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CPEC: A Baloch Popular Perspective

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This paper demonstrates that the delivery of hardware inputs to Ghana’s basic education system – building classrooms and supplying textbooks – has had a substantial impact on higher enrollments and better learning outcomes. The Bank’s support for school building has been a major factor behind Ghana being on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education. The context for these improvements was a government strongly committed to implementing a program of educational reform that refocused government resources away from secondary and tertiary education and onto the basic sector. But the Bank’s support played a critical role in allowing the government to carry out its plans. Partly because of increased reliance on community contributions, a gap is opening up between the majority of schools and those in poorer communities, particularly in off-road rural areas. Facilities in schools in poorer areas are usually inferior and teacher absenteeism high, so that little learning can take place. Special attention needs to be paid to these least-privileged schools if Ghana is to remain on track to meet the education MDG.
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The substantial literature on access to higher education has a narrow focus: the effect of tuition on the enrollment decisions of 18-year-olds seeking bachelors degrees. But for non-traditional (i.e. older) students who tend to prefer community college, access is more about a school's location than about its tuition and fees. Using data on over 150,000 mature workers (aged 25 to 49) in the Greater Baltimore area, we analyze the impact of travel distance on community college enrollment decisions. We find that distance is a highly statistically significant factor in deciding whether to enroll in community college, and in which school to choose. Simulations of the model suggest that if the typical resident had to travel three additional miles from home to the nearest college, enrollment could drop by as much as 14%.
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Physical access to health care affects a large array of health outcomes, yet meaningfully estimating physical access remains elusive in many developing country contexts where conventional geographical techniques are often not appropriate. We interviewed (and geographically positioned) 23,000 homesteads regarding clinic usage in the Hlabisa health sub-district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used a cost analysis within a geographical information system to estimate mean travel time (at any given location) to clinic and to derive the clinic catchments. The model takes into account the proportion of people likely to be using public transport (as a function of estimated walking time to clinic), the quality and distribution of the road network and natural barriers, and was calibrated using reported travel times. We used the model to investigate differences in rural, urban and peri-urban usage of clinics by homesteads in the study area and to quantify the effect of physical access to clinic on usage. We were able to predict the reported clinic used with an accuracy of 91%. The median travel time to nearest clinic is 81 min and 65% of homesteads travel 1h or more to attend the nearest clinic. There was a significant logistic decline in usage with increasing travel time (p < 0.0001). The adjusted odds of a homestead within 30 min of a clinic making use of the clinics were 10 times (adjusted OR = 10; 95 CI 6.9-14.4) those of a homestead in the 90-120 min zone. The adjusted odds of usage of the clinics by urban homesteads were approximately 20/30 times smaller than those of their rural/peri-urban counterparts, respectively, after controlling for systematic differences in travel time to clinic. The estimated median travel time to the district hospital is 170 min. The methodology constitutes a framework for modelling physical access to clinics in many developing country settings.
The target set in the National Policy on Education (1998-2010) for primary level enrolment is 90% of the children of age group of 5-9. This again was an achievable target, provided the available resources were efficiently used and programme interventions were made in a timely fashion. But during the last five years, it has not been implemented effectively and efficiently due to rapid population growth, insufficient political will, a period of undemocratic governance, and poor management of scarce resources. Women and girls have been most affected by these negative factors. The national literacy rate for females is only 35%, compared to 59% for males, and in certain status the female literacy, enrolment and achievement rates are much lower. There are many issues related to low enrolment of females such as poverty and economic issues, inadequate school infrastructure, gender bias in content and teaching and learning processes and poorly qualified teachers. The analysis of the study indicates that the age of the child, parents’ schooling particularly the mother, income per capita of the household head and distance to school are relevant variables in explaining the probability of female enrolment at the primary school level.
This study is an attempt to analyze the primary school enrollment status in the city of Lahore; and provide estimates regarding the impact of household's quantitative characteristics on enrollment decision. Primary data is collected from 3320 households where 2520 households belonged to the urban areas and 800 households belonged to the rural areas. Computations are carried out using both OLS and Logit models. The factors contributing positively and significantly to net enrollment of children at primary school level are found to be family size, dwelling ownership, expenses on education, literacy ratio and dependency ratio. It is also established that access to school is not a very significant factor towards inhibiting school attendance. Some of the results, with respect to the contribution of family size and dependency ratio to enrollment, are contradictory to the prior determined thoughts. Briefly, it can be concluded that despite the positive effect of some of the characteristics of individuals and households on gross as well as net enrollment, there are various more strong qualitative factors across the socio-economic spectrum that have differential impacts on school enrollment. Consequently, legislative measures need to be implemented to make primary education compulsory, in order to motivate all the children of respective age to complete primary school education.
Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey, a model was developed based on the Health Behavior Model that considered transportation and distance as factors that could enable or impede health care utilization. A random sample of individuals aged 60 or older living in the rural Upper Great Plains states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming were surveyed by mail. With a response rate of 20%, responses were received from 543 individuals. An ordered probit model was used to estimate trip frequency, and a binary probit model was used to estimate the likelihood that an individual would miss or delay a health care trip. Distance and transportation variables were not found to significantly influence the total number of routine or chronic care trips made overall, while emergency care visits were impacted by transportation options. However, additional results showed that those who cannot drive make more trips if someone else in the household can drive; distance and access to transportation impact the likelihood that someone will miss or delay a trip; and difficulty reported in making trips is significantly affected by distance and transportation options. The greatest problems for people using public transportation for health care trips is inconvenient schedules, the need to match transit and medical schedules, and infrequent service.
This research focuses on the accessibility of health-services to the population in the southern region of Israel, comparing accessibility within the periphery. The objective was to study whether there is a correlation between the number of patient visits to specialist-clinics to the geographical distance from the patient's home and the patient's socioeconomic-status. The population of the study was patients insured by the Clalit HMO, the major health-provider on the periphery in Israel's southern region who visited the Soroka University Medical Center's (SUMC) out-patient specialist-clinics between 2000 and 2005. The specialist-clinics in the study were divided into five categories: (1) pediatrics (2) orthopedics (3) audio lab (4) sleep lab; (5) geriatrics. The dependent-variable-the number of patients' visits to clinics was analyzed (parametric and non-parametric) according to a set of independent variables: (1) population size, (2) age-distribution (3) gender (4) size of family, (5) vehicles per household, (6) socioeconomic level (by percentiles) (7) distance from the Beer-Sheva (site of the SUMC clinics) in terms of concentric geographical rings (distance and time-travel). Results show that the distance from Beer-Sheva and the socioeconomic level of patients' town (by percentiles) has a negative correlation to the number of visits. That is, patients who live further away or are from higher socio-economical percentiles, frequent specialist-clinics less. In order to be effective (equality of availability and accessibility), a health system in the periphery must build programs that take into consideration the needs of specific localities, such as distance to the health services, and the patient's socioeconomic level.
In this paper we present evidence on the impact of distance to school and school availability on households’ decisions concerning primary age children’s time allocation between work, schooling and household chores activities using data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey 1998-99 (GLSS) and the Guatemalan Living Standards Measurement Survey 2000 (ENCOVI). Overall, our results indicate that the increased and eased access to school has a well-defined impact on children’s time use, with both similarities and striking dissimilarities between the chosen countries. In particular, in Ghana the availability and the travel distance to schools (both primary and middle) in the community influence children’s work in both economic activities and household chores and children’s school attendance. The longer the travel time to school the more difficult it is for children to reconcile work and school attendance. In Guatemala, secondary school access constraints have almost no effect on children’s time allocation. In addition, reducing the cost of access to primary education has an effect only on children’s school attendance but it reduces neither child work nor time spent in household chores. Our results are robust to control for the endogeneity of school location and per capita expenditures.
Increasing the supply of schools is commonly advocated as a policy to promote schooling outputs and outcomes. Analysis of the relationship between the school enrolment of 6- to 14-year-olds and the distance to primary and secondary schools in 21 rural areas of low-income countries (including some of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa) suggests that the two are often statistically significantly related. However, the magnitudes of the associations are small: simulating large reductions in distance yields only small increases in average school participation, and only small reductions in within country inequality. There are a number of reasons why this result might hold. Average effects might mask heterogeneity in the impact by initial distance to the nearest school, as well as by economic status; the existing quality of schools might be low and the simulation assumes that this would be the average quality of new schools; and the cross-sectional nature of the data make it hard to rule out that schools might be placed where they are 'most needed' which would bias the results towards zero. Sensitivity analysis suggests none of these drive the result: the results suggest that expectations for large overall increases in enrolment as a result of school construction should be tempered. They also suggest areas for more research to guide policy: in particular on the interaction between school quantity and quality; the potential importance of demand side subsidies; and the cost effectiveness of different approaches.
Bamyan-Dushi Road Socio-Economic Baseline Study Final Report,‖ United States Agency for International Development
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Baluch, Mazhar Ul Haq, and Saima Shahid. -Determinants of enrollment in primary education: a case study of district Lahore.‖ Pakistan Economic and Social Review (2008): 161-200.