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Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2013 | ISSN - 2249-555X
ReseaRch PaPeR
Review on Herbs used as Admixture in Lime Mortar
used in Ancient Structures
P. Thirumalini Dr. S. K. Sekar
Associate professor, Civil Engineering, R.M.K.
Engineering college, R.S.M. Nagar, Kavaraipettai
Director, Centre for Disaster and Mitigation,
Management.( CDMM), Vellore Institute of
Admixtures, Lime mortar, Herbs Strength, Durability
ABSTRACT Lime is arguably the world first true green and versatile building material. With the introduction of Portland
cement during the nineteenth century the use of lime mortar in new constructions gradually declined, largely
due to Portland’s ease of use, quick setting and compressive strength. Lime posses’ greater qualities such as stickiness,
ease of applications, breathability moisture resistance, natural antiseptic, self -healing, durability, low thermal conductivity,
incombustible, solar production, harmonious balance. The traditional lime binder offers greater durability but less strong
compared to cement. Now-a-days various chemicals are used as admixture to improve the strength and performance of
concrete. The cement and chemicals used in modern construction causes environmental pollution and its effect is signifi-
cant. But a variety of plants and animal products used in traditional lime mortar not only improves the strength but also
proves its durability for centuries. This review article helps to identify the various herbs used in traditional construction and
its role in modifying the fresh and hardened properties of lime mortar. It also helps to retrieve the traditional concept of
additional of admixture to concrete. By shifting ourselves to use such eco-friendly (natural) admixtures in mortar will lead
the construction industry towards sustainable development.
Cement forms an integral part of the modern construction in-
dustry for past 100 years. Though cement mortar offers early
strength, faster construction, it has number of disadvantages
such as it is too strong for most of the building, the environ-
mental impacts during its manufacture, energy consumption
during manufacture. Also the long term durability and ser-
viceability and behavior under seismic forces is under great
Traditional structures in India are contemporary of all ages
and their synergic aspects can be adopted by the people of
all generation since the fundamental nature of construction
is always flexible and in tune with the rhythmic spatial forms
to suit the taste of every generation. Indian traditional struc-
tures built with lime mortar, which are more than 4000 years
old like Mohanjedero is still a heritage monument of Indian
civilization. It is more appropriate to blend the traditional
concept with modern structures.
Traditional Indian structures exist beyond all ages and can
be utilized by the people of every generation. Traditional
construction concepts will definitely provide inputs to sup-
plement modern construction methods and this will pave a
flexible run way by extracting the essence from ancient texts
and interpret it to suit modern constructions2.
Lime is versatile building material used in traditional tem-
ples and monuments Lime allows the building to “breathe”.
Water can escape by evaporation, unlike cement where the
only way the water can escape is by being absorbed into the
bricks and therefore, risking damp and erosion of the build-
ing substrate. Lime is soft and flexible. It allows the building
to move without cracking and letting water in (unlike cement)
it has been stated “self-healing” because of this ability. Lime
also has considerable economic advantages over Portland
cement. The cement is relatively expensive to produce and
critically for developing countries, often requires expensive
imported technologies and fuels. Lime has none of these
disadvantages and is normally considerably cheaper to pro-
duce, needs much lower or even negligible capital inputs to
get started, and requires far less imported technology and
equipment. Lime mortar is carbon neutral. Like cement it
gives off carbon dioxide during manufacture. Yet, unlike ce-
ment, lime mortar actually re-absorbs carbon dioxide when it
sets. It has many other benefits, such as:
· Lime mortar is easy to remove from bricks and blocks al-
lowing the reuse of the bricks.
· During manufacture lime produces 20% less carbon diox-
ide than cement production.
· Lime is essential in the building of any natural house (any
house built using straw bales, timber, earth etc).
· Lime is biodegradable and recyclable.
· Lime is burnt at a lower temperature than cement in
the production process (900°C as opposed to 1300°C),
therefore making lime production not only more environ-
mentally friendly but also more economic as well3.
Ancient structure
The ancient Egyptians proved themselves highly proficient
with Lime. About 6,000 years ago, they used lime to plaster
the pyramids at Giza, the Egyptians also incorporated vari-
ous limes into their religious temples as well as their homes.
The Greeks have enabled all of us to witness the beauty and
incredible durability of true lime stuccos. Innovative Greek
builders used these fine lime plasters in creating the Parthe-
non and many other classic structures that survive into the
present day4.
Lime was used extensively throughout the Roman Empire.
The builders during that time possessed a firm knowledge of
lime’s many beneficial features, as a mortar and as a decora-
tive finishing material. As the Empire grew, the Romans in-
fluenced architecture and structures throughout the civilized
world. Consequently, many more people learned to appreci-
ate the benefits of lime and embraced it as a building mate-
The Pont du Gard at Nimes in southern France, a Roman aq-
ueduct built in 18AD with hydraulic lime-based mortar, is still
water- proof; the excellence of the mortar is attributed to the
selection of the materials used as well as to the time spent
tamping the mix into place during construction5.
The Charminar in Hyderabad was the first monument in
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2013 | ISSN - 2249-555X
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the world constructed using lime mortar and granite. It was
only after its construction that the architects throughout the
world recognized the strength of lime-mortar in raising huge
structures. High workability, water retentivity, plasticity, more
adhesive power and a few other qualities seem to have en-
couraged the qutub shahi kings to make extensive use of
lime-mortar in almost all the monuments and palaces built by
them. Having a strong belief the plants and animal derivative
used as natural admixture in the lime mortar will definitely
improve strength and durability of the mortar.
Properties and Characteristics of Lime Mortar
Low mechanical strength due to the low affinity of the calcite
and quartz crystal, as well as to the weal linkage among the
calcite particle.
· Easy Workability due to the allow process of setting (Car-
bonation) that depends on the environment conditions
· High capacity of deformation (low modulus of elasticity).
It allows the material to absorb small movements of the
adjacent material.
· High permeability of water and water vapour.
· Low resistance to freeze and thaw cycles.
Admixture is used to modify the properties of fresh and hard-
ened mortar. There is variety of admixtures broadly classified
as chemical and mineral admixture. Admixtures are added
in the lime mortar to entrain air, to improve workability, to
increase hydrophobic properties and to modify the pore
structure etc.
Chemical Admixture
The chemical admixtures are hazardous in nature producing
negative impact on environment during its manufacturing
process as well as in its life span. In modern days different
chemicals such as calcium chloride, synthetic derivatives,
Lignosulphonate, Gluconate, Naphthalene etc. are in use to
modify the properties of mortar / concrete.
Mineral Admixtures
Mineral admixtures are naturally available which may be inor-
ganic or organic. The inorganic admixture includes flyash, sil-
ica fume, rice husk ash, granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)
and metakaolin etc.
Organic Admixtures
Organic admixtures (herbs) are locally available plants and
animal derivative which was only used in traditional lime mor-
tar. The information about herbs and its importance in usage
in construction industry is little known. Some reports indicate
that mortar may contain organic adhesive such as egg white,
blood, milk of figs, egg yolk, casein, animal glue, beer veg-
etable juices, tannin, urine etc. In this article herbs used in
construction of ancient building to enhance various proper-
ties of mortar is discussed.
Effects of Herbs used as Admixture in Traditional Mortar
The various herbs indentified as admixture across the world
is discussed below:
In china, study of typical mortar used in ancient architecture
shows that sticky rice is used as admixture. The sticky rice
plays a crucial role in the microstructure and consolidation
properties of lime mortar. Due to the excellent performance,
such as high adhesive strength, good toughness, water-proof
and so on, traditional mortar represented by sticky rice mor-
tar should be one of the greatest technological contribu-
tions of the day in the world. It was found that the sticky
rice acted as a matrix of bio-mineralization which affected
the microstructure of the calcium carbonate crystal and there
was cooperation between sticky rice and calcite produced
during the solidifying of the sticky rice mortar, which maybe
lead to the excellent performance of the mortar. Because of
excellent performance and importance in science, sticky rice
mortar can be regarded as one of the greatest inventions
in construction history of China. Relative research of sticky
mortar will be of importance for the exploring of ancient mo-
mentous invention and the repairing of ancient construction7.
Shetty8 has discussed the various natural polymers used in
different forms of construction around the world. Polished
gelatinous rice paste, viscous liquid obtained from elm shav-
ings in water, pluses, molasses, boiled stems and leaves of
banana plants, oils, egg whites cashew nut shell, liquid resin,
gluey fluid from cactus plants, natural rubber latex are some
of natural proteins and polymers mentioned in the book.
Starch and starch derivative have been widely used in lime
mortar is described as rheology modifying admixture. This
kind of additive is able to fix water in the structure, reducing
the amount of free water in the mixture and producing an in-
crease in viscosity. The starch alters slump value, air content,
density, water retention capacity, setting time etc. The starch
is called as water retaining admixture or viscocity enhancing
The influence of natural proteins on properties of cement
mortar. Natural organic materials were incorporated in build-
ing materials in ancient times. The major content in these
materials are proteins. Some proteins have been tested in
Portland cement mortar as admixture, Air entrainment, ad-
hesiveness and hydrophobic properties introduced to ce-
ment mortar by the proteins are measured. It is seen that
the proteins worked like an air entraining agents, improved
the adhesiveness and hydrophobic property. Air Entraining
admixture improve the cohesion of fresh mortar by entrain-
ing significant volume of air into the mortar. The air bubbles
ct like minute ball bearings and lubricate the mortar making
it easier to work. The plasticizing properties of the admixture
resulting decreased mix water demand, subsequent reduc-
tion in shrinkage and enhanced resistance of the mortar to
the destructive effects of exposure to freeze thaw conditions.
They also acted as retarders because of complex formation
with calcium by cross linking9.
Chandra10 has investigated the natural polymers have been
used in ancient times to improve the durability of the lime
mortars and concrete. The cactus extract (Nopal extract) from
Mexico has been tested in Portland cement mortar. Cactus
extract increases the plasticity, improves water absorption
and freeze salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by
Portland cement interacts with the components of cactus ex-
tract forms complexes of polycharides of proteins.
The retrofitting of centuries old Vadakkunnathan temple at
Thirrsur, Kerala was done using powdered shells, nine differ-
ent herbs and jaggery. The whole preparation, which took
40 days, required skilled traditional craftsmen which are very
few. Keeping in mind the hugeness of the temple, a separate
workshop had to be established and labour had to be trained
to make the special plaster11.
Manmadhan Nair12 discussed about the revonation work
carried out at Fort at Vettimurichakotta, Pazhavangadi, East
Fort, West Fort, Puthen Street, Sreevaraham and Virakupur-
akkotta using different composition of the plaster mixture
which was discovered from a palm leaf manuscript found in
the Padmanabhapuram Palace. An assortment of elements
including a variety of herbs and fruits and a particular spe-
cies of cactus were blended with palm jaggery and left to
ferment for 15 days. This concoction was mixed with lime to
prepare the plaster. The materials had to be sourced from
different places. Some of the rare herbs were available only
in the hills. In the first phase of the renovation project, the
seven entrances of the as well as the entrance near the Fort
Government Hospital were reconstructed.
The various herbs were used in traditional construction. A
mixture of lime, mud medicinal herbs for plastering, gums
collected from the bark of tress for the base of the floor. The
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mortar used for plastering in ayurveda bhavan is composed
of mud and herbal concoction. The mud for the bricks was
selected from uncontaminated sites to ensure that it is organ-
ic .It was then mixed with various gums and herbs and taken
to a kiln to be baked as bricks. Natural dyes made form red
clay were used to colour the bricks and natural gum was used
to coat them. The medicinal herbs used for preparation con-
struction materials were procured in the tribal belt bordering
the Maranallur panchayat, Kerala. The lime mortar makes an
incredible plastering material. It heats up during the rains,
keeping the occupants warm. During summer, it keeps the
house cool. It also endures for centuries. That why lime was
used in construction from time immemorial and lime building
can breathe just like other living organisms13.
The different dosages of a commercialized potato starch
were added to aerial lime-based mortars in order to check
its efficiency as a rheological modifier14. Several fresh state
properties of the mortars were studied such as consistency,
density, air content, water retention capacity, setting time
and evolution when applied on support. The effect of the
starch on ζ-potential of the lime particle surface as well as the
particle size distribution and viscosity changes in lime pastes
were also assessed in order to elucidate the action mecha-
nism of the polymer. The behaviour of this starch polymer
was found to be strongly dosage-dependent: it acted as a
thickener when the incorporated dosage was up to 0.30%
of lime weight; conversely, above that dosage, it behaved as
a plasticizer. The thickening effect took place because poly-
mer molecules were adsorbed onto lime particles acting as
a flocculant, as confirmed by zeta-potential and particle size
distribution results. For large amounts of polymer, steric hin-
drance and electrostatic repulsive forces appeared, leading
to a dispersion mechanism which explained the plasticizing
effect as well as the fresh mortar behaviour.
Chandra 15 has used Black gram has used as binder in mor-
tar and plaster in ancient time in India, was mixed in ce-
ment mortar, structural light weight aggregate concrete and
normal concrete. Air entrainment, adhesiveness and hydro-
phobic properties it imparted to cement mortar and con-
cretes were tested. It is seen that it worked like air entraining
agent, has improved the adhesiveness and hydrophobicity
of cement mortar and concrete. Addition of oil along with
black gram worked as a defoaming agent and has substan-
tially improved the hydrophobic property of lime mortar and
concrete. The herbs which impart hydrophobic property are
water repellent admixture or permeability or water proofers.
They may produce a hydrophobic lining in the pores of the
cement matrix thereby reducing capillary forces and reducing
the rate of passage of water through the hardened mortar or
acts as filling and blocking the pores of the Lime matrix.
The individual and combined effect of latex (rubber milk) and
superplasticiser on Portland cement mortar in the fresh state
were studied by Indrajit Ray. et.al16. The compatibility of five
commercial superplasticisers with four latexes of the vinyl
polymer group and SBR latex in varying dosages was stud-
ied with respect to setting time, consistency of fresh cement
pastes, subjective workability (surface texture, segregation),
bleeding, air content, water reduction capacity and the flow-
time relationship of fresh mortar. It has been observed that
superplasticisers of melamine formaldehyde and a blend of
melamine and naphthalene formaldehyde eliminated short-
comings like delayed setting, high air entrainment in the
fresh latex-modified system whereas lignosulphonate and a
blend of lignosulphonate and naphthalene formaldehyde ag-
gravated it.
Just 55 seconds in duration, it left 1000 people dead. The
earth quake, measuring 6.1 on the richer scale , which dev-
astated the hills of Uttarkasi, Tehri Garhwal and Chamoli dis-
tricts in UP last October, also left 20 percent of the houses
in the region totally destroyed or severely damaged. Old
temples in the area provide valuable clues to the building
methodology of the past. For instance, the Vishwanath tem-
ple, a local attraction, has a conical dome built on wooden
planks piled one above the other in hexagonal fashion. While
the modern structures in the temples complex are collapsed,
the temple itself as survived with only superficial cracks on
its walls. According to the temple’s mahant. The secret lies
in the mishala (mortar) used in the structure. A lime mortar
was prepared without any mud and ten mixed wit a paste
of jaggery and pulses. But the high costs and the erosion
of traditional skills are rendered such technology obsolete17.
One of the best structure, in Lahore fort belongs to Jahan-
gir‘s period. In this lime plaster, Lime prepared by burning
kankar which is a type of clay, glue, gum preferable of bab-
bool or neem, shell lime, sand jaggery water were used. 36
liters of his paste is mixed with whites of ten eggs, 225 g.
of ghee and sour curd in soap stone are additionally used18.
In Indo – Muslim Architecture, Jharoka19 has investigated and
identified mortar is the mixture of gypsum or baked lime,
sand and ash. The following admixtures which are listed in
Table 1 are used to modify the properties of lime mortar.
Table 1. Mineral admixture and its purpose used in Indo –
Muslim architecture
Herbs Purpose
Curd Soft finishing
Dal urd Plastersizer
Jute fiber Better bonding
Gum from plants Retarder
Raw Sugar Bonding agent
Straw Reducing cracks
Glue Increase bond strength
Jaggery sugar Hardening
Summary of Literature
Similar to chemical admixture in modern construction,
herbal admixture had been added in traditional construc-
tion. The herbs were used in lime mortar is subjected to
its local availability.
By exploring the traditional knowledge of herbs used in
concrete, we can blend the traditional concept with mod-
ern structures. Traditional construction concepts will defi-
nitely provide inputs to supplement modern construction
methods and this will pave a flexible run way by extract-
ing the essence from ancient texts.
From the various studies conducted on ancient structures
it is evident that organic proteins and carbohydrates are
used in concrete to enhance the fresh and hardened
properties of concrete.
The sticky rice paste, potato starch, black gram and other
pulses, rubber milk (latex) viscous liquid obtained from
elm shavings in water, pluses, molasses, boiled stems
and leaves of banana plants, oils, egg whites cashew nut
shell, liquid resin, gluey fluid from cactus plants and pow-
dered shells were some of the natural material used in
the traditional construction .
In India different plant extract has been used as admix-
ture whose role in lime mortar is not known. The build-
ings in ancient times are constructed not to with stand
the external forces but also well being of inhabitants. The
ingredients used in plaster and mortars makes the envi-
ronment healthy because the building itself breathe like
an organism.
The lack of traditional knowledge and skills has made eco-
friendly construction techniques and practice obsolete. The
indigenous knowledge of various plants and animal deriva-
tive used in construction industry must be retrieved and its
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2013 | ISSN - 2249-555X
ReseaRch PaPeR
REFERENCE 1. Holmes, Stafford. “An Introduction to building limes.” Foresight Lime Research Conference. Manchester University, November (2002). |
2. David S Mitchell “Inform guide: the use of lime and cement in traditional buildings” Published by Technical Conservation, Research and
Education Group, Historic Scotland, Edinburgh, July (2007). | 3. Pritchett and Ian. “Lime Mortar vs. Cement” Master Builder Magazine, the Federation of Master
Builders, July 2003. | 4. Lauren B. Sickels-Taves and Philip D. Allsopp, “lime and its place in the 2st century: combining tradition, innovation, and science in building
preservation” International Building Lime Symposium 2005 Orlando, Florida, March 9-11, (2005). | 5. Quach, Thornton and Gillis “Article on lime mortar”, January
(2005). | 6. Santha Kumar A.R. “Concrete Technology” OXFORD University press, pp.75-82 (2007). | 7. FuWei Yang, Bing Jian Zhang, Chang Chu Pan and Yuyao
Zeng “Traditional mortar represented by sticky rice mortar- One of the great inventions in ancient china Science in China E: Technological Sciences, Special issue in
Engineering Thermo physics, Vol.52, No.6, pp.1641-1647 (2008). | 8. Shetty. M.S “Concrete Technology Theory and practice”, S. Chand and Company, pp.124-135
(2006). | 9. S.Chandra and J. Aavik “Influence of proteins on some properties of Portland cement mortar”, Division of Building Materials, Chalmers University of
Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, Vol.9, Issue 2, pp.91-94, May (1987). | 10. Chandra. S. Eklund. L. and Villarreal. R.R. “Use of cactus in mortar and Concrete” Cement
& Concrete Research Vol.1, pp.41-51, (1998). | 11. Venus Vinod Upadhyaya “Reviving an ancient shrine” The Hindu (2008). | 12. V. Manmadhan Nair, “Reclaiming
heritage” The Hindu (2003). | 13. T. Nandha Kumar, “When Ayurveda Led Architecture”, The Hindu, July (2010). | 14. A.Izaguirre, J. Lanas and J.I. Álvarez ¬ “Behaviour
of a starch as a viscosity modifier for aerial lime-based mortars”, Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol.80, Issue 1, 25, pp.222-228, March (2010). | 15. S. Chandra and J. Aavik
“Influence of black gram (natural organic material) addition as admixture in cement mortar and concrete “Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.13, Issue 3, pp.423-
430, May (1983). | 16. Indrajit Ray, A.P. Gupta, M. Biswas “Effect of latex and superplasticiser on Portland cement mortar in the fresh state “Cement and Concrete
Composites, Vol.16, Issue 4, pp.309-316 May (2009). | 17. Anumita Roychowdhury “Building up a dangerous trend “www.India, Down to
Earth, Vol.1, Issue 19920615, June (1992). | 18. Najma kabir, Dr Khizar Hayat and Dr. M. Salim Akhter “An investigation of mortar in Jahangir‘s Quadrangle, Lahore Fort,
Pakistan”, National Research Conference (NRC), Pakistan Academy of Science, Lahore Chapter, University of South Asia, (2007). | 19. Jharoka “A illustrated Glossary
of Indo – Muslim Architecture, Jaipur vy R. Nath” Published by Ajay Nath for HRD Programme Jaipur, India pp.81 (1986). |
role in enhancement of properties of concrete has to be stud-
ied in detail. If traditional admixtures are used in concrete;
the environmental negative impact of use of chemical admix-
ture can be eliminated.
Acknowledgement :
I thank Dr.M.Namirajan, Member secretary, Archeological
Survey of India, Bangalore, who instrumental in under taking
research work in ancient Temples.
... In China the application of lime technologies began by the middle to late Western Zhou dynasty (1046-771 BC), when it was broadly used for the reinforcement of groundwork foundations and roofs. Referring to traditional structures in India, lime-based mortar is more than 4000 years old (Thirumalini and Sekar, 2013) with evidence from the deposits of lime plaster lining ovens and cylindrical pits found within the houses of the site of Kalibangan, Rajasthan, dating back to the proto-Harappan period, 3500-2500 BC (IGNCA, 2009). The use of lime in structures became more common in the 1 st millennium BC. ...
... Interestingly, almost everywhere lime mixtures included a variety of organic compounds, presumably to enhance mechanical properties, water resistance and/or carbonation velocity (Thirumalini and Sekar, 2013). Organic additives in lime mortar were also commonly used by Egyptians, Minoans and Romans, aiming at improving mechanical and working properties. ...
... The objective of this study is to identify the various herbs used in traditional construction and its role in modifying the fresh and hardened properties of lime mortar. The author also aims to retrieve the traditional concept of addition of admixture to concrete [8]. ...
... The buildings in ancient times are constructed not only to withstand the external forces but also wellbeing of inhabitants. The ingredients used in plaster and mortars makes the environment healthy because the building itself breathe like an organism [8]. ...
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Lime is the versatile mineral. Various forms of lime are used in environmental, metallurgical, construction, chemical/industrial applications, and more. It has been used for masonry mortars and plastering for centuries. Lime is usually obtained from lime stone. Places like Kerala where lime stone is scarce, lime is majorly obtained from seashells so they developed their own traditional method to extract lime. Shell lime was one of the major components in construction of most of the houses, temples, bridges, dams etc. in Kerala during the earlier days. People used shell lime not only as a replacement to cement but also as a plastering agent which helps to reduce temperature in the interiors. This dissertation is retrospection into the vernacular method of making lime mortar from seashells by visiting the workspace. The study also intends to analyse the challenges faced by this method and provide with necessary recommendations.
... Trying to discover alternative admixtures is highly beneficial in the construction of environmentally friendly concretes. According to historical records, ancient structures left by Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Indian civilizations were usually built with lime as a binding medium, and this material was a versatile material to use in traditional temples and monuments (Thirumalini and Sekar, 2013).Additionally, different bio admixtures were used by the builders to prepare their lime stuccos. ...
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... Trying to discover alternative admixtures is highly beneficial in the construction of environmentally friendly concretes. According to historical records, ancient structures left by Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Indian civilizations were usually built with lime as a binding medium, and this material was a versatile material to use in traditional temples and monuments (Thirumalini and Sekar, 2013).Additionally, different bio admixtures were used by the builders to prepare their lime stuccos. ...
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... Overall, the carbohydrate, protein and fat compositions in different organic materials and their interaction with lime are important factors that affect compressive strength and increase bonding properties [82]. ...
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Investigation the Effect of Natural Additives (Mulberry and Grape Liquid) on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Normal Concrete
Black gram, used as binder in mortar and plaster in ancient time in India, was mixed in cement mortar, structural ligthweight aggregate concrete and normal concrete. Air entrainment, adhesiveness and hydrophobic properties it imparted to cement mortar and concretes were tested. It is seen that it worked like air entraining agent, has improved the adhesiveness and hydrophobicity of cement mortar and concrete. Addition of oil along with black gram worked as a defoaming agent and has substantially improved the hydrophobic property of cement mortar and concrete.
An Introduction to building limes
  • Stafford Holmes
REFERENCE 1. Holmes, Stafford. "An Introduction to building limes." Foresight Lime Research Conference. Manchester University, November (2002). |