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State of Knowledge of Butterfly Fauna of Albania, with Three New Species for the Country

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The butterfly fauna of Albania, a country located in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, has remained poorly studied, even though 201 species have been reported. It was expected that new species would be added to the country’s checklist because of their geographic ranges and known occurrence in adjacent, usually better surveyed regions. We recorded two new species (Anthocharis damone, Melitaea diamina) during faunal field explorations in 2003-2012 and a third (Cacyreus marshalli) during a tourist visit to Tiranë, thus increasing to 204 the number of species recorded in the country. In addition, we provide the first chronological records of Colias aurorina and Pieris balcana. We also confirmed the occurrence of Apatura metis, which was recorded in this country more than 80 years ago. For the species recorded we have extended their known geographical ranges in southern Europe. At present, Albania is the country in the western Balkans with the second highest number of butterfly species recorded after Greece (235) and ahead of Macedonia (203).
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511
ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA
Acta zool. bulg., 68 (4), 2016: 511-518
Zoogeography and Faunistics
Research Article
Introduction
Even though the buttery fauna of Albania is one
of the richest in Europe, it has been poorly studied
(Re b e l & Ze R n y 1931, Mi s j a 2005, Ku d R n a et al.
2011, V
e R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć 2013a). The recent mon-
ograph on the Albanian Rhopalocera included 178
species (Mi s j a 2005) but the records of several spe-
cies (Pyrgus foulquieri, Spialia sertorius, Pontia da-
plidice, Tarucus theophrastus, Lycaena hippothoe,
Hipparchia alcyone, Satyrus actaea, Coenonympha
tullia and Coenonympha gardetta) and (or) their
presence in this country (and some of them in the
Balkans) seem doubtful, as the known ranges of some
of these species are limited to SW Europe (To l M a n
& le w i n g T o n 2008, Ku d R n a et al. 2011, Ve R o V n i K
& Po P o v i ć 2013b). Many species were reported by
Mi s j a (2005) only from single localities and their oc-
currence in Albania is doubtful. For example, the only
record of Euphydryas maturna is based on a specimen
without a label and known locality from the collection
of the Museum of Natural History in Tiranë (Mi s j a
2005). In this case, it is not even certain whether the
specimen was collected in Albania.
The annotated checklist of Albanian butteries by
V
e R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć (2013b) includes 196 species but
these authors did not review the data from the book by
Mi s j a (2005). This may have caused some discrepan-
cies in the number of species in the Albanian check-
list. Two further species should be added to the coun-
try’s list based on records published by Mi s j a (2005).
Euchloe penia has been reported from one locality
(Gram–Kumbull) in Eastern Albania, near the border
with Macedonia, whereas Pseudochazara cingovskii
has been reported from two sites (Shtikë–Gramos and
Qafa e Qarrit) in the south-east, near the border with
Greece. Although not discussed in the revised Albanian
checklist (V
e R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć 2013b), another spe-
cies, Apatura metis, was reported from Tiranë by Re b e l
& Ze R n y (1931) as the form Apatura ilia metis.
State of Knowledge of Buttery Fauna of Albania,
with Three New Species for the Country
Konrad Sachanowicz1, Sebastian Łuczkowski2 & Adam Larysz3
1 Museum and Institute of Zoology, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warsaw, Poland; E-mail: chassan@poczta.onet.pl
2 83-200 Starogard Gdański, Poland; E-mail: seblepi@wp.pl
3 Department of Nature, Upper Silesian Museum (USMB) Bytom, 41-902 Bytom, Poland; E-mail: a.larysz@muzeum.bytom.pl
Abstract: The buttery fauna of Albania, a country located in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, has remained
poorly studied, even though 201 species have been reported. It was expected that new species would be
added to the country’s checklist because of their geographic ranges and known occurrence in adjacent,
usually better surveyed regions. We recorded two new species (Anthocharis damone, Melitaea diamina)
during faunal eld explorations in 2003-2012 and a third (Cacyreus marshalli) during a tourist visit to
Tiranë, thus increasing to 204 the number of species recorded in the country. In addition, we provide the
rst chronological records of Colias aurorina and Pieris balcana. We also conrmed the occurrence of
Apatura metis, which was recorded in this country more than 80 years ago. For the species recorded we
have extended their known geographical ranges in southern Europe. At present, Albania is the country in
the western Balkans with the second highest number of buttery species recorded after Greece (235) and
ahead of Macedonia (203).
Key words: The Balkans Peninsula, biodiversity hotspot, distribution, rst records, Lepidoptera
512
Sachanowicz K., S. Łuczkowski & A. Larysz
On the other hand, several species (Muschampia
tessellum, Carterocephalus palaemon, Heteropterus
morpheus, Colias hyale, Melitaea aurelia,
Hipparchia semele and Nymphalis vaualbum) were
added to the Albanian list based on single uncon-
rmed records only or their known occurrence in
adjacent countries (V
eRoVniK & PoPović 2013b).
None of these species, except for Hipparchia seme-
le sensu lato (i.e. the H. semele group), were includ-
ed in the Albanian buttery fauna by Misja (2005).
This means that the number of species conrmed
for Albania is in fact slightly lower than that actu-
ally reported. However, the latest updated checklist
of the butteries of Albania contains 198 species
and indicates several other species expected to oc-
cur (ŠaŠić et al. 2015). Including E. penia, P. cin-
govskii and A. metis, the number of species reported
sums up to 201.
In this paper, we provide the rst records of
three buttery species, which are new for the fauna of
Albania, and the rst chronological records of Colias
aurorina and Pieris balcana recently reported for the
country (V
e R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć 2013a). We also con-
rm the occurrence of Apatura metis, which was rst
recorded in this country more than 80 years ago.
Materials and Methods
Distributional data on Albanian butteries were col-
lected during faunal, mainly chiropterological, eld
studies of different regions of the country between
2003 and 2012 (eight trips in total) by the rst author
and his colleagues. Butteries were observed and
photographed on different occasions and in different
habitats. In some cases specimens were also collected
with a hand net for further identication. One species
(C. marshalli) was recorded opportunistically during
a tourist visit to Tiranë. We identied butteries to
species level based on their external characteristics
following la f R a n c h i s (2004), To l M a n & le w i n g T o n
(2008). To separate P. balcana and P. napi we used
the characters provided by Zi e g l e R (2013).
Results
Anthocharis damone bo i s d u V a l , 1836
Borsh (N 40° 04.481’, E 19° 51.360’, 43 m
a.s.l.), 2 May 2010, one male (Fig. 1.) collected in
a rocky river gorge overgrown with bushes and old
plane trees (Fig. 2.), leg. K. Sachanowicz.
Anthocharis damone is known from a few lo-
calities in Europe: in southern Italy (Calabria, Sicily -
Mt. Etna); Greece (Corfu, Mitzekeli Mts., Parnassus
and Ghiona Massifs, Taygetos), Macedonia (Treska
Valley, Radika Valley, Galičica) and European
Turkey. It also occurs in Israel, Lebanon, Anatolia,
Syria, Northern Iraq and Iran (Kr P a č et al. 2011,
To l M a n & be R n h a R d 1994, To l M a n & le w i n g T o n
2008). The present record in Albania lls the gap
in the species distribution between Macedonia and
Corfu (Ku d R n a et al. 2011), and indicates the wid-
er occurrence of this species in the South-western
Balkans. According to the IUCN Red List Category,
A. damone has LC status in Europe (V
a n sw a a y et
al. 2010).
The host-plant of the larvae of this species
is Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) that grows on
hot, rocky slopes on limestone. Females lay eggs
on ower buds, and caterpillars feed on owers
and developing seeds. Pupation takes place on dry
plant-stems (To l M a n & be R n h a R d 1994, To l M a n &
le w i n g T o n (2008). A univoltine species, the imagos
appear from early April to late May, according to
season and altitude.
Cacyreus marshalli bu T l e R , 1898
Tiranë (N 41° 19.766’. E 19° 49.154’, 112 m
a.s.l.), 23 August 2009, one male (Fig. 3) netted
when resting on red owers of Pelargonium sp. at
the Miniri Hotel, leg. S. Łuczkowski.
In Europe, this South African species was ac-
cidentally introduced to the Balearic Islands at
the end of the 1980s and spread quickly to other
Mediterranean Sea islands and countries (To l M a n
& le w i n g T o n 2008). Single specimens have been
observed also in other parts of Europe, most likely
transported there with the host plants Pelargonium
sp. The latest records of this species come from
Slovenia (Po l a K 2009), Croatia (Ko s m a č & Ve R o V n i K
2009), Greece (an a s T a s i o u et al. 2010, Ma R T i n o u et
al. 2011, al e x i o u 2014) and Bulgaria (la n g o u R o V &
si M o V 2014). Its IUCN status in Europe is NA (Va n
sw a a y et al. 2010).
Melitaea diamina (la n g , 1789)
Recorded at two sites: near Lepushë (N 42°
32.150’, E 19° 40.898’, 1472 m a.s.l.) and near
Bashkimi (N 42° 34.362’, E 19° 44.415’, 1383 m
a.s.l.) on 23 June 2011; single individuals were ob-
served and netted (Fig. 4) on mountain grassland at a
forest edge (Fig. 5), leg. K. Sachanowicz.
Melitaea diamina is distributed from Northern Spain
northwards to South Fennoscandia through Central
Europe, across temperate Asia to Japan (Ku d R n a
et al. 2011). In the Balkans, the species is known
from a few localities from Croatia to Montenegro, in
Bulgaria, and from one locality in Macedonia; it has
not been reported from Greece (To l M a n & le w i n g T o n
State of Knowledge of Buttery Fauna of Albania, with Three New Species for the Country
513
2008, Ku d R n a et al. 2011). The larval host-plant is
Valeriana sp. The eggs are laid in batches on the
leaves. The species hibernates as small larvae in a
silken web (To l M a n & le w i n g T o n 2008). The IUCN
status in Europe is LC (V
a n sw a a y et al. 2010).
Colias aurorina he R R i c h -sc h ä f f e R , 1850
Moravë (N 40° 34.907’, E 20° 50.000’, 1369 m
a.s.l.), 6 July 2011, one male (Fig. 6) and one female
collected in a dry glade in a mountain forest (Fig. 7)
with pine and r trees, as well as with the suspected
larval host-plant of this species – Astragalus sp., leg.
K. Sachanowicz.
Colias aurorina is distributed from the Southern
Balkans eastwards to Asia Minor, Caucasus and Iran
(Ku d R n a et al. 2011). In Europe it has one of the
smallest geographic ranges among the Colias spe-
cies: it is restricted to the mountains of Greece and
South-eastern Albania (To l M a n & le w i n g T o n 2008,
Ku d R n a et al. 2011, Ve R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć 2013a).
Two published records of this species from 2012
were from the same area of the Grammos Mts – the
locality in Dardhë (V
e R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć 2013a) is
situated at less than 10 km from our rst record of
this species near Moravë.
Fig. 1. Male upperside (a) and underside (b) of A. damone, Borsh, 2 May 2010, leg. K. Sachanowicz
Fig. 2. Habitat of A. damone, Borsh, 2 May 2010 (photo: K. Sachanowicz)
1 cm
ab
514
Sachanowicz K., S. Łuczkowski & A. Larysz
Fig. 3. Upperside (a) and underside (b) of C. marshalli, Tiranë, 23 August 2009, leg. S. Łuczkowski
Fig. 4. Upperside (a) and underside (b) of M. diamina, near Lepushë, 23 June 2011, leg. K. Sachanowicz.
Fig. 5. Habitat of M. diamina, near Lepushë, 23 June 2011 (photo: K. Sachanowicz)
ab
ab
State of Knowledge of Buttery Fauna of Albania, with Three New Species for the Country
515
The larval host-plant is Astragalus sp., e.g.
A. creticus, A. parnassi and A. thracicus. Ova are
laid on the upper side of its leaves; it hibernates as
a small larva (To l M a n & le w i n g T o n 2008, Ve R o V n i K
& Po P o v i ć 2013a). The IUCN status in Europe is LC
(V
a n sw a a y et al. 2010).
Pieris balcana Lo r K o v i ć , 1970
Qafa e Thores (N 42° 23.447’, E 19° 42.793’,
1541 m a.s.l.), 12 August 2007, one male (Fig. 8)
collected in a glade in a young mountain beech for-
est (Fig. 9), leg. K. Sachanowicz. The identication
of this specimen was conrmed by Heiner Ziegler
(pers. comm).
Pieris balcana is a European endemic species
known only from the Balkans and a part of cen-
tral Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia,
Bulgaria, Northern Greece (TolMan & lewingTon
2008), Croatia (TvrTKović et al. 2012), Serbia
(PoPović et al. 2013) and Romania (TöRöK &
cuZePan 2014). It was recorded at one site in South-
eastern Albania in 2012 (VeRoVniK, PoPović 2013a).
According to KudRna et al. (2011), the taxonom-
ic status of P. balcana as a separate species is not
clear.
Apatura metis fR e y e R , 1829
Kamicë (N 42° 13.083’, E 19° 21.663’, 8 m
a.s.l.), 7 September 2012, several individuals ob-
served and photographed (Fig. 10) on the shore of
Lake Shkoder (Skadar) overgrown with Phragmites
sp. and Salix sp. (Fig. 11), leg. K. Sachanowicz.
Fig. 6. Male Upperside (a) and underside (b) of C. aurorina, Moravë, 6 July 2011, leg. K. Sachanowicz.
Fig. 7. Habitat of C. aurorina, Moravë, 6 July 2011 (photo: K. Sachanowicz)
ab
516
Sachanowicz K., S. Łuczkowski & A. Larysz
Apatura metis is known from Eastern and South-
eastern Europe (Ku d R n a et al. 2011). It has been report-
ed from Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Northern Serbia,
Bulgaria, Northern Greece (To l M a n & le w i n g T o n
2008) and from the Lake Skadar in Montenegro near
the border with Albania (Ja K Š i ć 1988). A bivoltine
species, it occurs in hot wooded river margins with
its larval host-plant Salix alba L. Its IUCN status in
Europe is LC (V
a n sw a a y et al. 2010).
Discussion
As a result of our study we have increased the number
of buttery species known for Albania to 204.
Further, for the recorded species we have extended
their known geographical ranges in Southern Europe
(Ku d R n a et al. 2011). Currently, Albania has the sec-
ond highest number of buttery species recorded in
the Western Balkans after Greece (235 species, see:
Pa M P e R i s 2009) and is ahead of Macedonia (203 spe-
Fig. 8. Male Upperside (a) and underside (b) of P. balcana, Qafa e Thores, 12 August 2007, leg. K. Sachanowicz.
Fig. 9. Habitat of P. balcana, Qafa e Thores, 12 August 2007 (photo: K. Sachanowicz)
ab
State of Knowledge of Buttery Fauna of Albania, with Three New Species for the Country
517
cies, see: Ve R o V n i K & Po P o v i ć 2013b). However, the
list of Albanian butteries seems far from complete
and the presence of other species is expected, which
indicates that the fauna of this small country is one
of the most diverse in Europe (Ša Š i ć et al. 2015).
Acknowledgements: We thank Mateusz Ciechanowski and
Michał Piskorski for their participation in the eld work in Al-
bania, Roland Dobosz and Martin Wiemers for their help with
some literature difcult to access, Heiner Ziegler for conrming
our identication of P. balcana, Peter Senn for improving the
English and Stoyan Beshkov for comments on the manuscript.
Fig. 10. Female Upperside (a) and underside (b) of A. metis, Kamicë, 7 September 2012 (photo: K. Sachanowicz)
Fig. 11. Habitat of A. metis, Kamicë, 7 September 2012 (photo: K. Sachanowicz)
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Article
Full-text available
Field work conducted in 2016-2019 and 2022 contributed with additional data on 23 relatively rare species in Albania, including the second record of Cacyreus marshalli and the sixth record of Apatura metis. Several new localities are given for Danaus chrysippus, which proved to be not rare on the southern coast of Albania.
... In van Swaay & Warren (1999) the data quality for Albania was quoted by Prof. Kastriot Misja (Museum of Natural Sciences, Tiranë, Albania) as moderate for the estimation of the distribution and as poor for the estimation of trend. These facts concerning the Albanian butterfly diversity and distribution are also highlighted by the low number of publications over more than a century (Rebel 1913, 1917, Rebel & Zerny 1931, Moucha 1963, Alberti 1965, Popescu-Gorj 1971, Murraj 1972, Misja & Kurrizi 1984, Luquet & Misja 1989a, 1989b, Gaskin 1990, Misja 1993, Beshkov 1994, 1995, Beshkov & Misja 1995, Abadjiev & Beshkov 1996a, 1996b, van Swaay & Warren 1999, Misja 2003, 2005, Striniqi-Laçej 2008, Płóciennik et al. 2009, Eckweiler 2012, Striniqi-Laçej & Misja 2013, Verovnik & Popović 2013a, Gascoigne-Pees et al. 2014, Šašić et al. 2015, Micesvki 2015, Cuvelier et al. 2016, Sachanowicz et al. 2016. ...
... In recent years, the country became more accessible to foreigners. Recent surveys (Eckweiler 2012, Verovnik & Popović 2013a, Šašić et al. 2015, Micevski 2015, Sachanowicz et al. 2016 increased the number of confirmed butterfly species for the country or added important extensions to their known distributions. However, the actual data remain insufficient (Verovnik & Popović 2013b) because not only new species for the country can still be expected but also the knowledge about their distributions in Albania can be vastly improved. ...
... Cuvelier et al. (2016) documented two extreme forms of P. amymone from Albania. Sachanowicz et al. (2016) reported their surveys and added two new species: Melitaea diamina (Lang, 1789) and Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898. They provided a new locality for A. damone and confirmed C. aurorina, P. balcana and A. metis. ...
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Three new butterfly species were recorded for Albania during two recent surveys: Pyrgus andromedae (Wallengren, 1853), Colias caucasica (Staudinger, 1871) and Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946. Also Boloria titania (Esper, 1793) is new for the current Albanian territory that had previously been described by Rebel from the historical, larger Albania but situated now in Kosovo. Two data deficient species from the last checklist are confirmed: Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas, 1771) and Hipparchia semele (Linnaeus, 1758). The status of six species is changed from present to data deficient or potential presence because of lacking recent evidence: Pontia chloridice (Hübner, 1813), Satyrium pruni (Linnaeus, 1758), Neptis rivularis (Scopoli, 1763), Euphydryas maturna (Linnaeus, 1758), Coenonympha glycerion (Borkhausen, 1788) and Kirinia climene (Esper, 1783). The geographical distribution for Pseudochazara tisiphone Brown, 1980 is significantly expanded to central Albania. Dot distribution maps are provided for all Albanian butterfly species. In addition to the new data, the available literature is screened, resulting in a mandatory update of the checklist for the Albanian butterflies: 196 species with recent evidence, 4 are data deficient and at least 9 have the potential to be discovered with future surveys. Përmbledhje. 3 lloje të reja fluturash për Shqipërinë janë përcaktuar nga analiza e materialeve të koleksionuara gjatë dy hetimeve shkencore të realizuara së fundmi: Pyrgus andromedae (Wallengren, 1853), Colias caucasica (Staudinger, 1871) dhe Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946. Gjithashtu edhe Boloria titania (Esper, 1793) është tashmë një lloj i ri për territorin e Shqipërisë pasi më parë ky lloj është raportuar nga Rebel në zonën që sot ndodhet në Republikën e Kosovës. Dy lloje të pakonfirmuara në listën e fundit të paraqitur për fluturat e Shqipërisë: Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas, 1771) dhe Hipparchia semele (Linnaeus, 1758), konfirmohen nga ky studim. Statusi i 6 llojeve të klasifikuara më parë si lloje të mundshme për territorin e Shqipërisë ose si lloje me të dhëna jo të plota (Pontia chloridice (Hübner, 1813), Satyrium pruni (Linnaeus, 1758), Neptis rivularis (Scopoli, 1763), Euphydryas maturna (Linnaeus, 1758), Coenonympha glycerion (Borkhausen, 1788) dhe Kirinia climene (Esper, 1783)) bazuar në të dhënat e këtij studimi tashmë ka ndryshuar. Zona e përhapjes së Pseudochazara tisiphone Brown, 1980, është shtrirë në mënyrë të dukshme edhe në Shqipërinë e mesme. Në këtë punim paraqiten hartat e shpërndarjes të të gjitha llojeve të fluturave të Shqipërisë. Bashkangjitur të dhënave të reja të këtij studimi është paraqitur dhe një analizë e hollësishme e të dhënave të literaturës, që jep si produkt listën e përditësuar të të gjithë fluturave të Shqipërisë. Bazuar në të dhënat e këtij studimi të kryer së fundmi, 196 lloje fluturash referohen për territorin e Shqipërisë, 4 lloje kanë mungesë të dhënash dhe të paktën 9 lloje kanë mundësi të gjenden në studime të ardhshme. Samenvatting. Gedurende twee recente onderzoeken werden drie soorten dagvlinders ontdekt die nieuw zijn voor Albanië: Pyrgus andromedae (Wallengren, 1853), Colias caucasica (Staudinger, 1871) en Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946. Ook Boloria titania (Esper, 1793) is nieuw voor het huidige Albanese grondgebied maar werd eerder beschreven uit het voormalige, grotere Albanië dat nu deel uitmaakt van Kosovo. Twee data deficiënte soorten van de laatste checklist worden bevestigd: Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas, 1771) en Hipparchia semele (Linnaeus, 1758). Door het ontbreken van recente evidentie wordt de status van zes soorten veranderd tot data deficiënt of potentieel aanwezig: Pontia chloridice (Hübner, 1813), Satyrium pruni (Linnaeus, 1758), Neptis rivularis (Scopoli, 1763), Euphydryas maturna (Linnaeus, 1758), Coenonympha glycerion (Borkhausen, 1788) en Kirinia climene (Esper, 1783). De geografische verspreiding van Pseudochazara tisiphone Brown, 1980 wordt significant uitgebreid tot centraal Albanië. Er zijn punt-verspreidingskaarten voorzien voor alle Albanese dagvlindersoorten. Naast de nieuwe gegevens wordt de beschikbare literatuur gescreend wat resulteert in een noodzakelijke update van de checklist voor de Albanese dagvlinders. 196 soorten met recent bewijsmateriaal worden in de nieuwe checklist opgenomen, 4 soorten zijn data deficiënt en ten minste 9 andere taxa kunnen bij toekomstig onderzoek worden gevonden.
... In the Balkan Peninsula it was first recorded in Croatia on the island of Mali Lošinj (Kosmač & Verovnik 2009) and in Slovenia the same year (Polak 2009). It has since spread along the Adriatic coast (Kučinić et al. 2014), reaching Bosnia and Herzegovina (Koren & Kulijer 2016) and Albania (Sachanowicz et al. 2016). Therefore, the discovery of this species in Montenegro comes as no surprise. ...
... After reviewing all the relevant information available in literature, together with the author's own data, the number of species of butterflies recorded for Montenegro has increased to 192. This list comprises 32 extra species compared to the previous checklist published by Sijarić (1984) and brings the species count close to that of its neighbouring countries: 195 species recorded in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Lelo 2016), 197 for Croatia Koren & Štih 2013;Kučinić et al. 2013;, 199 in Serbia (Jakšić et al. 2013), and 203 for Albania Micevski et al. 2015;Sachanowicz et al. 2016). Four species, Pontia chloridice, Colias erate, Pseudophilotes bavius and Erebia pharte have been excluded from the list even though published records exist. ...
Article
Montenegro is, from an entomological point of view, one of the least studied countries in Europe. The Lepidoptera order has been severely understudied and an updated butterfly checklist has not been published for more than 30 years. Without proper knowledge on the species composition, and their distribution throughout the country, appropriate conservation measures cannot be undertaken. Thus an updated checklist of the butterflies of Montenegro was urgently needed. In this paper a list of 192 species of butterflies is presented, based on all available literature and on the authors’ own data gathered from 1998 to 2017. The inclusion or omission of some species from the list, as well as the occurrence and distribution of rare species, is discussed. A short historic overview of entomological research in Montenegro is also included. Records of five species, Lycaena thersamon, Kretania sephirus, Neptis sappho, Arethusana arethusa, and Erebia alberganus, discovered for the first time in the country, are presented.
... It was accidentally introduced into the Balearic archipelago ( EITSCHBERGER & STAMER, 1990) through the importation of its ornamental host plant (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) and since then it has continued to spread its areal throughout Europe. Currently, its known range in Europe includes Spain (RAYNOR, 1990; SARTO I MONTEYS & MASO, 1991;SARTO I MONTEYS, 1992), Belgium (TROUKENS, 1991), Italy ( TREMATERRA et al., 1997), France, Portugal and Morocco ( TARRIER, 1998), Malta (SAMMUT, 2007), Sweden (RYRHOLM, 2007), Slovenia (POLAK, 2009), Croatia ( KOSMAČ & VEROVNIK, 2009;KUČINIĆ et al., 2013), Greece (PAMPERIS, 2009PARKER, 2010;ANASTASSIU et al., 2010;COUTSIS et al., 2011;MARTINOU et al., 2011;GALANOS, 2014GALANOS, , 2016), Turkey (SOYHAN et al., 2013), Bulgaria ( LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2014), Bosnia and Herzegovina (KOREN & KULIJER, 2016) and Albania ( SACHANOWICZ et al., 2016). A recent publication ( LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017) expands the list with Macedonia and Montenegro. ...
... Therefore, we give an updated distribution map of the species in Europe ( Fig. 2). The following records are taken into account: Croatia ( KUČINIĆ et al., 2013), Bosnia and Herzegovina (KOREN & KULIJER, 2016), Albania ( SACHANOWICZ et al., 2016), Greece ( PAMPERIS, 2009;PARKER, 2010;ANASTASSIU et al., 2010;COUTSIS et al., 2011;MARTINOU et al., 2011;GALANOS, 2014GALANOS, , 2016PAMPERIS, 2017), Bulgaria ( LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2014) and the Balkan Peninsula ( LANGOUROV & SIMOV, 2017). Overlooked records from Turkey ( SOYHAN et al., 2013) and Malta (SAMMUT, 2007) are also included. ...
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This study reports new data of the Geranium Bronze butterfly Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898) for the Republic of Macedonia. This record is the deepest one from the Balkan mainland. Updated distribution map of the species in Europe is presented.
... The data were further integrated with 135 occurrences for nine countries obtained from the literature (Franeta 2018;Hermansen 2011;Kolev and Tsvetanov 2018;Koren and Kulijer 2016;Langourov and Simov 2014;Sachanowicz et al. 2016;Sammut 2007;Verovnik et al. 2011), and another set of 451 records for Italy from the Papilionoidea database (Balletto et al. 2007). ...
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Alien species introduction is a global phenomenon involving different invasion patterns and is characterized by niche conservatism or shift. We describe the spatial distribution of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, [1898] (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in its native (southern Africa) and invaded (Europe) ranges. C. marshalli is the only alien butterfly in Europe, introduced by the trade of ornamental Pelargonium plants, and might threaten native lycaenids because of the chance of its naturalization on indigenous Geranium spp. In Europe, C. marshalli is widespread in the Mediterranean basin, but absent in northern countries. We investigate invasion patterns and their temporal dynamics in Italy, the most extensively invaded country, identifying three phases and different rates of spread resulting from multiple introductions and human-mediated movements. We also characterize and compare the native and invasive ecological niches of C. marshalli with a multivariate approach based on bioclimatic, ecological and human demographic variables. The little overlap between the native and invaded niches (12.6%) indicates a shift in the realized niche of C. marshalli. While the expansion potential of C. marshalli in Europe remains constrained by the distribution of suitable host plants, our niche comparison analysis suggests the species has already invaded new ecological and climatic spaces. This includes colder areas than would be suggested by its native distribution in Africa.
... The first records for the Balkan Peninsula are from 2008 and 2009 -Slovenia (Polak 2009), Croatia (Kosmač & Verovnik 2009) and Greece (Pamperis 2009). Since then many new localities have been discovered, especially in the Mediterranean zone (in Albania: Sachanowicz et al. 2016;Croatia: Kučinić et al. 2014;Greece: Coutsis et al. 2011, Martinou et al. 2011Slovenia: Verovnik et al. 2011). In Bulgaria the species was recorded for the first time in 2014 from two localities in the southern Struma River Valley (Langourov & Simov 2014). ...
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The present paper reports some new records of the species Geranium Bronze (Cacyreus marshalli) from certain localities in the Mediterranean part of the South-East Balkan Peninsula, along with data regarding its biology. The collection of the data was done as a part of field work across Bulgaria, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, as well as from other different sources (literature data, personal communications and the Internet). The first finding of the Geranium Bronze in the R. of Macedonia is also reported here.
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In the present paper, we provide a first IUCN checklist of the butterfly species of Sibiu County. Using literature data, personal records and the collections deposited in the Natural History Museum from Sibiu, we have identified 102 red list species from which 25 species are protected by Romanian law. Leptotes pirithous (Linnaeus, 1767), Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767), Pieris balcana (Lorkovic, 1970), Arethusana arethusa (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), Hipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel, 1766), Satyrium ilicis (Esper, 1779), Lycaena helle (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), Leptidea juvernica (Williams, 1946), Phengaris rebeli (Hirschke, 1904), Polyommatus amandus (Schneider, 1792), Erebia sudetica radnaensis (Rebel, 1915) and Hyponephele lycaon (Rottemburg, 1775) have very old or questionable records and their presence in Sibiu County requires confirmation. Dumbrava Sibiului and Guşteriţa are possible butterfly hot spots in the Sibiu County. These locations have the highest abundance of red list and protected species.
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The butterfly fauna (Papilionoidea) of the National Park Galičica is relatively well known. However, the literature data on species found by numerous authors are generally without listed localities, for example only mentioning Galičica, Ohrid, etc. Research results on butterfly fauna in the National Park Galičica is based on a review of the material from the Macedonian Museum of Natural History (SKO), and of all literature data which were accessible to us, as well as many years of continuous investigations into this group of insects. As a result of investigations carried out, two species have been removed and 10 species not previously recorded in the National Park Galicica have been added to the list. There are 21 species of skippers (Hcsperiidae), 6 species of swallowtails (Papilionidae), 21 species of whites (Pieridae), 68 species of brush-footed butterflies (Nymphalidae), and 50 species of blues, coppers and hairstreaks (Lycaenidae). This study provides for the first time complete data on 166 species of butterflies in the National Park Galičica.
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Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in publicating three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804). We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices, consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve their traditional agriculture practices.
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A full list of the butterflies and skippers recorded on Mt. Imittos is presented, together with their distribution in Greece and their phenology. Τhe study revealed that 53 species in 5 families and 40 genera occur on the mountain.
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During our field survey in the south-eastern part of the Republic of Albania, we encountered the Greek clouded yellow (Colias aurorina) at two sites, representing the first record for the species in Europe outside Greece. It was found common at one site on the Albanian side of the Grammos Mts. with possibly continuous range into northern Greece. As larval host plant of the Greek clouded yellow Astragalus thracicus was present in abundance on the northern slopes of the mountain, we consider the species as not threatened in Albania. In addition, the purple emperor (Apatura iris) and the Balkan green-veined white (Pieris balcana) were recorded for the first time in Albania.
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The Stara Planina Mts. region in Serbia has already been recognized as one of the most butterfly rich regions in Europe with good populations of several rare and threatened species. However, so far the southern part of Stara Planina has been poorly studied. We therefore focused our field surveys on that region visiting 22 sites over a period of seven years. A total of 136 species of butterflies was recorded and new records of several rare species confirm and append our knowledge of the high diversity of Stara Planina. We have confirmed the presence of Muschampia cribrellum in Serbia and extended its known range from Mt. Vidlič to the foothills of the Stara Planina massif. Additionally we found rare species like Leptidea duponcheli, Plebejus sephirus, Erebia alberganus, Melitaea arduinna and Nymphalis xanthomelas at several new sites. Despite sufficient legislative protection, the butterfly fauna of the region is under threat due to infrastructural developments and abandonment.
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The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.
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During a butterfly inventory from 2005 to 2012 on Mt Dinara along the transect from Knin to the Sinjal peak (1831 m a.s.l.), 116 species were found. There are 23 newly-found species for the Mt Dinara area, and 7 species have not been confirmed. With 130 registered species this area is a hot spot of butterfly diversity. 15 species belong to Alpine elements, but in comparison with other better investigated Dinaric mountains, Ponto- Mediterranean oreal species are more numerous than Euro/Alpine species.
Butterflies of Britain and Europe
  • T R Tolman
  • Lewington
TolMan T. & R. lewingTon 2008. Butterflies of Britain and Europe. London, Harper Collins Publishers, 528 pp.