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Care-related predictors for negative intrusive thoughts after prostate cancer diagnosis - Data from the prospective LAPPRO trial


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Objective: Negative intrusive thoughts about one's prostate cancer have been associated with depressive mood and impaired quality of life among prostate cancer patients. However, little is known about possible predictors for negative intrusive thoughts among this group. We aimed to identify health- and care-related predictors for such thoughts among a population of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods: In the LAPPRO-trial, 3154 men (80%) answered study-specific questionnaires at admission and three months after surgery. Questions concerned socio-demographics, health, uncertainty, preparedness for symptoms, and the outcome, negative intrusive thoughts. Associations between variables were analyzed by log-binominal and multivariable approach. Results: The strongest predictor of negative intrusive thoughts at admission to surgery was uncertainty of cure, followed by binge drinking, poor physical health, anti-depressant medication, not being prepared for urinary symptoms, age under 55 and physical pain. Reporting it not probable to obtain urinary symptoms after surgery lowered the odds. Negative intrusive thoughts before surgery were the strongest predictor for such thoughts three months later followed by uncertainty of cure, physical pain, younger age, living alone and poor self-reported physical health. Conclusions: Our findings showed an association of preoperative uncertainty of cure as well as low preparedness for well-known surgery-induced symptoms with higher occurrence of negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer. Future studies should examine if interventions designed to have healthcare professionals inform patients about their upcoming prostatectomy reduce patients´ negative intrusive thoughts and thereby, improve their psychological well-being.
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Carerelated predictors for negative intrusive thoughts after
prostate cancer diagnosisdata from the prospective LAPPRO trial
Thordis Thorsteinsdottir
|Heiddis Valdimarsdottir
|Arna Hauksdottir
Johan Stranne
|Ulrica Wilderäng
|Eva Haglind
|Gunnar Steineck
Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology,
Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical
Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University
of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Faculty of Nursing, School of Health
Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík,
Research Institute in Emergency Care,
Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavík,
Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount
Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Department of Psychology, Reykjavik
University, Reykjavik, Iceland
Center for Public Health Sciences, School of
Health Sciences, University of Iceland,
Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska
University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical
Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University
of Gothenburg, SSORG Scandinavian Surgical
Outcomes Research Group, Sahlgrenska
University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg,
Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology,
Department of OncologyPathology,
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Thordis Thorsteinsdottir, Faculty of Nursing,
University of Iceland, Eirberg v/ Eiríksgötu,
101 Reykjavík, Iceland.
Objective Negative intrusive thoughts about one's prostate cancer have been associated with
depressive mood and impaired quality of life among prostate cancer patients. However, little is
known about possible predictors for negative intrusive thoughts among this group. We aimed
to identify healthand carerelated predictors for such thoughts among a population of men
newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Methods In the LAPPROtrial, 3154 men (80%) answered studyspecific questionnaires at
admission and 3 months after surgery. Questions concerned sociodemographics, health,
uncertainty, preparedness for symptoms, and the outcomenegative intrusive thoughts. Associ-
ations between variables were analyzed by logbinominal and multivariable approach.
Results The strongest predictor of negative intrusive thoughts at admission to surgery was
uncertainty of cure, followed by binge drinking, poor physical health, antidepressant medication,
not being prepared for urinary symptoms, age under 55, and physical pain. Reporting it not
probable to obtain urinary symptoms after surgery lowered the odds. Negative intrusive thoughts
before surgery were the strongest predictor for such thoughts 3 months later followed by uncer-
tainty of cure, physical pain, younger age, living alone, and poor selfreported physical health.
Conclusions Our findings showed an association of preoperative uncertainty of cure as well
as low preparedness for wellknown surgeryinduced symptoms with higher occurrence of
negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer. Future studies should examine if interventions
designed to have healthcare professionals inform patients about their upcoming prostatectomy
reduce patients' negative intrusive thoughts and thereby, improve their psychological wellbeing.
clinical trial, intrusive thoughts, oncological sugery, prostate cancer, psychological wellbeing
Challenging news, such as the diagnosis of cancer, may evoke diverse
responses. Populationbased studies have revealed men's risk for
and psychological distress after the diagnosis of prostate can-
While some adjust well to the diagnosis and treatment, others
are in need of psychiatric support.
Because of widespread and/or
routine PSAscreening, more and more men are diagnosed and treated
for prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer has traditionally been seen as an
oldman's disease. However, younger men diagnosed seem to experi-
ence greater decline in urinary and sexual function following prostatec-
tomy, more bother due to these symptoms, poorer mental health than
older men,
and may differ in other responses to diagnosis.
Recent studies indicate that men, diagnosed with prostate cancer,
may express their mental health with more variability than reflected by
Eva Haglind was the principal Investigator of the LAPPRO trial (Controlled Trials
Nr. ISRCTN06393679)
Gunnar Steineck is the deputy Principal Investigator
Received: 12 June 2016 Revised: 19 December 2016 Accepted: 22 December 2016
DOI 10.1002/pon.4359
PsychoOncology 2017; 19 Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, 1
traditional mentalhealth assessment tools.
In an analysis of a
subgroup from the LAPPRO trial, we found that negative intrusive
thoughts,defined as involuntary negative thoughts about the cancer that
appeared suddenly and repeatedly and were unwelcome, were related to
lower selfassessed quality of life, symptoms of anxiety, and depressive
mood, before and after prostatectomy.
In accordance to other studies,
intrusive thoughts could be a symptom of psychological distress related
to prostate cancer diagnosis,
and a target for medical or psycholog-
ical interventions.
Less is known about the predictors for such
thoughts, healthor carerelated. Low preparedness for negative life
events has been related to distress among men
and negative attitudes
towards treatment outcomes may affect mental health after prostate
cancer diagnosis.
Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify
nonmodifiable and modifiable carerelated factors, predictors,for
reporting negative intrusive thoughts during primary prostate cancer
treatment in a group of Swedish men.
In the LAPPROtrial (ISRCTN06393679), all men planned for open and
robotassisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy at 14 urological
departments in Sweden, and who gave consent were prospectively
included between September 1, 2008 and November 7, 2011.
TABLE 1 Characteristics of the evaluable participants (n=3154) undergoing surgery for prostate cancer in the LAPPROtrial
Age categories
3755 years 427 13.6
5679 years 2723 86.4
Level of education
Primary school 588 18.6
Secondary school, 3 years 924 29.3
Upper secondary school 383 12.1
College/University 1189 37.7
Other/missing 70 2.2
Married or living with partner 2650 84.0
Living alone, but has partner 215 6.8
Living alone, no partner 271 8.6
Missing 18 0.6
Widower 117 3.8
Employment status before surgery
Employed 1686 53.5
Unemployed 42 1.3
Retired 1235 39.2
On shortor longterm sick leave 74 2.8
Other/missing 97 3.1
Rural 453 14.4
Village or town 1301 41.3
City (population > 500,000) 1371 43.5
Abroad (not in Sweden) 11 0.4
Birth country other than Sweden 173 5.5
Clinical stage, before surgery
Nonpalpable tumor (T1) 1846 58.8
Palpable tumor (T2/T3) 1213 38.6
Missing 81 2.6
Physical pain, at least once a week 645 20.5
Selfassessed physical health, poor to moderate 1243 39.6
Coexisting illnesses one or more, total 1613 51.1
Drinking 6 glasses of alcohol, at least once a week 178 5.7
First sign of prostate cancer, PSA elevation 2568 84.2
Surgical technique
Open surgery 790 25.0
Robotassisted laparoscopy 2364 75.0
TABLE 2 The associations of demographic and healthand carerelated variables with negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer before and after prostatectomy as a result of a univariate analysis
(n= 3154)
Negative Intrusive Thoughts at Least once a Week or more often
Before Surgery 3 months after Surgery
No./Total No. (%) Prevalence Ratio (95% CI) No./Total No. (%) Prevalence Ratio (95% CI)
5679 years 938/2703 (35%) 1.0 568/2716 (21%) 1.0
3755 years 196/427 (46%) 1.32
(1.171.48) 131/426 (31%) 1.47
Shorter than university 673/1932 (35%) 1.0 418/19441 (22%) 1.0
University 459/1185 (39%) 1.11
(1.011.22) 277/1185 (23%) 1.09 (0.951.24)
Married or living with partner 947/2632 (36%) 1.0 565/2643 (21%) 1.0
Living alone 183/484 (38%) 1.05 (0.931.19) 131/485 (27%) 1.26
Nonwidower 1079/2967 (37%) 1.0 668/2980 (22%) 1.0
Widower 40/117 (34%) 0.94 (0.731.21) 22/117 (19%) 0.84 (0.571.23)
Employment status
Employed 660/1015 (39%) 1.0 388/1680 (23%) 1.0
Not employed 436/926 (32%) 0.81
(0.740.90) 287/1369 (21%) 0.91 (0.791.04)
Rural 164/452 (36%) 1.0 90/452 (20%) 1.0
Urban area 967/2664 (36%) 1.00 (0.871.14) 606/2676 (23%) 1.13 (0.931.39)
Coexisting illnesses
None 519/1531 (34%) 1.0 331/1537 (22%) 1.0
One or more 617/1603 (38%) 1.14
(1.031.25) 368/1609 (23%) 1.06 (0.931.21)
Clinical stage (rectal palpation)
Nonpalpable tumor (T1) 635/1835 (35%) 1.0 380/1842 (21%) 1.0
Palpable tumor (T2 or more advanced) 471/1205 (39%) 1.13
(1.031.24) 298/1209 (25%) 1.19 (1.051.37)
Selfassessed physical health before surgery
Good (56/6) 561/1889 (30%) 1.0 338/1894 (18%) 1.0
Poor to moderate (04/6) 571/1235 (46%) 1.56
(1.421.71) 356/1239 (29%) 1.61
Current antidepressant medicine
No 1064/2994 (36%) 1.0 652/3007 (22%) 1.0
Yes 69/132 (52%) 1.47
(1.241.74) 45/131 (34%) 1.58
Drinking at least 6 glasses at the same
occasion during the past month
Less than once a week 1032/2932 (35%) 1.0 632/2933 (22%) 1.0
TABLE 2 (Continued)
Negative Intrusive Thoughts at Least once a Week or more often
Before Surgery 3 months after Surgery
No./Total No. (%) Prevalence Ratio (95% CI) No./Total No. (%) Prevalence Ratio (95% CI)
At least once a week 93/177 (53%) 1.49
(1.281.73) 56/178 (31%) 1.46
Physical pain during the past month
Less than once a week 818/2457 (33%) 1.0 491/2468 (20%) 1.0
At least once a week 306/643 (48%) 1.43
(1.301.58) 204/644 (32%) 1.59
First sign of prostate cancer
Physical symptoms 179/477 (38%) 1.0 124/480 (26%) 1.0
PSA elevation 919/2551 (36%) 0.96 (0.851.09) 548/2560 (21%) 0.83
Type of prostatectomy
Open surgery 321/785 (41%) 1.0 174/789 (22%) 1.0
Robotassisted laparoscopy 815/2349 (35%) 0.85
(0.770.94) 525/2357 (22%) 1.01 (0.871.18)
Negative intrusive thoughts
Seldom or not at all Not applicable Not applicable 250/1992 (13)% 1.0
Once a week or more often 447/1134 (39%) 3.14
How prepared for prostate cancer
Somewhat to fully 802/2277 (35%) 1.0 497/2284 (22%) 1.0
Not at all 327/838 (39%) 1.11 (1.001.23) 198/839 (24%) 1.08 (0.941.25)
Certain to be cured
Moderate or much certain 966/2869 (34%) 1.0 587/2877 (20%) 1.0
Not or a little certain 163/244 (67%) 1.98
(1.792.20) 107/244 (44%) 2.15
How probable to experience urinary
Somewhat to much probable 1006/2648 (38%) 1.0 624/2657 (23%) 1.0
Not at all probable 118/452 (26%) 0.69
(0.580.81) 70/452 (15%) 0.66
Preparedness for possible urinary problems
Somewhat to fully prepared 834/2467 (34%) 1.0 523/2477 (21%) 1.0
Not prepared 296/647 (45%) 1.35
(1.221.50) 174/646 (27%) 1.27
How probable to experience sexual
Somewhat to much probable 1082/2924 (37%) 1.0 661/2934 (23%) 1.0
Not at all probable 39/152 (26%) 0.69
(0.530.91) 29/153 (19%) 0.84 (0.601.18)
Preparedness for possible sexual problems
Somewhat to fully prepared 957/2744 (35%) 1.0 595/2754 (22%) 1.0
Not prepared 168/349 (48%) 1.38
(1.221.56) 100/350 (29%) 1.32
The primary hypothesis of the trial was that robotassisted technique
would lead to less urinary and sexual symptoms 1 year after surgery.
The data collection covered hospitals, wellestablished in performing
radical prostatectomies, from 4 healthcare counties or regions in
Sweden, including the 3 largest regions and for those wellrepresented
population, resulting in data on about half of all prostatectomies in the
country during the time period.
An external study secretariat
monitored and retrieved all data by questionnaires.
2.1 |Questionnaires
Evaluable participants answered both the first questionnaire at the
time of admission for surgery at the hospital, and the second question-
naire at home after having received the results on tumor stage from
surgery. The study variables were defined, developed, and validated
applying a mixedmethods and clinometric approach. We developed
the studyspecific questionnaires starting with previously validated
questionnaires from similar populations,
modifying according to
existing research literature.
Then new questions on men's experi-
ences were derived from indepth interviews. Six prostate cancer
survivors were interviewed at different timepoints after surgery. After
classical content analysis of their narratives, common themes were
recognized and questions on concepts, for example intrusive thoughts,
preparedness and uncertainty, which had rarely been studied before,
were designed. To ascertain reliability and validity of the questionnaires
in this study population, the questionnaires underwent content valida-
tion by clinical specialists, were tested, and validated in 15 facetoface
meetings (thinkoutloud) as well as ina pilot study with prostate cancer
patients (N=100)a procedure previously described in detail.
2.2 |Predictors
Carerelated, modifiable, predictors were assessed before surgery by
How certain are you that the planned surgery will cure you from
prostate cancer?, if it was probable to experience urinary respectively
sexual symptoms after surgery, and: How prepared are you for living
with possible urinary symptoms after surgery?(respective sexual), all
with answers Not at all,Somewhat,Moderately,Much. The pre-
dictors were dichotomized as existing or not (Not at all), according to
principles from studies with similar questionnaires.
Answers to
the question How did you contact the healthcare system for the first
time regarding your symptoms that lead to your diagnosis?were defined
as an active contact if Making a call,”“Writing a letter,”“Going there,or
Sent an emailbut as nonactive if Iwascalledor Had no symptoms.
2.3 |Covariates
Specific sociodemographic and healthbackground variables were
chosen as possible covariates with the outcome, ie, nonmodifiable
factors. The cutoff for age, 55 years, reflected that prostate cancer
diagnosed at 55 years and younger may differ from being diagnosed
when older.
Yeson 1 or several possible coexisting physical and
mental illnesses was defined as a coexisting illness. Physical health
was reported on a scale anchored from Worst possible(0) to Best
possible(6), and 56 defined as good health.
Alcohol consumption
was measured by the following question: Have you had six glasses or
TABLE 2 (Continued)
Negative Intrusive Thoughts at Least once a Week or more often
Before Surgery 3 months after Surgery
No./Total No. (%) Prevalence Ratio (95% CI) No./Total No. (%) Prevalence Ratio (95% CI)
Contact with healthcare
Active, took contact 371/969 (38%) 1.0 253/973 (26%) 1.0
588/1651 (38%) 0.93 (0.841.03) 337/1658 (20%) 0.78
Statistically significant association on 95% confidence level.
Nonactive seekers: No physical symptoms leading to diagnosis or were called in for doctor's appointment.
more on the same occasion during the past month?, a picture indicat ed a
glass of standard drinks and the answers reflected the frequency. The
cutoff, At least once a week,was set by a definition of binge drinking:
more than five glasses on the same occasion for men.
Data on tumor
stage (palpable or not) and surgical technique (open versus robot
assisted) were derived from clinicalrecord forms filled in by urologists.
2.4 |Outcome
Negative intrusive thoughts, were measured by the following question:
How oftenduring the past monthhave you had negative thoughts about
your prostate cancer, suddenly and unintentionally?(Never,”“More
seldom than once a week,”“At least once a week,”“At least three times
aweek,”“At least once a day,”“At least three times a day,and At least
seven times a day). In a previous study, negative intrusive thoughts At
least once a weekhad a strong association with psychological distress
and impaired quality of life,
and was therefore chosen as a cutoff here.
2.5 |Statistical analysis
We calculated the percentage of participants in each category of all the
variables. In a univariate analysis, the associations of the dichotomized
categories of the predictor variables as well as the covariates with the
outcome were compared, and prevalence ratios calculated with 95%
confidence intervals. The statistically significant variables from this
analysis were entered into a forward selection regressionmodel (the
selection criterion 0.05). Multivariable logisticmodels were then
constructed, calculating oddsratios as well as relative ratios, adjusting
for all the variables entered. The statistical analysis was performed in
SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
During the inclusion period of the LAPPROtrial, 3930 participants had
radical prostatectomy and 3154 men (80%) answered and returned the
questionnaires at the 2 time points (Appendix 1). The first questionnaire
was answered at a mean about 6 months (median 108 days; SD 296) after
confirmed diagnosis but at a median 6 days before surgery (mean 12;
SD 36). The second questionnaire was answered at a median of 90 days
after surgery (mean 101; SD 34). Before surgery, 1136 men (36%) reported
negative intrusive thoughts about their prostate cancer at least once a
week during the past month, as did 699 (22%) 3 months after surgery.
Age at surgery ranged from 37 to 79 years with a mean age of
62.6 years (SD 6.1) (Table 1): fourteen percent were under 55 years
of age, 84% were married or living with a partner, 6% were categorized
as binge drinkers, about 20% had physical pain, and 40% were of poor
physical health before surgery.
TABLE 3 Predictors for negative intrusive thoughts before and after radical prostatectomy resulting from univariate and multivariable regression
Unadjusted Relative Risk
(95% CI)
Unadjusted OddsRatio
(95% CI)
Multivariable OddsRatio
(95% CI) Pvalue
Predictors for negative intrusive thoughts before surgery
3755 years
1.32 (1.181.48) 1.60 (1.301.96) 1.38 (1.111.74)
Poor physical health
1.56 (1.421.71) 2.04 (1.752.36) 1.68 (1.411.97)
Coexisting illness 1.13 (1.031.25) 1.22 (1.051.41) 1.10 (0.941.29) .248
Binge drinkingl
1.49 (1.281.73) 2.03 (1.502.75) 1.98 (1.432.76)
1.47 (1.241.74) 1.99 (1.402.82) 1.60 (1.092.34)
Uncertainty of cure
1.98 (1.792.20) 3.96 (3.005.23) 3.26 (2.424.39)
Not probable to experience urinary problems
0.69 (0.580.81) 0.58 (0.460.72) 0.58 (0.450.74)
Not prepared for urinary problems
1.35 (1.221.50) 1.65 (1.391.97) 1.54 (1.241.93)
Not prepared for sexual problems 1.38 (1.221.56) 1.73 (1.392.17) 1.25 (0.941.64) .119
Physical pain 1.43 (1.301.58) 1.82 (1.532.17) 1.44 (1.181.75)
Predictors for negative intrusive thoughts after surgery
3755 years
1.47 (1.251.73) 1.68 (1.342.10) 1.40 (1.061.84)
Poor physical health
1.61 (1.411.83) 1.86 (1.572.20) 1.30 (1.051.61)
Living alone
1.26 (1.071.49) 1.36 (1.091.70) 1.32 (1.011.72)
Physical pain
1.59 (1.391.83) 1.87 (1.542.26) 1.41 (1.111.79)
Binge drinking 1.46 (1.161.83) 1.67 (1.202.32) 1.31 (0.871.97) .199
Antidepressants 1.58 (1.242.03) 1.89 (1.302.74) 1.19 (0.741.88) .454
Uncertainty of cure
2.15 (1.832.52) 3.05 (2.323.99) 1.89 (1.372.61)
Not probable to experience urinary problems 0.57 (0.530.83) 0.60 (0.460.78) 0.73 (0.531.00) .050
Nonactive health care seeking
0.78 (0.680.90) 0.73 (0.600.88) 0.75 (0.610.92)
Negative intrusive thoughts before surgery
3.14 (2.743.60) 4.53 (3.795.42) 3.56 (2.894.38)
CI, confidence interval.
Statistically significant after adjustment (95%confidence level, p< .05).
Adjusted for all the shown variables, entered into the multivariate models.
Definitions and categorization shown in Table 2.
Chisquare test
In Table 2, the prevalence ratios, from univariate regression, for
the associations of potential covariates (eg, sociodemographic and
healthrelated background) and the modifiable factors (predictors) with
negative intrusive thoughts, are shown as assessed and calculated both
before and 3 months after surgery.
In a final multivariable model (Table 3), the statistically significant
factors associated with negative intrusive thoughts before surgery were
uncertainty of cure [OR 3.26, CI 2.424.39], binge drinking [OR 1.98, CI
1.432.76], poor selfassessed physical health [OR 1.68, CI 1.411.97],
antidepressant medication [OR 1.60, CI 1.092.34], not being prepared
for urinary problems [OR 1.54, CI 1.241.93], physical pain [OR 1.44, CI
1.181.75]. and age under 55 [OR 1.38, CI 1.111.74]. Lower odds were
found when reporting it not probable to experience urinary problems
[OR 0.58, CI 0.450.74]. Higher odds for negative intrusive thoughts
3 months after surgery were found for those reporting negative
intrusive thoughts before surgery [OR 3.56, CI 2.894.38], uncertainty
of cure [OR 1.89, CI 1.372.61], physical pain [OR 1.41, CI 1.111.79],
those under 55 years [OR 1.40, CI 1.061.84], living alone [OR 1.32, CI
1.011.72], and poor selfassessed physical health [OR 1.30, CI
1.051.61]. The men who had not actively sought health care leading
to diagnosis had lower odds in the final adjusted model [OR 0.75, CI
0.610.92]. Low preparedness for sexual problems was not statistically
significantly associated with having negative intrusive thoughts. The
reduction in prevalence of such thoughts with higher age was found
statistically significant (Appendix 2). Further, the prevalence reduction
between time points was smallest for single men (no partner) and the
prevalence was similar for men with a partner as for widowers.
In this longitudinal study, we found that uncertainty about cure before
the planned prostatectomy, as well as low preparedness for surgery
induced urinary problems, was associated with a higher prevalence of
negative intrusive thoughts before surgery. Further, negative intrusive
thoughts before surgery were clearly associated with such thoughts
3 months after surgery. In addition to these possibly modifiable
factors, men younger than 55 years of age, living alone, in poor health
and physical pain more likely had negative intrusive thoughts after
surgery than others.
We studied negative intrusive thoughts as a symptom associated
with lower quality of life, anxiety, and depressive mood at the time
of prostatecancer diagnosis and treatment. Our hypothesis and
findings are schematized in Figure 1. In the study, we focused on
identifying factors that may be modified in healthcare. Negative
intrusive thoughts have rarely been studied among men with prostate
cancer, but our results may resemble other studies. For example,
pessimism before treatment was found to be a predictor of decision
related distress both before and 2 months after treatment.
Our find-
ings revealed a longitudinal association of low expectations for cure, a
kind of pessimism, with negative thoughts. In another study, pessimis-
tic men had difficulties in decisionmaking about treatment for local-
ized prostate cancer and were less satisfied with their decision
Low expectations for treatmentefficacy even though
survival prospects are relatively high may indicate uncertainty about
the chosen treatment (surgery).
Healthcare professionals may
need improved means to communicate the good prospects of surgery
for localized prostate cancer because negative intrusive thoughts may
arise in relation to the uncertainty following the diagnosis.
Preparedness for surgeryinduced symptoms is possibly related to
the patients' expectations of surgery and may influence how they
subsequently experience bother of symptoms. A small prospective
study revealed that expectations regarding urinary outcomes before
surgery reflected the longterm observed urinary outcome.
participants in our study, who reported low preparedness for
surgeryinduced urinary symptoms, may possibly not have understood
FIGURE 1 A model revealing the study hypothesis and the findings on the associations between the variables before and after surgery (blue
boxes), suggesting a time point for intervention
or integrated the information received before surgery. Stress due to
the cancer diagnosis or the difficult treatment decision, as well as the
information disclosure, may have impaired comprehension and
memory, thereby lowered the preparedness for such symptoms and
increased the negative intrusive thoughts.
The strong association
between negative intrusive thoughts before and after surgery in our
study, as well as their association to impaired quality of life after sur-
gery as found earlier
suggests that an intervention at a time point
close to surgery aimed at increasing preparedness and alleviating such
thoughts may be beneficial (Figure 1).
Our results indicate that in clinical practice, demographic back-
ground as well as prostatecancer patients' general health could be
used to identify patients likely to experience negative intrusive
thoughts. We see these background and healthrelated factors mainly
as covariates of negative intrusive thoughts and do not suggest that
there is a causal relation. Younger men (aged 37 to 55), constituting
14% in our study, may have fewer peers to share their prostate cancer
experience with, and thus possibly fewer opportunities to express and
alleviate the negative intrusive thoughts than older men. This indicates
that younger men would possibly benefit from active supportive
contact, for example with patient organizations. Another study on
men recently diagnosed with prostate cancer found a similar associa-
tion with age: younger men reported more intrusive symptoms, such
as thoughts, dreams, and memories about the cancer, as well as those
living alone at all ages.
Because partners seem to play a significant
role in emotional support as compared to others in the social
ours and others findings indicate that single men
diagnosed with prostate cancer may need special attention. In our results,
poor general health, including physical pain, antidepressants medication,
and binge drinking increased the odds for negative intrusive thoughts, all
factors that could routinely be noted and acted on in preoperative
Healthcare professionals planning an intervention to relieve
psychological distress such as negative intrusive thoughts could focus
on vulnerable individuals on the basis of these findings.
The strengths of this study include the prospective trial design, the
large study population, representing men having radical prostatectomy
at 14 hospitals in Sweden during the study period, high compliance, as
well as the short inclusion period, all of which minimize selection
induced problems. The participating hospitals were probably well
representative for the population in the 3 largest regions in Sweden.
The questionnaires were collected by a thirdparty to prevent inter-
viewerrelated problems.
We apply clinical epidemiological methods
and systematically try to recognize the possible causes of bias in each
step of the research process.
To minimize measurement errors, an
extensive preparatory phase preceded the study, and patientreported
outcome measures were used attempting to avoid discrepancies
versus researcher assessment.
The questionnaires were based on
concepts and wordings from men similar to the study population.
Singleitem questions on psychological distress, like our question on
negative intrusive thoughts, have been found to be comparable to
multiitem scales in epidemiological studies among Swedish testicular
cancer survivors as well as in a general populationsample in the
The study questionnaires were validated in facetoface meet-
ings and a pilot study. The validity of the outcome variable, negative
intrusive thoughts, was further verified by analyzing participants'
written responses describing their negative thoughts.
We thus
strived for a clear definition of the concepts studied.
The limitations of the study include that the results based on single
item measurements may have more variability than with standardized
scores on psychological distress. Although, this would only dilute the
relationships under study. Potential confounders on the associations
studied, are the information about prostate cancer diagnosis and treat-
ment as well as the patients' treatment decisionprocess. National guide-
lines in Sweden, includingthe actual practices for patient information and
communication, could however reduce this confounding effect. Further,
because of nonrespondents, we cannot comment on the association of
the factors among the nonevaluable patients who constituted 20% of
the study population. The generalization of the results to other countries
than Sweden may be compromised by culturalspecific factors.
In prostate cancer, mortality rates in relation to incidence are
Surgery, the most common treatment for localized prostate
cancer, is only recommended when cure is possible but often affects
urinary and sexual health. In our study, we found a relationship of being
uncertain of cure before surgery as well as not prepared forwellknown
surgeryinduced symptoms with a higher incidence of negative intru-
sive thoughts about prostate cancer. Younger age and poor health
before surgery were also associated with the occurrence of negative
intrusive thoughts, a symptom related to impaired quality of life.
We would like to express our gratitude to all the participating men. The
authors are grateful to the members of the LAPPRO steering
committee, local investigators at the participating urological
departments, and the personnel at the LAPPROtrial secretariat for
provision of study material and administrative support.
Design: TT, HV, EH, GS. Datacollection: TT, JS, EH, GS. Dataanalysis:
TT, HV, UW, EH, GS. Interpretation: TT, AH, JS, HV, EH, GS. Statistical
analysis: UW. Writing and revision: All authors.
The paper represents original work that has not been published before.
None of the authors have any direct or indirect commercial or financial
incentive associated with the publishing of the article. The authors
have full access and control of the primary data of the study. The data
will be available for review if requested. The Regional Ethical Review
Board approved the trial.
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Additional Supporting Information may be found online in the
supporting information tab for this article.
How to cite this article: Thorsteinsdottir T, Valdimarsdottir H,
Hauksdottir A, Stranne J, Wilderäng U, Haglind E, Steineck G.
Carerelated predictors for negative intrusive thoughts after
prostate cancer diagnosisdata from the prospective LAPPRO
trial. PsychoOncology. 2017. doi: 10.1002/pon.4359
... The variables used for adjustment (age at diagnosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, alcohol consumption, comorbidity, cohabiting, education, postoperative bother due to urinary or erectile dysfunction and biochemical recurrence) in the adjusted statistical analyses were chosen based on clinical judgement and previous study results [22][23][24]. Details on all variables are presented in the Supplement Table S1. ...
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of intrusive thoughts at diagnosis on quality of life, depressed mood and waking up with anxiety up to two years after radical prostatectomy. Method: The Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open (LAPPRO) trial was a prospective, longitudinal multicenter study of 4003 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Questionnaire data were collected preoperatively, at 3, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Results: The group of patients with intrusive thoughts at diagnosis had a statistically significant higher postoperative prevalence of impaired quality of life, depressed mood and waking up with anxiety as compared with the group of patients with no or minor intrusive thoughts. The highest risk increase for impaired QoL, depressed mood and waking up with anxiety ≥1/week was at 12, 3 and 3 months, respectively, where the three outcomes increased by 38% (RR: 1.38; 95%CI: 1.27–1.49)), 136% (RR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.74–3.19)) and 165% (RR: 2.65; 95%CI: 2.22–3.17)), respectively. Conclusions: The demonstrated link between intrusive thoughts and quality of life, depressed mood and waking up with anxiety deliver is further evidence to the idea that intrusive thoughts has potential as an endpoint for assessing and predicting psychological distress among men with prostate cancer diagnosis. Trial registration number: ISRCTN06393679 ( Date of registration: 07/02/2008. Retrospectively registered.
... Intrusive thoughts occur [9], and men experiencing such thoughts about their prostate-cancer diagnosis reported disrupted sleep, depressed mood and impaired quality of life three months after surgery [10]. Additionally those who were uncertain about surgery providing a cure had a higher occurrence of negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer [11]. We need to learn more about how men think of their disease and their future after a prostate-cancer diagnosis to establish basis for interventions to prevent this morbidity and mortality. ...
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Background Prostate-cancer diagnosis increases the risk for psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Thoughts about one’s own death could indicate need for psychiatric care among men with localized prostate cancer. We studied the prevalence and predictors of thoughts about own death among men with prostate cancer. Methods Of the 3930 men in the prospective, multi-centre LAPPRO-trial, having radical prostatectomy, 3154 (80%) answered two study-specific questionnaires, before and three months after surgery. Multivariable prognostic models were built with stepwise regression and Bayesian Model Averaging. ResultsAfter surgery 46% had thoughts about their own death. Extra-prostatic tumor-growth [Adjusted Odds-Ratio 2.06, 95% Confidence Interval 1.66–2.56], university education [OR 1.66, CI 1.35–2.05], uncertainty [OR 2.20, CI 1.73–2.82], low control [OR 2.21, CI 1.68–2.91], loneliness [OR 1.75, CI 1.30–2.35], being a burden [OR 1.59, CI 1.23–2.07], and crying [OR 1.55, CI 1.23–1.96] before surgery predicted thoughts about one’s own death after surgery. Conclusions We identified predictors for thoughts about one’s own death after prostate cancer diagnosis and surgery. These factors may facilitate the identification of psychiatric morbidity and those who might benefit from psychosocial support already during primary treatment.
... 23,29 Therefore, our finding that patients who reported constraints were more likely to report having no one in whom they could confide further suggests that within the prostate cancer context, The finding that social constraints also predicted intrusive thoughts maps on to existing literature. 19,22,31,32 In one study, ...
Objective: Studies indicate that social constraints (barriers to emotional expression) may be a risk factor for psychological morbidity. We aimed to investigate the association between prostate cancer- related social constraints and psychological well-being following prostate cancer surgery. Methods: In a group of 3478 partnered patients, participating in the Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open (LAPPRO) trial, a prospective multicenter comparative study of robot-assisted laparoscopic and retropubic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer, we used log-binomial regression analysis to investigate the links between prostate cancer-related social constraints at 3 months after surgery and psychological well-being at 12 and 24 months. Results: 1086 and 1093 men reported low well-being at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Prostate cancer-related social constraints by partner predicted low psychological well-being at 12 months (adjusted RR: 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and by others (adjusted RR: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). Intrusive thoughts mediated the association. Conclusions: Negative responses from the social environment, especially from partner to talking about the prostate cancer experience affected patients' psychological well-being two years after radical prostatectomy. Results emphasize the importance of helping patients mobilize psychosocial resources within their social network, especially among those with a lack of quality psychosocial support.
Background Although studies suggest that cancer survivors face workplace obstacles, to date there has been little empirical research regarding the personal and environmental factors that can help cancer survivors adjust to work. The purpose of this study was to examine how working survivors’ resilience and job meaningfulness were related to their well-being outcomes, including lower cancer-related intrusive thoughts, fatigue, and presenteeism. Methods We recruited 200 full-time employed cancer survivors from online participant panels using Qualtrics. Participants responded to an online survey that measured their resilience, job meaningfulness, job-related psychological distress, and well-being outcomes. We conducted descriptive statistical analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and moderated mediated analysis to examine the psychological process in which resilience and job meaning are associated with cancer survivors’ mental health and work outcomes. Findings: The relationship between cancer survivors’ resilience and their well-being outcomes depended on job meaningfulness. For survivors whose jobs were not highly meaningful, their resilience was related to reduced job-related psychological distress, which, in turn, was related to lower intrusive thoughts, fatigue, and presenteeism. For survivors with highly meaningful jobs, they did not need to rely on resilience to protect them from workplace psychological distress and other negative outcomes. Conclusion/Application to Practice: It is important for working cancer survivors to develop resilience, especially when they do not perceive their work as highly meaningful. Successful resilience-building interventions can buffer the negative impact of low job meaningfulness and help working survivors achieve better outcomes. In addition, organizations can actively help enrich survivors’ jobs to increase perceived meaningfulness.
Purpose Few studies have examined positive and negative affect and prostate cancer-specific anxiety in prostate cancer patients and their partners. Thus, this study explored positive and negative affect and prostate cancer-specific anxiety as well as their associated factors in prostate cancer patients and their partners. Method A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Data were collected from 48 prostate cancer patients and their partners when treatment was determined (before treatment) and at 6, 10, 18, and 24 weeks thereafter. The questionnaire included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for prostate cancer. Generalized estimating equations were used for statistical analysis. Results Patients with lower relationship satisfaction experienced lower positive affect (β = 0.279) and higher negative affect (β = −0.323), and their partners experienced higher prostate specific antigen-related anxiety (β = −0.014). The presence of strong hormonal symptoms aggravated negative affect (β = −0.010) and prostate cancer-related anxiety (β = −0.009), but living with children and grandchildren improved prostate cancer-related anxiety (β = −0.445) and fear of cancer recurrence in patients (β = −0.232). Conclusions There is an interaction between the prostate cancer-specific anxiety experienced by patients and that experienced by their partners. The emotional state of patients and their partners should be evaluated, and understandable information should be provided. Care strategies should include encouraging adult children to participate in the patients’ care plan, symptom management, and the teaching of coping skills.
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Background: Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) has become widely used without high-grade evidence of superiority regarding long-term clinical outcomes compared with open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), the gold standard. Objective: To compare patient-reported urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction 12 mo after RALP or RRP. Design, setting, and participants: This was a prospective, controlled, nonrandomised trial of patients undergoing prostatectomy in 14 centres using RALP or RRP. Clinical-record forms and validated patient questionnaires at baseline and 12 mo after surgery were collected. Outcome measurements and statistical analyses: Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with logistic regression and adjusted for possible confounders. The primary end point was urinary incontinence (change of pad less than once in 24h vs one time or more per 24h) at 12 mo. Secondary end points were erectile dysfunction at 12 mo and positive surgical margins. Results and limitations: At 12 mo after RALP, 366 men (21.3%) were incontinent, as were 144 (20.2%) after RRP. The unadjusted OR was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–1.34). Erectile dysfunction was observed in 1200 men (70.4%) 12 mo after RALP and 531 (74.7%) after RRP. The unadjusted OR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66–0.98). Conclusions: In a Swedish setting, RALP for prostate cancer was modestly beneficial in preserving erectile function compared with RRP, without a statistically significant difference regarding urinary incontinence or surgical margins. Patient summary: We compared patient-reported urinary incontinence after prostatectomy with two types of surgical technique. There was no statistically significant improvement in the rate of urinary leakage, but there was a small improvement regarding erectile function after robot-assisted operation.
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Up to 38 % of prostate cancer survivors experience significant psychological distress; 6-16 % are diagnosed with depression or anxiety disorders. Support from a relationship partner can ameliorate psychological distress, but many studies treat relationship status as a dichotomous predictor without accounting for level of support provided by the partner. The current study is a secondary analysis of a sample of 292 prostate cancer survivors recruited by nine Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) sites around the USA to a larger randomized controlled trial. Self-reported distress was measured at a baseline visit using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and partner support was measured using the Social Network and Support Assessment (SNSA). Post hoc groups consisting of unmarried survivors, married survivors with low partner support (SNSA scores below the median), and married survivors with high partner support (SNSA scores above the median) were compared on distress using univariate and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses. Married prostate cancer survivors with high partner support reported significantly lower levels of psychological distress than the other two groups on the total distress scale (16.20-19.19 points lower, p < 0.001). After adjusting for multiple comparisons, this pattern was also seen for subscales of distress. This study highlights the importance of assessing both partner support and marital status when evaluating a survivor's psychosocial functioning and support network. Assessing support could improve understanding of the association between partner support and prostate cancer survivors' psychological distress and could lead to interventions to bolster support and reduce distress.
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Sudden, unwelcome and repetitive thoughts about a traumatic event -- intrusive thoughts -- could relate to how men assess their quality of life after prostate-cancer diagnosis. We aimed to study the prevalence of intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer and their association with quality-of-life outcomes before and after radical prostatectomy. During the first year of the LAPPRO-trial, 971 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively included from 14 urological centers in Sweden. Of those, 833 men responded to two consecutive study-specific questionnaires before and three months after surgery (participation rate 86%). The association of intrusive thoughts with three quality-of-life outcomes, i.e. self-assessed quality of life, depressive mood and waking up with anxiety was estimated by prevalence ratios that were calculated, together with a 95% confidence interval, at the same time-point as well as over time. Fisher's exact-test was used to analyze differences between respondents and non-respondents. Wilcoxon signed-ranks and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used for analysis of change over time. To validate new questions on intrusive thoughts, written answers to open-ended questions were read and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Before surgery, 603 men (73%) reported negative intrusive thoughts about their cancer at some time in the past month and 593 men (59%) reported such thoughts three months after surgery. Comparing those reporting intrusive thoughts at least weakly before surgery with those who did not, the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval), three months after surgery, for waking up in the middle of the night with anxiety was 3.9 (2.7 to 5.5), for depressed mood 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1) and for impaired self-assessed quality of life 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5). The prevalence of negative intrusive thoughts about prostate cancer at the time of surgery associates with studied quality-of-life outcomes three months later.Trial registrationCurrent Controlled Trials ISRCTN06393679.
Background: Cross-sectional studies indicate that a cancer patient's partner is important in regard to the patient's psychological well-being. This has yet to be investigated in a large prospective setting. Objective: To investigate types of psychosocial support and whether men improved their well-being at 12 and 24 mo after radical prostatectomy. Design, setting, and participants: In a group of 1446 men participating in the Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open (LAPPRO) trial reporting low well-being 3 mo after surgery and who also had a more limited social network, we investigated predictors of change in well-being at 12 and 24 mo. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Predictors of outcome were analyzed using log-binomial regression and forward regression. Results and limitations: No one reported high well-being 3 mo after surgery. Of 1370 men reporting low well-being at 3 mo, 479 had improved to high well-being at 12 mo. At least one supportive person increased men's chances of improved well-being at 12 mo compared with 3 mo after surgery (relative risk [RR]: 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.72), as did partner support (RR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.86). The more people available for emotional and practical support, the more likely men were to improve their well-being at 12 and 24 mo, especially between 3 and 12 mo (p<0.0001). A limitation is that RRs were influenced by variations in the metrics of patient-reported well-being. Conclusions: The private network played a critical role regarding improved well-being. Having a partner and people to confide in within one's private network bettered patients' chances of improved well-being. Helping men mobilize support within their private network early on may be important in the recovery process. Patient summary: The link between one's private social network and well-being after prostate cancer surgery remains unclear. We investigated the role of support with many patients having undergone prostate cancer surgery. We found that the private social network was critical to men's well-being.
Men aged >65 yr are less likely to receive local therapy for prostate cancer (PCa), perhaps because of concerns about quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes. To describe QOL before and after PCa treatment in men of varying ages. Participants enrolled in CaPSURE who underwent radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, external beam radiation, androgen deprivation therapy, or active surveillance for localized PCa. QOL changes over time were assessed among age groups using repeated-measures mixed models adjusted for race, year, clinical risk, treatment, comorbidities, and an age-time interaction term. Differences are reported as adjusted least-square means and percentage decline. Secondary analyses evaluated age and QOL for local (prostatectomy, radiation) compared to nonlocal treatment (hormonal, surveillance). Older men had lower mean unadjusted pre- and post-treatment QOL scores for nearly all domains. Of the domains evaluated, adjusted mean sexual function, sexual bother, and urinary function showed greater declines from baseline to 2 yr. At 2 yr, more men <60 yr than those >70 yr experienced declines in urinary function (14% vs 9%) and sexual bother (39% vs 17%). Declines in these domains were also greater for local than for nonlocal treatment. Definitive treatment for localized disease should not be deferred for older men because of fears regarding QOL declines. Younger men should be counseled about potential post-treatment declines in QOL despite higher absolute QOL scores. Communicating these differences to patients will facilitate more appropriate treatment decision-making in men of all ages. In this study we evaluated quality of life before and after treatment for localized prostate cancer in a diverse patient population. Declines in quality of life after treatment varied according to age and treatment. We conclude that counseling about quality of life will help patients of all ages to make more appropriate treatment decisions. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become a widespread technique despite a lack of randomised trials showing its superiority over open radical prostatectomy. Objective: To compare in-hospital characteristics and patient-reported outcomes at 3 mo between robot-assisted laparoscopic and open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Design, setting, and participants: A prospective, controlled trial was performed of all men who underwent radical prostatectomy at 14 participating centres. Validated patient questionnaires were collected at baseline and after 3 mo by independent health-care researchers. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The difference in outcome between the two treatment groups were analysed using logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for identified confounders. Results and limitations: Questionnaires were received from 2506 (95%) patients. The robot-assisted surgery group had less perioperative bleeding (185 vs 683 ml, p<0.001) and shorter hospital stay (3.3 vs 4.1 d, p<0.001) than the open surgery group. Operating time was shorter with the open technique (103 vs 175 min, p<0.001) compared with the robot-assisted technique. Reoperation during initial hospital stay was more frequent after open surgery after adjusting for tumour characteristics and lymph node dissection (1.6% vs 0.7%, odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI 95%] 0.11-0.90). Men who underwent open surgery were more likely to seek healthcare (for one or more of 22 specified disorders identified prestudy) compared to men in the robot-assisted surgery group (p=0.03). It was more common to seek healthcare for cardiovascular reasons in the open surgery group than in the robot-assisted surgery group, after adjusting for nontumour and tumour-specific confounders, (7.9% vs 5.8%, OR 0.63, CI 95% 0.42-0.94). The readmittance rate was not statistically different between the groups. A limitation of the study is the lack of a standardised tool for the assessment of the adverse events. Conclusions: This large prospective study confirms previous findings that robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a safe procedure with some short-term advantages compared to open surgery. Whether these advantages also include long-term morbidity and are related to acceptable costs remain to be studied. Patient summary: We compare patient-reported outcomes between two commonly used surgical techniques. Our results show that the choice of surgical technique may influence short-term outcomes.
Prostate cancer is considered a disease of older men (aged >65 years), but today over 10% of new diagnoses in the USA occur in young men aged ≤55 years. Early-onset prostate cancer, that is prostate cancer diagnosed at age ≤55 years, differs from prostate cancer diagnosed at an older age in several ways. Firstly, among men with high-grade and advanced-stage prostate cancer, those diagnosed at a young age have a higher cause-specific mortality than men diagnosed at an older age, except those over age 80 years. This finding suggests that important biological differences exist between early-onset prostate cancer and late-onset disease. Secondly, early-onset prostate cancer has a strong genetic component, which indicates that young men with prostate cancer could benefit from evaluation of genetic risk. Furthermore, although the majority of men with early-onset prostate cancer are diagnosed with low-risk disease, the extended life expectancy of these patients exposes them to long-term effects of treatment-related morbidities and to long-term risk of disease progression leading to death from prostate cancer. For these reasons, patients with early-onset prostate cancer pose unique challenges, as well as opportunities, for both research and clinical communities. Current data suggest that early-onset prostate cancer is a distinct phenotype-from both an aetiological and clinical perspective-that deserves further attention.
This study aims to develop and test three potential models of Individual Burden of Illness for Depression (IBI-D) in prostate cancer patients. Responses to three sets of scales measuring depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and quality of life satisfaction were collected from 191 prostate cancer patients and analysed via principal components analysis to obtain weightings for each of the scales within the three sets of measures. These weightings were then used to form IBI-D Indices, and these were then compared with depressive symptoms alone for their overlap. Single-factor solutions were found for each of the three IBI-D models, demonstrating generalizability across the three models. Equations based on the loadings of each scale within each IBI-D model, divided by the standard deviation of total IBI-D scores, were used to form IBI-D Indices. Although the correlations between the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) and each of these IBI-D Indices were statistically significant, between one-quarter and one-fifth of the variance in IBI-D Indices was not accounted for by PHQ9 score alone, demonstrating that the IBI-D Indices provided additional information above that obtainable from a measure of depression alone. The IBI-D Index can be used to more completely assess the overall effects of depression in prostate cancer patients, the associations between those effects and predictor variables, and the outcomes of intervention studies aimed at decreasing depression (and its effects) in these men. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The aim of this prospective multi-centre study was to evaluate the level of psychological distress (PD) and adjustment to disease in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Furthermore, the impact of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction on PD was assessed. Anxiety, depression and PD were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 329 prostate cancer patients before surgery as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. These results were compared with those of a male German general population reference group. Adjustment to disease was assessed using the Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale. Patients reported low levels of PD at all points of assessment similar to population norms of age-matched German men. Persistent PD was seen in about 8% of the patients and 20% had PD at least two of the measurement points. Relevant predictors for PD after surgery were urinary symptoms and baseline PD. Adjustment to disease was highest before surgery and had significantly reduced at 3 and 6 months after surgery. In general, men are resilient to the experience of localised prostate cancer and adjust well psychologically after surgery. However, between 8% and 20% of patients could possibly benefit from mental health support.