortisol levels lower than 5, between 5-15, and upper than 15 ng/ml. The results indicated that cortisol significantly increased and decreased in the first and third groups after Namaz, respectively. In addition, the increase of alpha-amylase also occurred in subjects with a low baseline level of its concentration. Regarding genetic expression examination, there was a significant decrease in BDNF gene expression after the Namaz. In addition, the change of cortisol and alpha-amylase hormones after Namaz related to the baseline level changed to approach the optimal range after Namaz. These findings were reported for the first time and need more studies.
... In this regard, as different meditation methods have different effects on cognitive domains (Lippelt et al., 2014), it is essential to verify the effectiveness of each meditation type. For example, some previous studies have independently examined the effect of one-session FAM or one-session OMM on memory function (Eisenbeck et al., 2018) and executive function (Luu & Hall, 2017;Wenk-Sormaz, 2005). Thus, it can be useful to compare onesession FAM and one-session OMM among novice meditators to clarify the effectiveness of meditation type depending on the cognitive domain. ...
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Introduction Previous studies have revealed that one-session focused attention meditation (FAM) can improve top-down attention control, which is one of the factors of working memory capacity (WMC). In addition, FAM shares various neural substrates, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), with WMC. Thus, we hypothesized that one-session FAM would improve WMC by activating the DLPFC evoked by the top-down attention control. In this study, we examined whether FAM modified WMC in individuals with little to no meditation experience. Methods The participants were randomly assigned to either the FAM group (N = 13) or the control group (N = 17) who engaged in random thinking (i.e., mind-wandering). Before and after each 15-min intervention, the participants’ WMC was measured according to the total number of correct answers in the Reading Span Test. During each intervention, functional near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to measure the blood flow in the participants’ DLPFC and determine the top-down attention control effect. Results In the FAM group, WMC increased, and the bilateral DLPFC was activated during the intervention. As for the control group, WMC decreased after the intervention, and the bilateral DLPFC was not activated during the intervention. A correlation was also found among all participants between the increase in WMC and the activation of the bilateral DLPFC. Conclusion The study findings suggest that top-down attention control during FAM can activate the bilateral DLPFC and increase WMC among meditation novices.
... 8 weeks of hatha yoga improved cognitive functions such as working memory and mental flexibility in older adults. One study by Luu & Hall, 2017 showed that hatha yoga and mindfulness meditation improved the cognition. There was significant improvement of executive function in practitioners immediately after the hatha yoga and mindfulness meditation of breath, emotions, and thoughts. ...
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Generally speaking, people are vulnerable to face rigorous work and learn how to enhance cognitive functions by improving mood state. The extant research evidence appears to support the proposition that yoga may improve mood and cognitive functions of the various populations. Balanced mood state plays a precious role in cognition, quality of life, and successful life. This review highlights the effect of yoga practices on improving mood and cognition and also provides inculcation of various yogic practices as a therapy to improve mood that leads to better cognitive function. It has been found that mood disturbance may lead to poorer cognition and cognitive impairment. Good cognitive functions depend on healthy frontal lobes of the brain and mood states. Therefore, there is need to populate the insights that healthy mood may lead to better cognition as a result of yoga interventions.
Yoga is the science of conditioning one's mind and body via the practise of shatkarma, asana, pranayama, mudra, and meditation. The aim of this review of literature is to give theoretical rationale for identifying (a) the specific attributes of yoga poses that have been used in yoga protocols of various studies but have not been explicitly explored, & (b) the minimum time necessary to keep a posture to bring about a corresponding change in performance among the aforementioned cognitive functions (s) In humans, The most prevalent and under-treated problems are cognitive decline & psychological health problems. Different studies have been carried out to determine the influence of Yoga on human cognitive and psychological health indices. However, no comprehensive examination of the effects of yoga-based therapy on human cognitive and mental health has been undertaken to far. Yoga is an ancient science that places a premium on disease prevention and treatment, as well as the percentage of health. Yoga is recognized to delay the effects of aging and has been found to be effective in the therapy of aging-related disorders. Yoga is a centuries-old discipline that is said to improve both physical and emotional well-being.
Introduction Due to the multi-composite, mind-body features of yoga, it is of interest to determine what effect exercise plays as a component of modern yoga in providing psychological and physiological health benefits, and whether benefits are enhanced with a combination of components. Furthermore, although the effects of regular, long-term yoga practice are well documented, the acute effects have received less empirical investigation. Method A within-subjects, repeated measures randomised controlled crossover trial with five conditions was conducted (trial registration: ACTRN12620000983909). Participants (N = 41, mean age = 32 years) with Depressive and/or Anxiety Disorders completed 1) yin yoga, 2) aerobic exercise, 3) vinyasa yoga, 4) stretching (sham) control and 5) no-intervention control. Acute changes in mood and cardiovascular tone were assessed. Results A significant main effect of condition on mood was observed (N = 38; F4,127.193 = 7.507, p = <.001). Participants receiving yin, vinyasa, aerobic exercise and stretching achieved comparable improvements in mood symptoms compared to no-intervention control. Cardiovascular changes were observed for aerobic exercise and vinyasa yoga. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions The acute mood benefits of a single initial session of yoga are not significantly greater than those derived from other forms of movement. Moderate-intensity styles of yoga can provide a sufficient and equivalent acute cardiovascular exercise effect to that of traditional exercise options (i.e., cycling).
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Practicing hot yoga may bring significant psychological benefits, but it is largely unstudied. We examined the effectsof hot yoga on multifaceted well-being indicators with 290 healthy yoga-naïve volunteers partaking in a six-weekrandomized controlled trial. Participants completed questionnaires pre- and post-intervention, and reported theiremotional experiences four times per day throughout an experience-sampling study. Results revealed that the hot yogagroup (n = 137) improved their well-being from pre- to post-treatment, comparing to the wait-list control group (n = 153).These improvements included life satisfaction, general health, mindfulness, peace of mind, and eudaimonic well-being(ΔR2 ranging from .01 to .08)—but not flourishing, which describes major aspects of social-psychological functioning.Multilevel analyses demonstrated that momentary positive emotional experiences increased significantly throughoutthe trial in the yoga group only (conditional R2 = .68), particularly when attending a yoga class (conditional R2 = .50).Interestingly, this increase in momentary positive emotion explained the improvement in post-intervention mindfulness,peace of mind, and general health by 21%, 31%, and 11%, respectively. Finally, the benefits of hot yoga were more notablein individuals with lower levels of baseline eudaimonic well-being (conditional R2 = .45), flourishing (conditional R2= .61), and mental well-being (conditional R2 = .65), even after ruling out any possible ceiling effects. To sum up, thisstudy demonstrated multiple psychological benefits of hot yoga and its potential to be an effective positive psychologyintervention. Future research—especially considering an active control group—is warranted.
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Introduction: Recent reviews have documented the beneficial effects of seated meditation on executive function (EF). However, there has yet to be a comprehensive review on the effects of Hatha yoga, a moving meditation, on EF. Objective: To examine the empirical literature on the effects of Hatha yoga on EF. Methods: MEDLINE, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for experimental studies (between- or within-subject designs) testing the effects of Hatha yoga (acute bouts, short-term interventions, longer-term interventions) on EF. Results: A total of 11 published studies met eligibility criteria: Three studies involved healthy adults, 2 studies involved healthy older adults (n = 2), 1 study involved children and adolescents, and 5 studies involved medical (n = 4) or forensic (n = 1) populations. In healthy adults, 2 of 3 studies suggested that acute bouts of Hatha yoga improved EF; however, 1 study using a short-term intervention found no improvements in EF. Among healthy older adults, 1 study provided evidence that Hatha yoga improves EF. In child/adolescent samples, 1 study supported the contention that Hatha yoga improves EF after short-term interventions. Among medical populations, EF improved in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in 1 of 3 studies involving patients with multiple sclerosis. The sole study involving impulsive prisoners showed positive effects on EF with a short-term intervention. Conclusion: Hatha yoga shows promise of benefit for EF in healthy adults, children, adolescents, healthy older adults, impulsive prisoners, and medical populations (with the exception of multiple sclerosis). However, more good-quality studies that evaluate the efficacy of Hatha yoga's effects on EF are essential to build on this evidence base.
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Meditation can be defined as a form of mental training that aims to improve an individual's core psychological capacities, such as attentional and emotional self-regulation. Meditation encompasses a family of complex practices that include mindfulness meditation, mantra meditation, yoga, tai chi and chi gong 1. Of these practices , mindfulness meditation — often described as non-judgemental attention to present-moment experiences (BOX 1) — has received most attention in neuroscience research over the past two decades 2–8. Although meditation research is in its infancy, a number of studies have investigated changes in brain activation (at rest and during specific tasks) that are associated with the practice of, or that follow, training in mindfulness meditation. These studies have reported changes in multiple aspects of mental function in beginner and advanced meditators, healthy individuals and patient populations 9–14. In this Review, we consider the current state of research on mindfulness meditation. We discuss the methodological challenges that the field faces and point to several shortcomings in existing studies. Taking into account some important theoretical considerations, we then discuss behavioural and neuroscientific findings in light of what we think are the core components of meditation practice: attention control, emotion regulation and self-awareness (BOX 1). Within this framework, we describe research that has revealed changes in behaviour, brain activity and brain structure following mindfulness meditation training. We discuss what has been learned so far from this research and suggest new research strategies for the field. We focus here on mindfulness meditation practices and have excluded studies on other types of meditation. However, it is important to note that other styles of meditation may operate via distinct neural mechanisms
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Objective-This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among adults in the United States across three time points. Trends in the use of selected complementary health approaches are compared for 2002, 2007, and 2012, and differences by selected demographic characteristics are also examined. Methods-Combined data from 88,962 adults aged 18 and over collected as part of the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for this report. Sample data were weighted to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. Results-Although the use of individual approaches varied across the three time points, nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements remained the most popular complementary health approach used. The use of yoga, tai chi, and qi gong increased linearly across the three time points; among these three approaches, yoga accounted for approximately 80% of the prevalence. The use of any complementary health approach also differed by selected sociodemographic characteristics. The most notable observed differences in use were by age and Hispanic or Latino origin and race. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.
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Introduction: Cognitive impairment is a highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly managed consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing cognitive impairment in this population. However, there is limited evidence supporting an optimal exercise stimulus for improving cognition in MS. The current study compared the acute effects of moderate-intensity treadmill walking, moderate-intensity cycle ergometry, and guided yoga with those of quiet rest on executive control in 24 persons with relapsing-remitting MS without impaired cognitive processing speed using a within-subjects, repeated measures design. Method: Participants completed four experimental conditions that consisted of 20 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill walking exercise, moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise, guided yoga, and quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Participants underwent a modified-flanker task as a measure of executive control immediately prior to and following each condition. Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) indicated general pre-to-post improvements in reaction time, but not accuracy, on the modified-flanker task for all three exercise modalities compared with quiet rest. However, there were additional, selective pre-to-post reductions in the cost of interfering stimuli on reaction time on the modified-flanker task for treadmill walking, F(1, 23) = 4.67, p = .04, η(p)2 = .17, but not cycle ergometry, F(1, 23) = 0.12, p = .73, η(p)2 < .01, or guided yoga, F(1, 23) = 0.73, p = .40, η(p)2 = .03, compared with quiet rest. Conclusions: The present results support treadmill walking as the modality of exercise that might exert the largest beneficial effects on executive control in persons with relapsing-remitting MS without impaired cognitive processing speed. This represents an exciting starting point for delineating the appropriate exercise stimulus (i.e., modality and intensity) for inclusion in a subsequent longitudinal exercise training intervention for improving cognitive performance in this population.
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Participants in previous studies of brief mindfulness meditation (MM) are often tested immediately following a meditation session, making it difficult to separate several days of training from one-session effects. The current study examined the effects of a single session of 25 min of MM compared with a sham meditation (sham M) and a book-listening control. One session of both MM and sham M had a significant effect on state mindfulness compared with the control. Several mood subscales as well as total distress score on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were also significantly different from control. However, neither meditation condition had significant effects on any of the attention and working memory tasks. These results indicate that one session of meditation was not sufficient to affect the cognitive tasks used in this study. Both MM and sham M positively affected mood states and heightened state mindfulness.
Regular practice of yoga is implicated in the healthy development of the body, mind, and spirit, leading to a more fulfilling life. The present investigation was designed to study the influence of regular practice of yoga on cognitive skills and mental health. 19 regular practitioners of yoga were matched with controls on age, gender and education level, and compared on outcome measures of Digit Symbol Test, PGI Memory Scale and Mental Health Questionnaire. An expost-facto design using t-test for two dependent means was adopted. Results indicated regular practitioners of yoga perform significantly better on tests of attention and concentration, remote memory, mental balance, delayed recall, immediate recall, verbal retention of dissimilar pairs, visual retention and recognition; and have better mental health. The results were discussed in the light of available research. The limitations of the study were also discussed.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of yoga use in the U.S. general population. Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey Family Core, Sample Adult Core, and Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine questionnaires (N=34,525), weighted frequencies for lifetime and 12-month prevalence of yoga use and patterns of yoga practice were analyzed. Using logistic regression analyses, sociodemographic predictors of lifetime yoga use were analyzed. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Results: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of yoga use were 13.2% and 8.9%, respectively. Compared with nonpractitioners, lifetime yoga practitioners were more likely female, younger, non-Hispanic white, college educated, higher earners, living in the West, and of better health status. Among those who had practiced in the past 12 months, 51.2% attended yoga classes, 89.9% used breathing exercises, and 54.9% used meditation. Yoga was practiced for general wellness or disease prevention (78.4%), to improve energy (66.1%), or to improve immune function (49.7%). Back pain (19.7%), stress (6.4%), and arthritis (6.4%) were the main specific health problems for which people practiced yoga. Conclusions: About 31 million U.S. adults have ever used yoga, and about 21 million practiced yoga in the past 12 months. Disease prevention and back pain relief were the most important health reasons for yoga practice. Yoga practice is associated with age, gender, ethnicity, SES, and health status.
Preface to the American Edition Preface to the Original Edition Introduction Patanjali and the Exegetical Literature Some Philosophical Concepts of Kriya-Yoga Overview of Topics Discussed by Patanjali Annotated Translation Chapter One: Samadhi-Pada Chapter Two: Sadhana-Pada Chapter Three: Vibhuti-Pada Chapter Four: Kaivalya-Pada Continuous Translation Word Index to the Yoga-Sutra Bibliography Guide to the Pronunciation of Sanskrit Index About the Author