Chapter
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This chapter takes a step back to look at the sustainability lens and social entrepreneurship as sustainable development from the perspective of Amartya Sen’s ideas of justice and the capabilities approach. In addition, it examines the types of enterprises and how each scales to different degrees of social responsibility.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Drawing on this conceptualisation, this study attempts to reveal a better understanding of the premise of community empowerment beyond economic benefits, indicating its dynamics, complexity, and multidimensionality. I achieve that by adopting social entrepreneurship which might facilitate effective development mechanisms to ensure indigenous empowerment (Stenn, 2017). Linked to its peculiar nature, agility, sustainability and flexibility, SE is arguably a 97 model that might contribute to empower the marginalised social groups (British Council, 2017). ...
Thesis
This doctoral project intends to advance our understanding of the potential of social entrepreneurship (SE) towards sustainable development and community empowerment. While research studies linking social entrepreneurship and sustainable development (SD) are steadily increasing, in-depth and holistic investigation of if and how social entrepreneurship (SE), contributes to SD and community empowerment seems to be lacking. Therefore, the central question of this doctoral thesis is as follows: What is the potential of social entrepreneurship in contributing towards SD and community empowerment in developing economies?? To address this question, three papers were developed. Drawing on a systematic literature review and applying alternative development theory, the first paper set the disciplinary context for SE and sustainable development by identifying, synthesizing and critically evaluating the extant literature. The aim is to interrogate how and to what extent social entrepreneurship contribute to the seventeen United National Sustainable Development Goals. Paper one reveals variation of engagement by SE across all seventeen SDGs. SE seems to pay more attention on addressing problems related to SD1, SDG8, SDG3 and SDG17. The focus on SDG17 in particular reveals the importance of working in partnerships among all partners and across sectors by applying both bottom-up and top-down development approaches. These results have inspired the second paper, which aims to generate an empirically-informed picture of the extent to which SE empowers communities. The second and third paper use the context of Tanzania due to the emerging of social enterprises scholarship and practice, which has increasingly been applied in tourism sector, which is one of the key contributors to the country’s GDP. Drawing on 56 qualitative interviews in Tanzania, the second paper reveals that community empowerment is both a process and outcome in multidimensional view. Connected to these community dynamics and social inclusion function of SE, the third paper has taken the study forward by investigating the ability of SE as a vehicle for women empowerment and gender equality. The findings demonstrate there are some issues that need to be examined in-depth and that entail policy/practical interventions, particularly in developing country contexts, such as Tanzania. To enhance the capacity of SE in empowering women, a balanced approach of collaborations and partnerships among actors are essential. The key contribution of the thesis to academic knowledge lies in its ability to advance our understanding on the instrumentality of SE in empowering and enhancing the wellbeing of communities in different domains of sustainable development. Overall, the thesis provides important theoretical and practical implications for academics, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the domains of sustainable development and social entrepreneurship in general. Keywords: Sustainable development, Social entrepreneurship, Community empowerment
Article
Full-text available
An alternative trade organization (ATO) is one where philosophies of social justice and/or environmental well-being preside over mission-based marketing transactions. The primary mission of such organizations is to develop equal partnerships among members of a marketing channel—the producers, retailers, and consumers. The present research uses data from one such ATO, TransFair USA, to examine the impact of Fair Trade marketing practices on coffee producers in Latin America. In this context, this study contributes to previous research by empirically testing the idea that participants in the Latin American fair trade coffee channel benefit from their participation as claimed by proponents of ATOs. Results show that producers belonging to a FairTrade organization reported a greater overall sense of well-being and a more positive outlook for their future as a result of their participation in the TransFair, USA coffee marketing channel as compared to nonmembers. Higher levels of participation in the cooperatives among participants with longer tenure in the organizations also enjoyed higher subjective quality-of-life perceptions. Results suggest that researchers should be cautious not to over generalize the effects of fair trade marketing on producers quality of life across contexts, marketing channels or countries.
Article
Full-text available
Bob Thomson argues that understanding the limits to growth for our finite planet is slowly gaining currency due to the (mostly) European sustainable degrowth ‘movement’ and a plurinational Latin American cosmovision which is largely indigenous but also criollo. These visions challenge us to decolonize our minds, as well as our economies. Thomson introduces a number of writers and perspectives on ‘degrowth’ and suggests that a synthesis of indigenous concepts of ‘living well’ with western critiques of our unsustainable industrial ‘model’ may hold promise for a way out of the multiple environmental, economic and social crises that we face.
Article
Full-text available
Initiatives certifying that producers of goods and services adhere to defined environmental and social-welfare production standards are increasingly popular. According to proponents, these initiatives create financial incentives for producers to improve their environmental, social, and economic performance. We reviewed the evidence on whether these initiatives have such benefits. We identified peer-reviewed, ex post, producer-level studies in economic sectors in which certification is particularly prevalent (bananas, coffee, fish products, forest products, and tourism operations), classified these studies on the basis of whether their design and methods likely generated credible results, summarized findings from the studies with credible results, and considered how these findings might guide future research. We found 46 relevant studies, most of which focused on coffee and forest products and examined fair-trade and Forest Stewardship Council certification. The methods used in 11 studies likely generated credible results. Of these 11 studies, nine examined the economic effects and two the environmental effects of certification. The results of four of the 11 studies, all of which examined economic effects, showed that certification has producer-level benefits. Hence, the evidence to support the hypothesis that certification benefits the environment or producers is limited. More evidence could be generated by incorporating rigorous, independent evaluation into the design and implementation of projects promoting certification.
Article
This paper analyzes the extent of income inequality from a global perspective, its drivers, and what to do about it. The drivers of inequality vary widely amongst countries, with some common drivers being the skill premium associated with technical change and globalization, weakening protection for labor, and lack of financial inclusion in developing countries. We find that increasing the income share of the poor and the middle class actually increases growth while a rising income share of the top 20 percent results in lower growth—that is, when the rich get richer, benefits do not trickle down. This suggests that policies need to be country specific but should focus on raising the income share of the poor, and ensuring there is no hollowing out of the middle class. To tackle inequality, financial inclusion is imperative in emerging and developing countries while in advanced economies, policies should focus on raising human capital and skills and making tax systems more progressive.
Article
Most of the contributions to this book are based on papers given at a symposium in 1979 at Geneva, New York, convened to discuss the historical and contemporary relations between native Americans and the natural world. The chapters, which are abstracted separately, focus on contrasting Indian and White attitudes toward nature, subsistence techniques, and land-based sovereignity; the removal of Indians from their land bases, and the effects of white ecological practices on the Indian population and the American landscape itself. -J.Sheail
Article
Mountain environments around the world are charac-terized by their ecological fragility. Many of them are under the threat of serious degradation due to the devel-opment of human settlements that have broken, by one reason or another, the harmony between the environment and its inhabitants. This is true in the Peruvian Andes.
Article
The goal of this dissertation is to find and provide the basis for a managerial tool that allows a firm to easily express its business logic. The methodological basis for this work is design science, where the researcher builds an artifact to solve a specific problem. In this case the aim is to provide an ontology that makes it possible to explicit a firm's business model. In other words, the proposed artifact helps a firm to formally describe its value proposition, its customers, the relationship with them, the necessary intra- and inter-firm infrastructure and its profit model. Such an ontology is relevant because until now there is no model that expresses a company's global business logic from a pure business point of view. Previous models essentially take an organizational or process perspective or cover only parts of a firm's business logic. The four main pillars of the ontology, which are inspired by management science and enterprise- and processmodeling, are product, customer interface, infrastructure and finance. The ontology is validated by case studies, a panel of experts and managers. The dissertation also provides a software prototype to capture a company's business model in an information system. The last part of the thesis consists of a demonstration of the value of the ontology in business strategy and Information Systems (IS) alignment.
Women-Owned Businesses
  • T Mesenbourg
Mesenbourg, T. (7 December 2010). Women-Owned Businesses. Random Samplings. US Census Bureau.
Why the lack of women leaders is a problem for businesses. Growthology. The Kauffman Foundation
  • E Fetsch
Fetsch, E. (16 February 2015). Why the Lack of Women Leaders is a Problem for Businesses. Growthology. The Kauffman Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2016 from: http://www.kauffman.org/blogs/growthology/2015/02/why-the-lack-of-women-leadersis-a-problem-for-businesses FINE. (2006). Business Unusual. Brussels: Fair Trade Advocacy Office.
Simmons Scale of Social Responsibility
  • T Simmons
Simmons, T. (2016). Simmons Scale of Social Responsibility. Greenfield Community College, MA.
Suma qamana in Bolivia: Indigenous Understandings of Well-being and Their Contribution to a Post-Neoliberal Paradigm in Bolivia
  • K Artaraz
  • M Calestani
Artaraz, K & Calestani, M. (20 August 2014) Suma qamana in Bolivia: Indigenous Understandings of Well-being and Their Contribution to a Post-Neoliberal Paradigm in Bolivia. Latin American Perspectives. Sage Publications.
Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy in first nations education a literature review with recommendations. Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs
  • D Baer
Baer, D. (28 February 2014). How Patagonia's New CEO Is Increasing Profits While Trying To Save The World. Fast Company. Retrieved August 27, 2016 from: http://www.fastcompany.com/3026713/lessons-learned/how-patagonias-new-ceo-isincreasing-profits-while-trying-to-save-the-world BCorp. (2016). What are B Corps? Retrieved August 29, 2016 from: https://www.bcorporation.net/ Battiste, M. (2002). Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy in first nations education a literature review with recommendations. Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, INAC. Canada. BerkShares. (2016). Using BerkShares-how it works. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://www.berkshares.org/how_to_spend
How My Family Celebrates a Healthier Halloween
  • L Borden
Borden, L. (1 October 2014). How My Family Celebrates a Healthier Halloween. Huffington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2016 from: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/lisaborden/reverse-trick-or-treating_b_5868966.html
The very simple reason more money is spent on lobbyists than on Congress
  • L Bradley
Bradley, L. (2010). The butterfly effect. Chaos and Fractals. Space Telescope Science Institute. Baltimore, MD. Bump, P. (21 April 2015). The very simple reason more money is spent on lobbyists than on Congress. The Washington Post. DC. Businessmodelalchemist. (2016). Business Model Alchemist. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://businessmodelalchemist.com/ Businessmodelgeneration. (2016). Business model generation. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/book
Social Entrepreneurship as Sustainable Development: The Sustainability Lens-FINAL Publisher's Transcript c
  • S Carpenter
Carpenter, S. (October 2011). Buy in bulk: Those big bins mean fewer recyclables. L.A. at Home. LA Times. October 14, 2011. Social Entrepreneurship as Sustainable Development: The Sustainability Lens-FINAL Publisher's Transcript c. 2016, Tamara Stenn-All Rights Reserved Chandler, R. (2005). Strategic planning for organizational "integrity" continuity is essential for avoiding, mitigating, and surviving organizational scandals and (un)ethical disasters.
Vivir Bien. Ministery of Foreign Relations
  • D Choquehuanca
Choquehuanca, D. (2010). Vivir Bien. Ministery of Foreign Relations. Bolivia. Creativecommons. (2016). What we do. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: https://creativecommons.org/about/
Funny money? 11 local currencies. CNN Money
  • B Ellis
Ellis, B. (2012). Funny money? 11 local currencies. CNN Money. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2012/pf/1201/gallery.community-currencies/
Final Rulemaking to Establish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium-and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles. Regulatory impact analysis
EPA & DOT. (August 2011). Final Rulemaking to Establish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium-and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles. Regulatory impact analysis. Report no. EPA-420-R-11-901. Equal Exchange. (2016). About. Retrieved August 28, 2016 from: http://equalexchange.coop/about ERM. (2013). Five Basics to Managing Innovation Risk. Enterprise Risk Management Initiative (ERM), Poole College of Management. North Carolina State University.
Radical Transparency
  • Everlane
  • Com
Everlane.com (2016). Radical Transparency. Retrieved August 28, 2016 from: https://www.everlane.com/about
Business Unusual. Brussels: Fair Trade Advocacy Office. Social Entrepreneurship as Sustainable Development: The Sustainability Lens-FINAL Publisher's Transcript c. 2016, Tamara Stenn-All Rights Reserved Forcesforgood
  • E Fetsch
Fetsch, E. (16 February 2015). Why the Lack of Women Leaders is a Problem for Businesses. Growthology. The Kauffman Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2016 from: http://www.kauffman.org/blogs/growthology/2015/02/why-the-lack-of-women-leadersis-a-problem-for-businesses FINE. (2006). Business Unusual. Brussels: Fair Trade Advocacy Office. Social Entrepreneurship as Sustainable Development: The Sustainability Lens-FINAL Publisher's Transcript c. 2016, Tamara Stenn-All Rights Reserved Forcesforgood. (2016). Our Findings. Retrieved September 2, 2016 from: http://www.forcesforgood.net/findings.html FSC. (2016). Our History. FSC United States. Retrieved August 30, 2016 from: https://us.fsc.org/en-us/who-we-are/our-history Fuji Xerox. (August 2013). Fuji Xerox Australia Sustainability Report 2013. Fuji Xerox Australia Pty Limited. Australia.
Get your Reverse Trick or Treating Kit Today
  • J Garcia
  • A Lozano
  • J Olivera
  • C Ruiz
Garcia, J., Lozano, A., Olivera, J. & Ruiz, C. (2004). Learning Wisdom and the Good Way to Live. Amawtay Wasi Cross Cultural University. Imprenta Mariscal, Ecuador. GlobalExchange. (2016). Get your Reverse Trick or Treating Kit Today. Retrieved September 6, 2016 from: http://www.globalexchange.org/get-your-reverse-trick-ortreating-kit-today Goldstein, D. (Spring 1998). Performing National Culture in a Bolivian Migrant Community. Ethnology. Vol. 37, No. 2, Special Issue: Relocating Bolivia: Popular Political. pp. 117-132
Postcolonial Developments
  • A Gupta
Gupta, A. (2003). Postcolonial Developments. Duke University Press.
Bolivia has transformed itself by ignoring the Washington Consensus. The Guardian
  • L Hernandez Navarro
Hernandez Navarro, L. (12 March 2012). Bolivia has transformed itself by ignoring the Washington Consensus. The Guardian. Retrieved August 27, 2016 from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/cifamerica/2012/mar/21/boliviawashington-consensus
NCA's 2014 Annual Confectionery Industry review
  • T Mesenbourg
Mesenbourg, T. (7 December 2010). Women-Owned Businesses. Random Samplings. US Census Bureau. NCA. (2014). NCA's 2014 Annual Confectionery Industry review. Retrieved September 6, 2016 from: http://www.candyusa.com/data-insights/state-of-the-confectionery-industry/ NewBelgium. (2016). Values and Stories. Retrieved September 6, 2016 from: http://www.newbelgium.com/sustainability
Comparing The Top Boss's Pay To Yours. All things considered
  • Y Noguchi
Noguchi, Y. (28 August 2015). Comparing The Top Boss's Pay To Yours. All things considered. National Public Radio, NPR.
Thinking and Doing the Ethic of Liberation and Buen Vivir In 21st
  • L Sanchez
Sanchez, L. (2013). Thinking and Doing the Ethic of Liberation and Buen Vivir In 21st
Andean Cosmologies in the Ontological Crisis of the 21st Century
  • Century Ecuador
Century Ecuador. Andean Cosmologies in the Ontological Crisis of the 21st Century. State University of New York, Albany.
About us. Intercontinental Network for the Promotion of Social Social Solidarity Economy, RIPESS. Retrieved August
  • Ripess
RIPESS. (2016). About us. Intercontinental Network for the Promotion of Social Social Solidarity Economy, RIPESS. Retrieved August 30, 2016 from: http://www.ripess.org/about-us/?lang=en
No one pays full price anymore -and it's terrifying companies
  • M Schlossberg
Schlossberg, M. (18 October 2015). No one pays full price anymore -and it's terrifying companies. Business Insider. Businessinsider.com.
How Sundial Brands CEO Richelieu Dennis Is Challenging Segregation In The Beauty Aisle. Fast Company magazine
  • E Segran
Segran, E. (July 2016). How Sundial Brands CEO Richelieu Dennis Is Challenging Segregation In The Beauty Aisle. Fast Company magazine.
Unlocking the secrets of Quinoa, a comparative study of Andean women quinoa producers
  • T Stenn
Stenn, T. (2015). Unlocking the secrets of Quinoa, a comparative study of Andean women quinoa producers. Human Development Capabilities Approach, HDCA conference paper. Georgetown University.
Social Entrepreneurship as Sustainable Development: The Sustainability Lens-FINAL Publisher's Transcript c. 2016, Tamara Stenn-All Rights Reserved Thompson, L. (Fall 2010). Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options
  • S Taub
Taub, S. (19 June 2002). Crisis of Ethics: Ethics Officers Predict a New Wave of Corporate Scandals. CFO.COM. Retrieved August 27, 2016 from: http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3005220?f=search. Social Entrepreneurship as Sustainable Development: The Sustainability Lens-FINAL Publisher's Transcript c. 2016, Tamara Stenn-All Rights Reserved Thompson, L. (Fall 2010). Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options. Behav Anal. Association for Behavior Analysis International, ABAI. 33(2): 153-170.
From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia
  • J Webber
Webber, J. (2011). From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia. Haymarket Books.
10 principles of Fair Trade
  • L Woll
Woll, L. (16 March 2015). Voices: Lisa Woll, on the Rise of Social-Impact Investing. Markets. The Wall Street Journal. World Fair Trade Organization. (6 October 2011). 10 principles of Fair Trade. Retrieved August 30, 2012 from: http://www.wfto.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2&Itemid=14.
Lean takings as tightwad diners exploit Lentil As Anything's philosophy
  • A Worrall
Worrall, A. (February 2015). Lean takings as tightwad diners exploit Lentil As Anything's philosophy. GoodFood.com. Retrieved September 8, 2016 from: http://www.goodfood.com.au/eat-out/news/lean-takings-as-tightwad-diners-exploitlentil-as-anythings-philosophy-20150208-138wvk
Stone Paper. Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives
  • V Yee
Yee, V. (14 March 2016). Tainted-Water Worries Spread to Vermont Village. New York Times. NY. ZERI. (2016). Stone Paper. Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives, ZERI. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://www.zeri.org/stone-paper.html
How Patagonia's New CEO Is Increasing Profits While Trying To Save The World. Fast Company
  • D Baer
Baer, D. (28 February 2014). How Patagonia's New CEO Is Increasing Profits While Trying To Save The World. Fast Company. Retrieved August 27, 2016 from: http://www.fastcompany.com/3026713/lessons-learned/how-patagonias-new-ceo-isincreasing-profits-while-trying-to-save-the-world
Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy in first nations education a literature review with recommendations. Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs
  • M Battiste
Battiste, M. (2002). Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy in first nations education a literature review with recommendations. Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, INAC. Canada.
Using BerkShares -how it works
  • Berkshares
BerkShares. (2016). Using BerkShares -how it works. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://www.berkshares.org/how_to_spend
The butterfly effect. Chaos and Fractals. Space Telescope Science Institute
  • L Bradley
Bradley, L. (2010). The butterfly effect. Chaos and Fractals. Space Telescope Science Institute. Baltimore, MD.
The very simple reason more money is spent on lobbyists than on Congress
  • P Bump
Bump, P. (21 April 2015). The very simple reason more money is spent on lobbyists than on Congress. The Washington Post. DC.
Business Model Alchemist
  • Businessmodelalchemist
Businessmodelalchemist. (2016). Business Model Alchemist. Retrieved August 31, 2016 from: http://businessmodelalchemist.com/
Buy in bulk: Those big bins mean fewer recyclables. L.A. at Home. LA Times
  • S Carpenter
Carpenter, S. (October 2011). Buy in bulk: Those big bins mean fewer recyclables. L.A. at Home. LA Times. October 14, 2011.
Strategic planning for organizational "integrity" continuity is essential for avoiding, mitigating, and surviving organizational scandals and (un)ethical disasters
  • R Chandler
Chandler, R. (2005). Strategic planning for organizational "integrity" continuity is essential for avoiding, mitigating, and surviving organizational scandals and (un)ethical disasters. Graziadio Business review. Volume 8, Issue 3.